This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Figure -1: PPA Targets for Simple and Functional Literacy
Table 1: National and Regional Targets for UQPE 1. Resource and Funding Implications of the EFA Targets Total Costs Estimates of resource requirements prepared by the EFA planners showed that 8.6 billion pesos was needed to implement EFA during the 10-year plan period. Of this, 8.3 billion or 95.9 percent was intended for
national and region-based projects and 300 million pesos or 4.1 percent was earmarked for the establishment and support of the EFA management machinery. On the average, EFA implementation was to have cost approximately 951 million per year. Table I-8 below shows the details of the EFA investment programme.
Table -2: 10-Year Philippine EFA Budget Estimate Costs by Component The distribution of the total expected cost among the EFA components are shown in Table I-9 below. As planned, ECD projects were to have gotten the largest share of the EFA budget at 4.2 billion pesos or 50.8 percent, owing to enormous costs of the needed institution building and because of the large number of region-based ECD projects. Surprisingly, only 10.7 percent of the total estimated cost was programmed for UPE, in spite of the serious problems in internal efficiency and learning outcomes. Programmes for eradicating illiteracy and improving functional skills were allocated 22.2 percent consistent with the strategic importance placed by the EFA movement the evolution of alternative learning systems. Integrated programmes, which were to cut across two or more EFA components, were earmarked 16.3 percent of the total budget (also see Chart I-10 below).
Table -3: Estimated Component Costs of the Philippine EFA
(iii) eradication of illiteracy. relevance and sustainability concerns relative to the flow of students into and within the system. The strategy aimed to ensure that there would be universal basic education of appropriate standards by addressing the access. women. (ii) provision of universal quality primary education.. (i) institutionalisation of early childhood care and development. whose primary goal was to meet basic learning needs. equity. In furtherance of the main EFA strategy. numeracy. cultural communities. to improve the quality of their lives and to continue learning. EFA efforts were to be directed towards bringing basic education to the rural poor. quality. refugees. four major interventions were to be undertaken. Education sector and non-education agencies were to jointly implement the EFA programme. problem solving and oral expression while the second include knowledge. EFA was operationalised as providing elementary education (Grades 1 to 6) for all Filipinos by the year 2000. attitudes and values necessary for people to survive. The first include literacy. and other educationally disadvantaged groups.Figure -2: Distribution of Philippine EFA Costs by Component The Philippine EFA Strategy The foregoing background of the state of primary education and EFA targets thus provided the framework for the formulation of the Philippine EFA strategy. the disabled. the urban slums. skills. i.e. which consist of the basic learning tools and basic learning contents. and (iv) continuing educational development for adults and . Special attention was to be focused on particular target groups. Under the PPA.
In recognition of resource differences. A chronological recollection reveals a series of events that had deep-reaching impacts on the . certain inherent inadequacies and limitations of the school system would be addressed and the way for the so-called borderless or "open" learning would be smoothly paved. i. The ALS was equally meant to serve developmental functions: through it learners would go on learning towards the development of a learning society. compensatory provision of educational inputs was to be resorted to primarily with non-traditional methods for delivering basic education. Those who take care of preschool children. Access to early childhood care and development services was to be expanded not just for its child custodial. For those outside of the educational mainstream. the parents. primarily through curriculum reform and teacher development. surrogate parents and guardians. During the decade of the 1990’s. the scope of choices of learners in acquiring education would be widened. socialisation and values formation functions but also as a fundamental anti-poverty input that would improve the internal efficiency of elementary education. critical thinking and functionality. With broadened ECCD provision. were likewise to be accorded attention through relevant training programmes that would enhance their knowledge of and skills in rearing children in preparation for future schooling.. semi-literate adults and out-of-school youths. that subsumed the six target dimensions defined in UNESCO’s Framework for Action to Meet Basic Learning Needs. The Environment for EFA One single accomplishment that the Philippines could be noted for in the implementation of the EFA programme concerns the decisive moves it took that in their totality internalised the EFA vision.e. All the above thrusts were to have been implemented through a closely linked multi-sectoral approach to education that was to be promoted in a "grand alliance" scheme among all the public and private sector EFA participants. The achievement levels that were to be raised encompass the development of creativity. such as non-literate. 2. future elementary school entrants would be equipped with the learning skills and get the needed health-nutrition services crucial to their survival in schools.out-of-school youth. Educational authorities were to assure those already in school stayed there and were provided good quality educational inputs. broader access to the alternative learning systems was to be ensured to provide them functional literacy skills and continuing education for development (CED). the Philippines saw a number of interrelated developments that created an environment highly favourable to the pursuit of the ideals of education for all. This was intended to promote equity and ensuring the maximised participation of under-served groups.
was the completion of the Philippine Plan of Action (PPA) for EFA. and Section 98 of the 1991 Local Government Code are the legal bases for the existence of school boards in every province. reducing the financial pressure on the central government. It is inherent in the boards’ charter. Republic Act No. The LGC has empowered the LGUs with more autonomy and spending power primarily through their Internal Revenue Allotments (IRAs) and their greater authority for resource generation and mobilisation.orientation and structure of basic education and its delivery mechanisms. 480. repair and maintenance of school buildings and other facilities of public elementary and secondary schools. the National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA) endorsed the framework that later evolved to become the PPA. objectives. district. in October 16th of the same year. classroom furniture and additional teachers. policies and strategies as well as regional programmes for implementation. of course. This Proclamation. and c) sports activities at the division. Local governments participate in the operation of the educational system through their respective local school boards. among the central government functions slated for devolution to the LGUs is school building construction and maintenance. This plan was subsequently considered a model for other countries and was noted for its being a "well-designed and comprehensive document that specified national goals. the local governments are increasingly providing educational inputs like books. In addition. Thus. of Presidential Proclamation No. The PPA was the culmination of arduous work that started with the preparation of the EFA Framework in 1989 and the subsequent issuance. A local school board’s overriding task is to administer the special education fund with the aim of upgrading standards in the public schools." Enlarged Role of Local Governments In 1991. In 1990. the Government released the PPA with the President of the Philippines’ approval. A year later. the Local Government Code (LGC) was enacted. b) establishment and maintenance of extension classes where necessary. The Philippine Plan of Action The first. more than the enhanced capacity to spend on education. This law provided the local government units (LGUs) greater resources to support elementary and secondary education. municipal and barangay levels. the biggest contribution of the LGC . The Philippines succeeded in establishing an EFA orientation that extends beyond the EFA plan period and well into the next millennium." also directed the preparation of the national action plan and the initiation of a legislative agenda in support of EFA. enacted in 1968. 5447. and therefore incumbent upon them to give priority to: a) construction. city and municipality. However. aside from declaring the period 1990 to 1999 as the "Decade of Education for All. in June 1991.
The Child and Youth Welfare Code. The maintenance of public day care services. promulgated by virtue of Presidential Decree 603 prior to 1984 established children’s basic rights to adequate food. DECS’ Focus on Basic Education In 1994. These developments had two major but conflicting implications. the Council for the Welfare of Children produced the Philippine Plan of Action for Children (PPAC). and with it. This resulted. The Department of Education. In addition to this. of the full range of programmes affecting child development. which could result in the elimination of iodine deficiency and goiter among children. inter alia. shelter. This plan set out the policy framework for nutrition that could lead to the virtual elimination of vitamin and mineral deficiencies among children. in the specialisation by level of education of the major governmental agencies responsible for the provision of education and training. Culture and Sports (DECS) was made to focus on elementary and . Enhanced Child Development Policies Before the EFA decade. the first is that closer community control and management could have resulted in better services to the clients and the second is that the provision of such services would have suffered from wide variations among localities in terms of the intensity and quality of inputs. which details the country’s commitment to extending the coverage. In support of its obligations under that convention. useful and active member of society. the National Nutrition Council. Then in 1990. the Philippine Congress passed the Act to Promote Iodisation Nationwide. the Government decided to restructure the education sector in line with the recommendations of the Congressional Education Commission (EDCOM). clothing and protection and unequivocally ensured the child’s right to a well-rounded personality development to the end that he may become a happy. in 1995. laid down the Philippine Plan of Action for Nutrition (PPAN). an arm of the Department of Agriculture. the 1987 Barangay Level Total Development and Protection of Children Act obliged the Department of Social Welfare and Development to provide funds for establishing and maintaining day care centres. and improving the quality. the Philippines signed the International Convention of the Rights of the Child. there were already extant laws that provided unambiguous support for child development as opposed to just child survival. the greater responsibility that they now have over their respective communities’ educational future. Lastly. The LGC likewise mandated the devolution of many social sector services to the LGUs.could very well be that it has brought the direction of education closer to the stakeholders. once the responsibility of the Department of Social Welfare and Development and the implementation of health services formerly run by the Department of Health were transferred to the LGUs. At about the same time.
it was thought then that there was justification and actual need for specialised organisational units and processes to handle EFA as a specific concern. The Philippines had therefore carried its EFA Plan of Action much farther ahead. secondary and non-formal education. it had nonetheless seen fit to still extend this commitment into the future. the policy and management structures that were planned under the PPA were brought into fruition and operationalised albeit only for a limited period. the Philippines embraced all the fundamental elements of EFA. This was because beginning in 1994. and translated them into national educational performance goals. The completion of the MPBE and its release in 1995 to serve as the guide for DECS’ future d irections therefore ushered in the second stage of the EFA evolution. at least in so far as universal quality primary education (UQPE) was concerned. At that time the DECS had the responsibility for all levels and types of education.e. Although the expression of this commitment was constrained by the timeframe limitations of rational long-term planning.secondary education. the spirit of support for EFA had been stamped indelibly and irretrievably. By doing so. the DECS believes that it had virtually become EFA and vice-versa. Since EFA is primarily a concern of primary or basic education (defined here within the formal Philippine structure as elementary education) and non-formal education. subsequent policies. 3. reforms within the education sector brought about by the legislation of the EDCOM recommendations resulted in DECS’ concentration in elementary. In roughly its first three years (1991-1993). adopting the EFA programme as its centrepiece. Because of the interweaving of the EFA objectives within the broader MPBE. Thus. For while it was committed to seeing through the EFA programme up to the end of the century. from its four basic thrusts to the broad strategies meant to shape the expanded vision of basic education. The Philippines’ MPBE was in reality built upon. programmes and projects were then consciously formulated against the backdrop of EFA objectives. It absorbed the four basic thrusts of EFA as the fundamental anchors of its mainline programmes and harnessed the entire resources of the . the DECS endeavoured to prepare a 10-year (1996-2005) Master Plan for Basic Education (MPBE) to guide the future direction of the sub-sector. The findings and recommendations of this assessment may well pave the way for the third stage. EFA was executed within the context of the DECS organisation prior to its restructuring in 1994. i. The Philippines’ commitment to EFA had thus become much more intensive than was originally planned. from elementary to tertiary. Pursuant to its new mandate. including vocational training.. In a sense then. and is an expanded version of EFA’s education components. The Evolution of EFA The implementation of EFA in the Philippines has undergone an evolution or process of change that could be discerned in two distinct stages.
it became the basic objective of all activities within the Department. secondary and non-formal education and the birth of the MPBE had blurred the lines initially drawn between EFA UQPE literacy components and the regular activities of the DECS. day care . This change is conceivably a welcome one in view of the obvious hiatus in EFA implementation that transpired during 1993-94. However. Other specialised units established as called for by the PPA. The evolution of the Philippine EFA can be considered as an exemplar in vision assimilation and organisational adaptation. It was a crucial period that saw the DECS busy struggling with the onslaught of dismemberment on one hand and seeking ways to adapt to the inevitable transformation of its mandates on the other. among others.DECS behind them. Philippine EFA Thrusts on Early Childhood Development Expansion of Self-sustaining Community-based ECCD During the EFA decade. These include. which carry membership rosters very similar to the NCEFA and the RCEFAs. extraneous and ad hoc organisational overlays that were meant to aid in pushing the PPA were deemed superfluous. such as the National Technical Secretariat (NTS) and the central and local project management teams. As a natural consequence of the mainstreaming of the EFA programme. the EFA PPA called for the operation of a National Committee for EFA (NCEFA) and Regional EFA Committees (RCEFAs) for purposes of inter-sectoral and inter-agency co-ordination. In fact. The concentration of the DECS on elementary. were instead coursed through the Social Development Committee of the NEDA and the Regional Development Councils. various community-based ECCD interventions were intensified and expanded with the end in view of reaching out to the remote and less privileged communities. EFA had transmutated from a distinct and special programme into an EFA that has become the overarching philosophy and integral strategy of basic education. the establishment of community-based pre-schools. Through the MPBE. being subsumed as they already were starting in 1995 under the MPBE. longestablished and permanent mechanisms and structures were relied on to avoid the paralysis normally associated with temporary committees. EFA had been inextricably embedded within the DECS’ fabric. One other profound change in the country’s EFA programme was the organisational restructuring affecting EFA implementation mechanisms. The MPBE established some new targets that reflected numerical goals that were more realistic and implicitly lengthened the EFA programme’s implementation from 10 years to 15 years. Instead. For instance. subsequent EFA-related actions. were likewise rendered unnecessary because EFA ceased to be a mere project like the myriad ones previously and currently implemented by the DECS. 4. and had become the overriding responsibility of all its units.
the Ramos Administration’s Social Reform Agenda (SRA) provided an added impetus and a geographical focus to the delivery of the various ECCD services. the responsibility has been placed in LGU hands. In connection with this. such that when morning and afternoon sessions are run. which has become the basis for subsequent policies. thereby ensuring that the poorest provinces of the country were reached. Significantly. The Comprehensive and Integrated Delivery of Social Services (CIDSS). However. Protection and Development of Children during the during the 1990 World Summit for Children. In addition to the community-based . Moreover. provided basic services. but after the devolution mandated under the Local Government Code of 1991. served as a major input into the PPAC formulation. was designed. The DSWD used to provide for the public day care centres. There has also been a modest breakthrough in the provision of day care services by factories for their female employees. Large-scale expansion of the public day care system started only after the passage of the 1978 Barangay Day Care Law. the flagship program of DSWD under the SRA that was launched in 1994. Government centres are designed to accommodate 30 children at a time. to which mental feeding was added. The UNICEF-assisted Fourth Country Programme for Children (CPC IV). the total capacity is supposed to be 60. programs and activities related to children. which consists of various community-based social services. most of these centres operate at far less than full capacity. capabilitybuilding. including ECCD. social mobilisation and advocacy to the LGUs have been intensified to ensure that priority is given to the delivery of basic social services. The devolution of basic social services in 1992 in the light of the Local Government Code brought the management of the above-mentioned programs closer to the communities. As its commitment to the World Summit.centres. The Day Care Centre Programme The concept of day care services was originally started as feeding centres through the now abolished Bureau of Agricultural Extension. and barangay health stations as well as the training of parent volunteers for home-based ECCD. midwives and barangay health workers. among others. the Philippine government formulated and adopted the Philippine Plan of Action for Children (PPAC). including ECCD. There are also privately-run day care centres that are operated through NGOs and private entrepreneurs. This development partly but significantly resulted from the government’s ratification of the Convention on the Rights of the Child in July 1990 and its endorsement of the World Declaration on the Survival. 1. to the most needy barangays. the EFA Plan of Action.
motor and readiness skills. DECS Pre-school Programme This program was launched in 1993 and initially implemented in the 20 priority divisions for Countryside Development Programmes. The present World Bank-assisted Early Childhood Development Project (1998-2003) seeks to upgrade the PES program through the introduction of a Mother and Child book. While PES efforts had been concentrated in the past on mothers. which provides a permanent record of child growth and development from birth to his sixth birthday. and reproduction and distribution of an updated version of a parent’s manual on early child development.centres. VI and X. within the GOP-UNICEF CPC IV. which is focused on the training of fathers so that they could fully appreciate their roles in child rearing. 4. but which was transferred to the LGUs by virtue of the devolution of central government functions. To date. It provides parents with child development information. Parent Effectiveness Service (PES) This is a parent education programme that was implemented by the DSWD since 1972. Community-Based Preschools . a recent addition to this intervention is the (Empowerment and Reaffirmation of Parental Abilities) ERPAT. Since 1979. It aims to provide 5-year-old children in the disadvantaged areas the stimulating experiences required to develop their social. so that they would be prepared for socialisation before starting Grade I work. there are 20 of such offices and corporations both in the central and regional offices operating day care centres for their employees. PES has been the major component of the home-based parent education programme. The programme is now on its 6th year of implementation. This initiative is currently being piloted in Regions V. there are also centres located in the different government offices and government-owned and controlled corporations. Further upgrading of the PES will also be carried out in the context of LGU sub-projects. Promotion of Preparatory Education 3. Use of Innovative Approaches to Parent Education 2.
private schools. DECS decided to continue this activity.As far back as 1971. Thus. but not during the summer considering the difficulty of getting teachers to teach and children to attend during the summer. It started as a summer school experiment in 1991. printing and distribution of related teaching materials. DECS issued a statement on early childhood education that affirmed the importance of pre-schooling but also stated that preschools should be developed by the community to provide early childhood development experiences for 5year old children before they enter Grade 1. urban poor and resettlement areas (for those affected by natural calamities and armed conflict) through service contracting. DECS had already issued a policy document encouraging the school divisions to establish public preschool classes whenever possible. DECS now has an 8-week programme (6 weeks of pre-schooling plus 2 weeks of transition) that is introduced during the initial 2 months of Grade 1. NGOs and LGUs is being promoted. preschool classes were organised in the 5th and 6th class municipalities. Early Childhood Experiences for Grade I Another alternative developed by DECS is the integration of ECD into Grade 1. An evaluation of the programme showed that the dropout rate for summer preschool attendees was only 1 percent compared to the 15 percent among those who had no summer preschool exposure. design. The ongoing World Bank-assisted Early Childhood Development Project (1998-2003) will finance the refinement and finalisation of the 8-week module and the modified Grade 1 curriculum containing it. Thus. The general arrangement is that DECS will pay P250 per child per . and in-service training of teachers. Service providers are NGOs. Because of the positive results. LGUs and PTCAs. in March of the same year. This project is being implemented by the Bureau of Elementary Education (BEE). to be established through a collective partnership that includes DECS. Thus.5 to 7 years of age. consisting of a six-week programme for children 6. 5. the concept of community-based non-profit preschools. In 1997. production. 6. Pre-school Service Contracting DECS initiated the Pre-school Service Contracting Scheme as an alternative delivery system. In January 1995. DECS conducted a survey to assess the preschools and one of the conclusions was that the Government could not afford to provide this service in all divisions.
month for 6 months while the service providers will organise classes with 20-25 pupils per class as well as provide the salary of qualified teachers. This was in response to the observed proliferation of preschool curricular offerings and the increasing tendency of pre-schools then to focus on academic development rather than to cater to the needs of the child for his total development. Beginning in January 30. 1994. Accreditation of Private Preschool Programmes and Institutions 8. DECS issued standards for the organisation and operation of pre-schools particularly with regard to the curriculum. staff requirements and physical environment. Differentiated Approaches for Special Categories of Children 9. DECS lowered the entry age for Grade I to six and a half years and subsequently to six years the following school year. through Order No. s. Funding comes from the DECS regular budget supplemented by the Bases Conversion Development Authority (BCDA) from funds raised through the sale of military camps. the NSED has been held on the last Monday of January of every year. Private Sector-Provided Pre-schooling Another important provider of preschools and kindergartens is the entrepreneurial side of the private sector (as contrasted with the essentially non-profit NGOs). 1995. DECS. instituted the National School Enrolment Day (NSED) for children who shall have reached the age of six and a half (later reduced to six years) by the beginning of the school year. classrooms and textbooks. A development related to this is that in 1989. adequate instructional materials and basic school supplies. 7. Expansion of Entry to Grade 1 to Six Year-Olds In school year 1995-96. school/classroom facilities. These schools cater mostly to children of affluent families who understand the value of preschool education and are therefore not generally accessible to those most in need. Development of Children from Indigenous Cultural Communities . 65. To give itself time to plan effectively for teaching assignments.
Strengthening of Health. Nutrition and Other Allied Services . which is culture-specific and relevant to the needs and existing situation in their communities. the protection.6 percent of the population in the Luzon area had special needs. health and nutrition classes for mothers. production and distribution of kits on early childhood enrichment programme. 7610 calls for. its amendments through Republic Act 7658. A survey of school-age children with special needs was conducted in the school divisions of Luzon. beliefs and customs of such communities. The CSAC component of the UNICEF Country Programme for Children (CPC) ensures the delivery of basic services.A. Development of Children in Situations of Armed Conflict (CSAC) R. 7610 seeks to ensure the survival and protection of children in situations with on-going armed hostilities.The Philippine commitment to protect and promote the rights of children has been manifested through the passage in 1991 of Republic Act 7610. the law provides that the delivery of basic services in health and nutrition be given priority by all concerned government agencies. conduct of parent effectiveness seminars. The survey showed that 11. training of community health volunteers. The DECS is also enjoined to develop and institute an alternative system of education for children of indigenous communities.A. Among the activities undertaken under the program includes training of day care workers on ECCD and psychosocial interventions. training on critical incident stress debriefing for parents and care givers. and their corresponding rules and regulations. Moreover. and protects and promotes the rights of children in situations of armed conflict. among others. Expansion of the Special Education Programme (SPED) The Special Education Programme (SPED) of DECS was expanded to include the handicapped and gifted children in the 20 SRA provinces. the Special Protection of Children against Child Abuse. 11. survival and development of children of indigenous cultural communities consistent with their customs and traditions. R. and provision of safe water and sanitary facilities. Exploitation and Discrimination Act. 10. provides physical and psychological recovery services. giving due respect and recognition to the health practices.
the DECS intensified its health and nutrition campaign in the schools since 1995.089 day care centres nation-wide. relevant information are disseminated only to the child. the DECS initiated the annual Search for the Outstanding School Implementor in the Integrated School Health and Nutrition Programme as a mechanism to enhance the campaign on the SchoolBased Integrated Health and Nutrition Programme. Physical and dental examinations were conducted among elementary pupils. In addition to the above. School-based Integrated Health and Nutrition Campaign In response to survey results indicating a high incidence of malnutrition. early childhood care and development. 14. Teacher-Child-Parent Approach One of the innovative project components of the EFA programme in the Philippines is the Teacher-Child-Parent (TCP) Approach to strengthen health and nutrition education at the elementary level. education. CIDSS is a convergence of social welfare. 15. Its selection was based mainly on the multivariate analysis of the pilot implementation in the ABCSDP areas and the 13 other criteria set by EFA. The School Feeding Program was also revitalised.12. dental and respiratory illnesses among elementary pupils. While in traditional teaching. including Grade I entrants. Deworming of Grade I pupils in selected schools in NCR and SRA provinces is now annually conducted during National School De-worming Day. health. thus promoting congruency in the values learned by the child in the school and what is practiced by parents at home. Early Childhood Development Project (ECDP) . As of June 1998. the TCP approach ensures that the concepts learned by the child are relayed to the parents. 13. the program has put up 1. and other basic services based on MBN. Learning is reinforced by activities in school and at home. Comprehensive and Integrated Delivery of Social Services (CIDSS) The CIDSS was launched in 1994 to be the government’s flagship program under the SRA to respond to the unmet minimum basic needs (MBN) of poor families and communities nation-wide.
and DECS provides early childhood educational experiences to 6 year-olds through the Integration of Early Childhood Experiences in Grade 1 initiative. welfare and development. R. Single Agency to Co-ordinate Programs for ECCD The Council for the Welfare of Children (CWC) created in 1974 and headed by the DSWD Secretary. A special project has been initiated for the development of prototype ECCD materials that are culturally sensitive and appropriate to their clientele’s beliefs and practices. which is culture-specific and is relevant to the needs and existing situation in their communities. The rules and regulations concerning children of indigenous cultural communities also provide that.A. the development of a module entitled "Home to School Transition for Children of Cultural Communities: Aeta Maternal and Early Childhood Development" has been undertaken. whenever practicable. The ECDP is a 6-year national plan covering the period 1998-2003. DSWD the psycho-social development of children from 3-6 years old. Philippine EFA Thrusts on Universal Quality Primary Education Enhancing the Holding Power of Schools . In particular. motor and readiness skills before formally starting Grade 1 work. This is a programme wherein school experiences are provided during the eight weeks of the school year. DOH takes care of the health and nutrition concerns. the dialect of the community be used as the medium of instruction. There is at present a pending Senate bill on ECCD that aims at strengthening the CWC to function as the National ECCD Co-ordinating Council. specifically among DECS. in the delivery of ECCD services is further enhanced through the ECD Project. Materials & Approaches As mentioned previously. VII and XII. 7610 tasks DECS to develop and institute an alternative system of education for children of indigenous communities. is the government’s premier agency for children’s protection. The project was formulated by an inter-agency steering committee and technical working group composed of representatives from the DECS. which is currently being implemented in Regions VI. DSWD and the DOH.Inter-agency collaboration. CWC is responsible for co-ordinating and monitoring the implementation of all laws and programs for children. Grade 1 pupils undergo varied stimulating activities that develop their social. which outlines the broad policy direction to be pursued by the government for Filipino children from 0-6 years old. The project was established in 1995-1996 because of the lowering of the Grade 1 entry-age to 6 years. DSWD and DOH as well as the LGUs. including the Philippine Plan for Action for Children in the 90s (PPAC). Socio-Cultural Adaptation of Curriculum. 5.
In 1994. parent-teacher partnership. Grade I children in disadvantaged schools with high dropout rates benefited from the breakfast feeding component of the program. enjoined the various divisions to select the best teachers for Grade I classes to ensure that Grade I pupils will stay long enough in school to complete their elementary schooling. with funding assistance from UNICEF trained national and regional on MG Instruction as its initial step to institutionalise the programme. school feeding. In addition. DECS issued a number of directives to intensively undertake specific interventions aimed at increasing the holding power of schools. Multi-grade and Mobile Teaching. and provision of school supplies for selected pupil beneficiaries. In later years. Priority was given to provinces identified under the Social Reform Agenda (SRA). which includes the provision of multi-level learning materials. 1. in which every elementary school must retrieve at least 10 out-of-school children in its catchment area 4. The UNDP-assisted Pupil Learning Enhancement Program undertakes direct support to multi-grade classes through the provision of supplementary pupil learning materials and encourages community support to the program. Using Alternative Teaching-Learning Delivery Modes 1. DIP was piloted in SY 1990-1992 in 30 schools in Regions IV. 1995 called for definitive action to achieve the education mid-decade goals and targets for both participation and cohort survival rates: 2. s. the program was expanded to cover more schools and regions. VI. A Multi-grade Demonstration School Project (MDSP) has been established to improve the overall performance of MG schools through the training of teachers and school .In support of this policy. The government has implemented and institutionalised alternative modes of delivering elementary education. The project is focused on 4 selected provinces: Surigao del Sur. 45. 1995. VIII and XII. DECS implemented the Dropout Intervention Program (DIP). Multigrade (MG) classes consist of 30 to 40 pupils of two or more grade levels handled by one teacher. DECS Order No. DECS Order No. North Cotabato. The intensification of the balik-eskuwela (Back-to-School) campaign. The completion of incomplete elementary schools by organising combination and/or multi-grade classes 3. Most notable among these is the establishment of multigrade classes combined with mobile teaching. The attainment of zero dropout rate for Grades V and VI 5. Zamboanga del Sur. DECS. 24. V. and Negros Oriental. s.
mandating the conduct of a People’s Day in the DECS Regional Offices.officials and the provision of textbooks and instructional materials. In December 1997. DECS also conducted the first parents’ education forum in Manila in August 1997. As of 1999. and Bayani. s. 2. the forum was intended to consult parents regarding education directions and to solicit their participation in DECS’ programs. its viewing was made mandatory. Parent volunteer brigades were organised to provide service assistance to schools. Television as an Educational Delivery Tool Using TV sets to teach science was introduced in the public elementary schools in June 1995 through a program called Sine’skwela. a fairy tale format program that injects values.000 parents. parents and the public in general. Produced by the ABS-CBN Foundation. The Continuing Science Education via Television (CONSTEL) was also launched in 1995 to boost the development of science awareness among Filipinos. DECS Order No. Two more TV programs which were started in 1997 are currently being aired over ABS-CBN. To further ensure the institutionalisation of the MG programme DECS issued Department Order No. school-community partnership was strengthened to fight the drug menace and to promote various DECS programs on healthy environment. 96. 1990. s. In 1996. 126. Division Offices and District Offices as well as large schools (those with more than 100 teachers) every third Monday of the month. said show is designed to supplement the elementary science curriculum. parents and the community in the total education of their children. s. calling for the national implementation of the Parent Learning Support System (PLSS). a show that teaches children the values of nationalism and heroism by recounting the exploits of national heroes. DECS held the first national forum for parents. 53. enjoined the institutionalisation of the use of CONSTEL tapes in elementary and secondary schools. starting November 1994 from 8:30 to 12:00 as a special time for hearing the problems and concerns of teachers. 2. s. 1996. Hence. children and educators in Cebu City with the theme "Parent-Child-Educator Partnership: Action . 1997 setting the policies and guidelines in the organisation and operation of multigrade classes. namely: Hiraya Manawari. Strengthening Home-School Partnership The following directives were issued with the objective of strengthening home-school partnership: 1. DECS Order No. Attended by 1. 72. the multigrade teaching programme is being implemented in all regions except the NCR. DECS Order no. 1994. DEC S also stressed the need for a strong partnership between DECS.
. achievement rate and participation rate. As a result. Longer School Calendar and Increased Learning Time for Selected Subjects In 1992. . the abovementioned strategy was institutionalised by Congress through the passage of Republic Act No. In addition. The specific objectives of the Program are to increase literacy rate. Kasaysayan at Sining (HEKASI) or Civics & Culture and Geography. In particular. local development councils and inter-sectoral consultative councils organised in every barangay. this program is being implemented at the barangay level with focus on the rural communities. and make barangay schools as learning centres or community centres of educational information. The aim is to establish operational linkages with line agencies. local government units. desks. the school calendar was lengthened from 185 to 200 days beginning in 1993. Leadership Enhancement for Effective Results Project This research project was undertaken with the end in view of developing higher thinking skills among pupils. 1. classrooms and toilets. provide all barangays and remote sitios with adequate school facilities like books. decrease dropout rate. One objective of the forum was to strengthen parenteducator partnership through the organisation of a national federation of ParentTeacher-Community Association. The micro-teaching episodes were tried out in selected divisions.Agenda for Quality Education". 7797 in 1994. and Mathematics in Grades I to III from 40 to 60 minutes. Emphasis on Higher-Level Thinking Skills 2. History & Science for Grade I-VI served as springboard toward the attainment of the objective of said study. learning time has been increased in English in Grades I and II from 60 to 80 hours. the daily student contact hours for critical subjects were increased. 3. Orientation on the strategies in developing higher level thinking skills among children and on the use of the micro-teaching episodes in Sibika at Kultura at Heograpiya. Significantly. the elementary curriculum was reviewed to identify areas for improvement in the short-term. blackboards. DECS sa Barangay (DECS in the Barangay) Programme Launched in 1996. Science and Health was introduced in Grades I and II and given a time allotment of 40 minutes.
Upgrading Teacher Competencies 4. as in the expansion sites. 5. Eradication of Illiteracy 1. Philippine EFA Thrusts on Alternative Learning Systems The PPA subsumed the twin components of Eradication of Illiteracy (EOI) and Continuing Education and Development (CED) under an umbrella programme of innovation dubbed as Strengthening of Alternative Learning System (ALS). women and girls were . (3) capable and dynamic managers. (5) harmonious school-parent-community relationships. District and school learning action cell (LAC) sessions were held to continuously improve the teachers’ managerial and instructional skills. adults. Eradication of Illiteracy in Selected Areas (EISA) A research and development project that addressed the low literacy levels among out-of-school youths. 2. locating and monitoring the learning progress of literacy clientele. this was recognised as the Philippines’ unique contribution or approach to the global EFA Movement’s ultimate objective of reaching out to those who have either been deprived of formal basic education or those who choose not to acquire their basic learning needs from the conventional learning or school system. 1. The project also looked into solutions to the difficulty in identifying. Search for Most Effective Schools The search for the most effective public elementary and secondary schools has contributed to enhancing the capabilities of administrators and teachers in the school system. In these areas. (2) competent and highly committed teachers. which constrain attainment of personal development and participation in community development. Criteria used are (1) highly motivated learners. In-service Training through Learning Action Cells In-service trainings in the different learning areas were conducted on a regular basis in the division and regional levels. Parent Education and Female Functional Literacy An expansion to five provinces of a similar one that was being implemented in 1990 in seven Area-Based Child Survival and Development (ABCSD) provinces. In the 1991 Jomtien Conference. women and girls 13 years and over in marginalized communities. (4) adequate and wholesome learning environment.
Production of Indigenous Teaching Materials and Training on Productivity Enhancement of Economic Projects (PEEP) for Barangay Folks The PEEP effort addressed the dearth of materials relating to productivity. Media advocacy was to reach children and adults nationwide via television. man’s responsibilities towards his fellowmen and his role as steward of society and the environment.000 rural and urban poor women in all regions using these indigenous learning materials. It aimed to produce and disseminate modules on various life skill areas and train 950. 5. Implementation of Integrated Programmes 6. The targets are OSY. Promotion of Continuing Education & Development 3. Programme for the Development of Alternative Learning Systems . 4.more disadvantaged in terms of literacy than their male counterparts. The literacy intervention was expected to result in improved status of women in the community. and in the capability of women and parents to improve family life and conditions. students in formal schools and clientele of the alternative learning systems. radio and print. increased participation in community development projects. Science for the Masses This national project was conceived to be a principal vehicle for attaining scientific and cultural literacy among Filipinos. They were to be reached via a network of science and technology museums and centrums. decision-making. this initiative advocated themes and issues that enhance consciousness of the dignity of human life. adults. science communication through the intensification of science broadcasts (TV and radio) and publication of research and development outputs. Media Advocacy of Values and Informal Education A deliberate attempt to maximise the positive role of media in the formation of values and consciousness. appropriate technology and other basic life skills that hamper education and training for economic productivity in the rural areas. production culture. selfdevelopment.
8. Disadvantaged and Underserved (DDU) Communities An extension of the experience of an earlier project of the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) and the Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organisation (SEAMEO) to 100 identified communities. There was a built-in mechanism to replicate the project in other depressed communities in future. regional and local level policy-making units. Plans for Implementation of EFA Management Policies and Structures The PPA provided for an implementation mechanism to handle EFA concerns consisting of national. 7. If the study confirmed the feasibility of this project. this undertaking aimed to provide training programmes designed to improve the cognitive and practical skills of the villagers. it would have been used as basis for future legislation enabling individuals to broaden their access to learning opportunities. 2. Successfully tried out in four low-income villages in Luzon. the others being audiocassettes. The design called for the use of radio and instructional modules as main channels. which was piloted in selected communities. Integrated Community Based Continuing Education for Depressed. Another objective was to enable the clients to conduct sustainable income-generating and other social development projects. These were to be supported by attached technical and administrative secretariats at each level. comic books. There was also a provision for the establishment of national-level programme management team to take care of overall co-ordination and routine implementation.Another R & D project that sought to establish a stream of learning encompassing non-formal and informal education. to run parallel to the formal or school-based learning system. which were set up through the primer funds provided by the project. National Distance Learning for Out-of-School Youths and Neo-Literate Women This project. rested on a learner or demand-oriented participatory and culture-based learning system founded on a multi-media channel approach to message delivery. Figure -3: EFA Implementation Mechanism per PPA . These learning programmes were supported by a viable multi-purpose social cooperative and other village-based organisations. folk media and other indigenous channels. There was also a linkage to entrepreneurship agencies and a provision for access to livelihood seed funding. The EFA implementing machinery as envisioned in the PPA is shown below in Figure I-11.
The NTS was to have been subsequently expanded to include representatives from agencies involved in early childhood care and development. was EFA’s policy-making body. Programme Implementation A full-time Programme Management Team (PMT) responsible for overall coordination and day-to-day operations was supposed to backstop the NTS.The National Machinery The National Committee on Education for All (NCEFA) created through Presidential Proclamation No. organisation and staffing of the PMT are shown in Figure I-12. Figure -4: EFA Programme Management Teams per PPA . 480 as the apex of the EFA programme hierarchy. It was to have been assisted by a National Technical Secretariat (NTS) as its technical and administrative arm. The planned structure. primary education. literacy and continuing education as well as selected representatives of some member agencies of the National Committee.
Most would have included additional or other agencies and NGOs of their choice. and Programme Support. Programme Monitoring National and regional monitoring and evaluation (M & E) units were to have been established at the PMT and RCEFA-TS to obtain timely information on the progress of EFA implementation and to identify bottlenecks requiring remedial action. The RCEFAs were to have their counterparts in the sub-regional levels (i. Interagency support was supposed to have been maintained through the NTS. as well as the coordination with a number of regions. A technical group was to be assigned to each cluster. INTPRO (for integrated programmes). The main purpose for this action was to sustain the momentum generated during the formulation of the National and Regional Action Plans and to prepare for the institutionalisation of EFA concerns within the DECS. Provincial Committees on EFA (PCEFAs). This M & E system would also have supported the regular review of EFA policies and . and City/Municipality Committees on EFA (C/MCEFAs).. EOI/CED. the PMT functions were to be institutionalised within the Office of Planning Service (OPS) of the DECS. These regional/sub-regional committees were to have been strengthened as specialised bodies of the Regional Development Councils (RDCs) and the local development councils. The Regional Machinery The above policy and operational set-up was supposed to have been replicated for regional operations. In addition to overseeing the project implementation in each cluster.e. Those who were involved in the formulation of the National and Regional Action Plans were to be initially tasked to man the PMT. the internal structure of the PMT was patterned after the four major clusters of projects of the PPA. the technical group would have also overseen the overall implementation of the projects in the Regional Action Plans. namely: ECCD/UQPE.As originally envisioned. Thereafter. Regional Committees on Education for All (RCEFAs) were to complement the NCEFA in policy-making and programme review and were to be composed of the heads of regional offices of the agencies represented in the NCEFA minus the international agencies and the Department of Foreign Affairs.
Specifically. expand and sustain action toward the achievement of the movement’s objectives. in which new policies. Previous Page Next Page . Its role was to stimulate. To operationalise the SMAP. establish a communication loop between planners and implementers and provide technical support to the preparation of social mobilisation materials. This activity was also supposed to have included deliberations on the possibility of upgrading lower priority projects to high priority levels. the PPA envisioned the creation by the NCEFA/NTS.guidelines. Advocacy & Social Mobilisation A social mobilisation and advocacy programme (SMAP) was included in the PPA as one of the strategies through which the EFA goals were to be achieved. strategies. The planned SMAP network would have paralleled that of the M & E system. The regular flow of monitoring reports was to be achieved through both vertical and horizontal networks. Plan Revisions The PPA further provided for the conduct of a midterm review and updating of the PPA. through the PMT. of a national core of resource agencies and individuals that would provide technical assistance in the planning and design of specific SMAP activities. the SMAP was supposed to create awareness and acceptance of EFA. programmes and projects in response to gaps not met by the initial set of projects would have been considered.
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