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Liu Bei - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This is a Chinese name; the family name is Liu. Liu Bei (Mandarin pronunciation: [ljoʊ peɪ]; 161 – 10 June 223), style name Xuande , was a warlord in the late Eastern Han Dynasty who founded the state of Shu Han in the Three Kingdoms period and became its first ruler. Despite having a later start than his rivals and lacking both the material resources and social status they commanded, Liu Bei overcame his many defeats to carve out his own realm, which at its peak spanned present-day Sichuan, Guizhou, Hunan, parts of Hubei, and parts of Gansu. Culturally, due to the popularity of the historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms by Luo Guanzhong, Liu Bei is widely known as an ideal benevolent, humane ruler who cared for his people and selected good advisers for his government. His fictional counterpart in the novel was a salutary example of a ruler who adhered to the Confucian set of moral values, such as loyalty and compassion. Historically, Liu Bei was a brilliant politician and leader whose skill was a remarkable demonstration of a Legalist. His political philosophy can best be described by the Chinese idiom "Confucian in appearance but Legalist in substance" (simplified Chinese: 儒表法里; traditional Chinese: 儒表法 裡; pinyin: rú biǎo fǎ lǐ; Wade–Giles: ju2 piao3 fa3 li3 ), a style of governing which had become the norm after the founding of the Han Dynasty.
Founding emperor of Shu-Han
Born 161 Zhuo County, Zhuo Commandery (present-day Zhuozhou, Baoding, Hebei) Died 10 June 223 (aged 62) Baidicheng (8 km east of present-day Fengjie County, Chongqing) Reign Successor 221–223 Liu Shan
1 Physical appearance 2 Pedigree 3 Yellow Turban Rebellion 4 Warlord state 4.1 Succeeding Tao Qian 4.2 Conflict with Lü Bu 4.3 Role in the Cao-Yuan conflict 4.4 Taking refuge under Liu Biao 5 Alliance with Sun Quan 5.1 Battle of Red Cliffs 5.2 Taking Jing Province 6 Establishing the Shu regime
Simplified Chinese Chinese Pinyin Liú Bèi Wade–Giles Liu2 Pei4 Style name Xuande (Chinese: 玄德; pinyin: Xuándé;
Posthumous Zhaolie (Chinese: 昭烈; pinyin: Zhāoliè; name
music and dressing. former Administrator of Jiujiang).2 Video games 13 See also 14 Notes 15 References Wade–Giles: Chao-lieh. while under a tree that resembled the royal chariot. pinyin: Zhāngwǔ. The title of "Marquis of Linyi" was held by Liu Fu (劉復. Pedigree According to the historical text Records of the Three Kingdoms. pinyin: Líu Yùzhōu) Liu Yuchow in Chinese Postal Map Romanisation spelling) Physical appearance The historical text Records of the Three Kingdoms described Liu Bei as a man seven chi and five cun tall. long arms that extended beyond his knees. with ears so large that they touched his shoulders and that he could even see them.org/wiki/Liu_Bei 2/15 . Hebei). Liu Bei and his mother sold shoes and straw-woven mats. The adolescent Liu Bei was said to be unenthusiastic in studying and displayed interest in hunting.9/29/13 Liu Bei . However. The historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms by Luo Guanzhong gave a similar description about Liu Bei's physical appearance. It mentioned that Liu Bei was seven chi and five cun tall. Liu Bei. Liu Bei grew up in a poor family. Zhuo Commandery (present-day Zhuozhou. and ears so large that he could see them. literally "clear uprightness") Era names Zhangwu (Chinese: 章武.2 Sun-Liu territorial dispute 6. that he desired to become an emperor. Liu Bei's grandfather Liu Xiong and father Liu Hong were both employed as local clerks. based on the Dianlue (典略). Pei Songzhi's commentary. Liu Bei was well liked by his contemporaries. sponsored by a more affluent relative who recognised his potential in leadership. traditional Chinese: 劉豫州. There he met and befriended Gongsun Zan.Wikipedia. At the age of 14. with long arms that extended beyond his knees.1 Card games 12. but with additional features. calm in demeanour. and kind to his friends.1 Conquering Yi Province 6. went to study under the tutelage of Lu Zhi (a prominent scholar and. at the time. Wade–Giles: Chang-wu. To support themselves.wikipedia. a son of Liu Sheng and a grandson of Emperor Jing. and lips so red that it seemed as though he wore lipstick. Liu Bei was full of ambition since childhood: he once said to his peers. 221– 223) Other names Liu Yuzhou (simplified Chinese: 刘豫州. having lost his father when he was still a child. Liu Bei was born in Zhuo County. grandson of Liu Yan). en. Baoding. He was a descendant of Liu Zhen. and later by Liu Fu's son Liu Taotu (劉騊駼). the free encyclopedia 6. Even so. All three descended from Emperor Jing.4 Becoming an emperor 7 Defeat and death 8 Family 9 Appointments and titles held 10 In fiction 11 General worship of Liu Bei 12 Modern references 12. said that Liu Bei was a descendant of the Marquis of Linyi (臨邑侯).3 Hanzhong Campaign 6. a fair and handsome face. who would become a prominent warlord in northern China later. Concise in speech.
Tao Qian. in addition to 1. Liu Bei raised troops around the area. and the Chen clan led by Chen Gui and Chen Deng. launched a campaign against Tao Qian in Xu Province.wikipedia. For that achievement.000 more troops. Yuan Shao. and actively built up connections with influential clans and people of the region. Conflict with Lü Bu en. there were two opposing alliances — Yuan Shu. At the time. Liu Bei deserted his supervisor Tian Kai for Tao Qian. In a rather short period of time. and Liu Biao the other. He resigned after refusing to submit to a corrupt inspector who attempted to ask him for bribes. at the outbreak of the Yellow Turban Rebellion.9/29/13 Liu Bei . Despite initial success on the invasion.000 or so troops and some Wuhuan cavalry already under his command. In 194. Meantime. Liu Bei finally took over Xu Province after Yuan Shao recognised his "succession". forcing Cao to retreat from Xu Province. Warlord state Succeeding Tao Qian In 192.Wikipedia. Tao Qian asked Liu Bei to station his army in nearby Xiaopei (present-day Pei County. Yuan Tan. Liu Bei received financial contributions from two wealthy horse merchants named Zhang Shiping and Su Shuang and rallied a group of loyal followers.org/wiki/Liu_Bei 3/15 . and Gongsun Zan on one side. Liu Bei then consulted Kong Rong and Chen Deng. Liu Bei also married Mi Zhu's younger sister Lady Mi to draw support from the Mi clan. who was at war with Yuan Shao for control of Ji Province (Hebei) and Qing Province (Shandong). but was held off by Yuan Shao's eldest son. the free encyclopedia Yellow Turban Rebellion In 184. and later lost Gongsun Zan's interest in the area to Yuan Tan. China sank into civil war and chaos. In recognition of his contributions. Together. Overran by rebels. after the splitting of the coalition against Dong Zhuo. he had gained the support of the two most powerful families in Xu Province: the Mi clan led by Mi Zhu and Mi Fang. Cao Cao's subordinate Zhang Miao rebelled and allowed Lü Bu to take over Cao's base in Yan Province (present-day western Shandong). who advised him to switch ally and seek confirmation from the leading warlord. Liu Bei called for the assembly of a volunteer army to help government forces suppress the rebellion. they scored several victories against the rebels. Liu Bei was appointed Prefect of Anxi (安喜令) in Zhongshan Commandery (中山 郡). Liu Bei led his army to join the provincial army. He then travelled south with his followers to join another volunteer army to suppress the Yellow Turbans remnants in Xu Province (present-day northern Jiangsu). Liu Bei moved north to join Gongsun Zan. Tian Kai and Liu Bei led their armies to support Tao Qian. Gongsun Zan appointed Liu Bei as the Prefect of Pingyuan County under Tian Kai to fight Yuan Shao in Shandong. he was appointed Prefect and Commandant of Gaotang (高唐令、高唐尉). Cao Cao. Tao Qian appealed to Tian Kai for help. Thus. the Mi clan strongly advocated the governorship be passed on to Liu Bei instead of Tao Qian's sons. Upon Tao Qian's death shortly after Liu Bei secured his position around the area by building up connections and an army. In face of strong pressure from Cao Cao's invading force. Cao Cao. Yuan Shao. Yuan Shao's ally. Liu Bei was hesitant and apprehensive towards taking the post when Chen Qun told him that Yuan Shu would contest the control of the province with him. Jiangsu) and gave him 4. among whom include Guan Yu and Zhang Fei.
Liu Bei seized the opportunity to kill Che Zhou. commissioned Liu Bei and Zhu Ling with an army to move south. and returned his family as an act of good faith. and some others to remove Cao Cao from power. who earlier recognised Liu Bei's control on Xu Province. via Xiapi. Lü Bu. They faced each other for a month without any decisive result. where Cao Cao received him well.9/29/13 Liu Bei . Liu Bei fled to Xuchang. where he was defeated by Yuan Shu. Lü Bu was defeated by Cao Cao and sought shelter under Liu Bei. and started moving against Cao Cao on the northern bank of the Yellow River. Liu Bei took over Xu Province and left Guan Yu behind to guard Xiapi while he stationed himself in Xiaopei. Lü Bu renewed his alliance with Yuan Shu to stem Cao Cao's growing influence and sent Gao Shun and Zhang Liao to attack Liu Bei. Liu Bei had to flee to Cao Cao again. and was on his way. Having his path blocked. Yuan Shu sent his general Ji Ling with a large army to invade Xu Province. Liu Bei then reassumed his post in Xiaopei to keep an eye on Lü Bu. gathering over 10. to Yuan Shao to request an immediate en. Xuchang. and ordered Liu to help him Statue of Liu Bei in Zhuge Liang's resist Yuan Shu. who recognised Liu's pledge of allegiance. Zhang Fei. on hearing that Yuan Shu had surrendered to. Cao Cao personally led an army to eliminate Lü Bu and achieved victory at the Battle of Xiapi. he was anxious to leave Cao Cao's stronghold. an imperial relative. obstructed further attempts temple in Chengdu by Yuan Shu to eliminate Liu Bei. providing Lü Bu with an opportunity to seize control of the city. the Governor of Xu Province who was appointed by the imperial court after Lü Bu's defeat. killed Cao Bao (chancellor of Xiapi when Tao Qian was still in charge of Xu Province) after an intense quarrel. Liu Bei moved his camp to Xiaopei where he rebuilt his army.org/wiki/Liu_Bei 4/15 . but Liu stayed behind with the army.Wikipedia. and finally surrendered to Lü Bu. In 198. Yuan Shu turned back to Shouchun and died there later. Donghai Commandery (東海郡). Liu Bei returned to Xiapi on receiving the news but his army disintegrated by the time he arrived. Liu Bei rallied his remaining men and moved to Guangling. Liu Bei joined a conspiracy headed by Dong Cheng. capturing the families of Liu Bei and his men during the surprise attack. Lü Bu became concerned and attacked Xiaopei. south of Xu Province) to counter. Liu Bei's army resorted to cannibalism. Cao Cao consented. Zhu Ling returned to Xuchang. Moreover. Sun Qian. Liu Bei asked to lead an army to intercept Yuan Shu. the free encyclopedia In 195. Role in the Cao-Yuan conflict By 199. Liu Bei sent his messenger. Cao Cao had Emperor Xian in his control and enjoyed a political advantage. gave him some troops.wikipedia. Yuan Shao. Liu Bei led his army to Xuyi and Huaiyin (in Guangling.000 men. In the next year. Before his advisers were able to change his mind. Cao Bao's death caused unrest in the city. had defeated Gongsun Zan. Hence. to join Yuan Shao in the north. Faced with enemies on both sides and a lack of supplies (Mi Zhu used his personal wealth to support the army). fearing isolation. who was left behind by Liu to guard Xiapi (capital of Xu Province). provisions. and official appointment of Governor of Yu Province (豫州牧). Cao Cao sent Xiahou Dun to support Liu Bei but they were defeated by Gao Shun. Liu Bei then retreated to Haixi (海西). Knowing that he still had a plenty of spies and cohort inside the imperial capital.
Yuan Shao again sent him with an army to Runan to aid the bandit leader. In 207. Cao Cao turned his attention to his last great rival in the north. the free encyclopedia attack be launched against Cao Cao. However. governor of Jing Province (present-day Hubei and Hunan). while Guan Yu surrendered to Cao Cao on terms that he could return to Liu Bei's service if the latter was alive. That's why I am sad. Yuan Shao turned down Liu Bei's plea. However.Wikipedia.9/29/13 Liu Bei . During a meeting with Liu Biao. Liu Bei. Xu Shu also urged Liu Bei to call on Zhuge Liang. Liu Bei fled to Jing Province to seek refuge under Liu Biao. Dong Cheng's plot was discovered. Yuan Shao's attempt to reinforce Liu was repulsed by Yu Jin. Zhang Fei protected Liu Bei when the latter fled from the battlefield. they are fat and flabby. Away from the battlefields in the east and under Liu Biao's efficient rule. Cao Cao sent Yu Jin and Xiahou Dun to attack Liu Bei. He overcame Liu Bei in an extremely short period of time. where he was received with respect by Yuan Shao and his son Yuan Tan. Liu Bei participated in the unsuccessful battles along the Yellow River. As Liu Pi in Runan rebelled against Cao Cao. and old age will come. Liu Bei asked Sima Hui. Jing Province was prosperous and a popular destination for literati fleeing from the destruction of war. Liu Bei and Liu Pi attacked Xuchang but were defeated by Cao Ren. when Liu Biao refused to attack Xuchang when Liu Bei advised him to do so. He also gave Liu Bei some troops and asked him to station in Xinye. as well as a few others who were outside Cao Cao's domain. The days and months pass like a stream. but I have achieved nothing. My thighs were thin. Cao Cao led his army to attack Liu Bei in Runan after defeating Yuan Shao at the Battle of Guandu. with the former being slain by Guan Yu. Taking refuge under Liu Biao In 201. In 200. With his domestic situation settled. To eliminate Yuan Shao's last southern ally. Liu Biao welcomed Liu Bei personally. Sima Hui named Zhuge Liang and Pang Tong as exceptional talents who could comprehend important events of their time well. but his trusted aides all survived the war. about scholars. en. he personally made camp at Guandu with his main army. Cao Cao planned a campaign to conquer the Wuhuan in the north. Predicting that Yuan Shao would be hesitant to go on the offensive. even though his own strategists advised him to do Liu a favour. treating him as an honoured guest. survived the purge. Liu Bei's force disintegrated under the weight of Cao Cao's assault. They were able to kill Cao Cao's general Cai Yang there. whom Cao Cao had left in command of his troops at Yan Ford. Gong Du. but was apprehensive that Liu Biao might attack his base but he was assured by Guo Jia that Liu Biao would not do so for fear of Liu Bei being more powerful than he was.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liu_Bei 5/15 . Liu Bei started weeping and the surprised Liu Biao asked why. Liu Bei fled north to join Yuan Shao. Now I do not ride anymore. Yuan Shao. Liu Dai and Wang Zhong against Liu Bei. Cao Cao agreed and Guo Jia's point was proven later. in which Yuan Shao successively lost two of his best generals Yan Liang and Wen Chou. but they were defeated. In 202. a revered recluse. Liu Bei answered "In earlier times. All conspirators and their families were summarily executed. Cao sent his subordinates. Liu Bei returned to the north and urged Yuan Shao to ally with Liu Biao. Liu Bei stayed in Jing Province for several years. leaving Yuan Shao no chance to aid Liu on second thought. Cao Cao led his army away from Guandu to personally overrun Liu Bei's position. I've never left the saddle. Liu Bei persuaded Yuan Shao to "lend" him an army to help Liu Pi. Cao fortified many of the key crossing points on the Yellow River which divided his territory from Yuan's. Liu Bei ambushed and defeated them at the Battle of Bowang.
Sun Quan's envoy Lu Su hinted to him that he should ally with Sun against Cao Cao. as Liu Bei's envoy. where abundant supplies and arsenal were stored. while the alliance at best had 50. Liu Bei led his troops away and abandoned Fancheng. Afraid that Liu Bei might reach Jiangling before him. With Guan Yu's fleet. He retreated back to the north and left behind Cao Ren and Xu Huang to guard Jiangling and Yue Jin to defend Xiangyang. Hunan). the free encyclopedia Liu Bei went to see Zhuge Liang and finally had an audience with him after three visits.Wikipedia. Liu Bei fled with only scores of followers. Henan).wikipedia. and his men. Zhuge Liang went to meet Sun Quan.Changsha. and that posed a major disadvantage to Cao. they crossed the Mian River to Jiangxia and the Yangtze River to Xiakou with Liu Qi. Liu Bei sent Guan Yu ahead to wait for him in Jiangling. Liu Bei recommended Liu Qi to be the new Inspector of Jing Province (荊州刺史) and led his men to capture the four commanderies south of the Yangtze River .000). Cao Cao caught up with Liu and captured most of his people and baggage at the Battle of Changban. Liu Biao died in 208 and his younger son Liu Cong succeeded him and surrendered to Cao Cao without informing Liu Bei.000 troops under the leadership of Zhou Yu. Hubei). The two sides clashed at the Red Cliffs (northwest of present day Puqi County. When Liu Qi died shortly after Liu Bei secured his position in the area. leading civilians and his followers (including some of Liu Biao's former attendants) on an exodus to the south. Alliance with Sun Quan Battle of Red Cliffs Main article: Battle of Red Cliffs When Liu Bei was still at Changban. a plague broke out that undermined the strength of Cao Cao's army. The fire attack masterminded by Zhou Yu and Huang Gai succeeded against Cao Cao's chain-linked vessels and most of Cao's navy was destroyed in the battle. By the time Liu Bei heard news of Liu Cong's surrender. Guiyang and Wuling (武陵). with Jing Province's fleet. Liu Bei set up his base at Gong'an and continued to strengthen his army. Liu Bei and Sun Quan formed their first coalition against the southward expansion of Cao Cao. Cao Cao's army had already reached Wancheng (present-day Nanyang.[citation needed ] Cao Cao's core troops were mostly northerners. Liu Biao's elder son. together with Lu Su at Chaisang to discuss the formation of the alliance. Cao Cao barely escaped after his defeat. a generalised long-term plan outlining the takeover of Jing Province and Yi Province to set up a two-pronged final strike at the imperial capital. Subsequently. Cao Cao boasted 830.000 and they moved only 10 li a day. Leaving his family behind. Cao Cao led his cavalry on pursuit. his followers numbered more than 100. so they were unable to adapt to the southern climate and naval warfare.org/wiki/Liu_Bei 6/15 . The majority of Cao Cao's troops were burnt to death or drowned in the river while the survivors who successfully retreated to the riverbank were ambushed and killed by skirmishers. the latter succeeded the former as the new governor of en. Lingling (present day Yongzhou. Taking Jing Province Further information: Battle of Jiangling (208) Sun Quan's forces led by Zhou Yu attacked Cao Ren after their resounding victory to wrestle for control of Jiangling.000 to 270. In a day and a night. Zhuge Liang presented Liu Bei with his Longzhong Plan. By the time they reached Dangyang (当阳).9/29/13 Liu Bei .000 men (Zhou Yu claimed the realistic number be 230.
As Hanzhong was a strategic location and the "gateway" for attacks into Yi Province. former subordinates of Liu Biao who were unwilling to serve Cao Cao came to join Liu Bei. not only was Liu Bei's succession recognised by Sun Quan. Liu Bei led an expedition force into Sichuan after leaving behind Zhuge Liang.wikipedia. Guan Yu. the free encyclopedia Jing Province. yielding all commanderies of Jing Province (except Jiangxia commandery) and access to the Yi Province to Liu Bei. 194 Assumed governorship of Xu Province. Sun Quan's position in the north became more untenable.Wikipedia. Conquered Hanzhong. Defeated by Cao Cao. and went to Jianye to marry Sun Quan's younger sister Lady Sun in order to legitimatise his succession.9/29/13 Liu Bei . 222 Lost the Battle of Xiaoting against Eastern Wu. governor of Yi Province (present-day Sichuan and Chongqing). Allied with Cao Cao. 198 Defeated by Lü Bu. 219 221 Proclaimed himself Emperor of Shu Han. but the land of Nan Commandery was also "lent" to him. The second was to take command of Liu Zhang's armies in the north and then move to capture Chengdu. Zhuo Commandery. Liu Bei headed to Jiameng Pass (southwest of present day Guangyuan. 200 Escaped to Yuan Shao. After the death of Zhou Yu in 210 and Liu Bei's growing influence in southern Jing Province. Took over Jing Province. After the marriage. In diplomatic terms. Zhang Fei and Zhao Yun to guard Jing Province. Pang Tong outlined three plans for Liu Bei to choose from. Summary of major events 161 Born in Zhuo County. Liu Bei lied to Liu Zhang that he needed more troops to divert Cao Cao's attention away en. Liu Zhang invited Liu Bei to join him in Yi Province to capture Hanzhong before Cao Cao did. 208 Allied with Sun Quan and won the Battle of Red Cliffs. Establishing the Shu regime Conquering Yi Province Main article: Liu Bei's takeover of Yi Province In 211.org/wiki/Liu_Bei 7/15 . Sun Quan's side thought that they were "lending" Jing Province to Liu Bei as a temporary base that should be returned to them after Liu found another stronghold. Liu Zhang received Liu Bei warmly and provided him with more troops under his command as well as provisions and equipment. Subsequently. Lu Su succeeded Zhou Yu as the Grand Viceroy of Sun Quan's armies and moved the headquarters to Lukou (陸口). The first was to advance swiftly to seize Chengdu from Liu Zhang with a special task force. 223 Died in Baidicheng. Liu chose the second option. Joined Liu Biao. In 212. Liu Zhang sent Fa Zheng to form an alliance with Liu Bei after persuasion from Zhang Song. 215 Defeated Liu Zhang and took over Yi Province. Liu Bei halted his advance and focused on building up connections and gaining influence around the area. Liu Zhang. Instead of engaging Zhang. The third one was to return to Baidicheng to await further action. heard that Cao Cao planned to attack Zhang Lu in Hanzhong. Sichuan) at the border between Liu Zhang and Zhang Lu's territories. Declared himself King of Hanzhong. 184 Volunteered in the fight against the Yellow Turban rebels in central China.
Liu Zhang was furious and stunned when he heard that Zhang Song had been helping Liu Bei to take over Yi Province from him .000 men to attack southern Jing Province and they succeeded in capturing Changsha. Ling Bao. The rest of Liu Bei's followers.000 men (to block Guan Yu) and took over command of the army at Lukou (陸口)). Luo finally fell. In 214. and requested for another 10. and ordered his generals guarding the passes to Chengdu not to let any word about his knowing reach Liu Bei. generals guarding Boshui Pass. but Liu refused. Hanzhong Campaign Main article: Hanzhong Campaign en. Now the remnant force was under command of Liu Zhang's son Liu Xun. Liu Bei summoned and killed them on charges of disrespect towards him. Liu Bei personally went to Gong'an while Guan Yu led 30. In the spring of 213.000 men to Yiyang. Sun Quan sent Lu Su as an emissary to demand for the return of Jing Province. but Liu Zhang continued to hold on inside Chengdu. He then took over Yang Huai's and Gao Pei's troops and turned to attack Fucheng (涪城). Ma Chao. Liu Bei then succeeded Liu Zhang as governor of Yi Province and conferred on the latter the seal and tassel of "General Who Inspires Awe" before expatriating him to Gong'an.org/wiki/Liu_Bei 8/15 . but they surrendered to Liu Bei as well. Zhang Song's older brother. However.9/29/13 Liu Bei . forcing Liu Bei to call for reinforcements from Jing Province. in return. setting the new border along the Xiang River. Deng Xian. Dong He was appointed "Household General of the Army" and acting deputy to Zhuge Liang. and Lingling commanderies. and joined Liu. and he requested for a border treaty with Sun Quan as he became worried about Cao Cao seizing Hanzhong. but they still insisted on fighting a desperate war. Zhuge Liang was promoted to Grand Adviser in charge of the Office of the General of the Left. Guiyang. Liu Bei married Wu Yi's sister and attempted to solidify his control on the newly conquered domain. Yang Bai. and he retreated to Luo (northwest of Chengdu). Zhang Ren. so Li Yan and Fei Guan were sent to replace him. and the siege became a prolonged one. Wu Yi and other generals to defend Mianzhu Pass. the free encyclopedia from the east (where Sun Quan was under attack). Still.wikipedia. and before Liu Zhang's men could reach Yang Huai and Gao Pei. were entrusted with new responsibilities and promoted to new ranks. Liu Zhang surrendered after stating that he did not wish to see further bloodshed. Wu Yi soon changed allegiance. Upon seeing Ma Chao's army at the north of Chengdu.000 soldiers and additional provisions to aid in the defence of Jing Province. the citizens inside the city was terrified. Despite being the most trusted vassal of Liu Zhang. an office that granted him control over all affairs of state. Sun Quan then sent Lü Meng and Ling Tong to lead 20. discovered his brother's secret communications with Liu Bei and reported the issue to Liu Zhang. Liu Bei ceded Changsha and Guiyang commanderies to Sun Quan. new and old. Liu Bei was informed by his spies planted around Liu Zhang.000 troops and half of the other supplies he requested. When war was about to break out. a former Liang Province warlord and a vassal of Zhang Lu. Liu Zhang gave him only 4. Pang Tong was killed by a stray arrow.he had Zhang Song executed. Lu Su and Gan Ning advanced to Yiyang (益陽) with 10. Zhang Su.Wikipedia. Liu Bei asked Sun Quan to give him back Lingling Commandery and create a diversion for Cao Cao by attacking Hefei. There. In the meantime. Liu Bei received news that Cao Cao was planning to attack Hanzhong. Sun-Liu territorial dispute After Liu Bei's conquest of Yi Province. Liu Zhang sent Liu Gui. was persuaded by Liu Bei to kill his comrade.
wikipedia. Ma Chao. which concluded with a victory for the former following a surprise attack on the latter. Narrowly escaping. Becoming an emperor After Liu Bei secured Hanzhong. Wei Yan was promoted to the rank of "General Who Maintains Distant Lands in Peace" (鎮遠將軍) and Administrator of Hanzhong (漢中太守). he declared himself "King of Hanzhong" (漢中王) and set up his headquarters in Chengdu. where Xiahou Yuan's encampment in the valley below could be easily monitored. Liu Bei then pressed on Zhang He at Guangshi (廣石) but failed to achieve any success. Zhang He and Xu Huang to defend Hanzhong.org/wiki/Liu_Bei 9/15 . who had been informally elected to succeed Xiahou Yuan by Du Xi and Guo Huai. the free encyclopedia In 215. Xu Jing was appointed as "Grand Tutor" while Fa Zheng was made "Prefect of the Masters of Writing". and the Ba region became part of Liu Bei's territory. Zhang He also retreated to Chencang to set up defences for a potential invasion by Liu Bei. tried to cut the enemy's supply route by sending his general Chen Shi to Mamingge (馬鳴閣). In the spring of 219. Cao Cao's appointed Inspector of Yi Province. Guan Yu was appointed as "General of the Vanguard". The war turned into a stalemate. en. but was routed by Xiahou's subordinate.Wikipedia. Liu Bei faced Cao Cao for several months but never engaged the latter in battle. Zhang He led his army to Dangqu (宕渠) in order to relocate the population of Ba (巴) to Hanzhong. Meanwhile. Cao Cao refused and left Xiahou Yuan. He appointed Liu Shan as the heir-apparent. at the same time. Sima Yi and Liu Ye advised him to take advantage of the victory to attack Yi Province. and several subordinate generals to Wudu (武都). retreated to the northern bank of the Han River. In 217. effectively forcing Cao to retreat as his soldiers started to desert. One night. Liu Bei and Xiahou Yuan had faced each other for over a year. engaging Xiahou Yuan at Yangping Pass. Zhang Fei as "General of the Right". Liu Bei. Liu Bei sent 10. Liu Bei secured all strategic points at the exit of the passes linking Chang'an and Hanzhong while Cao Cao was approaching via Yegu Pass. Ma Chao as "General of the Left" and Huang Zhong as "General of the Rear". since it was still unstable under Liu Bei's new government and Liu himself was away in Jing Province. Xu Huang. Xiahou Yuan and Zhang He were not able to hinder Liu Bei from mobilising forces around the area. Zhang He. Liu Bei led the main army to the south of the Mian River (沔水) and ordered Huang Zhong to set up camps on Mount Dingjun. while he assembled an army and advanced to Yangping Pass.9/29/13 Liu Bei . and Cao Cao decided to gather an army in Chang'an to fight Liu Bei. Fa Zheng pointed out the strategic necessities of seizing Hanzhong and advised Liu Bei to drive Cao Cao's force out of the area. Huang Zhong targeted Xiahou Yuan's unit and completely routed it. Zhang Fei was forced to retreat after his aides Wu Lan and Lei Tong were defeated and killed by Cao Cao's forces. Liu Bei sent Zhang Fei. Liu sent Huang Zhong to attack the weakened enemy from above. Liu Bei appointed Zhang Fei as Administrator of Baxi (巴西) and ordered him to take over the region. Zhang Fei and Zhang He faced each other for 50 days. Xiahou Yuan then led a small detachment to put out the fire and sent the main army to reinforce Zhang He. In anticipation of a prolonged war. Meantime. Zhang He retreated to Nanzheng on foot. Liu Bei led his main army to Nanzheng and sent Meng Da and Liu Feng to capture Fangling (房陵) and Shangyong (上庸). Fa Zheng saw an opportunity for attack and signalled to Liu Bei to launch an assault. Both Xiahou Yuan and Zhao Yong (趙顒). were killed in the battle. Cao Cao defeated Zhang Lu at the Battle of Yangping and seized Hanzhong. and awaited Cao Cao's reinforcement.000 troops to attack Zhang He in Guangshi and set fire to Xiahou Yuan's barricades.
Liu Bei personally led an army to attack Sun Quan to avenge Guan Yu and retake Jing Province. Lu Xun ordered a counterattack and set fire to the Shu camps linked to each other by wooden fences. Zhao Yun reminded Liu Bei that he should focus his attack on Wei instead of Sun Quan. ordered a retreat to Yiling (present-day Yichang. Sun Quan's forces led by Lü Meng captured Guan Yu. Upon his return to Chengdu. Liu Bei became furious. Knowing that his enemy was not expecting a sudden strike. Family Main article: Shu Han family trees Appointments and titles held Commandant of Anxi (安喜尉) en. fought a desperate battle against the invaders.org/wiki/Liu_Bei 10/15 . He appointed his son Liu Shan as crown prince. A year later. Liu Bei then moved his camp into a forest for shade and ordered Huang Quan to lead a portion of his navy to camp just outside the forest. he named Zhuge Liang and Li Yan as regents to support his son. but Liu rejected his plan. Liu Bei managed to escape overnight to Baidicheng. Hubei). where they set up a defence. Cao Pi. and conquered Jing Province. Forty camps of Liu Bei's expedition force were destroyed in the fire attack and the remaining troops were defeated and forced to flee west to Ma'an Hills (northwest of Yiling. he became concerned that he would be penalised for not sending reinforcements to Guan Yu earlier and defected to Wei. Liu Bei was still able to achieve initial victories until Lu Xun. Liu Bei was caught up and besieged by Lu on the Ma'an Hills and was attacked before his men could recuperate. Liu Bei declared himself "Emperor of Shu Han" and claimed his intent was to carry on the lineage of the Han Dynasty.9/29/13 Liu Bei . Seeing that Liu Bei did not make strong defences against Wei. Liu Shan. and Zhuge Liang revived the alliance with Sun Quan. Liu Feng. Liu Bei died in Baidicheng in the summer of 223. succeeded Emperor Xian to the throne. Liu Bei was given the posthumous name of Zhaolie . but without the support from Chengdu. Defeat and death Main article: Battle of Xiaoting In the autumn of 222. Meng Da suggested to Cao Pi to attack Fanling. he was betrayed by his subordinates and defeated. Shangyong. not to be confused with Ma'anshan.Wikipedia. the free encyclopedia In late 219. In 221. succeeded him as Emperor of Shu. Cao Cao died and his successor. who was promptly executed. On his deathbed. and Xicheng commanderies.wikipedia. and ordered his troops to begin preparing for war with Sun Quan. At the same time. Anhui). Liu Bei's adopted son. and declared himself Emperor of Cao Wei. so he had Liu Feng executed. and his body was brought back to Chengdu and entombed at Huiling (southern suburb of present day Chengdu) four months later. Liu Bei was furious on Liu Feng's loss and his refusal to send reinforcement to Guan Yu in 219. the commander-in-chief of the Eastern Wu forces. By summer. by ordering his men to discard their armour and set them aflame to form a fire blockade to stop Lu Xun's pursuing troops. His son. Lu Xun held his position there and refused to engage the invaders. Even though Zhang Fei was murdered by his subordinates during the onset of the battle. the Shu troops were camped along their invasion route and had grown weary due to the hot weather. After hearing of Guan Yu's death. When Meng Da learned that Liu Bei was going to launch a campaign against Sun Quan. and left Zhuge Liang in charge of state affairs back in Chengdu.
Since the mainland Chinese government loosened its control on religious practices in recent years. he wielded a pair of double edged swords called shuang gu jian (雙股劍). the shoemakers guild in Chengdu. the worship of Liu Bei among shoemakers has again gained popularity in Chengdu. In the novel. In 2005. to the imperial family of the Han Dynasty.Wikipedia. thus favouring another argument for the legitimacy of Liu Bei's reign. the novel emphasises that Liu Bei was related. After being relocated many times. who called themselves "disciples of Liu Bei". sponsored the construction of the Sanyi Temple in Liu's honour. the temple can be found in Wuhou District today.Liu Bei's posthumous title In fiction Romance of the Three Kingdoms is a 14th-century historical novel based on the events that occurred before and during the Three Kingdoms era.org/wiki/Liu_Bei 11/15 . which is also known as the "City of Shoes" as more than 80 million pairs of shoes totalling five billion yuan in sales are manufactured there annually. the free encyclopedia Senior Major (別部司馬) under Gongsun Zan Commandant of Gaotang (高唐尉) Prefect of Gaotang (高唐令) Chancellor of Pingyuan (平原相) Inspector of Yu Province (豫州刺史) Governor of Xu Province (徐州牧) General Who Guards the East (鎮東將軍) Marquis of Yicheng (宜城亭侯) General of the Left (左將軍) Governor of Jing Province (荊州牧) Grand Marshal (大司馬) Director of Retainers (司隸校尉) King of Hanzhong (漢中王) Emperor Zhaolie of Shu Han (蜀漢昭烈皇帝) . This is in line with the historical background of the times during which the novel was written. portraying him as a compassionate and righteous leader. endowed with charismatic potency (called de (德) in Chinese) who built his state on the basis of Confucian values.wikipedia. a large procession was carried out in front of the Sanyi Temple to commemorate Liu Bei — the first such event since the founding of the People's en. however distantly. It is said that in 1845. Written by Luo Guanzhong more than a millennium after the said period. the novel incorporated many popular folklore and opera scripts into the character of Liu Bei.9/29/13 Liu Bei . Furthermore. See the following for some fictitious stories in Romance of the Three Kingdoms involving Liu Bei: Oath of the Peach Garden Battle of Hulao Pass List of fictitious stories in Romance of the Three Kingdoms#Three visits to the thatched cottage List of fictitious stories in Romance of the Three Kingdoms#Liu Bei's horse leaps across the Tan Stream List of fictitious stories in Romance of the Three Kingdoms#Liu Bei and Lady Sun's marriage Battle of Xiaoting#In fiction General worship of Liu Bei Liu Bei is worshipped as the patron of shoemakers in Chengdu. during the reign of the Daoguang Emperor in the Qing Dynasty.
Liu Bei is the protagonist in Destiny of an Emperor. Video games Liu Bei is featured as a playable character in all instalments of Koei's video game series Dynasty Warriors. In the selection of hero cards in the Chinese card game San Guo Sha (三国杀). Liu Bei's armour (based on the designs appearing in the Dynasty Warriors series) is available in the MMORPG MapleStory. It argued that although Liu Bei sold straw-woven shoes and mats for a living when he was young. A commentary carried by the Yangtse Evening News criticised such practice as mere commercial gimmickry to exploit the fame of Liu Bei. as well as Cao Cao. it was Yu Ze who made the first pairs of shoes with softwood during the time of the Yellow Emperor. Liu Bei also appears in another of Koei's video game series. Released in the United States by Capcom in 1989.9/29/13 Liu Bei . According to legend. See also en.wikipedia. Lord of Shu" in the Portal Three Kingdoms set. also produced by Koei. Modern references Card games In the collectible card game Magic: The Gathering there is a card named "Liu Bei. the criticism did not dampen the enthusiastic shoe industry owners in their decision to erect a statue of Liu Bei in the West China Shoe Center Industrial Zone. Zhuge Liang. the game also loosely follows the plot of the novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms. Chrono Stone. and Diaochan's designs. However.org/wiki/Liu_Bei 12/15 .Wikipedia. Liu Bei is featured in the sequel to Level 5's game and anime Inazuma Eleven GO. Also featured are Cao Cao. he was hardly the inventor of shoes. A block print portrait of Liu Bei from a Qing Dynasty edition of the Romance of the Three Kingdoms (wearing an anachronistic scholar's robe and a hat of medieval Chinese dynasties). Romance of the Three Kingdoms. Sun Quan. there is also a Liu Bei hero that players can select at the beginning of the game. Guan Yu and Zhang Fei. Liu Bei is featured as one of the protagonists in the real-time wargame Kessen II. Guan Yu. as well as Warriors Orochi. Zhuge Liang. which was still under construction in Wuhou District as of August 2005. a RPG on the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES). the free encyclopedia Republic of China in 1949. a crossover between Dynasty Warriors and Samurai Warriors.
Zhang. ^ (先主遣人迎超，超將兵徑到城下。城中震怖) This passage from Records of Three Kingdoms states that the residents within the city were stunned and terrified.Wikipedia. ^ de Crespigny. 8. ^ (身長七尺五寸，垂手下膝，顧自見其耳。) Chen Shou. Rafe (2007). "Liu Yuzhou" became Liu Bei's self-given title and became known to the public at that time. was busy fighting Cao Cao then. 13. vol. Records of Three Kingdoms. Volume 32. However.htm) by Matthew August LeFande. Volume 32. ^ In 194. ^ (獻帝春秋曰：陳登等遣使詣袁紹曰：「天降災沴，禍臻鄙州，州將殂殞，生民無主，恐懼奸雄一旦承 隙，以貽盟主日昃之憂，輒共奉故平原相劉備府君以為宗主，永使百姓知有依歸。方今寇難縱橫，不遑釋 甲，謹遣下吏奔告於執事。」紹答曰：「劉玄德弘雅有信義，今徐州樂戴之，誠副所望也。」) This passage from the Annal of Emperor Xian states that Chen Deng sent a messenger to Yuan Shao and asked the approval of the latter for Liu Bei to succeed Tao Qian.org/wiki/Liu_Bei 13/15 . Romance of the Three Kingdoms.lefande. See Records of Three Kingdoms. Guo Gong (郭貢). have pointed out most ancient Chinese dynasties after Qin had ruled by a mix of Legalism and Confucianism. and acted as Liu Bei's direct supervisor. A biographical dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms (23–220 AD). Biography of Liu Bei. ^ Pingyuan laid on the border between Yuan Shao and Gongsun Zan's territories. ISBN 978-90-04-15605-0.9/29/13 Liu Bei . (The formal Governor of Yu Province. Records of the Three Kingdoms. Later. 10. See Records of Three Kingdoms. or Aspects of Legalist Philosophy and the Law in Ancient China: The Chi'an and Han Dynasties and Rediscovered Manuscript of Mawangdui and Shuihudi (http://www. ^ (城中尚有精兵三萬人，谷帛支一年，吏民咸欲死戰。璋言：「父子在州二十餘年，無恩德以加百姓。百 姓攻戰三年，肌膏草野者，以璋故也，何心能安！」遂開城出降，群下莫不流涕。) This passage from en. the free encyclopedia List of people of the Three Kingdoms List of Chinese monarchs List of Dynasty Warriors characters Notes 1. and did not bother about Liu Bei's usurpation of his governorship. Tao Qian memorialised Emperor Xian to make Liu Bei the Inspector (刺史) of Yu Province (Yuzhou) but his request was not recognised by the Han court. Biography of Liu Bei. 12.com/AncientChinaLaw. 2. and Zhao. Huang. Brill. Biographies of Guan. Volume 36. he split from the forces of Gongsun Zan. Liu Bei had already been consistently building up his army when he headed Xu Province. Ma. no successful emperor had ruled purely based on Confucianism (though some did purely used Legalism). Biography of Chen Qun. Chapter 1. and was the only county Yuan Tan controlled before his expansion. Liu Bei received official recognition as Governor of Yu Province (豫州牧) by Cao Cao as a reward for his assistance in vanquishing Lü Bu. Volume 22.) See Zizhi Tongjian. ^ (英雄記曰：備軍在廣陵，飢餓困踧，吏士大小自相噉食，窮餓侵逼，欲還小沛，遂使吏請降布。布令備 還州，並勢擊術。具刺史車馬僮僕，發遣備妻子部曲家屬於泗水上，祖道相樂。) Chronicle of Heroes. 61. 11. Volume 32. ^ (先主北到葭萌，未即討魯，厚樹恩德，以收眾心。) Chen Shou. 478. Numerous researches such as Political Reality of Transforming Legalism by Confucianism in the Western Han Dynasty as Seen from Selection System by Wang Bao Ding. ^ (群说备曰：“袁术尚强，今东，必与之争) Chen Shou.wikipedia. p. 3. See note in Records of Three Kingdoms. ^ Throughout Chinese history. ^ (九州春秋曰：備住荊州數年，嘗於表坐起至廁，見髀裡肉生，慨然流涕。還坐，表怪問備，備曰：「吾 常身不離鞍，髀肉皆消。今不復騎，髀裡肉生。日月若馳，老將至矣，而功業不建，是以悲耳。」) From the note on the Spring and Autumn Annual of the Nine Provinces. Volume 32. Biography of Liu Bei. ^ (時先主自有兵千餘人及幽州烏丸雜胡騎，又略得饑民數千人。既到，謙以丹楊兵四千益先主，先主遂去 楷歸謙。) Excluding the support from the Mi clan. 4. 14. 6. Records of Three Kingdoms. 9. 7. 5. Tian Kai assumed the title of Inspector of Qing Province under Yuan Shao. ^ (生得身長七尺五寸，兩耳垂肩，雙手過膝，目能自顧其耳，面如冠玉，唇如塗脂) Luo Guanzhong. Once he gained enough power.
tr.html) Faculty of Asian Studies. (Both sources in Simplified Chinese) ^ "劉備啥時候成了"鞋神"" (http://web. Volume 1.au/html/1885/42048/peace1_index.scol. ISBN 978-0-8048-3467-4. "To Establish Peace: being the Chronicle of the Later Han dynasty for the years 189 to 220 AD as recorded in Chapters 59 to 69 of the Zizhi tongjian of Sima Guang". 19.org. Moss. and Guo. The Australian National University.culture. Chapters 69–78 from the Tzu Chih T'ung Chien of Ssu-ma Kuang". Biography of Liu Bei. Guang. Biographies of Man. Retrieved August 26. ^ Roberts 1991. Cambridge.yangtse.edu.archive.org/web/20060503042057/http://www.asp?bianhao=4939).cn/info/info_detail. 揚子晚報. Records of the Three Kingdoms states that the residents of Chengdu wished to fight Liu Bei to the death. Volume 26. MA. 18. "The Chronicle of the Three Kingdoms (220–265). 2005.anu. Archived from the original (http://www. ISBN 978-7-80520-013-2.htm) on May 3. Volume 31. "To Establish Peace: being the Chronicle of the Later Han dynasty for the years 189 to 220 AD as recorded in Chapters 59 to 69 of the Zizhi tongjian of Sima Guang".htm). ISBN 978-0-7315-2526-3. (http://dspace.org/web/20070406133118/http://www. Achilles. Romance of the Three Kingdoms. 2006. See Records of Three Kingdoms. Zizhi Tongjian. Yue Lu Shu She. C. Rafe. Retrieved 26 August 2005.au/html/1885/42048/peace2_index. Harvard University Press. Chen Shou (2002). Lo Kuan-chung. 四川 在線.com/gb/content/200507/04/content_123716. Tuttle Publishing. ^ (備因夜遁，驛人自擔燒鐃鎧斷後，僅得入白帝城。) See Records of Three Kingdoms.wikipedia. 17. Roberts. 2007. Rafe. Fang. 2007. 1952.yangtse. Retrieved August 26. de Crespigny. . Romance of the Three Kingdoms. Qian. 942 ^ "武侯祠祭"鞋神"劉備" (http://web.org/wiki/Liu_Bei 14/15 . Three Kingdoms: A Historical Novel (1991) University of California Press.archive. the free encyclopedia 15. ISBN 978-0-7315-2536-2.com/gb/content/200507/04/content_123716. (http://dspace.culture. tr. Luo Guanzhong (1986).org.org. 1996. Canberra. Archived from the original (http://www. Archived from the original (http://tour. Brewitt-Taylor (2002). ISBN 978-7-80665-198-8.shtml) on April 6. Volume 1. Volume 32. Yue Lu Shu She.archive. 文化 産業網. 2005. ISBN 9780-520-22503-9 en.Wikipedia. Volume 2. but Liu Zhang said to them that he did not want to see them die for him and surrendered. "亡者日多" should be translated as "deserters increased in number as time passed" instead of "casualties increased with each passing day.cn/info/info_detail. "宣傳成都民俗文化 武侯祠祭祀"鞋神"刘备" (http://web.org/web/20070406133118/http://www. Canberra. Tian.edu.com.culture. pg. Sima. Records of Three Kingdoms.9/29/13 Liu Bei ." See Records of Three Kingdoms. 1996. Biographies of the two Governor Lius.H.anu. 16. The Australian National University.html) Faculty of Asian Studies.asp?bianhao=4939) on April 6.cn/html/2005/07/001026_507494.asp?bianhao=4939).cn/info/info_detail. References de Crespigny. ^ (及曹公至，先主斂眾拒險，終不交鋒，積月不拔，亡者日多。) Within this passage.
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