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Comparison of control strategies for DSTATCOM in three-phase, four-wire

distribution system for power quality improvement under various source


voltage and load conditions
Tejas Zaveri
a,
, Bhavesh Bhalja
b
, Naimish Zaveri
c
a
Faculty of Engineering & Technology, Veer Narmad South Gujarat University, Surat 395 007, Gujarat, India
b
Department of Electrical Engineering, AD Patel Institute of Technology, New Vallabh Vidyanagar 388 121, Gujarat, India
c
Electrical Engineering Department, CK Pithawalla College of Engineering & Technology, Surat 395 007, Gujarat, India
a r t i c l e i n f o
Article history:
Received 15 September 2011
Received in revised form 20 April 2012
Accepted 9 June 2012
Available online 7 July 2012
Keywords:
DSTATCOM
Control strategies
Reactive power compensation
Source neutral current elimination
Load balancing
Harmonic mitigation
a b s t r a c t
This paper presents comparison of three different control strategies to generate reference current com-
ponents for Distribution Static Compensator (DSTATCOM). Reference currents are tracked by a three-
phase voltage source converter in a hysteresis band control scheme. These methods are instantaneous
reactive power (IRP) theory, symmetrical component (SC) theory and an improved instantaneous active
and reactive current component (IARCC) theory. The performance of three methods has been evaluated
under various source voltage and load conditions with new IEEE Standard 1459 power denitions. A com-
parative study of their performance in terms of rms value of source current, Total Harmonic Distortion
(THD), supply power factor and compensator ratings is also presented. A three-phase, four-wire distribu-
tion system supplying linear as well as non-linear load is considered for simulation study which is carried
out using MATLAB/SIMULINK software. Under balanced and sinusoidal source voltage conditions, all
three control strategies similar performance while an improved IARCC theory outperforms, particularly,
under unbalanced and distorted source voltage conditions.
2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction
In present day distribution systems, major power consumption
is due to reactive loads such as fans, pumps and induction motors.
These loads draw lagging power factor currents and therefore give
rise to reactive power burden in the distribution system. Power
electronics converters which are widely used in industrial, com-
mercial and domestic appliances suffer from the problem of draw-
ing of non-sinusoidal current and reactive power from the source.
This behavior causes voltage distortion that affects other loads
connected at the same point of common coupling (PCC). Moreover,
this situation becomes even worst when large amount of current
ows through the neutral wire due to unbalanced loads in a
three-phase, four-wire power distribution system. Therefore, reac-
tive power compensation of non-linear and/or poor power factor
loads is an extremely important issue in the modern power distri-
bution system. Excessive reactive power demand increases feeder
losses and reduces active power ow capability of the distribution
system whereas unbalancing affects the operation of transformers
and generators [1]. DSTATCOM has been used for compensation of
reactive power, load balancing and harmonic mitigation in the dis-
tribution system [2]. The performance of DSTATCOM depends on
the control algorithm used for extraction of reference current com-
ponents. To serve this purpose, many control algorithms have been
presented by various researchers. These algorithms are based on
instantaneous reactive power (IRP) theory, interpretations and
modications of IRP theory, synchronous reference frame (SRF)
theory, symmetrical component (SC) theory, current compensation
technique using dc bus voltage regulation, computation technique
based on per phase basis and schemes based on articial neural
network and Adeline based algorithm, etc. [313]. In order to mit-
igate harmonics, the instantaneous active and reactive current
component method is proposed for shunt active lter application
[14]. Although, number of power quality improvement schemes
using DSTATCOM in three-phase, four-wire system with sinusoidal
source voltage conditions have been proposed so far there exists a
lot of scope of improvement especially on three-phase, four-wire
power distribution system for unbalanced and distorted source
voltage conditions. This paper will attempt to describe that facet
of the problem.
In this paper, an improved instantaneous active and reactive
current component theory (IARCC) is proposed by the authors.
Subsequently, its performance has been compared with IRP theory
and SC theory. The performance of the said three control techniques
0142-0615/$ - see front matter 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijepes.2012.06.044

Corresponding author. Tel.: +91 9909110232.


E-mail addresses: zaveritejas@yahoo.com (T. Zaveri), bhaveshbhalja@gmail.com
(B. Bhalja), zaverinaimish@yahoo.com (N. Zaveri).
Electrical Power and Energy Systems 43 (2012) 582594
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under various source voltage and load conditions for three-phase,
four-wire distribution system has been evaluated with reference
to the following objectives:
(i) Reactive power compensation.
(ii) Balancing of source currents.
(iii) Reduction in source VA for a given load conditions.
(iv) Elimination of source neutral current during unbalanced
load condition.
(v) Restricting THD of source currents within IEEE-519 standard
limit.
2. Control strategies
2.1. IRP and SC method
The basic block diagram of IRP theory and SC theory is shown in
Figs. 1 and 2, respectively. Detailed descriptions of IRP theory and
SC theory are found in [3] and [10], respectively.
2.2. Improved Instantaneous active and reactive current component
method
Fig. 3 shows the basic block diagram of the proposed method.
The transformation angle is obtained with the voltages of the ac
network. The major difference between the proposed method
and SRF method [9] is that the speed of the reference frame is no
longer constant due to voltage harmonics and imbalance. It varies
instantaneously depending on the waveform of the three-phase
voltages of the system.
In the proposed scheme, the compensating currents are ob-
tained from the instantaneous active and reactive current compo-
nents of the load. Load currents in stationary (ab) reference frame
are obtained by applying Clarkes transformation as given by the
following equation:
i
l0
i
la
i
lb
_

_
_

2
3
_
1

2
p
1=

2
p
1=

2
p
1 1=2 1=2
0

3
p
=2

3
p
=2
_

_
_

_
i
la
i
lb
i
lc
_

_
_

_ 1
Nomenclature
V
sa/b/c
source voltage of phase-a, phase-b and phase-c, respec-
tively
i
sa/b/c
source current of phase-a, phase-b and phase-c, respec-
tively
i
la/b/c
load current of phase-a, phase-b and phase-c, respec-
tively
i
sta/b/c
compensator current of phase-a, phase-b and phase-c,
respectively
i
sn
source neutral current
i
ln
load neutral current
i
stn
compensator neutral current
P
0load
instantaneous zero sequence power of load
P
0S
instantaneous zero sequence power of source
P
0st
instantaneous zero sequence power of compensator
P
load
instantaneous active power of load
P
S
instantaneous active power of source
P
st
instantaneous active power of compensator
q
load
instantaneous reactive power of load
q
s
instantaneous reactive power of source
q
st
instantaneous reactive power of compensator
$ over the letter: variable part
over the letter: average value
Subscript
0 zero sequence components in 0ab and odq coordinate
systems
d d component in odq coordinates system
q q component in odq coordinates system
a a component in 0ab coordinates system
aF a component in 0ab coordinates system after ltration
b b component in 0ab coordinates system
bF b component in 0ab coordinates system after ltration
1h fundamental component
nh nth harmonic component
Superscript
+ positive sequence component
negative sequence component
reference component
Fig. 1. Basic block diagram of the instantaneous reactive power theory. Fig. 2. Basic block diagram of the symmetrical component theory.
T. Zaveri et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 43 (2012) 582594 583
Source voltages in stationary (ab) reference frame are obtained by
applying Clarkes transformation and given by the following
equation:
V
so
V
sa
V
sb
_

_
_

2
3
_
1

2
p
1=

2
p
1=

2
p
1 1=2 1=2
0

3
p
=2

3
p
=2
_

_
_

_
V
sa
V
sb
V
sc
_

_
_

_ 2
In order to calculate the transformation angle, source voltages in
stationary (ab) reference frame, as given by Eq. (2), are ltered by
low pass lters. The use of the low pass lter makes the strategy
more insensitive to harmonics on the mains.
The magnitude response of Butterworth low-pass lter is given
by,
jHjxj
A
1 X=X
C

2N

0:5
where A is the lter gain and X
C
is the 3 dB cut-off frequency and N
is the order of the lter.
The transfer function of the Butterworth lter is usually written
in the factored form as given below.
HS

N=2
k1
B
k
X
2
C
s
2
b
k
X
C
s c
k
X
2
C
N 2; 4; 6. . .
or
HS
B
0
X
C
s c
0
X
C

N1=2
k1
B
k
X
2
C
s
2
b
k
X
C
s c
k
X
2
C
N 3; 5; 7. . .
The coefcients b
k
and c
k
are given by,
b
k
2sin2k 1p=2N and c
k
1
The parameter B
k
can be obtained from the following equations.
A

N=2
k1
B
k
; for even N
and
A

N1=2
k1
B
k
; for odd N
Load currents in rotating (dq) reference frame are obtained by
applying Parks transformation as shown in the following equation:
i
l0
i
ld
i
lq
_

_
_

_
1 0 0
0 cos h sinh
0 sinh cos h
_

_
_

_
i
l0
i
la
i
lb
_

_
_

_; h tan
1
V
sbF
V
saF
_ _
3
Fig. 4 depicts the voltage and current space vectors in the stationary
(ab) and rotating reference frames (dq).Under balanced and sinusoi-
dal mains voltage conditions, the transformation angle h is a uni-
formly increasing function of time. This transformation angle is
sensitive to voltage harmonics and unbalance, therefore dh=dt
may not be constant over a mains period.
Now, due to transformation, the direct and the quadrature com-
ponents of voltage are given by,
V
d
jV
dq
j jV
ab
j

V
2
saF
V
2
sbF
_
and V
q
0
If d-axis is in the direction of the voltage space vector then the
transformation is given by Eq. (4) which is achieved by substituting
cos h
V
saF

V
2
saF
V
2
sbF
_ andsinh
V
sbF

V
2
saF
V
2
sbF
_ into Eq. (3).
i
ld
i
lq
_ _

1

V
2
saF
V
2
sbF
_
V
saF
V
sbF
V
sbF
V
saF
_ _
i
la
i
lb
_ _
4
Fig. 3. Basic block diagram of proposed scheme.
Fig. 4. Voltage and current space vectors in the stationary and synchronous
reference frames.
584 T. Zaveri et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 43 (2012) 582594
Instantaneous active and reactive load currents, i
ld
and i
lq
, can be
decomposed into oscillatory and average terms as under.
i
ld

i
ld

~
i
ld
and i
lq

i
lq

~
i
lq
The positive sequence component of rst harmonic current is trans-
formed into dc quantities i

ldqlh
which constitutes the average
current components. All higher order current harmonics including
the negative sequence component of rst harmonic current
i

ldqnh
i

ldqlh
are transformed into non-dc quantities and undergo
a frequency shift in the spectra. Hence, they constitute the oscilla-
tory current components. The fundamental currents of dq compo-
nents are now dc values and harmonics are going to appear like a
ripple. Harmonic isolation of dq transformed signal is achieved
by removing the dc offset. After eliminating the average current
components by lters, the reference compensator currents are ob-
tained as under.
i

std

~
i
ld
and i

stq

~
i
lq
Therefore, the reference currents of voltage source converter in the
ab coordinates are obtained by applying inverse Park transforma-
tion and given by the following equation:
i

sta
i

stb
_ _

1

V
2
saF
V
2
sbF
_
V
saF
V
sbF
V
sbF
V
saF
_ _
i

std
i

stq
_ _
5
Applying inverse Clarkes transformation, the reference currents of
voltage source converter in abc frame are given by the following
equation:
i

sta
i

stb
i

stc
_

_
_

2
3
_
1

2
p
1

2
p
1

2
p
1
1
2

1
2
0

3
p
2

3
p
2
_

_
_

_
T
i
l0
i

sta
i

stb
_

_
_

_
6
3. System conguration
Fig. 5 shows the system conguration of the proposed scheme
with practical realization of the compensator. DSTATCOM can be
implemented by a three-phase Voltage Source Converter (VSC)
which has been operated in hysteresis band control scheme. The
reference current generated by the control algorithm are tracked
by the controller. As the sum of output currents of converter is zero
for the standard conguration of a three-phase VSC, it is not desir-
able for unbalanced load condition.
The structure of the compensator contains a bank of three sin-
gle-phase VSC units. Each VSC unit is connected to the network
through an isolating transformer which provides isolation between
the converters. Further, it also prevents the dc storage capacitor
from being shorted through switches in different converters. It is
to be noted that the capacitor must be pre-charged to sufciently
high value in order to obtain satisfactory tracking performance.
However, increasing the capacitor voltage increases the losses in
the system. Therefore, the level of capacitor voltage must be cho-
sen judiciously. L
f
represents the inductance of each transformer
as well as an additional interfacing inductance. It has been used
to lter out high-frequency components of compensating currents.
It also controls the switching frequency of the inverter which is
limited by the speed of switching devices and the power level.
Following are the advantages of the compensator used in the
proposed scheme.
(i) As all three VSCs are supplied from a single capacitor, there
is a saving in cost.
(ii) Use of transformers isolates the load circuit from the control
circuit. Further, it also provides
(iii) Voltage adjustment through a non-unity turns ratio.
(iv) Moreover, the above conguration can be used for both bal-
anced as well unbalanced load conditions.
4. Performance evaluation
Simulation results of three control techniques are validated
using MATLAB/SIMPOWER software. In this section, simulation re-
sults of three-phase four-wire system supplying linear/non-linear
load under various source voltage conditions are presented. Linear
load is realized by star connected resistiveinductive load whereas
non-linear load is simulated by three-phase rectier with RLC load.
Fig. 5. System conguration with practical realization of compensator.
T. Zaveri et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 43 (2012) 582594 585
The data used for the simulation studies are given in Appendix.
Simulation study has been carried out with linear/non-linear load
under three different source voltage conditions.
Case A: Ideal mains voltage.
Case B: Unbalanced sinusoidal source voltage.
Case C: Unbalanced distorted source voltage.
Fig. 6. Simulation results of Case A with linear load: (a) (i) three-phase source voltages and frequency spectrum for source voltage of phase-a, three-phase source currents
after compensation and frequency spectrum for compensated source current of phase-a with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC, (ii) three-phase load currents, three-phase
compensator currents with control strategies with control strategies with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC, (iii) load neutral current, source neutral current and compensator
neutral current with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC. (b) (i) Instantaneous active power of load, instantaneous active power of source and compensator with control
strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC, (ii) instantaneous reactive power of load, instantaneous reactive power of source and compensator with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC, (iii)
instantaneous zero sequence power of load, instantaneous zero sequence power of source and compensator with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC.
586 T. Zaveri et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 43 (2012) 582594
For all the above three cases, following information have been
presented in the simulation results for all the three control tech-
niques (IRP, SC and IARCC) having linear/non-linear load.
(a) Three-phase source voltages, source currents including
source neutral current, frequency spectrum of phase-a
source current, load currents including its load neutral cur-
rent and compensator currents including its neutral current.
(b) Instantaneous active power of load, source and compensa-
tor, instantaneous reactive power of load, source and com-
pensator and instantaneous zero sequence power of load,
source and compensator.
The terms related to power concepts are based on new deni-
tions of power given by the IEEE working group on non-sinusoidal
situations with the modications suggested by Depenbrok [15,16]
as collected in IEEE Standard 1459 [17]. For a three-phase four-
Fig. 7. Simulation results of Case A with nonlinear load: (a) (i) load current of phase-a, load current of phase-b, load current of phase-c and load neutral current, (ii) three-
phase source currents after compensation and frequency spectrum for compensated source current of phase-a with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC, (iii) three-phase
compensator currents with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC, (iv) source neutral current and compensator neutral current with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC. (b) (i)
Instantaneous active power of load, instantaneous active power of source and compensator with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC, (ii) instantaneous reactive power of load,
instantaneous reactive power of source and compensator with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC, (iii) instantaneous zero sequence power of load, instantaneous zero sequence
power of source and compensator with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC.
T. Zaveri et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 43 (2012) 582594 587
wire system, the equivalent voltage, current and apparent powers
are given by following equations.
V
e

v
2
sa
v
2
sb
v
2
sc
3

; i
e

i
2
sa
i
2
sb
i
2
sc
i
2
sn
3

; S
e
3V
e
i
e
7
The total active power is obtained by adding the active power in
each phase as given by the following equation:
P

h
V
skh
i
skh
cos u
kh
8
Fig. 8. Simulation results of Case B with linear load: (a) (i) three-phase source voltages and frequency spectrum for source voltage of phase-a, three-phase source currents
after compensation and frequency spectrum for compensated source current of phase-a with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC, (ii) three-phase load currents, three-phase
compensator currents with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC, (iii) load neutral current, source neutral current and compensator neutral current with control strategies: IRP,
SC, IARCC. (b) (i) Instantaneous active power of load, instantaneous active power of source and compensator with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC, (ii) instantaneous reactive
power of load, instantaneous reactive power of source and compensator with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC, (iii) instantaneous zero sequence power of load, instantaneous
zero sequence power of source and compensator with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC.
588 T. Zaveri et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 43 (2012) 582594
where k indicates the phase (a, b or c), h is the order of the harmonic
and u
kh
is the angle between the hth harmonic source voltage and
the hth harmonic source current for phase k. The total power factor
is given by the following equation:
PF
P
S
e
9
4.1. Ideal mains voltage (Case A)
For ideal mains voltage condition, the performance of DSTAT-
COM with linear and non-linear load is shown in Figs. 6 and 7,
respectively. For this case, non-linear load with balanced load cur-
rents and linear load with unbalanced load currents have been
considered. It is to be noted from Fig. 6 that the balancing of source
Fig. 9. Simulation results of Case B with nonlinear load: (a) (i) load current of phase-a, load current of phase-b, load current of phase-c and load neutral current, (ii) three-
phase source currents after compensation and frequency spectrum for compensated source current of phase-a with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC, (iii) three-phase
compensator currents with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC, (iv) source neutral current and compensator neutral current with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC. (b) (i)
Instantaneous active power of load, instantaneous active power of source and compensator with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC, (ii) instantaneous reactive power of load,
instantaneous reactive power of source and compensator with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC, (iii) instantaneous zero sequence power of load, instantaneous zero sequence
power of source and compensator with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC.
T. Zaveri et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 43 (2012) 582594 589
currents is achieved which results in elimination of source neutral
current. Moreover, it has been observed from Fig. 7 that source cur-
rents become sinusoidal for highly distorted balanced load cur-
rents. In addition, it is to be noted from Figs. 6 and 7 that the
reactive power supplied by source is zero. Thus, the source sup-
plies only average power to the load. The performance of all the
three techniques is same for ideal mains voltage.
4.2. Unbalanced sinusoidal source voltage (Case B)
The magnitude of source voltage of phase-a is 20% smaller than
source voltage of phase-b and phase-c. Simulation results for this
case with linear and non-linear unbalanced load are shown in Figs.
8 and 9, respectively. Linear balanced and non-linear unbalanced
load have been considered. As both source voltages and load cur-
rents are unbalanced, zero sequence power is required by the
Fig. 10. Simulation results of Case C with linear load: (a) (i) three-phase source voltages and frequency spectrum for source voltage of phase-a, three-phase source currents
and frequency spectrum for source current of phase-a with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC, (ii) three-phase load currents, three-phase compensator currents with control
strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC, (iii) load neutral current, source neutral current and compensator neutral current with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC. (b) (i) Instantaneous active
power of load, instantaneous active power of source and compensator with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC, (ii) instantaneous reactive power of load, instantaneous reactive
power of source and compensator with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC, (iii) instantaneous zero sequence power of load, instantaneous zero sequence power of source and
compensator with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC.
590 T. Zaveri et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 43 (2012) 582594
non-linear load. It is to be noted from Fig. 8 that though all the
three methods provide reactive power as required by load through
compensator, only IARCC method is capable to provide sinusoidal
source currents. Moreover, for linear as well as non-linear load, it
has been observed from FFT spectrum of source current that the
third harmonic component is present in all the three techniques
whose magnitude is quite less with IRACC technique compared
to other two techniques. Similarly, it has been observed from
Fig. 11. Simulation results of Case C with nonlinear load: (a) (i) load current of phase-a, load current of phase-b, load current of phase-c and load neutral current, (ii) three-
phase source currents and frequency spectrum for source current of phase-a: IRP, SC, IARCC, (iii) three-phase compensator currents with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC, (iv)
source neutral current and compensator neutral current with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC. (b) (i) Instantaneous active power of load, instantaneous active power of
source and compensator with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC, (ii) instantaneous reactive power of load, instantaneous reactive power of source and compensator with
control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC, (iii) instantaneous zero sequence power of load, instantaneous zero sequence power of source and compensator with control strategies: IRP,
SC, IARCC.
T. Zaveri et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 43 (2012) 582594 591
Fig. 9 that only IARCC technique is capable to provide effective har-
monic mitigation as it gives sinusoidal source currents in case of
highly distorted load current condition. Distorted source neutral
current is completely eliminated due to balancing of source
currents by all the three methods. The magnitude of source current
is reduced compared to uncompensated condition. Moreover, it is
to be noted from Fig. 9 that reactive power and zero sequence
power required by load are supplied by compensator and there-
fore, source has to supply constant power to the load.
4.3. Unbalanced distorted source voltage (Case C)
For this case, source voltages are unbalanced and distorted. The
magnitude of fundamental component of source voltage of phase-a
is 20% smaller than the fundamental component of source voltages
of phase-b and phase-c. Moreover, seventh harmonic component
having amplitude of 1/14 of the fundamental component is present
in source voltage. Hence, source has to supply zero sequence
power to the load if compensator is not available. The performance
of DSTATCOM for linear and non-linear unbalanced load currents is
shown in Figs. 10 and 11, respectively. It has been observed from
Fig. 10 that the magnitude of compensated source current is re-
duced compared to uncompensated condition. Further, though
IRP and SC theories yield balanced source currents they are dis-
torted in nature. On the other hand, IARCC technique is capable
to provide balanced sinusoidal source currents. With non-linear
load, both source voltage and load current are distorted and hence,
the situation becomes more crucial. With IRP and SC method, third
and fth harmonics are present in source current while with IARCC
technique, only third harmonic is present in source current which
has quite a low magnitude compared to that of other two tech-
niques. It is to be noted from Fig. 11 that even though balancing
of source currents is achieved by all three control techniques, har-
monic mitigation has been achieved effectively by IARCC technique
only. Further, source neutral current is completely eliminated for
both types of load. Moreover, as the reactive power compensation
is satisfactorily achieved by all three techniques, source supplies
only average component of load power.
4.4. Results and discussion
Supply voltage data along with percentage THD for three differ-
ent cases, as discussed in the previous sub-sections, are shown in
Table 1. It is to be noted from Table 1 that the percentage THD
for Case C (unbalanced distorted source voltage) is above 5% for
all the three-phases which is higher than IEEE-519 standard har-
monic voltage limits [18].
Tables 2 and 3 show load currents of all phases, load neutral
current and source power factor without compensation for linear
and non-linear load for all three cases, respectively.
It has been observed from Tables 2 and 3 that the source current
and the source voltage of the respective phase are not in alignment
for linear as well as non-linear load conditions. Therefore, source
has to supply reactive power if compensator is not available. Fur-
ther, unbalanced source currents lead to ow of source neutral cur-
rent in case of linear/non-linear unbalanced load conditions.
Moreover, as the zero sequence components are present in source
voltage and load current during unbalanced condition, the com-
pensator has to supply zero sequence power as per requirement
of the load. In addition, source currents are highly distorted in case
of non-linear load and hence, the percentage THD is very high
(above IEEE-519 standard harmonic current limits).
Tables 4 and 5 show the simulation results obtained using three
different control techniques for three different cases, as discussed
in the previous sub-sections, during linear as well as non-linear
load conditions, respectively.
With reference to Tables 4 and 5, following observations are
made for compensated system with linear/non-linear load under
various source voltage conditions:
(i) For Case A, all control techniques provide almost same
results. Balanced and sinusoidal source currents, reactive
power compensation, harmonic mitigation, elimination of
source neutral current and reduction in rms value of source
currents are achieved by all three control techniques.
(ii) For Case B, balancing of source currents is provided by all
three methods. However, among all techniques, improved
IARCC technique outperforms and it is capable to provide
sinusoidal currents for both linear and non-linear load con-
ditions. Moreover, it is also capable to restrict THD of com-
pensated source current below IEEE-519 standard
harmonic current limits. Source VA is reduced due to reduc-
tion in rms value of compensated source current. Reactive
power and zero-sequence power supplied by the source
are zero. Thus, source supplies only average component of
power as required by load.
(iii) For Case C, source neutral current is eliminated due to bal-
ancing of source currents by all three methods. Further,
same as Case B, distortion free source currents are achieved
by IARCC method only. Reactive power required by load is
supplied completely by the compensator. Thus, it makes
Table 1
Supply voltages along with THD for three different cases.
Case # V
sa
V
sb
V
sc
rms (V) THD (%) rms (V) THD (%) rms (V) THD (%)
A 230 0 230 0 230 0
B 184 0 230 0 230 0
C 184.7 9 230.6 7.2 230.6 7.2
Table 2
Load currents, load neutral current and uncompensated source power factor for linear
load.
Case # i
la
i
lb
i
lc
i
ln
Source power factor
rms (A) rms (A) rms (A) rms (A)
A 2.16 4.28 2.95 1.73 0.77
B 4.28 4.28 4.28 0 0.65
C 1.73 4.28 2.95 2.11 0.80
Table 3
Load currents with THD, load neutral current and uncompensated source power factor for non-linear load.
Case # i
la
i
lb
i
lc
i
ln
rms (A) Source power factor
rms (A) THD (%) rms (A) THD (%) rms (A) THD (%)
A 9.56 125.57 9.59 126.06 9.21 121.02 0 0.73
B 7.64 125.63 17.89 105.96 13.04 114.2 23.49 0.71
C 6.69 106.6 16.25 89.4 11.39 91.2 20.91 0.87
592 T. Zaveri et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 43 (2012) 582594
Table 4
Simulation results obtained using three different techniques in case of linear load for three different cases.
Case # Control techniques Source current Compensator current i
stn
Source power factor
i
sa
i
sb
i
sc
i
sn
i
sta
i
stb
i
stc
rms (A) THD (%) rms (A) THD (%) rms (A) THD (%) rms (A) rms (A) rms (A) rms (A) rms (A)
A IRP 2.20 4.50 2.20 4.62 2.20 4.40 0.23 1.63 3.32 2.31 1.74 1.00
SC 2.14 4.42 2.08 4.55 2.14 4.62 0.22 1.63 3.30 2.36 1.75 1.00
IARCC 2.75 4.57 2.75 4.35 2.75 4.54 0.31 1.94 3.21 2.39 1.75 1.00
B B IRP 2.92 7.88 2.93 8.05 2.93 8.00 0.27 3.26 3.26 3.26 0.27 1.00
SC 2.67 8.01 3.01 7.75 3.01 8.06 0.69 3.26 3.08 3.44 0.69 1.00
IARCC 3.51 4.42 3.75 4.34 3.67 4.43 0.23 3.18 3.26 3.04 0.23 1.00
C IRP 2.08 12.45 2.09 11.18 2.09 11.38 0.28 1.51 3.33 2.29 2.12 1.00
SC 1.95 12.39 2.209 11.19 2.209 11.53 0.57 1.44 3.18 2.43 1.69 1.00
IARCC 2.61 5.19 2.78 4.88 2.71 5.01 0.23 1.76 3.10 2.13 2.123 1.00
Table 5
Simulation results obtained using three different techniques in case of non-linear load for three cases.
Case # Control algorithm Source current Compensator current Source power factor
i
sa
i
sb
i
sc
i
sn
i
sta
i
stb
i
stc
i
stn
rms (A) THD (%) rms (A) THD (%) rms (A) THD (%) rms (A) rms (A) rms (A) rms (A) rms (A)
A IRP 5.11 2.83 5.13 4.72 5.11 4.65 0 7.58 7.6 7.2 0 1.00
SC 5.66 3.98 5.65 4.80 5.68 4.29 0 7.51 7.63 7.12 0 1.00
IARCC 5.73 3.79 5.70 4.73 5.73 4.60 0 7.47 7.59 7.06 0 1.00
B IRP 8.81 9.33 8.79 9.6 8.56 9.34 0.74 6.98 13.66 10.34 23.5 1.00
SC 8.20 8.97 9.28 9.49 8.99 8.71 2.18 6.68 13.53 10.45 23.18 1.00
IARCC 9.05 4.44 9.58 4.24 9.40 4.24 0.61 7.20 13.53 10 23.5 0.99
C IRP 8.66 12.71 8.65 10.84 8.39 11.82 0.47 5.71 11.37 7.85 20.91 1.00
SC 8.05 12.33 9.13 10.81 8.82 11.89 2.09 5.364 11.28 7.907 20.59 1.00
IARCC 8.28 4.24 8.79 4.90 8.17 4.51 0.44 5.98 11.56 7.69 20.91 1.00
Table 6
Comparison of three control strategies.
Compensation
objectives
Various control algorithms
IRP SC Proposed (IARCC)
Computational
complexity
(i) It requires complex transformation i) It does not require complex transformation (i) Calculation of complex transformation are
more compared to IRP
(ii) It deals with the power components for
calculation of compensator currents
(ii) Compensator currents can be calculated
directly
(ii) It uses load current component for
computation of compensator currents
Reactive power
compensation
Excellent Excellent Excellent
Zero sequence
power
compensation
Excellent Good Excellent
Load balancing Good Good Good
Source neutral
current
elimination
Excellent Good Excellent
Reduction in
magnitude of
source current
Good Good Good
Harmonic
compensation
(i) Harmonic compensation as per IEEE-519
standard is achieved only under balanced
source voltage condition
(i) Harmonic compensation as per IEEE-519
standard is achieved only under balanced source
voltage condition
Excellent harmonic compensation as per IEEE-
519 standard is achieved under all source
voltage conditions with linear as well as non-
linear load (ii) It fails under non-ideal source voltage
condition such as unbalanced and distorted
source voltage with linear as well as non-
linear load
(ii) It fails under non- ideal source voltage
condition such as unbalanced and distorted source
voltage conditions with linear as well as non-
linear load
Versatility It can be used for load compensation under
balanced sinusoidal source voltage condition
only
It can be used for load compensation under
balanced sinusoidal condition only
It can be used for load compensation under ideal
as well as non-ideal source voltage conditions
T. Zaveri et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 43 (2012) 582594 593
source voltage in phase with source current. Magnitude of
source current is reduced for compensated condition com-
pared to uncompensated condition which reduces apparent
power supplied by source.
4.5. Analysis of simulation results
Comparative analysis of three control strategies is shown in
Table 6.
It can be observed from Table 6 that symmetrical component
theory is simple with reference to computational complexity as
it does not require Clark and Park transformation. Three control
strategies have given similar performance under ideal source
voltage conditions. However, during unbalanced sinusoidal and
unbalanced distorted source voltage condition, IRP and SC theo-
ries provides harmonically polluted source currents. Conversely,
balanced sinusoidal currents are achieved by IARCC theory for
both linear as well as non-linear load conditions. It is able to
achieve harmonic mitigation as per IEEE-519 standard with var-
ious types of loads under any source voltage condition and
hence, is versatile to utilize under any source voltage and load
condition.
5. Conclusion
A comparative evaluation of three different control techniques
for DSTATCOM installed in three-phase four-wire distribution sys-
tem has been presented in this paper. The performance of these
control techniques has been evaluated under various source volt-
age and load conditions. Reference currents generated by control
strategies are tracked by a three-phase voltage source converter
in a hysteresis band control scheme. Under ideal mains conditions,
these three control techniques give almost similar results. Under
unbalanced and non-sinusoidal source voltage conditions, all
methods give different results. It has been observed that IRP and
SC techniques are highly sensitive against distortion and unbalance
in the voltages at PCC. Both IRP and SC techniques give source cur-
rents of equal magnitude but distorted in nature whereas IARCC
method gives balanced sinusoidal source currents. Further, it is
capable to restrict THD of the source currents as per IEEE-519 stan-
dard. The simulation results indicate that if one seeks compliance
with harmonic standards, imbalance mitigation and reactive
power compensation, IARCC is the only method which is capable
of taking corrective action under any source voltage and load
conditions.
Appendix A
A.1. System parameters
Supply frequency: 50 Hz.
Compensator parameters: V
dc
= 800 V, C
dc
= 2000 lF, R = 0.5 X,
L
f
= 6 mH. The turn ratio of the transformer is assumed to be
1:1.
Linear load parameters
Case A and Case C: R
la
= 75 X, L
la
= 240 mH, R
lb
= 35 X,
L
lb
= 130 mH and R
lc
= 50 X, L
lc
= 190 mH. Case B: R
la
= 28 X,
L
la
= 104 mH, R
lb
= 35 X, L
lb
= 130 mH and R
lc
= 35 X,
L
lc
= 130 mH.
Non-linear load parameters
Case A: L = 1 mH, C = 1000 lF, R
la
= R
lb
= R
lc
= 75 X.
Case B and Case C: L = 1 mH, C = 1000 lF, R
la
= 75 X,
R
lb
= 35 X and R
lc
= 50 X.
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