Comparison of control strategies for DSTATCOM in three-phase, four-wire
distribution system for power quality improvement under various source
voltage and load conditions

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Comparison of control strategies for DSTATCOM in three-phase, four-wire
distribution system for power quality improvement under various source
voltage and load conditions

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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voltage and load conditions

Tejas Zaveri

a,

, Bhavesh Bhalja

b

, Naimish Zaveri

c

a

Faculty of Engineering & Technology, Veer Narmad South Gujarat University, Surat 395 007, Gujarat, India

b

Department of Electrical Engineering, AD Patel Institute of Technology, New Vallabh Vidyanagar 388 121, Gujarat, India

c

Electrical Engineering Department, CK Pithawalla College of Engineering & Technology, Surat 395 007, Gujarat, India

a r t i c l e i n f o

Article history:

Received 15 September 2011

Received in revised form 20 April 2012

Accepted 9 June 2012

Available online 7 July 2012

Keywords:

DSTATCOM

Control strategies

Reactive power compensation

Source neutral current elimination

Load balancing

Harmonic mitigation

a b s t r a c t

This paper presents comparison of three different control strategies to generate reference current com-

ponents for Distribution Static Compensator (DSTATCOM). Reference currents are tracked by a three-

phase voltage source converter in a hysteresis band control scheme. These methods are instantaneous

reactive power (IRP) theory, symmetrical component (SC) theory and an improved instantaneous active

and reactive current component (IARCC) theory. The performance of three methods has been evaluated

under various source voltage and load conditions with new IEEE Standard 1459 power denitions. A com-

parative study of their performance in terms of rms value of source current, Total Harmonic Distortion

(THD), supply power factor and compensator ratings is also presented. A three-phase, four-wire distribu-

tion system supplying linear as well as non-linear load is considered for simulation study which is carried

out using MATLAB/SIMULINK software. Under balanced and sinusoidal source voltage conditions, all

three control strategies similar performance while an improved IARCC theory outperforms, particularly,

under unbalanced and distorted source voltage conditions.

2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

In present day distribution systems, major power consumption

is due to reactive loads such as fans, pumps and induction motors.

These loads draw lagging power factor currents and therefore give

rise to reactive power burden in the distribution system. Power

electronics converters which are widely used in industrial, com-

mercial and domestic appliances suffer from the problem of draw-

ing of non-sinusoidal current and reactive power from the source.

This behavior causes voltage distortion that affects other loads

connected at the same point of common coupling (PCC). Moreover,

this situation becomes even worst when large amount of current

ows through the neutral wire due to unbalanced loads in a

three-phase, four-wire power distribution system. Therefore, reac-

tive power compensation of non-linear and/or poor power factor

loads is an extremely important issue in the modern power distri-

bution system. Excessive reactive power demand increases feeder

losses and reduces active power ow capability of the distribution

system whereas unbalancing affects the operation of transformers

and generators [1]. DSTATCOM has been used for compensation of

reactive power, load balancing and harmonic mitigation in the dis-

tribution system [2]. The performance of DSTATCOM depends on

the control algorithm used for extraction of reference current com-

ponents. To serve this purpose, many control algorithms have been

presented by various researchers. These algorithms are based on

instantaneous reactive power (IRP) theory, interpretations and

modications of IRP theory, synchronous reference frame (SRF)

theory, symmetrical component (SC) theory, current compensation

technique using dc bus voltage regulation, computation technique

based on per phase basis and schemes based on articial neural

network and Adeline based algorithm, etc. [313]. In order to mit-

igate harmonics, the instantaneous active and reactive current

component method is proposed for shunt active lter application

[14]. Although, number of power quality improvement schemes

using DSTATCOM in three-phase, four-wire system with sinusoidal

source voltage conditions have been proposed so far there exists a

lot of scope of improvement especially on three-phase, four-wire

power distribution system for unbalanced and distorted source

voltage conditions. This paper will attempt to describe that facet

of the problem.

In this paper, an improved instantaneous active and reactive

current component theory (IARCC) is proposed by the authors.

Subsequently, its performance has been compared with IRP theory

and SC theory. The performance of the said three control techniques

0142-0615/$ - see front matter 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijepes.2012.06.044

E-mail addresses: zaveritejas@yahoo.com (T. Zaveri), bhaveshbhalja@gmail.com

(B. Bhalja), zaverinaimish@yahoo.com (N. Zaveri).

Electrical Power and Energy Systems 43 (2012) 582594

Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect

Electrical Power and Energy Systems

j our nal homepage: www. el sevi er . com/ l ocat e/ i j epes

under various source voltage and load conditions for three-phase,

four-wire distribution system has been evaluated with reference

to the following objectives:

(i) Reactive power compensation.

(ii) Balancing of source currents.

(iii) Reduction in source VA for a given load conditions.

(iv) Elimination of source neutral current during unbalanced

load condition.

(v) Restricting THD of source currents within IEEE-519 standard

limit.

2. Control strategies

2.1. IRP and SC method

The basic block diagram of IRP theory and SC theory is shown in

Figs. 1 and 2, respectively. Detailed descriptions of IRP theory and

SC theory are found in [3] and [10], respectively.

2.2. Improved Instantaneous active and reactive current component

method

Fig. 3 shows the basic block diagram of the proposed method.

The transformation angle is obtained with the voltages of the ac

network. The major difference between the proposed method

and SRF method [9] is that the speed of the reference frame is no

longer constant due to voltage harmonics and imbalance. It varies

instantaneously depending on the waveform of the three-phase

voltages of the system.

In the proposed scheme, the compensating currents are ob-

tained from the instantaneous active and reactive current compo-

nents of the load. Load currents in stationary (ab) reference frame

are obtained by applying Clarkes transformation as given by the

following equation:

i

l0

i

la

i

lb

_

_

_

2

3

_

1

2

p

1=

2

p

1=

2

p

1 1=2 1=2

0

3

p

=2

3

p

=2

_

_

_

_

i

la

i

lb

i

lc

_

_

_

_ 1

Nomenclature

V

sa/b/c

source voltage of phase-a, phase-b and phase-c, respec-

tively

i

sa/b/c

source current of phase-a, phase-b and phase-c, respec-

tively

i

la/b/c

load current of phase-a, phase-b and phase-c, respec-

tively

i

sta/b/c

compensator current of phase-a, phase-b and phase-c,

respectively

i

sn

source neutral current

i

ln

load neutral current

i

stn

compensator neutral current

P

0load

instantaneous zero sequence power of load

P

0S

instantaneous zero sequence power of source

P

0st

instantaneous zero sequence power of compensator

P

load

instantaneous active power of load

P

S

instantaneous active power of source

P

st

instantaneous active power of compensator

q

load

instantaneous reactive power of load

q

s

instantaneous reactive power of source

q

st

instantaneous reactive power of compensator

$ over the letter: variable part

over the letter: average value

Subscript

0 zero sequence components in 0ab and odq coordinate

systems

d d component in odq coordinates system

q q component in odq coordinates system

a a component in 0ab coordinates system

aF a component in 0ab coordinates system after ltration

b b component in 0ab coordinates system

bF b component in 0ab coordinates system after ltration

1h fundamental component

nh nth harmonic component

Superscript

+ positive sequence component

negative sequence component

reference component

Fig. 1. Basic block diagram of the instantaneous reactive power theory. Fig. 2. Basic block diagram of the symmetrical component theory.

T. Zaveri et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 43 (2012) 582594 583

Source voltages in stationary (ab) reference frame are obtained by

applying Clarkes transformation and given by the following

equation:

V

so

V

sa

V

sb

_

_

_

2

3

_

1

2

p

1=

2

p

1=

2

p

1 1=2 1=2

0

3

p

=2

3

p

=2

_

_

_

_

V

sa

V

sb

V

sc

_

_

_

_ 2

In order to calculate the transformation angle, source voltages in

stationary (ab) reference frame, as given by Eq. (2), are ltered by

low pass lters. The use of the low pass lter makes the strategy

more insensitive to harmonics on the mains.

The magnitude response of Butterworth low-pass lter is given

by,

jHjxj

A

1 X=X

C

2N

0:5

where A is the lter gain and X

C

is the 3 dB cut-off frequency and N

is the order of the lter.

The transfer function of the Butterworth lter is usually written

in the factored form as given below.

HS

N=2

k1

B

k

X

2

C

s

2

b

k

X

C

s c

k

X

2

C

N 2; 4; 6. . .

or

HS

B

0

X

C

s c

0

X

C

N1=2

k1

B

k

X

2

C

s

2

b

k

X

C

s c

k

X

2

C

N 3; 5; 7. . .

The coefcients b

k

and c

k

are given by,

b

k

2sin2k 1p=2N and c

k

1

The parameter B

k

can be obtained from the following equations.

A

N=2

k1

B

k

; for even N

and

A

N1=2

k1

B

k

; for odd N

Load currents in rotating (dq) reference frame are obtained by

applying Parks transformation as shown in the following equation:

i

l0

i

ld

i

lq

_

_

_

_

1 0 0

0 cos h sinh

0 sinh cos h

_

_

_

_

i

l0

i

la

i

lb

_

_

_

_; h tan

1

V

sbF

V

saF

_ _

3

Fig. 4 depicts the voltage and current space vectors in the stationary

(ab) and rotating reference frames (dq).Under balanced and sinusoi-

dal mains voltage conditions, the transformation angle h is a uni-

formly increasing function of time. This transformation angle is

sensitive to voltage harmonics and unbalance, therefore dh=dt

may not be constant over a mains period.

Now, due to transformation, the direct and the quadrature com-

ponents of voltage are given by,

V

d

jV

dq

j jV

ab

j

V

2

saF

V

2

sbF

_

and V

q

0

If d-axis is in the direction of the voltage space vector then the

transformation is given by Eq. (4) which is achieved by substituting

cos h

V

saF

V

2

saF

V

2

sbF

_ andsinh

V

sbF

V

2

saF

V

2

sbF

_ into Eq. (3).

i

ld

i

lq

_ _

1

V

2

saF

V

2

sbF

_

V

saF

V

sbF

V

sbF

V

saF

_ _

i

la

i

lb

_ _

4

Fig. 3. Basic block diagram of proposed scheme.

Fig. 4. Voltage and current space vectors in the stationary and synchronous

reference frames.

584 T. Zaveri et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 43 (2012) 582594

Instantaneous active and reactive load currents, i

ld

and i

lq

, can be

decomposed into oscillatory and average terms as under.

i

ld

i

ld

~

i

ld

and i

lq

i

lq

~

i

lq

The positive sequence component of rst harmonic current is trans-

formed into dc quantities i

ldqlh

which constitutes the average

current components. All higher order current harmonics including

the negative sequence component of rst harmonic current

i

ldqnh

i

ldqlh

are transformed into non-dc quantities and undergo

a frequency shift in the spectra. Hence, they constitute the oscilla-

tory current components. The fundamental currents of dq compo-

nents are now dc values and harmonics are going to appear like a

ripple. Harmonic isolation of dq transformed signal is achieved

by removing the dc offset. After eliminating the average current

components by lters, the reference compensator currents are ob-

tained as under.

i

std

~

i

ld

and i

stq

~

i

lq

Therefore, the reference currents of voltage source converter in the

ab coordinates are obtained by applying inverse Park transforma-

tion and given by the following equation:

i

sta

i

stb

_ _

1

V

2

saF

V

2

sbF

_

V

saF

V

sbF

V

sbF

V

saF

_ _

i

std

i

stq

_ _

5

Applying inverse Clarkes transformation, the reference currents of

voltage source converter in abc frame are given by the following

equation:

i

sta

i

stb

i

stc

_

_

_

2

3

_

1

2

p

1

2

p

1

2

p

1

1

2

1

2

0

3

p

2

3

p

2

_

_

_

_

T

i

l0

i

sta

i

stb

_

_

_

_

6

3. System conguration

Fig. 5 shows the system conguration of the proposed scheme

with practical realization of the compensator. DSTATCOM can be

implemented by a three-phase Voltage Source Converter (VSC)

which has been operated in hysteresis band control scheme. The

reference current generated by the control algorithm are tracked

by the controller. As the sum of output currents of converter is zero

for the standard conguration of a three-phase VSC, it is not desir-

able for unbalanced load condition.

The structure of the compensator contains a bank of three sin-

gle-phase VSC units. Each VSC unit is connected to the network

through an isolating transformer which provides isolation between

the converters. Further, it also prevents the dc storage capacitor

from being shorted through switches in different converters. It is

to be noted that the capacitor must be pre-charged to sufciently

high value in order to obtain satisfactory tracking performance.

However, increasing the capacitor voltage increases the losses in

the system. Therefore, the level of capacitor voltage must be cho-

sen judiciously. L

f

represents the inductance of each transformer

as well as an additional interfacing inductance. It has been used

to lter out high-frequency components of compensating currents.

It also controls the switching frequency of the inverter which is

limited by the speed of switching devices and the power level.

Following are the advantages of the compensator used in the

proposed scheme.

(i) As all three VSCs are supplied from a single capacitor, there

is a saving in cost.

(ii) Use of transformers isolates the load circuit from the control

circuit. Further, it also provides

(iii) Voltage adjustment through a non-unity turns ratio.

(iv) Moreover, the above conguration can be used for both bal-

anced as well unbalanced load conditions.

4. Performance evaluation

Simulation results of three control techniques are validated

using MATLAB/SIMPOWER software. In this section, simulation re-

sults of three-phase four-wire system supplying linear/non-linear

load under various source voltage conditions are presented. Linear

load is realized by star connected resistiveinductive load whereas

non-linear load is simulated by three-phase rectier with RLC load.

Fig. 5. System conguration with practical realization of compensator.

T. Zaveri et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 43 (2012) 582594 585

The data used for the simulation studies are given in Appendix.

Simulation study has been carried out with linear/non-linear load

under three different source voltage conditions.

Case A: Ideal mains voltage.

Case B: Unbalanced sinusoidal source voltage.

Case C: Unbalanced distorted source voltage.

Fig. 6. Simulation results of Case A with linear load: (a) (i) three-phase source voltages and frequency spectrum for source voltage of phase-a, three-phase source currents

after compensation and frequency spectrum for compensated source current of phase-a with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC, (ii) three-phase load currents, three-phase

compensator currents with control strategies with control strategies with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC, (iii) load neutral current, source neutral current and compensator

neutral current with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC. (b) (i) Instantaneous active power of load, instantaneous active power of source and compensator with control

strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC, (ii) instantaneous reactive power of load, instantaneous reactive power of source and compensator with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC, (iii)

instantaneous zero sequence power of load, instantaneous zero sequence power of source and compensator with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC.

586 T. Zaveri et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 43 (2012) 582594

For all the above three cases, following information have been

presented in the simulation results for all the three control tech-

niques (IRP, SC and IARCC) having linear/non-linear load.

(a) Three-phase source voltages, source currents including

source neutral current, frequency spectrum of phase-a

source current, load currents including its load neutral cur-

rent and compensator currents including its neutral current.

(b) Instantaneous active power of load, source and compensa-

tor, instantaneous reactive power of load, source and com-

pensator and instantaneous zero sequence power of load,

source and compensator.

The terms related to power concepts are based on new deni-

tions of power given by the IEEE working group on non-sinusoidal

situations with the modications suggested by Depenbrok [15,16]

as collected in IEEE Standard 1459 [17]. For a three-phase four-

Fig. 7. Simulation results of Case A with nonlinear load: (a) (i) load current of phase-a, load current of phase-b, load current of phase-c and load neutral current, (ii) three-

phase source currents after compensation and frequency spectrum for compensated source current of phase-a with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC, (iii) three-phase

compensator currents with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC, (iv) source neutral current and compensator neutral current with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC. (b) (i)

Instantaneous active power of load, instantaneous active power of source and compensator with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC, (ii) instantaneous reactive power of load,

instantaneous reactive power of source and compensator with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC, (iii) instantaneous zero sequence power of load, instantaneous zero sequence

power of source and compensator with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC.

T. Zaveri et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 43 (2012) 582594 587

wire system, the equivalent voltage, current and apparent powers

are given by following equations.

V

e

v

2

sa

v

2

sb

v

2

sc

3

; i

e

i

2

sa

i

2

sb

i

2

sc

i

2

sn

3

; S

e

3V

e

i

e

7

The total active power is obtained by adding the active power in

each phase as given by the following equation:

P

h

V

skh

i

skh

cos u

kh

8

Fig. 8. Simulation results of Case B with linear load: (a) (i) three-phase source voltages and frequency spectrum for source voltage of phase-a, three-phase source currents

after compensation and frequency spectrum for compensated source current of phase-a with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC, (ii) three-phase load currents, three-phase

compensator currents with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC, (iii) load neutral current, source neutral current and compensator neutral current with control strategies: IRP,

SC, IARCC. (b) (i) Instantaneous active power of load, instantaneous active power of source and compensator with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC, (ii) instantaneous reactive

power of load, instantaneous reactive power of source and compensator with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC, (iii) instantaneous zero sequence power of load, instantaneous

zero sequence power of source and compensator with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC.

588 T. Zaveri et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 43 (2012) 582594

where k indicates the phase (a, b or c), h is the order of the harmonic

and u

kh

is the angle between the hth harmonic source voltage and

the hth harmonic source current for phase k. The total power factor

is given by the following equation:

PF

P

S

e

9

4.1. Ideal mains voltage (Case A)

For ideal mains voltage condition, the performance of DSTAT-

COM with linear and non-linear load is shown in Figs. 6 and 7,

respectively. For this case, non-linear load with balanced load cur-

rents and linear load with unbalanced load currents have been

considered. It is to be noted from Fig. 6 that the balancing of source

Fig. 9. Simulation results of Case B with nonlinear load: (a) (i) load current of phase-a, load current of phase-b, load current of phase-c and load neutral current, (ii) three-

phase source currents after compensation and frequency spectrum for compensated source current of phase-a with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC, (iii) three-phase

compensator currents with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC, (iv) source neutral current and compensator neutral current with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC. (b) (i)

Instantaneous active power of load, instantaneous active power of source and compensator with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC, (ii) instantaneous reactive power of load,

instantaneous reactive power of source and compensator with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC, (iii) instantaneous zero sequence power of load, instantaneous zero sequence

power of source and compensator with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC.

T. Zaveri et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 43 (2012) 582594 589

currents is achieved which results in elimination of source neutral

current. Moreover, it has been observed from Fig. 7 that source cur-

rents become sinusoidal for highly distorted balanced load cur-

rents. In addition, it is to be noted from Figs. 6 and 7 that the

reactive power supplied by source is zero. Thus, the source sup-

plies only average power to the load. The performance of all the

three techniques is same for ideal mains voltage.

4.2. Unbalanced sinusoidal source voltage (Case B)

The magnitude of source voltage of phase-a is 20% smaller than

source voltage of phase-b and phase-c. Simulation results for this

case with linear and non-linear unbalanced load are shown in Figs.

8 and 9, respectively. Linear balanced and non-linear unbalanced

load have been considered. As both source voltages and load cur-

rents are unbalanced, zero sequence power is required by the

Fig. 10. Simulation results of Case C with linear load: (a) (i) three-phase source voltages and frequency spectrum for source voltage of phase-a, three-phase source currents

and frequency spectrum for source current of phase-a with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC, (ii) three-phase load currents, three-phase compensator currents with control

strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC, (iii) load neutral current, source neutral current and compensator neutral current with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC. (b) (i) Instantaneous active

power of load, instantaneous active power of source and compensator with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC, (ii) instantaneous reactive power of load, instantaneous reactive

power of source and compensator with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC, (iii) instantaneous zero sequence power of load, instantaneous zero sequence power of source and

compensator with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC.

590 T. Zaveri et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 43 (2012) 582594

non-linear load. It is to be noted from Fig. 8 that though all the

three methods provide reactive power as required by load through

compensator, only IARCC method is capable to provide sinusoidal

source currents. Moreover, for linear as well as non-linear load, it

has been observed from FFT spectrum of source current that the

third harmonic component is present in all the three techniques

whose magnitude is quite less with IRACC technique compared

to other two techniques. Similarly, it has been observed from

Fig. 11. Simulation results of Case C with nonlinear load: (a) (i) load current of phase-a, load current of phase-b, load current of phase-c and load neutral current, (ii) three-

phase source currents and frequency spectrum for source current of phase-a: IRP, SC, IARCC, (iii) three-phase compensator currents with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC, (iv)

source neutral current and compensator neutral current with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC. (b) (i) Instantaneous active power of load, instantaneous active power of

source and compensator with control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC, (ii) instantaneous reactive power of load, instantaneous reactive power of source and compensator with

control strategies: IRP, SC, IARCC, (iii) instantaneous zero sequence power of load, instantaneous zero sequence power of source and compensator with control strategies: IRP,

SC, IARCC.

T. Zaveri et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 43 (2012) 582594 591

Fig. 9 that only IARCC technique is capable to provide effective har-

monic mitigation as it gives sinusoidal source currents in case of

highly distorted load current condition. Distorted source neutral

current is completely eliminated due to balancing of source

currents by all the three methods. The magnitude of source current

is reduced compared to uncompensated condition. Moreover, it is

to be noted from Fig. 9 that reactive power and zero sequence

power required by load are supplied by compensator and there-

fore, source has to supply constant power to the load.

4.3. Unbalanced distorted source voltage (Case C)

For this case, source voltages are unbalanced and distorted. The

magnitude of fundamental component of source voltage of phase-a

is 20% smaller than the fundamental component of source voltages

of phase-b and phase-c. Moreover, seventh harmonic component

having amplitude of 1/14 of the fundamental component is present

in source voltage. Hence, source has to supply zero sequence

power to the load if compensator is not available. The performance

of DSTATCOM for linear and non-linear unbalanced load currents is

shown in Figs. 10 and 11, respectively. It has been observed from

Fig. 10 that the magnitude of compensated source current is re-

duced compared to uncompensated condition. Further, though

IRP and SC theories yield balanced source currents they are dis-

torted in nature. On the other hand, IARCC technique is capable

to provide balanced sinusoidal source currents. With non-linear

load, both source voltage and load current are distorted and hence,

the situation becomes more crucial. With IRP and SC method, third

and fth harmonics are present in source current while with IARCC

technique, only third harmonic is present in source current which

has quite a low magnitude compared to that of other two tech-

niques. It is to be noted from Fig. 11 that even though balancing

of source currents is achieved by all three control techniques, har-

monic mitigation has been achieved effectively by IARCC technique

only. Further, source neutral current is completely eliminated for

both types of load. Moreover, as the reactive power compensation

is satisfactorily achieved by all three techniques, source supplies

only average component of load power.

4.4. Results and discussion

Supply voltage data along with percentage THD for three differ-

ent cases, as discussed in the previous sub-sections, are shown in

Table 1. It is to be noted from Table 1 that the percentage THD

for Case C (unbalanced distorted source voltage) is above 5% for

all the three-phases which is higher than IEEE-519 standard har-

monic voltage limits [18].

Tables 2 and 3 show load currents of all phases, load neutral

current and source power factor without compensation for linear

and non-linear load for all three cases, respectively.

It has been observed from Tables 2 and 3 that the source current

and the source voltage of the respective phase are not in alignment

for linear as well as non-linear load conditions. Therefore, source

has to supply reactive power if compensator is not available. Fur-

ther, unbalanced source currents lead to ow of source neutral cur-

rent in case of linear/non-linear unbalanced load conditions.

Moreover, as the zero sequence components are present in source

voltage and load current during unbalanced condition, the com-

pensator has to supply zero sequence power as per requirement

of the load. In addition, source currents are highly distorted in case

of non-linear load and hence, the percentage THD is very high

(above IEEE-519 standard harmonic current limits).

Tables 4 and 5 show the simulation results obtained using three

different control techniques for three different cases, as discussed

in the previous sub-sections, during linear as well as non-linear

load conditions, respectively.

With reference to Tables 4 and 5, following observations are

made for compensated system with linear/non-linear load under

various source voltage conditions:

(i) For Case A, all control techniques provide almost same

results. Balanced and sinusoidal source currents, reactive

power compensation, harmonic mitigation, elimination of

source neutral current and reduction in rms value of source

currents are achieved by all three control techniques.

(ii) For Case B, balancing of source currents is provided by all

three methods. However, among all techniques, improved

IARCC technique outperforms and it is capable to provide

sinusoidal currents for both linear and non-linear load con-

ditions. Moreover, it is also capable to restrict THD of com-

pensated source current below IEEE-519 standard

harmonic current limits. Source VA is reduced due to reduc-

tion in rms value of compensated source current. Reactive

power and zero-sequence power supplied by the source

are zero. Thus, source supplies only average component of

power as required by load.

(iii) For Case C, source neutral current is eliminated due to bal-

ancing of source currents by all three methods. Further,

same as Case B, distortion free source currents are achieved

by IARCC method only. Reactive power required by load is

supplied completely by the compensator. Thus, it makes

Table 1

Supply voltages along with THD for three different cases.

Case # V

sa

V

sb

V

sc

rms (V) THD (%) rms (V) THD (%) rms (V) THD (%)

A 230 0 230 0 230 0

B 184 0 230 0 230 0

C 184.7 9 230.6 7.2 230.6 7.2

Table 2

Load currents, load neutral current and uncompensated source power factor for linear

load.

Case # i

la

i

lb

i

lc

i

ln

Source power factor

rms (A) rms (A) rms (A) rms (A)

A 2.16 4.28 2.95 1.73 0.77

B 4.28 4.28 4.28 0 0.65

C 1.73 4.28 2.95 2.11 0.80

Table 3

Load currents with THD, load neutral current and uncompensated source power factor for non-linear load.

Case # i

la

i

lb

i

lc

i

ln

rms (A) Source power factor

rms (A) THD (%) rms (A) THD (%) rms (A) THD (%)

A 9.56 125.57 9.59 126.06 9.21 121.02 0 0.73

B 7.64 125.63 17.89 105.96 13.04 114.2 23.49 0.71

C 6.69 106.6 16.25 89.4 11.39 91.2 20.91 0.87

592 T. Zaveri et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 43 (2012) 582594

Table 4

Simulation results obtained using three different techniques in case of linear load for three different cases.

Case # Control techniques Source current Compensator current i

stn

Source power factor

i

sa

i

sb

i

sc

i

sn

i

sta

i

stb

i

stc

rms (A) THD (%) rms (A) THD (%) rms (A) THD (%) rms (A) rms (A) rms (A) rms (A) rms (A)

A IRP 2.20 4.50 2.20 4.62 2.20 4.40 0.23 1.63 3.32 2.31 1.74 1.00

SC 2.14 4.42 2.08 4.55 2.14 4.62 0.22 1.63 3.30 2.36 1.75 1.00

IARCC 2.75 4.57 2.75 4.35 2.75 4.54 0.31 1.94 3.21 2.39 1.75 1.00

B B IRP 2.92 7.88 2.93 8.05 2.93 8.00 0.27 3.26 3.26 3.26 0.27 1.00

SC 2.67 8.01 3.01 7.75 3.01 8.06 0.69 3.26 3.08 3.44 0.69 1.00

IARCC 3.51 4.42 3.75 4.34 3.67 4.43 0.23 3.18 3.26 3.04 0.23 1.00

C IRP 2.08 12.45 2.09 11.18 2.09 11.38 0.28 1.51 3.33 2.29 2.12 1.00

SC 1.95 12.39 2.209 11.19 2.209 11.53 0.57 1.44 3.18 2.43 1.69 1.00

IARCC 2.61 5.19 2.78 4.88 2.71 5.01 0.23 1.76 3.10 2.13 2.123 1.00

Table 5

Simulation results obtained using three different techniques in case of non-linear load for three cases.

Case # Control algorithm Source current Compensator current Source power factor

i

sa

i

sb

i

sc

i

sn

i

sta

i

stb

i

stc

i

stn

rms (A) THD (%) rms (A) THD (%) rms (A) THD (%) rms (A) rms (A) rms (A) rms (A) rms (A)

A IRP 5.11 2.83 5.13 4.72 5.11 4.65 0 7.58 7.6 7.2 0 1.00

SC 5.66 3.98 5.65 4.80 5.68 4.29 0 7.51 7.63 7.12 0 1.00

IARCC 5.73 3.79 5.70 4.73 5.73 4.60 0 7.47 7.59 7.06 0 1.00

B IRP 8.81 9.33 8.79 9.6 8.56 9.34 0.74 6.98 13.66 10.34 23.5 1.00

SC 8.20 8.97 9.28 9.49 8.99 8.71 2.18 6.68 13.53 10.45 23.18 1.00

IARCC 9.05 4.44 9.58 4.24 9.40 4.24 0.61 7.20 13.53 10 23.5 0.99

C IRP 8.66 12.71 8.65 10.84 8.39 11.82 0.47 5.71 11.37 7.85 20.91 1.00

SC 8.05 12.33 9.13 10.81 8.82 11.89 2.09 5.364 11.28 7.907 20.59 1.00

IARCC 8.28 4.24 8.79 4.90 8.17 4.51 0.44 5.98 11.56 7.69 20.91 1.00

Table 6

Comparison of three control strategies.

Compensation

objectives

Various control algorithms

IRP SC Proposed (IARCC)

Computational

complexity

(i) It requires complex transformation i) It does not require complex transformation (i) Calculation of complex transformation are

more compared to IRP

(ii) It deals with the power components for

calculation of compensator currents

(ii) Compensator currents can be calculated

directly

(ii) It uses load current component for

computation of compensator currents

Reactive power

compensation

Excellent Excellent Excellent

Zero sequence

power

compensation

Excellent Good Excellent

Load balancing Good Good Good

Source neutral

current

elimination

Excellent Good Excellent

Reduction in

magnitude of

source current

Good Good Good

Harmonic

compensation

(i) Harmonic compensation as per IEEE-519

standard is achieved only under balanced

source voltage condition

(i) Harmonic compensation as per IEEE-519

standard is achieved only under balanced source

voltage condition

Excellent harmonic compensation as per IEEE-

519 standard is achieved under all source

voltage conditions with linear as well as non-

linear load (ii) It fails under non-ideal source voltage

condition such as unbalanced and distorted

source voltage with linear as well as non-

linear load

(ii) It fails under non- ideal source voltage

condition such as unbalanced and distorted source

voltage conditions with linear as well as non-

linear load

Versatility It can be used for load compensation under

balanced sinusoidal source voltage condition

only

It can be used for load compensation under

balanced sinusoidal condition only

It can be used for load compensation under ideal

as well as non-ideal source voltage conditions

T. Zaveri et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 43 (2012) 582594 593

source voltage in phase with source current. Magnitude of

source current is reduced for compensated condition com-

pared to uncompensated condition which reduces apparent

power supplied by source.

4.5. Analysis of simulation results

Comparative analysis of three control strategies is shown in

Table 6.

It can be observed from Table 6 that symmetrical component

theory is simple with reference to computational complexity as

it does not require Clark and Park transformation. Three control

strategies have given similar performance under ideal source

voltage conditions. However, during unbalanced sinusoidal and

unbalanced distorted source voltage condition, IRP and SC theo-

ries provides harmonically polluted source currents. Conversely,

balanced sinusoidal currents are achieved by IARCC theory for

both linear as well as non-linear load conditions. It is able to

achieve harmonic mitigation as per IEEE-519 standard with var-

ious types of loads under any source voltage condition and

hence, is versatile to utilize under any source voltage and load

condition.

5. Conclusion

A comparative evaluation of three different control techniques

for DSTATCOM installed in three-phase four-wire distribution sys-

tem has been presented in this paper. The performance of these

control techniques has been evaluated under various source volt-

age and load conditions. Reference currents generated by control

strategies are tracked by a three-phase voltage source converter

in a hysteresis band control scheme. Under ideal mains conditions,

these three control techniques give almost similar results. Under

unbalanced and non-sinusoidal source voltage conditions, all

methods give different results. It has been observed that IRP and

SC techniques are highly sensitive against distortion and unbalance

in the voltages at PCC. Both IRP and SC techniques give source cur-

rents of equal magnitude but distorted in nature whereas IARCC

method gives balanced sinusoidal source currents. Further, it is

capable to restrict THD of the source currents as per IEEE-519 stan-

dard. The simulation results indicate that if one seeks compliance

with harmonic standards, imbalance mitigation and reactive

power compensation, IARCC is the only method which is capable

of taking corrective action under any source voltage and load

conditions.

Appendix A

A.1. System parameters

Supply frequency: 50 Hz.

Compensator parameters: V

dc

= 800 V, C

dc

= 2000 lF, R = 0.5 X,

L

f

= 6 mH. The turn ratio of the transformer is assumed to be

1:1.

Linear load parameters

Case A and Case C: R

la

= 75 X, L

la

= 240 mH, R

lb

= 35 X,

L

lb

= 130 mH and R

lc

= 50 X, L

lc

= 190 mH. Case B: R

la

= 28 X,

L

la

= 104 mH, R

lb

= 35 X, L

lb

= 130 mH and R

lc

= 35 X,

L

lc

= 130 mH.

Non-linear load parameters

Case A: L = 1 mH, C = 1000 lF, R

la

= R

lb

= R

lc

= 75 X.

Case B and Case C: L = 1 mH, C = 1000 lF, R

la

= 75 X,

R

lb

= 35 X and R

lc

= 50 X.

References

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environment. London: Springer-Verlag London Limited; 2007.

[2] Chen B, Hsu YA. A minimal harmonic controller for a STATCOM. IEEE Trans Ind

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[3] Akagi H, Kanazawa Y, Nabae A. Instantaneous reactive power compensators

comprising switching devices without energy storage components. IEEE Trans

Ind Appl 1984;IA-20(3):62530.

[4] Akagi H, Nabae A, Atoh S. Control strategy of active power lters using multiple

voltage-source PWM converters. IEEE Trans Ind Appl 1986;IA-22(3):4605.

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components in three-phase systems under non-sinusoidal conditions. IEEE

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[6] Willems J. A new interpretation of the AkagiNabae power components for

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594 T. Zaveri et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 43 (2012) 582594

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