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, Statistics, calculus, shape and space, probability, trigonometry, vector scale and geometry coordinate. Based on the various topics stated, I am going to conduct research on the topic shape and space. The aspect that I am going to do research is on calculating area of surface of three dimensional shapes. 2) Problem in understanding the concept I am going to conduct research on this aspect because I know that students who are studying in Year 6 in primary school are finding difficulties to calculate volume of three dimensional shapes. Besides that, they did not also understand the concept of three dimensional shapes and the formula to use in calculation. 3) How to understand the concept Firstly, we must master the concept of three dimensional shapes. This is because, calculation the area of surface only can be done after we had mastered the concept of three dimensional shapes. After that, we must know the formula of the area for each three dimensional shapes and the way to use the formula. For example, to calculate area of rectangles and square, we must use length multiply by breadth. For circle, the formula of area is 2πr where r is the radius of the circle. We also know that the three dimensional shape is the combination of two dimensional shapes. So, in a three dimensional shape have more than two pieces of two dimensional shape. It’s mean that we must calculate one by one and after that we add up all the area of the two dimensional shapes and it will become the area of a three dimensional shape. 4) How to teach three dimensional shapes effectively

Based on this research, I have found the best solution to make learning process easier for the students. The first way is using the teaching aid such as geometrical block. In fact, learning process will be easy for primary school students if they are using concrete method. This fact is taken from the Jean Piaget cognitive theory. When the student can see and touch the concrete method such as geometry block, they can see the combination of the two dimensional shapes in a single three dimensional shape. So they can use their previous knowledge to calculate the area of the three dimensional shape. For example, if the students have a cube block, they will see how the cube exists. They know a cube exists from combination of six square. Automatically, they know how to calculate the area of the cube. If the teacher does not use the block, students are finding difficulties to imagine how the cube look like and it will make the calculation of the area become so hard. Besides that, teachers also can use thing around in our daily life such as paper box, water container, birthday hat and ice cream cone as a teaching method in class. For example, students can measure the length and breadth of the paper box themselves and make the calculation to get the area of paper box. Automatically, students can relate and apply mathematic knowledge in their daily life. The other way to solve problems in calculating area of three dimensional shapes is using computer software. The software can help student to build their imagination of three dimensional shapes. For example, teachers can use mathematic wheel in teaching their student. Mathematic wheel have same concept with potter’s wheel. The software will spin the 2 dimensional shape to become a three dimensional shape. For example, if spin a rectangle in 360°, it will become a cylinder. The software can separate the cylinder into two different shapes which are two pieces of circle and a

piece of rectangle. So, the students can calculate the area of surface for the cylinder easily. On the other hand, teacher also must attract the student’s attention by demonstrate the practical applications of three dimensional shape and make the three dimensional shapes relevant to daily life. Students usually attracted to something that they can use and meaningful for them. For example, teachers can ask the students to measure the area of their pencil case, toys and many more.

5)

Conclusion As a conclusion, three dimensional shapes is not a very difficult subject for

students but I need a new style in teaching and make the lesson interesting and meaningful. Teachers should study varieties of teaching style to make sure students can master this topic because this topic is very important in future study.

IPGM KAMPUS PULAU PINANG

**ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY
**

‘SHAPE AND SPACE’

-THREE DIMENSIONAL SHAPE-

NAME: NOR MUHAMAD ASHRAF BIN MUSA CLASS: 1MTED3 I/C NUMBER: 890716-09-5031 TEL NUMBER: 017-2372346 LECTURER’S NAME: MR. GANESAN A/L KUPPUSAMY

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