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Chapter 1: Intro

Graphs for Categorical: Pie / Bar Graphs for Quantitative(Discrete / Continuous) : Dot Plot / Stem & Leaf / Histogram / Timeplot Describe: Centre/Mode, Spread, Shape, Outlier Perfect bell-shaped: Mean = Median = Mode Skewed Data: Mode > Median > Mean

Chapter 5: Probability
Probability is the relative frequency with which the event occurs - SR VS LR, Cumulative Freq fluctuates in Short Run - P( ) = 1 P(A) - P(A OR B) = P(A) + P(B) P(A B), where P(A B) = 0 if disjoint - P(A B) = P(A) x P(B|A) = P(B) x P(A|B) - If independent, P(A B) = P(A) x P(B)

Chapter 8: Statistical Inference(One Population)

Point Estimate: Single value of best guess Interval Estimate: Interval of numbers which parameter believed to fall in Interval = point estimate margin of error Sample size , SE despite high CI CI for Proportions: p= =

Chapter 2: Representation of Data

Midrange = Range = Highest value Lowest value Mid-quartile =

VS =

CI for Means (with VS w/o )

Chapter 6: Probability Distribution (Experiment)

Discrete = E(X) = Binomial = np = - Each trial has only 2 outcomes - Each trial has same probability, p - Trials are independent of each other - No. of successes, X is an integer from [0, n] Binomial close to bell-shape if np & nq 15 - P( ) = nCx.Px.(1-P)n-x = =

, df = n1

Pooled p,

Chapter 3: Descriptive Analysis

1.5IQR below Q1 OR 1.5IQR above Q3: Outliers Relation Causation, as one , the other Response Variable (Dependent Variable, y) VS Explanatory Variable (Independent Variable, x) Population Variance VS Sample Variance: 2

Derive Sample Size:

Incorrect Error P Correct Type P Reject true H Type I True H A 1- Fail to reject H Type II False H B 1-


s2 = , k = s.d.

Chapter 9: Hypothesis
Step 1: H: = VS H:

Chebyshevs Inequality: At least (1 -

Chapter 4: Gathering Data Sample Survey: Simple Random, Cluster, Stratified, Systematic Experiment: Control, Random, Blinding, Large Observational Studies: Sample Survey, Retrospective, Prospective

Chapter 7: Sampling Distributions (Sample)

Mean = p ; standard error = Central Limit Theorem applies when n 30 X ~ N(, 2) Z ~ N(0, 1) Probability When and are given: Find: Use: P(X) Z= P( ) Z=

Step 2: Variable is quantitative/categorical Data obtained randomized? Population distribution approximately normal (SIZE)? Step 3 / 4: Compute test statistic Derive p-value Step 5: Small p, reject H and conclude that Large p, evidence to support H

Avoid Convenience Sampling Statistical Significance Practical Significance