Mechanical Engineering Department / 3

rd
Year "Gas Dynamics" Lecturer : Dr.Abbas AL-Rikabi
10
CHAPTER TWO : SOME FOUNDAMUNTAL ASPECT OF COMPRESSIBLE FLOW.
2-1 Speed of Sound :
Sound waves are transmitted through a medium in similar manner and the
speed at which a small pressure pulse (wave) propagates through a compressible
medium is called the speed of sound in that medium.
We first derive an expression for the speed of sound. Consider a sound wave
propagating to the right as shown (Fig.2.1) with a speed c. The mediumto the right is
at rest and has pressure, density and temperature p;  &T respectively. As a
consequence of wave motion the medium gets compressed and the gas is set to
motion. Let the speed of gas behind the wave be du. Pressure, Density and
temperature will now be p + dp;   d + ;& T + dT respectively.
(a) Wave Moving (b) Wave Stationary
Fig. (2.1) Speed of Sound
For analysis it is better to make the wave stationary. Accordingly we superpose
an equal and opposite speed a (equal to the wave speed) everywhere in the flow. This
is shown in part (b) of Fig. (2.1). Applying the equations of mass and momentum to
the control volume indicated we have :
  d
du
dT T
dp p
+
+
+
P
T
u = 0

c
  d
du c
dT T
dp p
+
÷
+
+
P
T

c
P
T
u = 0

Fluid
at
rest
p + dp
T + dT
du
  d +
c
Pressure wave moving with velocity (C)
Mechanical Engineering Department / 3
rd
Year "Gas Dynamics" Lecturer : Dr.Abbas AL-Rikabi
11
- C. E.
) ( ) (
2 1
du c A d Ac m m ÷ + = ÷ =
- -
  
du d cd du c c      ÷ + ÷ =

 d
c du = ------------- (a)
- M. E.
¿
÷ = ÷
- +
) (
in out x
v v m F
) ) (( ) ( c du c Ac A dp p pA ÷ ÷ = + ÷ 
c
dp
du

= --------------- (b) From equation (b) and (a)
 d
dp
c =
2
The process through the sound wave is reversible (no friction) and adiabatic (no heat
transfer) it is isentropic hence :
s
p
c ) (
 c
c
= ------------- (2.1)
Equation (2.1) is applicable for incompressible and compressible fluids, and for
cylindrical sound waves (from a line source) and for spherical sound waves (from a
point source) in addition to the plane sound waves (from a plane source).
The bulk modulus of elasticity (  ) is :

 
d
dp
v
dv
dp
= ÷ =
Thus


= c -------------- (2.2)
For a perfect gas:
kRT
p
k Ck Ck
p
C p C
p
RT p
k
k
s
k
k
= = = =
c
c
= ÷ = ÷ =
÷
) ( ) ( ) (
.
1
 






Mechanical Engineering Department / 3
rd
Year "Gas Dynamics" Lecturer : Dr.Abbas AL-Rikabi
12
Thus we can show that:
kRT c = ------------------- (2.3) for a perfect gas
T
M
R
k c
w
÷
=
2-2 Mach Number (M) :
It is the ratio of local flow speed to the local speed of sound.
c
v
M = ---------------------- (2.4)
where : v = velocity of flow or body.
c = speed of sound.
- Types of flow accordant to (M) :
1- Incompressible flow 0 ~ M , (v << c)
2- Subsonic flow (M < 1).
3- Sonic flow (M= 1).
4- Supersonic flow (M> 1).
5- Hypersonic flow (M> 8).
6- Transonic flow (Maround 1).
Notes:
1- Mach number is used in similarity between model and prototype.
2- For (M< 0.4) gas may be considered incompressible with only (4% error).
2-3- Physical Differences between types of flow :
* Incompressible :
2ct
ct
3 ct
v
(v << c)
(M≈ 0)
Mechanical Engineering Department / 3
rd
Year "Gas Dynamics" Lecturer : Dr.Abbas AL-Rikabi
13
* Subsonic flow :
* Sonic flow :
* Supersonic flow :
v
c
vt
ct
vt
ct
= = =
2
2
sin 
M
1
sin =  ------------ (2.5)
where α = Mach angle (must be less than 90
o
).
2ct
ct
3 ct
v
(v > c)
(M> 1)
+ + +
3vt
vt
α
Zone of silence
Zone of silence
Z
o
n
e

o
f

A
c
t
i
o
n
S
o
u
n
d

r
e
g
i
o
n
Mach lines
2ct
ct
3 ct
v
(v = c)
(M= 1)
+ + +
3 vt
2 vt
vt
Initial wave
Sound region
3 ct
ct
v
(v < c)
(M< 1)
2 ct
Mechanical Engineering Department / 3
rd
Year "Gas Dynamics" Lecturer : Dr.Abbas AL-Rikabi
14
2-4 Impulse Function (F) :
When the fluid flows through a duct the fluid exerts force on all points of the
inside wall of the solid boundaries.
The thrust (force) developed by a fluid as it flows between two section in a duct may
be expressed as the difference in the impulse function at these two section.
¿
÷ = ÷
- +
) (
in out
v v m F
2
1 1 1
2
2 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 1
) ( v A v A v m v m v v m
F
A p A p   ÷ = ÷ = ÷ = + ÷
- - -
÷
) ( ) (
2
1 1 1 1
2
2 2 2 2
2
1 1 1 1 1
2
2 2 2 2 2
v p A v P A v A A p v A A p
F
    + ÷ + = ÷ ÷ + =
÷
1 2
F F
F
÷ =
÷
-------------------- (2.18)
where, F , the impulse function, is defined as :
) (
2
v p A
F
 + =
÷
-------------------- (2.19)
) 1 ( ) 1 (
2
2
kM pA
p
v
pA + = + =
The impulse function normalized with reference to that at critical state, is therefore :
k
kM
A
A
p
p
F
F
+
+
=
1
1
2
* * *
)
2
1
1 )( 1 ( 2
1
2
2
*
M
k
k M
kM
F
F
÷
+ +
+
=
- (
*
F F ) is tabulated as a function of (Mand K).
2-5 Recovery Factor (r) :
T T
T T
r
o
aw
÷
÷
= -------------------- (2.20)
1 ) (
1 ) (
÷
÷
=
T T
T T
r
o
aw
Thus :
T
aw
T
Gas Flow T T
o
,
q
1 1
A
p
2 2
A p
F
÷
1
v
2
v
Mechanical Engineering Department / 3
rd
Year "Gas Dynamics" Lecturer : Dr.Abbas AL-Rikabi
15
2
2
1
1 M
k
r
T
T
aw
÷
+ = ------------------ (2.21)
For subsonic flow : 91 . 0 87 . 0 ÷ = r
For supersonic flow : 9 . 0 83 . 0 ÷ = r
- Ex7: A model is to be tested in a wind tunnel in which (M=2). The stagnation
temperature of the air is (50 C
o
). If (r =0.87) determine the model temperature (
aw
T ) :
Solution :
(
]
1

¸
÷
+ =
2
2
1
1 M
k
T
T
o
k T 1 . 164 = ÷
2
2
1
1 M
k
r
T
T
aw
÷
+ =
o
aw
C k T 3 . 29 3 . 302 = = ÷
Mechanical Engineering Department / 3
rd
Year "Gas Dynamics" Lecturer : Dr.Abbas AL-Rikabi
16
Ex1: A compression pulse changes the velocity of the fluid by 3 (m/s) calculate the
pressure rise a cross the pulse :
a) Water for which β =2.206 (Gpa) , ) / ( 1000
3
m kg =  .
b) Air at 1 (bar) and 21 (C
o
).
Solution:
cdu dp  = (Equation (a), Page 8)
a) ) ( 45 . 4 3 26 . 1485 1000 / 26 . 1485 Mpa dp s m c = × × = ÷ = =


.
b) ) / ( 7 . 343 294 287 4 . 1 s m kRT c = × × = = .
). ( 0012 . 0 Mpa cdv
RT
p
cdu dp = = = 
Ex2: Prototype ( v
p
=3000 (km/h) , T
p
= - 50 c
o
) , Model (T
m
=100 c
o
, v
m
=?).
Solution:
) / ( 7 . 3879 h km v
kRT
v
kRT
v
M M
p
p
p
m
m
m p
= ÷ = ÷ = .
2-3 Stagnation State :
It is the state produced by bringing the flow to rest isentropically. It is designated
by the subscript (o).
v
o
=0 & s
o
=s -------------- (2.6)
Energy equation may be written between any point and its stagnation state as :
2 2
2 2
v
h
v
h
o
o
+ = +
Thus, for a perfect gas:
2
) (
2
v
T T c
o p
= ÷
or
T c
v
T
T
c
v
T T
p
o
p
o
2
1
2
2 2
+ = ÷ + =
o
ho, vo = 0
-
Mechanical Engineering Department / 3
rd
Year "Gas Dynamics" Lecturer : Dr.Abbas AL-Rikabi
17
2
2 2
2
1
1
1
2
1
c
v k
k
kR
T
v
T
T
o
÷
+ =
÷
+ =
(
]
1

¸
÷
+ =
2
2
1
1 M
k
T
T
o
------------------- (2.7)
But;
k o
k
k
o o
T
T
p
p
) ( ) (
1


= =
÷
(
(
]
1

¸

÷
+ =
÷1
2
)
2
1
1 (
k
k
o
M
k
p
p
------------------- (2.8)
(
(
]
1

¸

÷
+ =
÷1
1
2
)
2
1
1 (
k
o
M
k


------------------- (2.9)
Note : Equation (2.7) to (2.9) are tabulated for air (k=1.4).
- E. E. :
))
2
( )
2
((
2
1
1
2
2
2
v
h
v
h m
W
Q + ÷ + = ÷
-
-
-
) (
1 2 o o
h h m
W
Q ÷ = ÷
-
-
-
) (
1 2 o o p
T T c m
W
Q ÷ = ÷
-
-
-
-------------- (2.10)
- Second Law of Thermodynamic :
p
dp
R
T
dT
c ds
dp
p
RT
dT c vdp dh Tds
p
p
÷ =
÷ = ÷ =
1
1
1
1
1
T
v
p
h

2
2
2
2
2
T
v
p
h

-
Q
-
m
W
-
1
2
Mechanical Engineering Department / 3
rd
Year "Gas Dynamics" Lecturer : Dr.Abbas AL-Rikabi
18
1
2
1
2
1 2
1
2
1
2
1 2
ln ln
ln ln
o
o
o
o
p o o
p
p
p
R
T
T
c s s
p
p
R
T
T
c s s Integral
÷ = ÷
÷ = ÷ ÷
but
1 2 1 2 o o
s s s s ÷ = ÷
1
2
1
2
1 2
ln ln
o
o
o
o
p
p
p
R
T
T
c s s ÷ = ÷
1
2
1
2
1 2
ln ln
1
o
o
o
o
p
p
R
T
T
k
kR
s s ÷
÷
= ÷
1 2
1
1 2 1 2
/
) / (
ln
o o
k
k
o o
p p
T T
R
s s
÷
=
÷
-------------------- (2.11)
Notes :
If there is no shaft work ( 0 =
-
W
) then :
1- For adiabatic ( 0 =
-
Q ) irreversible flow ( 0 > ds ) :
t cons T T T
o o o
tan
2 1
= = = (from equation (2.10)),
1 2 o o
p p < (from equation (2.11)).
2- For isentropic flow ( 0 = =
-
ds Q ):
t cons T T T
o o o
tan
2 1
= = = (from (2.10))
t cons p p p
o o o
tan
1 2
= = = (from (2.11))
3- For general flow (( 0 ) , =
-
ds Q ) both (p
o
,T
o
) changes.
Ex3 : Argon , k=1.67 , M
w
= 40 (kg / mol) , T= 25 C
O
, p= 100 (kpa) , v= 100 (m/s).
Calculate T
o
, p
o
?
311 . 0 = = =
÷
T
M
R
k
v
c
v
M
w
kpa p M
k
p
p
k T M
k
T
T
o
k
k
o
o
o
7 . 1082 )
2
1
1 (
65 . 307
2
1
1
1
2
2
= ÷
÷
+ =
= ÷
÷
+ =
÷
-
-
-
-
O1
O2
1
2 T
2
T
1
S
1
= S
o1
S
2
= S
o2
T
S
Mechanical Engineering Department / 3
rd
Year "Gas Dynamics" Lecturer : Dr.Abbas AL-Rikabi
19
or
kpa p
T
T
p
p
k T
k
kR
v
T
c
v
T T
o
k
k
o o
o
p
o
7 . 1082 ) (
65 . 307
1
2
2
1
2 2
= ÷ =
= ÷
÷
+ = + =
÷
Ex4 : M
1
=2 , p
1
=70 kpa , T
1
= 38 C
o
, M
2
= 1.2 , p
o2
= 0.8 p
o1
, p
2
, T
2
, & v
2
= ?.
kpa p M
k
p
p
k T M
k
T
T
o
k
k
o
o
o
7 . 547 )
2
1
1 (
8 . 559
2
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
= ÷
÷
+ =
= ÷
÷
+ =
÷
k T T T c q
o o o p
15 . 789 ) (
2 1 2
= ÷ ÷ =
kpa p p p
o o o
2 . 438 8 . 0
2 1 2
= ÷ =
kpa p
T
T
p
p
k T M
k
T
T
k
k
o o
o
7 . 180 ) (
7 . 612
2
1
1
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
= ÷ =
= ÷
÷
+ =
÷
s m kRT M c M v / 4 . 595
2 2 2 2 2
= = =
2-4 Critical State : It is the state of sonic flow (M=1) and is designated by the
superscript (*).
* * *
kRT c v = = ---------------- (2.12)
1
* *
*
2
) (
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
÷
=
+
=
÷
+ = ÷
÷
+ =
k
k
o o
o o
T
T
p
p
k k
T
T
M
k
T
T
Using equation (2.7) to (2.9) with M=1 , we can show that :
) 1 (
2
*
+
=
k T
T
o
--------------------- (2.13)
kg kJ q / 5 . 230 =
Air flow
1 2
Mechanical Engineering Department / 3
rd
Year "Gas Dynamics" Lecturer : Dr.Abbas AL-Rikabi
20
1
*
)
) 1 (
2
(
÷
+
=
k
k
o
k p
p
---------------- (2.14)
1
1
*
)
) 1 (
2
(
÷
+
=
k
o
k 

---------------- (2.15)
* * *
kRT c v = = ---------------- (2.16)
The critical area (
*
A ) is calculated :
* *
*
*
* * *
kRT A
RT
p
v A m = =
-
 -------------- (2.17)
Ex5: Air flows with s kg m / 20 =
-
through critical state exists. If p
o
= 1000 kpa , T
o
=
1000 k , find the C.S.A. ? take k =1.4.
* *
*
*
* * *
kRT A
RT
p
v A m = =
-

k T
k T
T
o
833 833 . 0
) 1 (
2
*
*
= ÷ =
+
=
kpa p
k p
p
k
k
o
28 . 528 52828 . 0 )
) 1 (
2
(
*
1
*
= ÷ =
+
=
÷
2 * *
4 . 156 833 287 4 . 1
833 287
528280
20 cm A A m = ÷ × × × ×
×
= =
-
Ex6: Air , k=1.4 , M
w
=40 kg/mol , T = 25 C
o
, p=100 kpa , v = 100 m/s. Find T
o
& p
o
?
341 . 0
952 . 292
100
/ 952 . 292 ) 273 25 ( 8 . 207 4 . 1
. / 8 . 207
40
8312
2
1
1
2
= =
= + × × =
= = =
= ÷ = ÷
÷
+ =
÷
M
s m c
k kg J
M
R
R
kRT c
c
v
M M
k
T
T
w
o
Mechanical Engineering Department / 3
rd
Year "Gas Dynamics" Lecturer : Dr.Abbas AL-Rikabi
21
(
]
1

¸
÷
+ =
2
2
1
1 M
k
T
T
o
÷ k T
T
o
o
87 . 301 ) 341 . 0 (
2
4 . 0
1
295
2
= ÷ × + =
(
(
]
1

¸

÷
+ =
÷1
2
)
2
1
1 (
k
k
o
M
k
p
p
4 . 0
4 . 1
2
) ) 341 . 0 ( )
2
4 . 0
( 1 (
100000
× + = ÷
o
p
kpa p
o
379 . 108 =

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