Traffic Engg and Safety CE-444


Credit Hours 2.5 + 0.5 = 3 (16 weeks) T t l Periods Total P i d : (40+24) (40 24) = 64 (at least 4 hours per week)

Text Book
1. Priciples p of f Highway g y Engineering g g and Traffic ff Analysis by Fred L. Mannering, W.P.Kilareski, and S.S.Washburn 2. “Introduction to Traffic Engineering, a manual for data Collection and analysis” by Thomas R Currin. 2



Course Outline
• • • • • Typical Transportation/Traffic Issues and Solutions Introduction to Traditional Traffic Studies Modes of Transport Traffic Engineering Elements Traffic Surveys


Course Outline
Traffic Flow Characteristics
(1) (2) ( ) (3) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Nature of Traffic Flow Parameters Connected With Traffic Flow Interrupted and Uninterrupted Traffic Analysis of Speed Flow and Density Relationship Traffic Stream Characteristics and Models: Flow, Speed, Density Queuing Theory, Queuing Models and Analysis Traffic Volume Studies Highway Level of Service Analysis



9/10/2013 Course Outline Traffic Signals • • • • Basic Concepts of Traffic Signals and Signalized Intersection Types yp Traffic Signals g Signal Design. Phasing and Timing Plan Queuing Theory. Queuing Models and Analysis for Traffic Signals • Delays at Isolated Traffic Signals • Level of Service Analysis for Signalized Intersections 5 Course Outline Traffic Safety • • • • • • • Introduction Traffic Safety y Measures Basics of Highway Safety management Highway Safety Analysis Traffic Safety Audits and Identification of Hazardous Location Safety Considerations in Highway Design Highway Safety Countermeasures 6 3 .

50 to 60 % of Practical)  Students are asked to select a topic p of their own interest within the scope of this course. 8 4 .  The term project may include any case study or identification of a real time traffic or safety problem and recommended solution.  Due importance is given to learning the procedure to carryout research and case reporting (preparation of a project report).9/10/2013 Course Outline Practicals • • • • • • • • • • Spot speed study Turning g movement counts / vehicle counts Vehicle delay study Saturation flow study PHF Study Parking study Vehicle occupancy study Level of Service Analysis for Signalized Intersections Highway Level of Service Analysis Use of Traffic Analysis and Simulation Software “SYNCHRO” 7 Course Outline Term Project (Weightage.  Students are required to submit a project report and present their projects at the end of the course.

9/10/2013 Thought of the Day • Always try your best and be contented on whatever comes to you. • It is only HE who knows the BEST and HE knows ALL. 9 Points for Consideration • Be attentive • Do not hesitate to ask questions • Make notes of what is being taught in the class • Always bring calculators • Always bring the book/notes • Follow the rules/instructions • Always try to be positive 10 5 . because it is the will of Allah. • Always believe that whatever is happening to you in this life is the best from HIM.

9/10/2013 Present Transportation Issues and Trends • What are the current transportation issues? – – – – – – – – – Man-inflicted/Natural disasters (security) Large number of crashes and their severity Congestion in urban areas Contribution to environmental pollution Security management Congestion management Safety management Multimodalism Intelligent Transportation Systems • Where are the solutions? 11 Present Transportation Issues and Trends • What are the current transportation issues? – – – – – – – – – Man-inflicted/Natural disasters (security) Large number of crashes and their severity Congestion in urban areas Contribution to environmental pollution Security management Congestion management Safety management Multimodalism Intelligent Transportation Systems • Where are the solutions? 12 6 .

9/10/2013 Traffic and safety studies needed for effective congestion and safety management: Traffic generation. Capacity and quality of traffic. Parking demand. Control and geometry improvements. Road d hazard h d and d countermeasures identification id ifi i 13 What Answers Are Sought? • • • • • • • • Current highway and parking use Current traffic characteristics Current traffic and parking quality Current highway safety How to improve current traffic conditions p of new highway g yp projects/improvements j p Impact Impact of a new land development Future traffic conditions 14 7 .

road section) • Arterial streets • Corridors (several parallel roads) • Local L l areas (part ( t of f the th network) t k) • Entire systems (city.9/10/2013 Scale of the Studies • Single facilities (intersection. province.district) 15 Traditional Traffic Studies • • • • • • • Volume studies Speed studies Travel time studies Delay studies y studies Density Headway and spacing studies Accident studies 16 8 .

rapid. and a control component. 18 9 . The transportation system consists of fixed facilities. convenient.9/10/2013 Special Traffic Studies and Analyses • Traffic impact studies and analyses • Safety analyses – Identification of hazardous locations – Identification of hazard sources – Identification of countermeasures • • • • • Corridor studies g studies Parking Congestion analyses Pedestrian studies Before-and-after studies 17 Transportation System • A transportation system is an infrastructure that serves to move people and goods efficiently. flow entities. comfortable. • Efficient safe. economical. environmentally compatible.

coastal. pedestrians. 20 10 . ti interchanges. etc. markings. signals. i t h service i stations. il gas. i t intersections. buses. water t 19 Highway Transportation System • Fixed facilities: roads. traffic control devices. bridges. rail • Air transportation: domestic. etc. local transportation agencies.9/10/2013 Transportation System Major transportation subsystems • Land transportation: highway. international • Water transportation. • Flow entities: passenger cars. • Control component: highway administration. rivers • Pipelines: Pi li oil. signs. trucks.

and the determination of priorities. including the selection of geometric standards. economic analysis. pavement markings. terminals. and school and pedestrian crossings 22 11 . traffic control signals. and relationships between different modes of transportation 21 Traffic Engineering  Traffic studies are carried out to:  Provide a basis for planning and designing traffic facilities. their networks. streets.9/10/2013 Traffic Engineering • Traffic engineering is that phase of transportation engineering which deals with the planning. and highways. geometric design and traffic operations of roads. the need for traffic control devices such as signs. assist traffic operation by determining g .

9/10/2013 Traffic Engineering • Traffic Engineering covers a broad range of engineering application with common focus: the nation’s system of highways and streets. i – Basic mobility of all societal functions. – Basic access to the most remote regions. 23 Objectives • Traffic Engineering – “Deals “D l with i h the h Safe S f and d Efficient Effi i t movement of people and goods on streets and highways” – Other Objectives • • • • • Speed Comfort Convenience i Economy Environmental compatibility 24 12 . – Including economy and the environment. • Often defined as the nation’s “lifeblood circulation system” – Infrastructure supports the vast majority of people and goods. assurance of f public bli safety f and d security.

human characteristics and the needs to provide safety characteristics. • Comfort: – Comfort involves the physical characteristics of vehicles and roadways.9/10/2013 Objectives • Safety: – The principal goal of the traffic engineer remains i the h provision ii of f a safe f system for f highway traffic • Speed: – While speed of travel is very much desired. and utilize valuable land resources 26 13 . it is limited by transportation technology. and is influenced by our perception 25 Objectives • Environmental compatibility: – Harmony with the environment is a complex issue that has become more important over time – All transportation systems have some negative impacts on the environment – Air and noise pollution in some forms.

Motorways….9/10/2013 Road Functions Mobility Accessibility 27 Mobility and Accessibility • Mobility – Ability Abilit to t travel t l to t many different diff t destinations d ti ti – Provided by Freeways. • Accessibility – Ability to gain access to a particular site or area – Provided by Local Streets 28 14 ..

access to abutting properties Access to abutting land and local traffic movement 30 15 .9/10/2013 Hierarchical Structure of Road Networks Rural Urban 29 Mobility vs. Accessibility Road Class Freeways/Motorways Arterials Collectors Local Roads Road Function Through movement exclusively Through movement primary and some land access Traffic movement to higher rank roads.

Transportation Mode 32 16 . Accessibility 31 Mobility vs.9/10/2013 Mobility vs.

Transportation Mode 33 Traffic Engineering  Person and Vehicle Movement  How many people may be moved in vehicles of different types/facilities  Goods Movement /Freight  Trucks  Vital to Economy  Must be incorporated into Transportation system plans 34 17 .9/10/2013 Mobility vs.

9/10/2013 Components of Traffic System  Road Users  Drivers  Pedestrians P d i  Bicyclists  Passengers  Vehicles  Private  Commercial  Street and Highways  Traffic Control Devices 35 Modes to Transportation • Urban People People-Transportation Transportation – – – – Automobile Taxi/For-Hire Vehicles Bus Transit/Rapid Bus Transit (RBT) Rail/Subway 36 18 .

9/10/2013 Modes to Transportation • Intercity People People-Transportation Transportation – – – – – Automobile Intercity Bus Railroad Air Water 37 Modes to Transportation • Urban & Intercity Freight Transportation – – – – – Long-Haul Trucks Local Trucks Railroads Water Air Freight 38 19 .

40 20 . Studies focus on data collection and analysis that is used to characterize traffic. delay accidents. including (but not limited to) traffic volumes and demands.g. time delay.9/10/2013 Elements of Traffic Engineering • • • • • Traffic Studies Facility Design Traffic Control Traffic Operations P f Performance E Evaluation l ti 39 Elements of Traffic Engineering • Traffic Studies –I Involve l measuring i and d quantifying tif i various i aspect of highway traffic. speed and travel time. modal use. safety). accidents origins and destinations. and other variables (e.

and surveillance 42 and network control systems. • Traffic ffi Operations O i – Involves measures that influence overall operation of traffic facilities. such as one-way street system. transit operation.9/10/2013 Elements of Traffic Engineering • Facility design – Involves traffic engineers in the functional and geometric design of highways and other traffic facilities. 21 . – Traffic engineers are not involved in the str ct ral design of highway structural high a facilities but b t should have some appreciation for structural characteristics of their facilities. such as signs. and signals. 41 Elements of Traffic Engineering • Traffic Control – is a central function of traffic engineers and involves the establishment of traffic regulations and their communication to the driver through the use of traffic control devices. markings.

undesirable). h l – Such evaluation relies on measures of performance quality and is often stated in terms of “levels of service. 44 22 . car-pooling programs. 43 Elements of Traffic Engineering • Traffic Systems Management (TSM): – involves virtually all aspects of traffic engineering in a focus on optimizing system capacity and operations. – Specific aspects of TSM include highoccupancy vehicle priority systems. pricing strategies to manage demand.” – Levels of service (LOS) are letter grades. describing how well a facility is operation using specified performance criteria. and similar functions. criteria (A –Excellent. the capacity of highway facilities must be determined. – As part of performance evaluation. from A to F. F.9/10/2013 Elements of Traffic Engineering • Performance Evaluation – Is a mean by which traffic engineers can rate the operating characteristics of individual sections ti of f facilities f iliti and d facilities f iliti as a whole.

in vehicle GPS and mapping systems. vehicle-tracking systems. 45 Who Are Traffic Engineers’ Clients? • Policy makers • Highway administration – State/Province – District – City • Citizens groups • Land developers • Business owners 46 23 .9/10/2013 Elements of Traffic Engineering • Integration of intelligent transportation system technologies (ITS): – It refers to the application of modern tele-communication technology to the operation and control of transportation system. etc. Variable Message Signs. – Such systems include but not limited to automated toll-collection systems (E-toll). automated enforcement of traffic lights and speed laws.

• Traffic engineers therefore are involved in the development of programs and strategies to mange demand in both time and space.9/10/2013 Challenges for a Traffic Engineer • Urban congestion has been a major issue for many years. it is not always possible to solve congestion problems through expansion of capacity. • Given the transportation demand cycle. 47 24 .

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