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CONSTITUTIONAL LAW I Syllabus Part 1 Introduction A. The Constitution as a social contract B. How to read the Constitution Francisco v.

House or Rep., G.R. No. 160261, Nov. 10, 2003 C. A framework for constitutional litigation Francisco v. House of Rep., supra Part II Amendment of the Constitution A. Amendments vs. Revision B. Proposal 1. By Congress as a constituent assembly 2. By Constitutional Convention Gonzales vs. Comelec, 21 SCRA 774 (1968) 3. By the people thru initiative (See R.A. 6735 August 4, 1989) Santiago vs. Comelec, G.R. 127325, March 19, 1997 C. Submission Tolentino vs. Comelec, 41 SCRA 702 (1971) D. Ratification Part III Judicial Review A. Separation of Powers In Re: Laureta and Maravilla, 148 SCRA 382 (1987) Demetria vs. Alba, 148 SCRA 208 (1987) B. Theory and Justification of Judicial Review Angara vs. Electoral Commission, 63 Phil.139 (1936) C. Justiciable and Political Questions Miranda vs. Aguirre, G.R. No. 133064, September 16, 1999 Franciso vs. House of Rep., supra La Bugal-BLaan v. Ramos, G.R. No. 127882 Dec. 01, 2004 1

D. Requisites of Judicial Review 1. Actual Case or Controversy Prematurity: PACU vs. Secretary of Education, 97 Phil. 806 (1955) Mariano vs. Comelec, G.R. No. 119694 March 07, 1995 Montesclaros v. Comelec, G.R. No. 152295, July 09, 2002 Mootness: Atlas Fertilizer v. Sec, DAR, G.R. No. 93100, June 19,1997 Lacson v. Perez, G.R. No. 147780, May 10, 2001 Exceptions to Mootness: Sanlakas vs. Executive Secretary, G.R. 159085, February 03, 2004 Pimentel v. Ermita, G.R. 164978, October 13, 2005 2. Proper Party Joya vs. PCGG, G.R. 96541, August 24, 1993 Agan v. PIATCO, G.R. No. 155001, May 05, 2003 CHR Employees Assoc. v. CHR, G.R. No. 155336, Nov. 25, 2004 Automotive Industry Workers Alliance v. Romulo, G.R. 157509, Jan. 18, 2005 Citizen Standing: Tanada vs. Tuvera 136 SCRA 27 (1985) Chavez v. PEA and Amari, G.R. 133250, July 09, 2002 Associational Standing: KMU Labor Center vs. Garcia, G.R. 115381, Dec. 23, 1994 IBP v. Zamora, G.R. No. 141284, August 15, 2000 Executive Secretary vs. CA, 429 SCRA 781, May 25, 2004 Kilosbayan vs. Guingona, 232 SCRA 110 (1994) Taxpayers Standing: ITF v. Comelec, 420 SCRA 438, January 13, 2004 Voters Standing: Tolentino v. Comelec, 420 SCRA 438, January 21, 2004 Legislative Standing: Ople v. Torres, 293 SCRA 141 (1998) Governmental Standing: People v. Vera, 65 Phil 56, November 16, 1937 2

Facial Challenge: Estrada vs. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 148560, Nov. 19, 2001 3. Earliest Opportunity Umali vs. Guingona, 305 SCRA 533 (1999) 4. Necessity of Deciding Constitutional Questions Arceta v. Mangrobang, G.R. No. 152895, June 15, 2004 Part IV The Three Branches of Government A. Congress 1. Composition, Qualification and Term of Office a. Senate b. House of Representatives Macias v. Comelec, 3 SCRA 1 (1961) Tan v. Comelec, 142 SCRA 727 (1986) Veterans Fed. Party v. Comelec, G.R. 136781, October 06, 2000 Bagong Bayani v. Comelec, G.R. No. 147589, June 26, 2001 Aquino v. Comelec, 248 SCRA 400 (1995) Marcos vs. Comelec, 248 SCRA 300 (1995) Torayno vs. Comelec, G.R. 137329, August 09, 2000 2. Election a. Regular Election b. Special Election 3. Organizations and Sessions a. Election of Officers Santiago v. Guingona, G.R. 134577, November 18, 1998 b. Quorum Avelino vs. Cuenco, 83 Phil. 17 (1949) c. Rules of Proceeding Pacete vs. Comm. On Appointments, 40 SCRA 58 (1971) Arroyo vs. De Venecia, G.R. 127255, August 14, 1997 d. Discipline of members Alejandrino v. Quezon, 46 Phil. 83 (1924) Osmena vs. Pendatun, 109 Phil. 863 (1960) 3

Santiago vs. Sandiganbayan, G.R. 126055, April 19, 2001 De Venecia vs. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 130240, Feb. 05, 2002 e. Journal and Record 1. The Enrolled Bill Theory Casco Chemical Co. vs. Gimenez, 7 SCRA 347 (1963) 2. Probative Value of the Journal United States vs. Pons, 34 Phil. 729 (1916) 3. Matters to be entered in the Journal 4. Journal Entry Rule vs. Enrolled Bill Theory 5. Congressional Record f. Session 1. Regular Sessions 2. Special Sessions 3. Joint Sessions 4. Salaries, Privileges and Disqualifications a. Salaries Philconsa vs. Mathay, 18 SCRA 300 (1966) Ligot vs. Mathay, 56 SCRA 823 (1974) b. Freedom from Arrest People vs. Jalosjos, G.R. 132875, February 03, 2000 c. Speech and Debate Clause Jimenez vs. Cabangbang 17 SCRA 876 (1966) d. Disqualifications Adaza vs. Pacana, Jr. 135 SCRA 431 (1985) Puyat vs. De Gusman, 113 SCRA 31 (1982) e. Duty to Disclose 5. Electoral Tribunals Abbas vs. SET, 166 SCRA 651 (1988) Bondoc vs. Pineda, 201 SCRA 792 (1991) Codilla vs. De Vinecia, G.R. 150605, December 10, 2002 Pimentel v. HRET, G.R. No. 141489, November 29, 2002 6. Commission on Appointments Daza v. Singson, 180 SCRA 496 (1989) Coseteng v. Mitra, Jr. 187 SCRA 377 (1990) Guingona vs. Gonzales, 214 SCRA 789 (1992) 7. Powers of Congress a. General Plenary Powers b. Limitations on the legislative Power 4

1. Substative limitations 2. Procedural limitations 8. Legislative Process a. Requirements as to bills 1. As to titles of bills Tio vs. Videogram Regulatory Board, 151 SCRA 208 Lidasan vs. Comelec, 21 SCRA 479 (1967) Cruz vs. Paras, 123 SCRA 106 (1994) Tobias vs. Abalos, 239 SCRA 106 (1994) 2. Requirements as to certain laws a. Appropriation laws Demetria v. Alba, 148 SCRA 208 (1987) Guingona vs. Caraque, 196 SCRA 221 (1991) Philconsa vs. Enriquez, G.R. No. 113105, August 19, 1994 b. Tax laws Tolentino vs. Sec. of Finance, G.R. 115455, August 25, 1994 Lung Center vs. Q.C., G.R.No. 144104, June 29, 2004 Tan vs. Del Rosario, 237 SCRA 324 (2000) Garcia vs. Executive Secretary, 211 SCRA 219 (1992) John Hay PAC v. Lim, G.R. No. 119775, October 24, 2003 c. Appellate Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court Fabian v. Desierto, G.R. No. 129742, September 16, 1998 b. Procedure for the passage of bills Tolentino v. Secretary of Finance, supra Philconsa v. Enriquez, supra Gonzales v. Macaraig, G.R. No. 87636, Nov. 19, 1990 Bengzon vs. Drilon, 208 SCRA 133 (1992) Miller vs. Mardo, 2 SCRA 898 (1961) c. Effectivity of Laws Tanada vs. Tuvera, 136 SCRA 27 (1985) Executive Order No. 200, June 18, 1987 d. Question Hour e. Legislative investigation Armault vs. Nazareno, 87 Phil. 29 (1950) Armault vs. Balagtas, 97 Phil. 358 (1955) Bengzon vs. Sen. Blue Ribbon Comm., 203 SCRA 767 (1991) Senate v. Ermita, G.R. No. 169777, April 20, 2006 5

Sabio v. Gordon, G.R. No. 174340, October 17, 2006 Neri vs. Senate, G.R. No. 180643, March 25, 2008 9. Other Powers: a. Act as board of canvassers for presidential election Pimentel v. Joint Com., G.R. 163783, June 22, 2004 b. Call a special election for Presidency c. Decide on disability of the President d. Legislative veto or extension for habeas corpus or declaration of martial law e. Presidential Amnesties f. Concur in treaties g. Declaration of existence of war h. Delegation of emergency powers i. Utilization of natural resources j. Amendments of constitution k. Power of Impeachment B. Executive Department 1. The president a. Qualifications, election, term and oath b. Privileges and salary Republic v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 152154, July 15, 2003 c. Succession 1. In case of vacancy at the beginning of the term 2. In case of vacancy during term 3. In case of temporary disability Estrada vs. Arroyo, G.R. No. 146738, March 02, 2001 d. Removal e. Prohibitions f. Exceptions to prohibition from holding another office: 1. Vice-President as member of the cabinet 2. Sec. of Justice as member of Judicial and Bar Council CLU vs. Exec. Secretary, 194 SCRA 317 (1991) Cruz v. COA, G.R. No. 138489, Nov. 29, 2001 NAC v. COA, G.R. 156982, September 8, 2004 2. Powers and Functions of the President a. Executive Power Marcos vs. Manglapus, 178 SCRA 760 (1989) DENR vs. DENR Region 12 Employees, G.R. No. 149725, August 19, 2003 b. Control of executive departments Blaquera v. Alcala, G.R. 109406, September 11, 1998 Hutchison Ports vs. SBMA, G.R. No. 131367, August 31, 2000 6

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NEA vs. COA, 377 SCRA 233 (2002) General supervision over local governments/autonomous regions Pimentel vs. Aguirre, G.R. 132988, July 19, 2000 Power of Appointment Bermudez v. Torres, G.R. No. 131429, August 4, 1999 Sarmiento vs. Mison, 156 SCRA 549 (1987) Concepcion-Bautista vs. Salonga, 172 SCRA 160 (1989) Calderon vs. Carale, G.R.No. 91636, April 23, 1992 Manalo vs. Sistoza, G.R. 107369, August 11, 1999 Soriano vs. Lista, G.R. No. 153881, March 24, 2003 Pimental vs. Ermita, G.R. No. 164978, October 13, 2005 In re Valenzuela, A.M. No. 98-5-01-SC, Nov. 9, 1998 De Rama vs. CA, G.R. No. 131136, February 28, 2001 Matibag vs. Benipayo, G.R. No. 149036, April 02, 2002 Larin vs. Exec. Secretary, G.R. 112745, October 16, 1997 Executive Clemency Barrioquinto vs. Fernandez, G.R. L-1278, January 21, 1949 Vera v. People, 7 SCRA 152 (1963) Cristobal vs. Labarador, 71 Phil. 34 (1941) Pelobello vs. Palatino, 72 Phil. 441 (1941) In Re Lontok, 43 Phil.293 (1923) Torres v. Gonzales, 152 SCRA 273 (1987) Commander-in-Chief IBP v. Zamora, G.R. No. 141284, August 15, 2000 Sanlakas v. Exec. Sec., G.R. No. 159085, Feb. 02, 2004 Aquino vs. Enrile, 59 SCRA 183 (1974) Olaquer vs. MC No.4, 150 SCRA 144 (1987) Navales v. Abaya, G.R. No. 162318, October 25, 2004 Lansang vs. Garcia, 42 SCRA 448 (1971) In Re De Villa, G.R. No. 158802, November 17, 2004 David vs. Arroyo, G.R. No. 171390, May 03, 2006 Emergency Powers Contracting and guaranteeing foreign loans Constantino vs. Cuisia, G.R. No. 106064, October 13, 2005 Foreign Affairs Peoples Movement for Press Freedom, et al. v. Hon. Raul Manglapus, G.R. No. 84642, En Banc Resolution dated April 13, 1988 Comm. Of Customs vs. Eastern Sea Trading, 3 SCRA 351 (1961) Go Tek vs. Deportation Board, 79 SCRA 17 (1977) Legislation 1. Address Congress 2. Preparation and submission of the budget 3. Veto-Power 7

4. Emergency Powers k. Immunity from suit Beltran vs. Macasiar, G.R. 82585, Nov. 14, 1988 Gloria vs. CA, G.R. No. 119903, August 15, 2000 3. Vice-President a. Qualifications, election, term and oath b. Privileges and Salary c. Prohibitions d. Succession C. The Judicial Department 1. The Judicial Power 2. The Supreme Court a. Composition b. Mode of Sitting MMDA v. Jancom, G.R. 147465, April 10, 2002 People v. Gacott, G.R. No. 116049, July 13, 1995 c. Appointments and qualifications d.. No non-judicial work for judges Meralco vs. Pasay Trans. Co., 57 Phil. 600 (1932) Garcia vs. Macaraig, 3-SCRA 106 (1971) e. Salary Nitafan vs. Comm. Of Internal Revenue, 152 SCRA 284 (1987) f. Tenure g. Removal In Re Gonzales, 160 SCRA 771 (1988) h. Fiscal autonomy i. Jurisdiction Santiago vs. Bautista, 32 SCRA 188 (1970) Felipe vs. Leuterio, 91 Phil. 482 (1952) j. Deliberations Prudential Bank vs. Castro, 158 SCRA 646 (1988) Consing vs. Court of Appeals, 177 SCRA 14 (1989) k. Voting Cruz v. DENR. G.R. No. 135385, Dec. 06, 2000 l. Requirements as to decisions Valladolid vs. Inciong, 121 SCRA 205 (1992) Nunal vs. COA. 169 SCRA 356 (1989) People v. Bugarin, 273 SCRA 384 (1996) Hernandez vs. Court of Appeals, 228 SCRA 429 (1993) Yao vs. CA, G.R. No. 132428, October 24, 2000 Dizon vs. Judge Lopez, A.M. 96-1338, September 05, 1997 8

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Asiavest v. CA, G.R. No. 110263, July 20, 2001 Petition for Review with Motion for Reconsideration Tichangco v. Enriquez, G.R. No. 150629, June 30, 2004 Fr. Martinez v. CA, G.R. 123547, May 21, 2001 Periods for deciding cases Re: Delays in the Sandiganbayan, A.M. No. 00-8-05-SC, Nov. 28, 2001 Presidential Electoral Tribunal Administrative powers 1. Supervision of lower courts In re Demetria, AM. No. 00-7-09-CA, March 27, 2001 2. Temporarily assign judges to other stations in public interest 3. Order a change of venue or place of trial to avoid miscarriage of justice People v. Pilotin, 65 SCRA 635 (1975) Mondiguing v. Abad, SCRA 14 (1975) People v. Sola, 103 SCRA 393 (1981) 4. Appointment of officials and employees of entire judiciary 5. Promulgate rules concerning the enforcement and protection of constitutional rights 6. Promulgate Rules concerning pleading, practice and procedure 7. Admission to the Practice of Law Zaldivar vs. Gonzales, 166 SCRA 316 (1988) In re: Cunanan, 94 Phil. 534 (1954) Aguirre vs. Rana, Bar Matter No. 1036, June 10, 2003 8. Integration of the Bar In re: Edillon 84 SCRA 554 (1978) In re: IBP Elections Bar Matter No. 491 (October 06. 1989) 9. Legal assistance to the Underprivileged

q. Report on the Judiciary 3. Lower Courts a. Qualifications and appointment b. Tenure De La Llana vs. Alba, 122 SCRA 291 (1983) 4. The Judicial and Bar Council 5. Automatic Release of appropriations for the judiciary