This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Flight Operations Engineering
Boeing Commercial Airplanes November 2004
What is Fuel Conservation?
Fuel conservation means managing the operation and condition of an airplane to minimize the fuel used on every flight
How Much Is A 1% Reduction In Fuel Worth?
Airplane type 777 767 757 747 737 727
Fuel savings* gal/year/airplane 70,000 → 90,000 30,000 → 40,000 25,000 → 35,000 100,000 → 135,000 15,000 → 25,000 30,000 → 40,000
*Assumes typical airplane utilization rates. Actual utilization rates may differ.
Fuel Conservation 3
How Much Is This Worth In $$? Depends on Current Fuel Prices! Fuel Conservation 4 .
00 $/gallon $0.40 $0.20 $1.40 $1.Jet Fuel Prices $1.80 $0.20 $0.00 $1.00 87 89 91 93 95 97 99 01 03 Year Source: Air Transport World Fuel Conservation 5 .60 $0.
000 100.000 → 25.000 $30.000 → 135.000 $15.000 30.000 → 90.000 $100.000 → 25.000 → 40. Actual utilization rates may differ.00/gallon *Assumes typical airplane utilization rates.000 → 35. Fuel Conservation 6 .000 → 40.000 *Assumes $1.000 → 40.000 Fuel savings* $/year/airplane $70.000 → 90.000 $25.000 $30.000 25.000 → 135.000 30.000 → 35.000 15.000 → 40.How Much Is A 1% Reduction In Fuel Worth? Airplane type 777 767 757 747 737 727 Fuel savings* gal/year/airplane 70.
What Is Fuel Conservation From An Airline Business Viewpoint ? Fuel conservation means managing the operation and condition of an airplane to minimize the fuel used on every flight total cost of Fuel Conservation 7 .
000 → 40.000 → 25.000 Total savings = fuel savings .00/gallon *Assumes typical airplane utilization rates.000 Cost to Implement ?? Total Cost Savings/AP ?? 100.000 → 40.000 → 135.How Much Is A 1% Reduction In Fuel Worth? Airplane Fuel savings* type gal/year/airplane 777 767 757 747 737 727 70.000 → 90.000 $15.000 15.000 $100.000 → 25.000 → 135.000 $30.000 → 90.000 → 35. Actual utilization rates may differ.000 Fuel savings* $/year/airplane $70.000 30. Fuel Conservation 8 .cost to implement *Assumes $1.000 $30.000 → 40.000 $25.000 → 35.000 30.000 25.000 → 40.
Saving Fuel Requires Everyone’s Help • Flight Operations • Dispatchers • Flight Crews • Maintenance • Management Fuel Conservation 9 .
FLIGHT OPERATIONS ENGINEERING Operational Practices for Fuel Conservation 10 .
Flight Operations / Dispatchers Opportunities For Fuel Conservation • Landing weight • Fuel reserves • Airplane loading • Flap selection • Altitude selection • Speed selection • Route selection • Fuel tankering Fuel Conservation 11 .
Reduced Landing Weight 1% reduction in landing weight produces: ≅ 0.75% reduction in trip fuel (high BPR engines) ≅ 1% reduction in trip fuel (low BPR engines) Fuel Conservation 12 .
Components Of Landing Weight Fuel on board at landing WLDG Required = OEW + Payload + reserve + fuel Zero fuel weight Additional fuel loaded but not used Fuel Conservation 13 .
9% 7377377573/4/500 6/7/8/900 200/300 .2% 747-400 .3% 777200/300 .2% Fuel Conservation 14 .6% .7% .5% 7672/3/400 .Reducing ZFW Reduces Landing Weight Approximate % Block Fuel Savings Per 1000 Lb (454 Kg) ZFW Reduction 717-200 .
Reducing OEW Reduces Landing Weight Items To Consider • Passenger service items • Passenger entertainment items • Empty Cargo and baggage containers • Unneeded Emergency equipment • Excess Potable water Fuel Conservation 15 .
Reducing Unnecessary Fuel Reduces Landing Weight • Practice cruise performance monitoring • Flight plan by tail numbers Fuel Conservation 16 .
Fuel Reserves • Carry the appropriate amount of reserves to ensure a safe flight and to meet your regulatory requirements • Extra reserves are extra weight • Airplane burns extra fuel to carry the extra weight Fuel Conservation 17 .
Fuel Reserves The amount of required fuel reserves depends on: • Regulatory requirements • Choice of alternate airport • Use of re-dispatch • Company policies on reserves • Discretionary fuel Fuel Conservation 18 .
Regulatory Requirements • Is this an international flight? • FAA rules? • ICAO rules? • Other rules? Fuel Conservation 19 .
and land at. 20 . to fly for a period of 10 percent of the total time required to fly from the airport of departure to.645(b) A B C D (A) To fly to and land at the airport to which it is released. if an alternate is required. the airport to which it was released. Contingency Alternate Holding Fuel Conservation (B) After that. (C) After that.FAA “International Reserves” FAR 121. to fly for 30 minutes at holding speed at 1. and (D) After that.500 feet above the alternate airport (or the destination airport if no alternate is required) under standard temperature conditions. to fly to and land at the most distant alternate airport specified in the flight release.
• Must have enough fuel. considering wind and other weather conditions expected.623(b).FAA “Island Reserves” FAR 121. to fly to destination airport and thereafter to fly for 2 hours at normal cruising fuel consumption Fuel Conservation 21 .645(c) • No alternate is specified in release under Section 121.621(a)(2) or Section 121.
500 ft) above the alternate aerodrome under standard temperature conditions. at the aerodrome to which the flight is planned. and thereafter: A) To fly to the alternate aerodrome specified in the flight plan. and then B) To fly for 30 minutes at holding speed at 450 M (1.3. and approach and land.6. To fly to and execute an approach.6. and a missed approach. Alternate Holding Contingency Fuel Conservation 22 .1 When an alternate aerodrome is required.3.3) C A B 4.ICAO International ICAO Annex 6 (4.3. and C) To have an additional amount of fuel sufficient to provide for the increased consumption on the occurrence of any of the potential contingencies specified by the operator to the satisfaction of the state of the operator (typically a percentage of the trip fuel: 3% to 6%).
lighting • Fire fighting.Alternate Airport What items should you consider when choosing an alternate airport? • Airline facilities • Size and surface of runway • Weather • Hours of operation. rescue equipment Fuel Conservation 23 .
lighting • Fire fighting. rescue equipment Fuel Conservation 24 .Alternate Airport What items should you consider when choosing an alternate airport? • Airline facilities • Size and surface of runway • Weather • Hours of operation.
Speed Selection for Holding • Want to maximize time per kilogram of fuel • Use published/FMC recommended holding speeds Fuel Conservation 25 .
decreasing the chance that contingency fuel will actually be used Fuel Conservation 26 . weather prediction... • Navigation and weather forecasting techniques have improved. etc.Use Redispatch to Lower Contingency Fuel • Reserve/contingency fuel is a function of trip length or trip fuel burn • Originally implemented to cover errors in navigation.
How Redispatch Works Cruise Climb Redispatch point Descent Origin Initial destination Intended destination Fuel Conservation 27 .
Off Track Initial Destination Initial destination Intended destination Origin Initial destination Origin Redispatch point Intended destination Redispatch point Fuel Conservation 28 .
Intent is to lower the Contingency Fuel On Board at the Final Destination Intended destination Redispatch point Contingency fuel ting n o C F y c n e u ired u q el re ncy e g n ti Con required l Fue Distance (Time) Reduction Fuel Conservation 29 .
Benefits of Redispatch Increased payload Reduced fuel load Fuel Conservation 30 .
Examples of Using Redispatch To: 1) Increase payload 2) Decrease takeoff and landing weight (by reducing fuel load) A Origin B Initial destination C Final destination Fuel Conservation 31 .
Same takeoff weight with and without redispatch Example of payload increase with constant takeoff weight um oint m p ti Op atch isp red TRIP FUEL Altern + Hold TRIP FUEL TRIP FUEL Gross weight Contingency Altern + Hold PAYLOAD (1) OEW Contingency Altern + Hold PAYLOAD (2) OEW Contingency PAYLOAD (2) OEW A Fuel Conservation C A B B C 32 (No redispatch) .
Takeoff weight decrease Example of takeoff weight and landing weight decreases with constant payload int o m p mu atch i t Op disp re (2) ) t igh (1) e w rom g f n di ase n La cre (de Contingency TRIP FUEL TRIP FUEL Gross weight Landing weight (1) Contingency Altern + Hold PAYLOAD (1) OEW Contingency Altern + Hold PAYLOAD (2) OEW TRIP FUEL Altern + Hold PAYLOAD (2) OEW A Fuel Conservation C A B B C 33 (No redispatch) .
g. but lower Liftwing and therefore lower α required Fuel Conservation 34 .G.g.g.) Lift tail (aft c.) WT (fwd c. due to the smaller moment arm between Liftwing and WT • Less angle of attack.) • At aft c.g.g.Airplane Loading Maintain C.) < Lift wing (fwd c. In The Mid To Aft Range Lift wing (aft c.) = WT (aft c.g. α. the lift of the tail is less negative than at forward c. is required to create the lower Liftwing required to offset the WT plus the less negative Lifttail • Same Lifttotal.g.g.) Is less negative than Lift tail (fwd c.
55 0.60 0. depends on airplane design.65 Typical trim drag increment at cruise Mach W/δ (LB *10-6) 0.Airplane Loading (continued) Maintain C. altitude and Mach 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 35 Fuel Conservation Center of gravity.50 Actual variation in drag due to C. %MAC .G. weight. % 2 1 0 -1 -2 4 0.G.70 Incremental cruise drag. in the Mid to Aft Range 5 4 3 0.
Flap Setting Choose lowest flap setting that will meet takeoff performance requirements: • Less drag • Better climb performance • Spend less time at low altitudes. burn less fuel Fuel Conservation 36 .
Altitude Selection Optimum Altitude Definition Pressure altitude for a given weight and speed schedule that produces the maximum air miles per unit of fuel Fuel Conservation 37 .
Definition of Optimum Altitude
Pressure Altitude Which Provides the Maximum Fuel Mileage for a Given Weight and Speed
40 PRESSURE ALTITUDE (1000 FT) GROSS WT (1000 LB) 540 580 34 620 32 30 0.024 (CONSTANT MACH NUMBER) 460 500 420 380 340 300
IM T P
FUEL MILEAGE (NAM/LB)
Determining Optimum Altitude
Pressure altitude (1000 ft)
Cruise weight (1000 KG)
70 80 90 100 100 120
Brake release weight (1000 KG)
Fuel Conservation 39
= Off optimum operations
5% Fuel Conservation + 3.8% + 1. No Step Over a 4-Hour Cruise (Example Only) + 1.5% + 1.5% + 8.0% + 4.5% + 6.5% 41 .5% + 0% + 0.5% 4-hour Average = + 0.5% + 0.Off-Optimum Fuel Burn Penalty 4000 ft Step vs.6% de u t lti a m u m i 1000 ft t Op 4-hour Average = + 4.
72 0.Speed Selection LRC Versus MRC MRC = Maximum range cruise (speed producing maximum fuel mileage for a given weight) LRC = Long Range cruise (speed which produces a 1% decrease in FM relative to MRC) 0.76 0.08 0.05 Increasing weight 0.09 0.68 0.07 0.11 0.06 0.10 MMO MRC LRC 1% NAM/ pound fuel 0.84 42 MACH number Fuel Conservation .80 0.64 0.12 0.60 0.
Speed Selection (continued) LRC Versus MRC • LRC = MRC + 1% fuel burn • Significant speed increase for only a 1% decrease in fuel mileage • Increases speed stability • Minimizes throttle adjustments Fuel Conservation 43 .
01 0. and time decrease.00 0.04 LRC Model #1 LRC 0.Flying Faster Than MRC? Flying faster than LRC typically produces a significant fuel burn increase in return for a relatively small time savings (example based on 5000 NM cruise) ∆ Fuel For Flying Faster Than MRC 8 7 6 -30 -25 ∆ Time For Flying Faster Than MRC Model #2 Model #1 Model #1 ∆ Fuel ~ % Model #2 ∆ Time ~ min.01 0. and altitude Fuel Conservation 44 .03 0.03 0. for flying faster than MRC depends on specific airplane model.02 LRC Model #2 0.02 0.00 0. -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 4 3 2 1 0 0. weight.04 ∆ Mach from MRC ∆ Mach from MRC Actual fuel burn increase.
Speed Selection .Other Options • Cost Index = 0 (maximize ngm/lb = wind-adjusted MRC) • Selected Cost Index (minimize costs) Time cost ~ $/hr CI = Fuel cost ~ cents/lb • Maximum Endurance (maximize time/lb) Fuel Conservation 45 .
Route Selection Choose the most favorable route available! Fuel Conservation 46 .
Great Circle Distance • Shortest ground distance between 2 points on the earth’s surface • May not be the shortest time when winds are included Fuel Conservation 47 .
ETOPS • ETOPS allows for more direct routes • Shorter routes = less fuel required 12 60 Iqaluit Kangerlussuaq 0 m in m in Reykjavik 346 Goose Bay Montreal St. Johns New York 1 Shannon Paris 3148 Using 120 min ETOPS leads to a 9% savings in trip distance! Fuel Conservation 48 .
Fuel Tankering What Is It? Fuel tankering is the practice of carrying more fuel than required for a particular sector in order to reduce the quantity of fuel loaded at the destination airport for the following sector (or sectors) Fuel Conservation 49 .
Fuel Tankering (continued) Leg 1 Leg 2 100% tankering of 2nd leg fuel Reserves A B C Extra fuel burned on leg 1 to carry fuel for leg 2 No tankering of 2nd leg fuel Reserves Fuel for leg 2 Fuel loaded at A for leg 1 Fuel for leg 1 Fuel for leg 2 Fuel loaded at B for leg 2 Fuel for leg 1 Fuel Conservation Fuel loaded at A for legs 1 & 2 50 .
Fuel Tankering (continued) Why Tanker Fuel? • Shorter turnaround time • Limited amount of fuel available • Unreliable airport services • Fuel quality at destination airport • Fuel price differential Reduction in total fuel costs for multiple leg flights is usually the main reason for tankering Fuel Conservation 51 .
surplus fuel could be carried from the departure airport to lower the total fuel cost • Fuel used increases on flights where fuel is tankered such that the quantity of fuel available at landing is always less than what was originally loaded (often called ‘surplus fuel burn-off’) • Surplus fuel burn-off must be accounted for in any price differential calculation • To be cost-effective.Fuel Tankering (continued) Fuel Price Differential • If price at departure airport is sufficiently less than at the destination airport. the difference in fuel price between the departure and destination airports must be large enough to offset the cost of the additional fuel burned in carrying the tankered fuel Fuel Conservation 52 .
Fuel Tankering (continued) Limitations On Total Amounts • The amount of tankered fuel loaded may be limited by: – Certified MTOW – Performance-limited MTOW – Certified MLW – Performance-limited MLW – Fuel capacity • These limits must always be checked when loading extra fuel for tankering! Fuel Conservation 53 .
reversers. and additional fuel burn-off was over-predicted. may require improved climb • If landing is planned at or near MLW. but should be addressed in all cost calculations Fuel Conservation 54 . an overweight landing could result • Higher maintenance costs: engines. brakes Difficult to quantify. tires.Fuel Tankering (continued) Additional Considerations • Lowers initial cruise altitude capability • Increases takeoff weight: higher takeoff speeds. less reduced thrust. wheels.
g.. a simple method is desired) • Many operators add a price per gallon. to cover increased maintenance costs Fuel Conservation 55 . If the decision to tanker is made by the captain at the time of fueling. ranging from the fairly simple to the fairly complex • Complexity of the calculations depends on the requirements of your operations. or a fixed percentage.To Tanker or Not to Tanker Cost Calculations • Cost calculations vary between operators. (e.
Cost Calculations We will briefly review 3 possible methods: 1) Assumed percentage burn-off 2) Break-even price ratio 3) Relative cost to tanker Fuel Conservation 56 .
Cost Calculations (continued) • All methods should begin by checking whether takeoff and landing weight limits. allow additional fuel to be loaded • Some operators choose a minimum tankering amount such that if the amount available to tanker is not at least equal to their chosen minimum. no fuel will be tankered Fuel Conservation 57 . along with fuel capacity limits.
For example: • Price may vary with amount purchased • Fixed hookup fees should be included (affects price per gallon . Understand how fuel prices are determined at your airline.Cost Calculations (continued) Calculation of fuel prices is not always as easy as it first appears.as more fuel is purchased. the hookup price/gallon decreases) • Taxes charged may be returned later as tax rebates lower the price per gallon Fuel Conservation 58 .
‘Assumed Percentage Burn-off’ Method • Assumes a fixed percentage of the tankered fuel is consumed per hour of flight time. usually 4 to 5% per hour • Divide total cost of additional fuel purchased at departure airport by amount remaining at destination airport to determine ‘effective’ price of fuel at destination • Assume some per gallon cost to cover unknowns • Break-even price is the ‘effective’ price plus the allowance for unknown costs • If price of fuel at destination is above the breakeven price. then it is cost-effective to tanker Fuel Conservation 59 .
34/gal • Cost-effective if destination fuel price above $1.00/gallon • Tankered fuel loaded = 40000 lb (6000 gallons) • Cost of tankered fuel = $6000 • Surplus fuel burn-off (4%/hour) = 24% • Tankered fuel at landing = 6000 x .02 = $1.32 + $.Example Cost Calculation • Planned flight time = 6 hours • Departure fuel price = $1.76 = 4560 gallons • Effective cost of tankered fuel = 6000/4560 = $1.34/gal Fuel Conservation 60 .32/gal • Allowance for unknown cost = $.02/gal (typical?) • Actual cost of tankered fuel = $1.
217 1. the fuel price at the destination must be greater than the break-even fuel price Fuel Conservation 61 va rie Sa s mp w l ith e d air ata pl o an n e ly m od el .130 1.722 • To economically justify tanker operation.023 1.046 1.061 1.012 1.334 1.Break-Even Price Ratio Method • Method used in Boeing FPPM (found in chapter 2 text) • Break-even price ratio is presented as a function of trip distance only Trip distance (nm) 200 400 600 800 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 Break-even price ratio 1.034 1.495 1.
E.Break-Even Price Ratio Method (continued) • Break-even fuel price is the destination price at which the cost of purchasing the fuel at the destination is equivalent to the cost of purchasing the same amount of fuel. at the origin • Break-even price occurs when: $ * (tankered fuel) = $ * (tankered fuel .fuel burnoff) gal gal Orig Dest = tankered fuel remaining at dest $ Break-even price = gal at destination Fuel Conservation Dest B. plus the fuel required to carry it. = $ gal Break-even * price ratio Orig 62 .
Break-Even Price Ratio Method (continued) • If the destination fuel price is greater than the breakeven price. it only considers the extra fuel burn off Fuel Conservation 63 . then it’s cheaper to tanker the fuel • The break-even price ratio does not include any allowance for additional maintenance costs.
94.96) Fuel Conservation 64 .477 Break-even price = $0.g. fuel price < $0. should increase the B.02 = $0.075 1.94.031 1.80 ( 1. fuel price = $0..E.80/gal Break-even price ratio 1. then more economical to tanker the fuel If dest. then more economical to purchase at dest.02/gal. fuel price > $0.175) = $0. if unknown costs estimated at $0.015 1. then B.311 1.Example Cost Calculation Model: 737-700/CFM56-7B24 Trip distance: 2000 NM Trip distance.045 1.94 If dest. To include increased maintenance costs. fuel price by the estimate (e.E.175 1.059 1.94 + $0. nm 200 400 600 800 1000 2000 3000 4000 Fuel price at origin: $0.
‘Relative Cost to Tanker’ Method • Considers the difference in total cost between tankering and not tankering the fuel • Only includes costs related to tankering or not tankering fuel • Requires calculation of fuel required for actual routes with and without tankering Fuel Conservation 65 .
‘Relative Cost to Tanker’ Method (continued) Leg 1 Leg 2 A B total cost with tankering C $ gal A Extra fuel Fuel Fuel req’d + carried + burned on leg 1 due to for use leg 1 extra wt in leg 2 $ gal Fuel req’d leg 1 $ gal Additional incremental + costs due to + higher weight Fuel req’d leg 2 $ gal B * Additional fuel req’d for leg 2 * A * B Total cost with no tankering Fuel Conservation 66 .
‘Relative Cost to Tanker’ Method (continued) Relative cost to tanker = fuel extra fuel carried + burned on for use leg 1 due to in leg 2 extra weight additional incremental + costs due to higher weight fuel carried for use in leg 2 $ gal A - $ gal * B cost of tankering the fuel cost of purchasing at the destination Fuel Conservation 67 .
then breakeven • If relative cost to tanker > 0.‘Relative Cost to Tanker’ Method (continued) • If relative cost to tanker = 0. (e. then costs are increased by tankering • If relative cost to tanker < 0. then tankering will only be used if relative cost to tanker < . then costs are reduced by tankering • Some operators choose a minimum financial gain below which there will not be tankering..$100) • Multiple legs (3 or more) add significantly to the complexity of the analysis Fuel Conservation 68 . if minimum gain selected as $100.g.
discretionary fuel Fuel Conservation 69 .‘Relative Cost to Tanker’ Method (continued) Additional Applications • If fuel is tankered in order to obtain a shorter turnaround time at a given destination you can determine the relative cost of the shorter turnaround time • Cost to tanker can be used to provide flight crews with information on the cost of carrying additional.
Fuel Tankering • Most flight planning services offer tankering analyses to their customers • You can work with your flight planning service on which assumptions to use/include. and in what form the results should be reported Fuel Conservation 70 .
Flight Crew Opportunities for Fuel Conservation: • Practice fuel economy in each phase of flight • Understand the airplane’s systems .Systems Management Fuel Conservation 71 .
Engine Start • Start engines as late as possible. coordinate with ATC departure schedule • Take delays at the gate if possible • Minimize APU use if ground power available Fuel Conservation 72 .
Taxi • Take shortest route possible • Use minimum thrust and minimum braking • Taxi with all engines operating? Fuel Conservation 73 .
Taxi One Engine Shut Down Considerations: • After-start and before-takeoff checklists delayed • Reduced fire protection from ground personnel • High weights.warm up and cool down • Pneumatic and electrical system requirements • Slow/tight turns in direction of operating engine(s) • Cross-bleed start requirements Balance fuel conservation and safety considerations Fuel Conservation 74 . taxi-way slope • Engine thermal stabilization . soft asphalt.
Sample Taxi and APU Fuel Burns Condition Taxi* (lb/min) APU (lb/min) 717 25 727 60 737 25 747 100 757 40 767 50 777 60 4 5 4 11 4 4 9 * Assumes all engines operating during taxi Fuel Conservation 75 .
Takeoff • Retract flaps as early as possible • Full rate or derate to save fuel? (Use of full rate will save fuel for a given takeoff. but general consensus is that in the long-term. total costs will be reduced by using reduced takeoff thrust) Fuel Conservation 76 .
3% -0.0% -0.4% 0.0% -25% -20% -15% -10% -5% 0% 77 (Courtesy of Pratt & Whitney) Fuel Conservation Average takeoff thrust reduction (% from full rate) .Reduced Take Off Thrust Improves Long-term Performance Retention 15% Average Thrust Reduction Can Improve Overall TSFC at 1000 Cycles by over 0.4% -0.8% -0.7% -0.6% -0.5% -0.2% -0.1% Estimated Reduced Thrust Impact at 1000 Cycles ∆ TSFC @ 1000 cycles -0.9% -1.
Climb Cost Index = 0 minimizes fuel to climb and cruise to a common point in space Initial cruise altitude grad ien 0 ( Min fue l) B int o oP t e tim B Max Altitude CI = t n Mi Cost index increasing A Distance 78 Fuel Conservation .
level flight may require some control surface inputs to maintain lateraldirectional control • Use of the proper trim procedure minimizes drag • Poor trim procedure can result in a 0.Directional Trim Procedure • A plane flying in steady.5% cruise drag penalty on a 747 • Follow the procedures provided in the Flight Crew Training Manual Fuel Conservation 79 .Cruise Lateral .
Cruise Systems Management • A/C packs in high flow typically produce a 0.5 .1 % increase in fuel burn • Do not use unnecessary cargo heat • Do not use unnecessary anti-ice • Maintain a balanced fuel load Fuel Conservation 80 .
Cruise Winds • Wind may be a reason to choose an “off optimum” altitude • Want to maximize ground miles per unit of fuel burned • Wind-Altitude trade tables are provided in the flight crew operations manual Fuel Conservation 81 .
Wind Effects On Fuel Mileage Fuel Mileage = NAM KG NGM KG = VTAS Fuel Flow VTAS + VWIND Fuel Flow un V Gro d Ground Fuel Mileage = = In cruise: positive wind = Tailwind negative wind = Headwind Fuel Used = NGM NGM/KG = = NAM NAM/KG (NGM) (Fuel Flow) VTAS + VWIND Fuel Conservation 82 .
Wind Effects On Cruise Altitude: Wind/Alt Trade Typical Wind/Altitude Trade Table 33 knots greater tailwind (or. lower headwind) would be required at FL310 relative to FL350 to obtain equivalent ground fuel mileage Fuel Conservation 83 .
82 31K.84 . Win d Ground fuel mileage 74 72 70 Ground fuel mileage 35K.83 .86 MACH number MACH number Fuel Conservation * Actual ground fuel mileage comparisons vary with airplane model.81 . Wind = 0 LRC.80 .83 . weight. 31K 66 64 . 35K Wind = -1 0 Wind = -20 =0 Wind = -30 Wind = -4 0 LRC.Wind Effects On Cruise Altitude: Wind/Alt Trade Typical Wind Altitude/Trade for Constant Airplane Weight Example of increasing Tailwind at 31.80 .82 . and altitudes considered 84 .85 .000 ft 78 Wind = 4 0 Example of increasing headwind at 35.85 . 35K 35K. 31K 68 66 64 . Win d =0 0 LRC.000 ft 78 76 76 Wind = 3 0 Wind = 2 0 Wind = 1 0 31K. Wind = 74 72 70 68 LRC.84 .81 .86 .
81 . and altitudes considered 85 .74 .Wind Effects On Cruise Mach Number Typical affect of wind on ground fuel mileage when flying a constant altitude and weight 240 Ground fuel mileage 220 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 .80 .73 .72 100 kt tailwind Zero wind LRC Zero wind LRC MR C 100 kt headwind 200 kt headwind .76 .79 .78 .75 .82 MACH number Fuel Conservation * Actual ground fuel mileage comparisons vary with airplane model.77 . weight.
ATC.Descent • Penalty for early descent . higher fuel burn • Optimum top of descent point is affected by wind. • Use information provided by FMC • Use idle thrust (no part-power descents) Fuel Conservation 86 .spend more time at low altitudes. speed restrictions. etc.
Descent Cost Index = 0 minimizes fuel between a common cruise point and a common end of descent point A Min e tim Final cruise altitude n poi from CI = Altitude 0( Mi nf ue l) tA Cost index increasing to B B Distance 87 Fuel Conservation .
Approach • Do not transition to the landing configuration too early • Fuel flow in the landing configuration is approximately 150% of the fuel flow in the clean configuration Fuel Conservation 88 .
G. loading if possible • Use lowest flap setting required • Target optimum altitude (wind-corrected) • Target LRC (or cost index) • Choose most direct routing • Use benefits of ETOPS routing • Use tankering where appropriate Fuel Conservation 89 .Summary Of Operational Practices Flight Operations / Dispatchers • Minimize landing weight • Do not carry more reserve fuel than required • Use aft C.
Summary Of Operational Practices Flight Crews • Minimize engine/APU use on ground • Retract Flaps as early as possible • Fly the flight-planned speeds for all phases of flight • Use proper trim procedures • Understand the airplane’s systems • Understand wind/altitude trades • Don’t descend too early (or too late) • Don’t transition to landing configuration too early Fuel Conservation 90 .
Maintenance Practices for Fuel Conservation .
Maintenance Personnel Opportunities For Fuel Conservation • Airframe maintenance • Engine maintenance • Systems maintenance Fuel Conservation 92 .
Excess Drag Is Lost Payload Fuel Conservation 93 .
000 • 727 ≈ 30.000 • 777 ≈ 70. Actual utilization rates may differ.Excess Drag Means Wasted Fuel 1% Drag In Terms Of Gallons Per Year • 747 ≈ 100.000 • 737 ≈ 15.000 • 757 ≈ 25. Fuel Conservation 94 .000 * Assumes typical airplane utilization rates.000 • 767 ≈ 30.
skin friction. leakage. separated flow Induced (vortex) drag ≈ drag due to lift • Downwash behind wing. interference between components • Parasite drag includes excrescence drag Fuel Conservation 95 .Total Drag Is Composed Of: Compressible drag ≈ drag due to Mach • Shock waves. trim drag Parasite drag ≈ drag not due to lift • Shape of the body.
Contributors To Total Airplane Drag (New Airplane at Cruise Conditions) Pressure. Actual magnitudes vary with airplane model 96 . trim and interference drag (optimized in the wind tunnel) ~ 6% Excrescence drag (this can increase) ~ 4% Drag due to airplane size and weight (unavoidable) ~ 90% Fuel Conservation * Typical values for illustration purposes.
What Is Excrescence Drag? The additional drag on the airplane due to the sum of all deviations from a smooth sealed external surface Proper maintenance can prevent an increase in excrescence drag Fuel Conservation 97 .
Excrescence Drag On A ‘New Airplane’ Is Composed Of: 4 Total Roughness & surface irregularities Internal airflow & seal leakage Mismatches and gaps 3 Excrescence drag (% airplane drag) 2 1 Discrete items 0 Fuel Conservation * Typical values for illustration purposes. Actual magnitudes vary with airplane model 98 .
position Fuel Conservation 99 . size. masts. lights • Drag is a function of design.Discrete Items • Antennas.
around windows.Mismatched Surfaces Steps and gaps at skin joints. control surfaces. and access panels Skin Frame Fuel Conservation 100 . doors.
Internal Airflow Leaks from higher to lower pressure areas due to deteriorated or poorly-installed aerodynamic seals Airflow Fuel Conservation 101 .
Roughness (Particularly Bad Near Static Sources) • Non-flush fasteners. gaps Non Flush Rivet Rough Surface Waviness Gaps Fuel Conservation 102 . rough surface • Waviness.
75” = 2% drag Rudder deflection 4.Most Important in Critical Areas • Forward portion of fuselage and nacelle • Leading areas of wings and tail • Local Coefficient of Pressure (Cp) is highest 747 Cruise Drag Sensitivities Outboard aileron up 4” = 1% drag All spoilers up 3.5 degrees (offset 9.5” at base) =2% drag Fuel Conservation 1” tall ridge on wing 75 ft. long = 2% drag 103 .
Regular Maintenance Minimizes Deterioration • Flight control rigging • Misalignments and mismatches • Aerodynamic seals • Exterior surface finish • OEW control • Engine maintenance • Instrument calibration Fuel Conservation 104 .
Flight Control Rigging Out of rig controls and flaps can cause a large increase in fuel burn 747-400 examples: • • • • Aileron 1” out of rig ≈ 0.4% fuel Upper and lower rudder offset ≈ 0.4% fuel Fuel Conservation 105 .25% fuel Spoilers 1.2.3 and 4 up 2” ≈ 0.35% fuel Inboard elevator 2” out of rig ≈ .
In-Flight Inspections Can be Easily Made Several times during flight: • Note required aileron and rudder trim ≈ 5 minutes • Visual check of spoiler misfair ≈ 5 minutes • Visual check of trailing edge of wing ≈ 10 minutes Fuel Conservation 106 .
Misrigged Ailerons Misrigged outboard ailerons can result in an increase in drag and fuel flow Fuel Conservation 107 .
Spoilers The spoilers can begin to rise if the aircraft is balanced by excessive autopilot lateral input Fuel Conservation 108 .
2 people) Rudders ≈ 3 hours (1 .2 people) Elevators ≈ 2 hours (2 people) Fuel Conservation 109 .Control Surface Rigging Check 747 example (includes fit and fair check): • • • • • Ailerons ≈ 4 hours (1 .2 people) Spoilers ≈ 2 hours (2 people) Flaps and Slats ≈ 3 hours (1 .
Mismatch Check items which are adjustable and could become misaligned after years of service: • Adjustable panels • Landing gear doors • Entry doors and cargo doors Fuel Conservation 110 .Misalignment.
Surface Mismatch Surface Mismatch – ADF Antenna Fairing – negative step Fuel Conservation 111 .
Surface Mismatch Engine inlet secondary inlet door mismatch – positive step Fuel Conservation 112 .
Leading Edge Mismatch 727 surface mismatch-R. Wing leading edge slat actuator rod cover .positive step Fuel Conservation Airflow 113 .H.
lower wing critical area (flap track fairing .Positive Step and Improper Seal 727 surface mismatch .positive step Airflow Fuel Conservation 114 .fabricated leather seal) .
Check for Tight Aircraft Doors Note the tight and even fit of the air conditioning compartment access doors Fuel Conservation 115 .
Maintain Seals • Passenger and cargo door seals • Damaged seals allow air to leak out • Lose ‘thrust recovery’ from outflow valves • Disrupts flow along the fuselage Passenger doors Fwd cargo door seal depressor before repair Fuel Conservation 116 .
H.Check for Missing or Damaged Seals 747 R. Wing gear well door forward outboard seal missing and damaged Airflow Fuel Conservation 117 .
lower fuselage Airflow Fuel Conservation 118 .Check for Rough Surface Paint 747 rough paint .
1% drag reduction if excessively dirty – Minimizes metal corrosion and paint damage – Location of leaks and local damage • Customer aesthetics Fuel Conservation 119 .Maintain a Clean Airplane • Maintain surface finish • Fluid leaks contribute to drag • Periodic washing of exterior is beneficial – 0.
Make Simple Inspections
• Seal inspections ≈ 1 hour • Nacelles and struts ≈ 2 hours • Wing/body/tail misfairs ≈ 2 hours • General roughness and appearance ≈ 1 hour • Pressurized fuselage leak ≈ 2 hours • Landing gear door check ≈ 1.5 hours
Average Results Of In-service Drag Inspections
• Results of in-service airframe drag inspections show the most common contributors to airframe deterioration are: – Control surface miss-rigging – Aerodynamic seal deterioration • Lesser contributors include: – Skin surface miss-matches – Surface roughness – ‘Other’
• Operating empty weight (OEW) typically increases 0.1% to 0.2% per year, leveling off around +1% from a new-airplane level in 5 to 10 years • Most OEW growth is mainly due to accumulation of: – Moisture – Dirt
• Need to balance savings from performance improvements versus cost to perform maintenance • Maintenance performed on high and low pressure turbines and compressors will help keep fuel consumption from deteriorating
HP compressor. HP turbine. airfoil blade erosion • Thermal distortion of blade parts • Blade leading edge wear • Excessive fan rubstrip wear • Lining loss in the HP compressor • Oil or dirt contamination of LP/HP compressor Seals / Valves / Cooling • Loss of High Pressure Turbine (HPT) outer air seal material • Leaking thrust reverser seals • ECS anomalies/leaks • Failed-open fan air valves/Failed-open IDG air-oil cooler valves • Faulty turbine case cooling/Faulty 11th stage cooling valves Fuel Conservation 124 .Items That Cause Engine/Fuel Burn deterioration Erosion / Wear / Contamination • Blade rubs .
Engine Components Are Affected By The Environment In Which They Operate Fuel Conservation 125 .
Typical Engine Deterioration Mechanisms Dirt accumulation Increased tip clearances Airfoil erosion Seal leakage Fuel Conservation (Courtesy of Pratt & Whitney) 126 .
Scheduled Refurbishing Recovers SFC and EGT SFC or EGT Shop visit Shop visit Hours or cycles Fuel Conservation (Courtesy of Pratt & Whitney) 127 .
Simple Procedures Can Recover Performance Between Scheduled Shop Visits On-Wing Engine Washing • Addresses dirt accumulation On-Wing Engine Bleed Rigging • Addresses leakage caused by bleed system wear Fuel Conservation (Courtesy of Pratt & Whitney) 128 .
5% SFC improvements possible Fuel Conservation (Courtesy of Pratt & Whitney) 129 .On-Wing Engine Washing Regular Intervals Ensure Fuel Economy • Simple procedure • Special tooling identified • 3-4 hours. two mechanics Hand wash fan and LPC stator vanes Up to 1.
SFC and EGT Can Be Recovered Between Shop Visits Using Repetitive Engine Washes Example of Water Wash Frequency Impact 4.0 3.0 1000 cycle wash Unwashed % ∆TSFC 2.5 0.5 3.0 0.75% 500 cycle wash cumulative benefit 0.5 1.5% Cycles 1000 cycle wash cumulative benefit Fuel Conservation (Courtesy of Pratt & Whitney) 130 .0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 500 cycle wash 0.0 1.5 2.
stability.On-Wing Engine Bleed Rigging Repair of Leaking Bleed Valves Saves Fuel • Simple procedure • Start. service bleeds • Problem Identified from in-flight performance trends Up to 2.5% SFC benefit possible Fuel Conservation (Courtesy of Pratt & Whitney) 131 .
01M faster can increase fuel burn by 1% or more Fuel Conservation 132 .Instrument Calibration • Speed measuring equipment has a large impact on fuel mileage • If speed is not accurate the airplane may be flying faster or slower than intended • On the 747-400. flying 0.
Airspeed System Error Penalty • Keep airspeed system calibrated • Airspeed reads 1% low. airplane flies 1% fast • About 2% drag penalty in a 747 Fuel Conservation 133 .
Check Static Sources Plugging or deforming the holes in the alternate static port can result in erroneous instrument readings in the flight deck. Fuel Conservation 134 . Keeping the circled area smooth and clean promotes aerodynamic efficiency.
Proper and Continuous Airframe and Engine Maintenance Will Keep Your Airplanes Performing at Their Best! Don’t let this… Become this! Fuel Conservation 135 .
flight crews. flight operations.Conclusions It Takes the Whole Team to Win • Large fuel savings results from the accumulation of many smaller fuel-saving actions and policies • Dispatch. and management all need to contribute • Program should be tailored to your airline’s needs and requirements Fuel Conservation 136 . maintenance.
July 1994 to December 1997 • Aero Magazine (replaced Airliner after Boeing .January 1981 to December 1983 – Fuel Conservation & Operations Newsletter .MDC merger) – January 1998 to 2003 Fuel Conservation 137 .For More Information Boeing has published numerous articles addressing fuel conservation over the last 4 decades in the following publications: • Airliner Magazine – 1958 to 1997 • Newsletters (self-contained inserts in the Airliner Magazine) – Fuel Conservation Newsletter .January 1984 to June 1994 – Operations Newsletter .
End of Fuel Conservation Flight Operations Engineering Boeing Commercial Airplanes November 2004 .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.