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**FASCICLE V, TECHOLOLOGIES IN MACHINE BUILDING, ISSN 1221-4566
**

2007

10

Design of the virtual model of re-drawing process

C. Maier

1

, Kosmalski N.

2

, M. Banu

1

,

Epureanu Al.

1

, Paunoiu V.

1

1

Universitatea “Dunărea de jos” GalaŃi, Facultatea de Mecanică

2

Ecole des Mines de Douai,France

ABSTRACT

This paper deals with the develop the finite element modelization of the re-drawing

process in order to create his virtual model. The finite element is a method that

permits to reduce the time and the cost in the designing. Then in a second time a

good finite element model permit to avoid or complement laboratory

characterization of material for re drawing. methodology for developing a

laboratory inverse re-drawing device. The drawing process is performed in two

phases: a direct drawing of a circular blank followed by a second reverse re-

drawing phase on the same device.

A work is also done on the finite element model for the single deep drawing.

This single deep drawing is used to validate the parameters of the numerical model.

The main goal of this simulation is to define geometrical parameters of the process,

in order to design a reverse re-drawing machine, and have the possibility in the

future to compare experimental results and finite element results. The second goal

is the estimation of the blank reaction (ability to support the process), and eliminate

as well the default obtain during the simulation.

Keywords: finite element simulations, inverse re-drawing, strain path

1. Introduction

This study deals with the creation of a finite

elements simulation of a reverse deep

redrawing process. The re drawing is a process

decomposed in several stages, and permit to

obtain better results than a single step drawing

(part 2).

Firstly, the goal is to determined correct

numerical parameters (part 3.3) for a simulation

of deep drawing. This research is based upon

the comparison between a single drawing

experimentation (part 3.1) and the result of the

simulation of this experience (part 3.2).

The parameters is used in the simulation

of the reverse drawing (part 4) in order to

dimension reverse deep drawing tools

parameters (clearance between the punch and

the die/round radius of the punch and the die).

A good simulation also permits to avoid or

complement laboratory characterization of

reverse deep drawing process.

2. Generality on reverse drawing

The severity of a deep drawing pass on a metal

blank could be represented by the draw ratio

that is defined as β=D

o

/d

o

(where Do is the

blank diameter and do the punch diameter). A

blank with a certain thickness and material

characteristics, has a draw ratio limit βlim

which represent the most severe operation that

it can be submit to. In this way a blank could

pass through a deep drawing operation if β <

β

li m

.

When high drawing ratios is required the

process is decomposed into several steps. There

are usually two kinds of redrawing: the direct

and the reverse one.

The direct re-drawing use punch travel in

the same time whereas reverse re-drawing

punch travel in the opposite direction.

Logically, the thickness reduces due to the first

pass makes that the limiting draw ratio has to

be decrease for the next steps:

lim

β ⋅ = k

e

d

o

(1)

where:

e - steel thickness

k - proportionality factor.

In the facts, we observe that β

2l i m

(limit

drawing ratio on the second step) is superior to

the estimation of β

2li m

based on the thickness

FASCICLE V THE ANNALS OF ‘DUNĂREA DE JOS” UNIVERSITY OF GALAłI

11

reduction. The modification of the hardening

parameters due to the first pass and the

bending-unbending effects when sheet pass in

the second step enhanced the material drawing

properties.

3. Validation of a finite element model

The comparison between the model and the

experiments is realized for the HSLA steel (cf.

tab 1). The FEM also was realized for the

DP600 steel. Both of them steels are designed

for drawing operation.

Is detailed below, the geometrical

parameters both used in the model and in the

experimentation

Fi g. 1 - Geomet ri cal paramet ers.

The dr aw r at i o ( i . e. sever i t y of t he

pass def i ned as β =D

0

/ d

0

– cap. 1) of t he

oper at i on i s β=1. 67. The l i mi t i ng dr aw

r at i o ( t he sever i t y t hat st eel can be submi t

t o) for HSLA st eel i n our case i s β

l i m

=1. 81.

Tab 1 - Material properties

Mat er i al Y

0

[ Mpa]

R

m

[ Mpa

]

E

[ Mpa]

ν

DP600 260 840 210000 0. 33

HSLA 370 530 210000 0. 33

Tab 2 - Power law parameters

Mat er i al A m E

[ Mpa]

ν

DP600 1093 0. 187 210000 0. 33

HSLA 673 0. 131 210000 0. 33

3.1 The experimental procedure

A 3 mm diameter circle (dini) patterns is

printed on the blank. When the drawing is done,

the circle’s deformation were measured by

electronic microscope and given the major and

minor strain

Fi g. 2 - Def ormat i on of t he gri d

Tab 3 - Ci rcl e' s def ormat i on

i d maj . d mi n.

1 4, 649 1, 806

2 4, 871 1, 884

3 4, 21 1, 993

4 4, 24 2, 053

5 4, 16 2, 446

6 3, 245 2, 621

W

a

l

l

o

f

c

u

p

7 3, 146 3, 043

8 3, 006 3, 046

9 3, 052 3, 234

10 3, 154 3, 217

11 3, 154 3, 117

12 3, 142 3, 032

B

o

t

t

o

m

o

f

c

u

p

The ci r cl e 12 i s t angent at t he cent er ,

and ci r cl es i ndexes f r om 12 t o 7 ar e

di sposed on t he base of t he cup. The ci r cl e

1 i s on t he bl ank bor der and ci r cl es 1 t o 6

ar e di sposed, fr om t he bor der , n t he wal l of

t he dr awed cup. The ci r cl e on t he cup

r ound can’t be measur ed.

Fr om t hese measur es, t he maj or and

t he mi nor st r ai n ( ε

1

, ε

2

) ar e cal cul at ed:

ε

1

=ln(d

maj

/d

i ni

) ; ε

2

=ln(d

mi n

/d

i ni

) (2)

Then t he t hi ckness st r ai n ( ε3) i s

deduced wi t h t he vol ume conser vat i on

r ul e:

ε

1

+ ε

2

+ ε

3

= 0 (3)

Punch di amet er d

o

= 82. 36mm

Punch r ound

r adi us

r

p

= 5. 5mm

Bl ank t hi ckness e = 1mm

Bl ank di amet er D

0

=138mm

Di e r ound r adi us r

d

= 8mm

Cl ear ance c = 1. 3mm

Dr awi ng dept h P = 41mm

THE ANNALS OF ‘DUNĂREA DE JOS” UNIVERSITY OF GALAłI FASCICLE V

12

Assumed t hat i s a pl ane st r ess model ,

( nor mal for ces on cont act ar e negl ect ed)

t he st r ess i s cal cul at ed wi t h Lévy- Von

Mi ses cr i t er i a:

Hook r ul es:

( ) | |

¦

¦

¹

¦

¦

´

¦

=

=

⋅ = + − =

...

...

;

1

z

y

xy xy z y x x

G

E

ε

ε

σ ς σ σ u σ ε

(4)

So i t can be deduced t he st r ess :

( )

¦

¦

¦

¹

¦

¦

¦

´

¦

=

=

+ +

−

+ =

...

...

2 1

2

z

y

z y x x x

G

σ

σ

ε ε ε

u

u

ε σ

( 5)

Thi s r el at i on i s obt ai ned :

G

x z

x z

z y

z y

y x

y x

2 =

−

−

=

−

−

=

−

−

ε ε

σ σ

ε ε

σ σ

ε ε

σ σ

( 6)

I n gener al case :

cste =

−

−

=

−

−

=

−

−

1 3

1 3

3 2

3 2

2 1

2 1

ε ε

σ σ

ε ε

σ σ

ε ε

σ σ

( 7)

I n t he si t uat i on of pl ane st r ess:

3 2

2

2 1

2 1

ε ε

σ

ε ε

σ σ

−

=

−

−

( 8)

Huber -Mi ses-Hencky pl ast i c cr i t er i a:

0 min max

βσ σ σ = − wi t h β=1. 1 ( 9)

I n our case i f σ

1

> σ

2

t hen

σ

1

- σ

2

= β σ

0

So t he st r ess can be deduce fr om st r ai n :

3 1

0 1

2 1

ε ε

β σ σ

ε ε

−

⋅ ⋅ =

−

;

2 3

0 2

1 2

ε ε

β σ σ

ε ε

−

⋅ ⋅ =

−

( 10)

3.2 The numerical model

The finite element simulation is realized with

the implicit code MscMarc. A two dimensions

model is used with linear quad elements and

with the large strain multiplicative option and

use coulomb friction. The material is defined as

elasto-plastic and use a power law modelisation

(Swift law) :

σ = Aε

m

(11)

Tab 4 - Parameters of the simulation

The opt i mi ze paramet ers

Rel at i ve sl i di ng

vel oci t y

0. 075

Fr i ct i on coef f i ci ent 0. 01

Cont act 0. 01

Cont act bi as 0. 1

3.3 Comparison between simulation and

experimentation

Here a good strain correlation between the

result of the FEM and experimentation is

observed: 0,88 for the major strain and 0,97 for

the minor strain.

The axy-symmetric simulation gives

results close to the experimentation but there is

anyway a gap between the series of strain. The

average difference in the wall strain is about

20% and more than 100% in the bottom of the

cup. Anyway, the simulation gives usable and

coherent in the wall. And underestimation of

20% of the maximum strain value in the wall

has to be taken in account to obtain coherent

results. But the results in the bottom of cup are

unusable.

The plane stress simulation doesn’t give

good strain results because the compressive

stress under the blank holder is not applied on

elements. And so only the stress due to the die

round radius is involved in the model, what it

explain the tray allure for the strain in the wall

(see the plane stress modelization strain in the

figure 3 and 4).

Contrary to the plane stress model, axy-

symmetric model take in account the

compressive stress and so gives better results.

-0,6

-0,5

-0,4

-0,3

-0,2

-0,1

0

0,1

0,2

1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 33 37 41 45 49 53 57 61 65 69

Initial radial position

s

t

r

a

i

n

Plane stress AxySymmetric Experimental

Fi g 3- Mi nor st rai n f or t he t wo FEM

model i zat i on and experi ment al dat as.

0

0,1

0,2

0,3

0,4

0,5

0,6

1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 33 37 41 45 49 53 57 61 65 69

Inital radial position

s

t

r

a

i

n

Plane stress Axy-symmetric Experimental

Fi g 4 - Maj or st rai n

FASCICLE V THE ANNALS OF ‘DUNĂREA DE JOS” UNIVERSITY OF GALAłI

13

4. Reverse re-drawing simulation

In order to create a laboratory reverse re-

drawing tool, the finite elements method allows

to shearsh optimize dimension for this.

4.1 Characteristics of the simulation

This simulation uses the parameters in table 4

and the characteristics of DP600 and HSLA

steels. The first pass is the same than previous

with a drawing depth of 29,5 mm.

The second pass use a 47 mm diameter

punch and has a drawing depth of 58,5 mm.

Initially there is a clearance of 5,2 mm between

the punch and the die on the second pass. This

clearance was too high and creates undulations.

(see the table of synthesis to reduce clearance).

The final clearance is set at 1,2 mm but

increase the stress in the sheet. Consequently

we reduce the clearance on the first pass at 1,5

mm in order to reduce the stress and help the

sheet move.

4.2 Increases of material abilities in a

reverse redrawing process

In our case the second step’s limiting draw ratio

is β

2li m

=1,33. But the draw ratio on the second

pass in the simulation (β

2

=1,75) is over the

limit. As explain in the part 2. The modification

of the material history and the effect of “re-

treatment” of the second pass enhanced material

drawing abilities.

Tab 5 - Draw ratios of the reverse drawing FEM

Fi r st

pass

Second

pass

Over Al l

β 1, 67 1, 75 2, 92*

β

l i m

1, 81 1, 33

( *r at i o i f oper at i on was made i n a si ngl e

pass) .

Moreover it seems harder to evaluate the

limiting draw ratio for the second pass except

by realized tests or create a finite element

model dedicate to this.

5. Conclusion

Once the numerical model is validate, this

allow to use in combination with the laboratory

trial of deep drawing in order to reduce time

and cost on the drawing characterization

operation.

The result of the reverse drawing

simulation permit to evaluate the abilities of

such a process. Secondly some important

geometrical parameters (like, the clearance)

were evaluate and improve the design of tools

for a reverse drawing machine.

6. Acknowledgements

This work has been material and logistic

funded by the National Excellence Research

Project -CEEX contract no. 22/2005.

References

1. M. Banu, C. Maier, S. Bouvier, H. Haddadi, C.

Teodosiu, Dat a Pr epr oces s i ng and I dent i f i cat i on of

t he El as t opl as t i c Cons t i t ut i ve Model s - WP3, Tas k

1, 18- Mont hs Pr ogr es s Repor t , Di gi t al Di e Des i gn

Sys t ems ( 3DS) IMS 199 000051, ( 2001) , 22- 29.

2. W. Johns on, P. B . Mel l or, Engi neer i ng

pl as t i ci t y, ELLI S HARWOOD SERI ES IN

MECHANI CAL ENGINEERI NG, 1987

3. Manuel Ne moz, Gener al i t y on t he deep

dr awi ng, ( Uni ver s i t e de Poi t i er s )

4. Ami t Mukund Jos hi , St r ai n s t udi es i n s heet

met al s t ampi ng.

FASCICLE V THE ANNALS OF ‘DUNĂREA DE JOS” UNIVERSITY OF GALAłI

11

Proiectarea modelului virtual al procesului de ambutisare inversa

Rezumat

Aceasta lucrare prezinta metodologia modelarii cu elemente finite a procesului de

ambutisare inversa cu scopul dezvoltarii unui model virtual al acestuia. Metoda

elementelor finite permite reducerea timpului si costurilor de proiectare. De

asemenea, o modelare corecta cu elemente finite permite evitarea defectelor si

completarea cunostintelor privind comportarea materialului in timpul procesului de

ambutisare inversa. Pentru a putea aprecia corectitudinea modelarii cu elemente

finite se impune realizarea unui echipament tehnologic de laborator pentru

ambutisarea inversa.

In cadrul lucrarii sunt prezentate rezultatele simularii numerice a primei

etape – ambutisarea directa, rezultate care sunt validate prin cercetare

experimentala. Odata validati parametrii modelului numeric, se dezvolta acesta cu

scopul proiectarii si realizarii echipamentului de laborator pentru ambutisarea

inversa. Al doilea obiectiv major al cercetarii prezentate in aceasta lucrare este

estimarea corecta a reactiei de raspuns a materialului in timpul procesului de

deformare, astfel incat sa se evite posibilele defecte de tip cute, fisuri, revenire

elastica..

Conception du model virtuel du processus d’emboutissage inverse

Résume

Ce papier présent la méthode de modélisation éléments finis du processus

d’emboutissage inverse au but de développer un nouveau model virtuel de celui-ci.

La méthode éléments finis permet de réduire le temps et le coût des activités de

conception. Ensuite, une modélisation correcte aux éléments finis permet d’éviter les

défauts et compléter les connaissances sur le comportement du matériau pendant le

processus d’emboutissage inverse. Pour pouvoir valider la modélisation éléments

finis il s’impose la fabrication d’un équipement de laboratoire pour l’emboutissage

inverse.

Dans ce papier nous présentons les résultats de la simulation numérique de la

première étape – l’emboutissage direct, résultats valides par la recherche

expérimentale. Une fois valides les paramètres du model numérique, nous avons

développe ce model au but de réaliser la conception et la fabrication de

l’équipement de laboratoire pour l’emboutissage inverse. Le deuxième objectif la

recherche effectue a été la prédiction de la réaction réponse du matériau pendant le

processus de mise en forme, ainsi que nous pouvons éviter les défauts possibles de

type plis, fissures, retour élastique.

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