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Energy use in paper production

Energy optimisation in drying: ventilation and heat recovery

Stock preparation Wire and press Drying Other treatmens

Jobien Laurijssen
Centre of Competence Paper and Board
Kenniscentrum Papier en Karton (KCPK)


Energy use in paper drying

The energy needed for paper drying is a function of:

amount of water evaporation (ton water / ton paper) X efficiency of water evaporation (GJ / ton water) energy recovery (GJ / ton paper)

Amount of water evaporation

Removal of water

Reduce water removal in dryer

Wire (mechanical) Press (mechanical) Drying section (thermical) Large differences in Amount of water removal Energy use of water removal Water removal in wet end : Water removal in dry end : 0.01 GJ / ton water 3.8 GJ / ton water

Increase dry matter content after press section

Reduce water additions in between drying sections

Avoid excessive drying

Energy use after-drying section

Heat of sorption


kJ / kg paper (bone dry)

2000 1500 1000 500 0 8 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 Heat of sorption Extra energy that is needed for the evaporation of bound water consistency starch solution [%]

Measures to reduce evaporation

Increase dry matter content after press section 1% increase is 4% steam reduction

Avoid over-drying Bound water has highest energy demand!

Efficiency of water evaporation

Reduce water additions in size press/coater High consistency additives

Dryer energy balance

Exhaust air / kg H2O Hood Evaporation 1 kg H2O Paper web in Paper web out

Defining energy use

Energy content of exhaust air (kJ / kg air) Energy content of supply air (kJ / kg air) Energy input (kJ / kg air) = Energy content (exhaust air supply air)

Heat losses

Air use (kg drying air / kg water )

Condensate / kg H2O Steam / kg H2O Heat Consumption: (example) exhaust air paper out heat losses steam supply air paper in condensate = = = = 90% 2% 8% 100% Supply air / kg H2O

Energy use (kJ / kg water) = Air use x Energy input

Drying air parameters

Relationship between parameters

Absolute moisture content is independ on air temperature The ability of air to hold water increases with temperature Relative humidity decreases with increasing air temperature

Dew point ( C) is the temperature at which air at decreasing temperatures will condensate

Relative humidity (%) indicates the amount of moisture that the air contains as compared to amount that it can maximally contain at the same temperature
100% Absolute moisture Relative humidity

Absolute moisture content (g/kg) is the absolute amount (g) of moisture present in a kilogram of air
Dewpoint Temperature

Psychrometric (mollier) chart

Explanation mollier chart

492C 450C 1.2 19.9

partial vapour press. in kPa



- Absolute humidity - Relative humidty - Dew point temperature - Partial vapour pressure - Specific volume - Dry bulb temperature - Wet bulb temperature - Enthalpy

g vapour /kg dry air % C kPa m3 / kg dry air C C kJ /kg dry air


Shows by means of continuous lines the relation between the following parameters (all expressed per kg dry air):


85 C

62 C 60 C

wb= 63,1


10 C 29 J/g 8 168 150 abs. humidity in g/kg drying air)

430 C


Calculating energy use

Exhaust air (U1): Temp = 80 C Rel. hum. = 40%

Energy input (kJ/ kg) =

Supply air (i1): Temp = 10 C Rel. hum. = 80%
80 C U1

h exhaust h supply
1000 g wexhaust wsupply

Air use (kg dry air / kg PWE) =

wb= 60C

59 C

Energy use (kJ / kg water) = Air use x Energy input

10 C i1

i1= 6

u2= 144

430 C


787 C


Exhaust air (U1): Dewpoint = 59 C Rel. hum. = 40%

h exhaust h supply
463 26 = 437 kJ/kg air

Exhaust air (U1): Dewpoint = 70 C Rel. hum. = 40%

h exhaust h supply
835 26 = 809 kJ/kg air

80 C


1000 g wexhaust wsupply

93 C


1000 g wexhaust wsupply

1000 / (277 - 6) = 3,69 kg air/ kg water
wb= 71C


1000 / (144 - 6) = 7,25 kg air/ kg water

wb= 60C


Energy use = 437 * 7,25 =

10 C

Energy use = 809 * 3,69 =

10 C

3167 kJ/ kg water


2985 kJ/ kg water


i1= 6


i1= 6


Condition drying air in exhaust pipe

Calculation example
Same relative moisture content IN OUT 89 23 55 396 115 9.18 370 3399 OUT 95.2 23 60 504 152 6.83 478 3265 Higher relative moisture content OUT 89 29.5 60 495 152 6.83 470 3211 C % C kJ/kg g/kg kg/kg kJ/kg MJ/ton H20

Two basic conditions: - Process requirement: max RH - Construction requirement: max. dew point hood

Temp Rel. moist. Cont. Dewpoint Enthalpy Absolute moisture Amount of air Enthalpy difference

10 80 6.7 25 6

At higher temperatures, energy consumption decreases ! Energy use Energy cost reduction per year



* For a mill with a production of 200.000 ton per year

Supply air energy use and heat recovery

Benefits of high dew point

Less supply air needed: Less heating required ( Steam) Less fan power ( Electricity) More heat recovery options ( HRC) Smaller dimensions

Measures to increase drying efficiency

Hood types

- Increase dew point - Reduce air flow (recirculate air if needed) - Strive for a maximal relative moisture content - Avoid too high supply air temperatures - Install frequency driven ventilation - Increase heat recovery

Yankee drying hood

Air flows Yankee drying hood

Total amount of intake air is sum of infiltration air, balance air (make-up air) and combustion air. In principle this quantity of air should be as low as possible:

Drying energy is combination of steam and gas use Boiling type drying instead of convective type drying in MC Exhaust air temp. is much higher than in MC (300 C vs 90 C) Dewpoint is also higher (75 C vs 62 C) Energy use calculation is same as for MC(exhaust-supply air) but be careful with Mollier chart: combustion process adds moisture!

balance air valve closed infiltration air minimized (air knife) combustion air is necessity: from energy point of view, an air factor of 1 would be best; but in this case the combustion temperature will be too high (1800 C). (In practic e, the air factor applied in Yankee-hood burners is at least 1,5)

Reduced drying air will increase the moisture content per kg dry air and subsequently the dew point will go up.

Yankee drying hood (high dew point)

Air use , conventional dew point 2-3 kg dry air / kg H2O Air use , ultra high dew point 0,6 kg dry air / kg H2O Conventional dew point ~70-75 C X = 0,3-0,5 kg H2O/kg dry air Ultra high dew point ~90 C X = 1,8 kg H2O/kg dry air

Yankee hood energy optimization

Increase dew point : Reduce air factor burner Reduce infiltration air Increase relative humidity Reduce hood height for better heat transfer Insulate hood Preheat burning air Avoid excessive drying (control moisture profile) Heat recovery!

Approach Practical experiences in reducing drying energy by optimizing air flows

Measuring current process conditions Define energy balances Modelling of potential savings Create awareness by educating operators Practical tests to confirm saving potential and to identify risks Cost/benefit analysis Implementation

Measurements inside drying hood

Measurements in supply and exhaust ducts

Create openings (>60) Measurement devices

8 full days of measurements in two teams of two

General drying model was developed for the Dutch industry Customizing model for paper mill X Input measurements in flowcharts Control of balances , correct deviations Input of verified measurements in drying model Define saving potential at various locations

Creating awareness
Awareness energy use and energy costs with operators Insight in possible saving potential and their role in reaching it Instructions to increase dewpoint Emphasis on limitations and risks related to drying hood
1st operator session

Dewpoint temperature

2nd operator session

60 C

Modeling results: 800.000 euro/yr saving possible at: Optimized air conditions en HRC until 60 C

50 C

Savings realised:
Dewpoint increased from 55 C to 63 C - Steamflow Saving 1,7 ton/hour - Electricity air fans Saving 100 kW - Temp press water 49,8 oC to 53,8 oC Cost Saving 0,-- (no out-of-pocket costs, but many hours were spend) +/- 400.000 per year


Large savings are possible

Mill estimates saving potential of +/- 1million /yr on 1 machine Preconditions: find economically feasible applications for internal use of recovered heat All starts with awareness, attention, the right settings and a clean machine

Heat in paper- and board industry

Waste heat energy conversion



Waste heat drying sections


Heat recovery


Energy conversion

Paper production H

Waste heat via waste water 6%

Paper industry is large user and supplier of heat

Approach in heat optimization

Reduce heat demand (I)

Reduce evaporation

Reduce heat demand Increase internal heat recovery

Direct After upgrading, conversion or separation


Increase dry matter content after press section (vacuum, press, increased dewatering (chem+temp)) Avoid excessive drying(sensors, APC) Less water additions (high consistency sizing / coating)


Increase drying efficiency

Increase dewpunt Avoid heat losses
Sustainable production

External waste heat delivery Sustainable production of heat

Use lower value heat sources (waste heat) when possible

Reduce heat demand (II)

Internal heat recovery options

Increase proces water temperature



increase dewpoint HRC (high consistency sizing ) sensors


Preheating supply air (air/air heat exchanger) Heating of process water (air/water heat exchanger) Heating of fresh water (air/water heat exchanger) Heating of circulation water for machine room ventilation (air/water heat ex.)


Space heating Other users

Heat scan

Supply air heating

Preheating supply air with exhaust air Efficiency depends on heat transfer efficiency Applied in most paper machines Supply air should only be around 20C above dew point

Air / air heat exchanger

Process water heating

- Plate or tube design, - Cross flow - Heat transfer partly by condensation partly by convection Increased process water temperature reduces water viscosity: 10C increase in temp 1% higher dry matter content

Increased process water temperature increases wire evaporation Heating of process water with steam often does not pay-off

Air / water heat exchanger


-Tube design -Cross flow -Heat transfer primarily by condensation on the exhaust side

787 C


430 C


Exhaust air (U1): Temp = 93 C Rel. hum. = 40%

h exhaust h supply
835 26 38 = 771 kJ/kg air

h exhaust h supply
463 26 = 437 kJ/kg air

93 C


1000 g wexhaust wsupply

80 C


1000 g wexhaust wsupply

1000 / (144 - 6) = 7,25 kg air/ kg water
wb= 60C

70C U3 47C

1000 / (277 - 6) = 3,69 kg air/ kg water

wb= 71C


Energy use = 771 * 3,69 =

10 C

Energy use = 437 * 7,25 =

10 C

2845 kJ/ kg water


3167 kJ/ kg water


i1= 6


i1= 6


HRC potential depends on temperature of application

HRC potential increases with increased dew point temperatures

Current situation

60 C

50 C

40 C

30 C

20 C

Optimised situation

60 C

50 C

40 C

30 C

20 C

Internal heat recovery (II)

Heat pump (closed system) Mechanical Vapour Recompression (open system)

Internal heat recovery (III)

ORC TAP Membrane/ Sorption HRC

Electricity Thermo Accoustic Power Organic Rankine Cycle Cooling

HRC Heat pump /MVR


Separation of water and airstreams

Membrane technology Chemical sorption
Space heating Other users STEAM

Measures to improve heat recovery

Avoid uncontrolled heat losses Reduce amount of waste heat Increase quality of waste heat Re-use internally:
- Supply air heating - Process water heating - Space heating

Increase dew point

Upgrade (heat pump, ORC etc.) Export