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Representation

Objectives

How to find mathematical model, called a

state-space representation, for a linear, time-

invariant system

How to convert between transfer function and

state space models

How to linearize a state space representation

Plant

Mathematical Model :

Differential equation

Linear, time invariant

Frequency Domain

Technique

Time Domain Technique

General State Representation

Bu Ax x + =

Du Cx y + =

x

x

y

u

A

B

C

D

= state vector

= derivative of the state vector with respect to time

= output vector

= input or control vector

= system matrix

= input matrix

= output matrix

= feedforward matrix

State equation

output equation

General State Dimensions

output equation

Block diagram of the continuous-time system

Bu Ax x + =

Du Cx y + =

State equation

output equation

Some definitions

System variable : any variable that responds to an input or initial

conditions in a system

State variables : the smallest set of linearly independent system

variables such that the values of the members of the set at time

t0 along with known forcing functions completely determine the

value of all system variables for all t t0

State vector : a vector whose elements are the state variables

State space : the n-dimensional space whose axes are the state

variables

State equations : a set of first-order differential equations with b

variables, where the n variables to be solved are the state

variables

Output equation : the algebraic equation that expresses the

output variables of a system as linear combination of the state

variables and the inputs.

Convert a transfer function

u b y a

dt

dy

a

dt

y d

a

dt

y d

n

n

n

n

n

0 0 1

1

1

1

= + + + +

y x =

1

dt

dy

x =

2

choose

2

2

3

dt

y d

x =

1

1

=

n

n

n

dt

y d

x

diferensiasikan

dt

dy

x =

1

2

2

2

dt

y d

x =

3

3

3

dt

y d

x =

n

n

n

dt

y d

x =

n n

x x

x x

x x

=

=

=

1

3 2

2 1

u b x a x a x a x

n n n 0 1 2 1 1 0

+ =

u

b x

x

x

x

x

a a a a a a a x

x

x

x

x

n

n

n n

n

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

+

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

=

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

0

1

3

2

1

1 5 4 3 2 1 0

1

3

2

1

0

0

0

0

1 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 1 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 1 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 1 0

| |

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

n

n

x

x

x

x

x

y

1

3

2

1

0 0 0 1

r c c c c 24 24 26 9 = + + +

c x =

1

c x =

2

1.

Inverse Laplace

c x =

3

2.

Select state variables

2 1

x x =

3 2

x x =

r x x x x 24 9 26 24

3 2 1 3

+ =

1

x c y = =

( )

( )

( ) s D

s N

s G =

( ) s N

( ) s D

numerator

denominator

r

x

x

x

x

x

x

(

(

(

+

(

(

(

(

(

(

=

(

(

(

24

0

0

9 26 24

1 0 0

0 1 0

3

2

1

3

2

1

| |

(

(

(

=

3

2

1

0 0 1

x

x

x

y

Decomposing a transfer function

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) s X b s b s b s C s Y

1 0 1

2

2

+ + = =

( )

1 0

1

1

2

1

2

2

x b

dt

dx

b

dt

x d

b t y + + =

( )

3 2 2 1 1 0

x b x b x b t y + + =

Example

( )

3 2 1

7 2 x x x t y + + =

| |

(

(

(

=

3

2

1

1 7 2

x

x

x

y

State Space to TF

( ) ( ) ( ) s BU s AX s sX + =

( ) ( ) ( ) s DU s CX s Y + =

( ) ( ) ( ) s BU A sI s X

1

=

Bu Ax x + =

Du Cx y + =

Laplace Transform

( ) ( ) | | ( ) s U D B A sI C s Y + =

1

( )

( )

( )

( ) D B A sI C

s U

s Y

s T + = =

1

u x x

(

(

(

+

(

(

(

=

0

0

10

3 2 1

1 0 0

0 1 0

| |x y 0 0 1 =

( )

(

(

(

=

3 2 1

1 0

0 1

s

s

s

A sI

( )

) det(

) (

1

A sI

A sI adj

A sI

=

1 2 3

) 1 2 (

) 3 ( 1

1 3 ) 2 3 (

2 3

2

2

+ + +

(

(

(

+

+

+ + +

=

s s s

s s s

s s s

s s s

( ) ( ) D B A sI C s T + =

1

( )

1 2 3

) 2 3 ( 10

2 3

2

+ + +

+ +

=

s s s

s s

s T

HOW TO INPUT THE STATE SPACE

MODEL INTO MATLAB

In order to enter a state space model into MATLAB,

enter the coefficient matrices A, B, C, and D into

MATLAB. The syntax for defining a state space model in

MATLAB is:

statespace = ss(A, B, C, D)

where A, B, C, and D are from the standard vector-

matrix form of a state space model.

Example

For the sake of example, lets take m = 2, b = 5, and k = 3.

>> m = 2;

>> b = 5;

>> k = 3;

>> A = [ 0 1 ; -k/m -b/m ];

>> B = [ 0 ; 1/m ];

>> C = [ 1 0 ];

>> D = 0;

>> statespace_ss = ss(A, B, C, D)

EXTRACTING A, B, C, D MATRICES

FROM A STATE SPACE MODEL

In order to extract the A, B, C, and D

matrices from a previously defined state

space model, use MATLAB's ssdata

command.

[A, B, C, D] = ssdata(statespace)

where statespace is the name of the state

space system.

Example

>> [A, B, C, D] = ssdata(statespace_ss)

The MATLAB output will be:

A =

-2.5000 -0.3750

4.0000 0

Cont

B =

0.2500

0

C =

0 0.5000

D =

0

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