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O.D.M Computer & Mgt.


Q.1:- Define a contract. Discuss the essential elements of a valid contract and classification of contract in brief. Ans:- Introduction:- A contract is a legally binding agreement. That is, an agreement which will be enforced by the courts. Definition:- Section 2(h) Indian Contract Act “ An agreement which is enforceable by law”/ Above definition has include two important components contract. 1) Agreement, 2) Legal Obligation. The essential elements of a valid contract are:- Under section 10:1) Agreement:- an agreement gives birth to a contract. Agreement is every promise and each other (section 2(e)). An agreement includes main two elementsoffers and acceptance. “All contrafcts are agreement but all agreements are not contract.” All contracts are agreements:- “Agreement consists in two persons being of the same intention concerning the matter agreed upon”. Under agreement remember some essential point are:- written proof legal obligation registration, etc. All agreements are not contract:- Some agreements legal obligation is not necessary like religious, social, moral, culture. Mr. Balfour and Mrs Balfour. Mr. Balfour was employed in Srilanka. Mrs. Balfour owing to ill health had to stay in enland & could not accompany him to Srilanka. On the occasion of leaving her in England of medical for treatment Mr. Balfour promised to send her 30 pound per month while he was abroad. But Mr. Balfour failed to pay that amount. So Mrs. Balfour filed to suit against her husband for receiving two said amount. According to Lord At Kin “ No legal obligation between Mr. & Mrs.Balfour” so, MRs. Balfour case was dismissed in court.. 2) Intention to create legal relationship:- As already mentioned there should be an intention on the part of the parties to the agreement to create a legal relationship. An agreement of a purely social or domestic nature is not a contract. Example:- There was an agreement between A Co. and B Co. about house purchase. During agreement create a legal obligation. 3) Competency of parties:- The parties to the agreement must be competence to contract. If either of the parties to the contract is not competent to contract, the contract is not valid. According to section 11 following are the person who are competent to contract.

O.D.M Computer & Mgt. Education a) Who are of sound mind. b) Who are the age of majority according to law to which they are subject. c) Who are not disqualified from contracting by any law to which they are subject. Exe:- A patient in a lunatic asylum who is at intervals of sound mind may make a contract during these intervals. 4) Free consent of the Parties:- An agreement must have been made by free consent of the parties. If any fraud, mistake, misrepresentation, coercion the contract would be void other wise free consent of the parties void contract. Ex.:- A power of attorney During free consent of the parties about a power of attorney is a void. 5.) Lawful consideration:- All contracts must be supsted by consideration. Lawful consideration requires both the presence of consideration and the lawful of consideration. Ex.:- A premises to obtain B an employment in public service and B premises to pay Rs. 1000 to A. the agreement is void as the consider for it is unlawful. 6.) Lawful object:- The object of an agreement must be lawful. Main aim lawful object proper design and procedure. According to section 23. the object is said to be unlawful if: a) It is fraudulent. b) It involves an injury to the person or property of any other. c) It is forbidden by law. Ex:- ABC enter into an agreement for a decision among them of gains acquired or to be acquired, by them by fraud. The agreement is void, as its object is unlawful. (illustration (e) to sec (23) ) 7) Agreement not expressly declared void. The agreement must not have been declared to be expressly void. Agreements mentioned in section 24 to 30 have been expressly declared to be void. Under these provisions agreement in restraint of marriage, agreement in restraint of legal proceedings have been expressly declared void. 8) Certainly and possibility of performance:- The terms of the contract must be precise and certain. It cannot be left vague. A contract may be void on the ground of uncertainty. Ex.:- A purported acceptance of an offer to buy a lorry ‘on hire purchase terms’ does not constitute a contract if the hire purchase terms are never agreed. (scammell (G) & Mephiw Ltd., Vouston (1941) A.C. 251) 9) Legal formalities:- An oral contract is a perfectly valid contract except in those case where uniting, registration etc. is required by some state. In India writing is required in case of sale, lease and gift, immovable property, instruments,

O.D.M Computer & Mgt. Education memorandum and articles of association of a company etc. (Registration Act Sec (17)) Conclusion:- Above discuss elements must be present in order to make a valid contract. If anyone of them is absent the agreement does not became a contract Classification/type/kind of contract: a) from the point of view of enforceability:-

i) Valid contract:- A valid contract is one which satisfies all the requirements prescribed by law for the validity of a contract. ii) Void contract:- An agreement not enforceable by law is said to be void. Others:- Void agreement, voidable contract. b) From the point of view of creation:-

i) Express contract:- Contract entered into between the parties by words spoken or written are turned as expressed contract. ii) Implied contract:- When the offer or acceptance is made not by words, written or spoken but by acts and conduct of parties is implied contract. c) From the point of view of extent of executions: i) An executed contract refers to that contract in which both the parties have fulfilled their respective obligations executed contract. ii) An executor contract refers to that contract in which both the parties to the contract have yet to perform their respective obligations. Others:- Unilateral, bilateral contract. d) From the point of view of form or mode of contract.

i) Quasi Contract is a transaction in which there is no contract between two parties. The law creates certain rights & obligations between them which are similar to those created b a contract. Other:- Simple and formal contracts.

O.D.M Computer & Mgt. Education Q.2:- Define performance of contracts. State as to who can demand performance of a contract and by whom the contract must be performed? Ans:- Definition:- Performance of contracts consists in doing or causing to be done what the promisor has promised to do. Performance of contract has two effects. a) A party who wishes to enforce the other party’s premise may have to show that he has performed or is willing to perform his own premise. b) A party who performs, or tenders performance is thereby discharged from his obligations under the contract. Who can demand performance? It is only the promise or his agent who can demand performance of the promise under a contract. It is immaterial whether the promisee is for the benefit of the promise or for the benefit of same other person. In the case death of the promisee, his representatives can demand performance. In certain cases a third person who is not a party to the contract can also demand performance. For ex:- A premisee tB to sell his house to C for Rs. 50000. A does not perform the contract. C cannot sue A. it is only B who can force the promise against A. By whom contracts must be performed. 1. By the promisor:- As a general rule, a contract must be performed by the premisor, either personally or through any other competent person. But where personal consideration are the foundation of the contract, it has to be performed by premisor himself and in case of his death or disablement a contract will be discharged and the other party would be freed from liability. Ex. :- A premises to paint a picture of B, the promise must be performed by a himself. 2. By the agent:- Where personal skill is not necessary and the work could be done by any one. The promisor or his representative may employ a competent person to perform it. Thus a contract to sell goods can be assigned by the seller to his agent. 3. By the legal representative:- IN the event of the death of the promisor before performance. Their representatives are bound by the promises, unless personal consideration are the foundation of the contract. The legal representative of the decreased promisor cannot be required to perform contract involving personal skill and action. On the death of a person. The benefits and burdens of his contracts pass to the legal representatives as pant of his estate.

O.D.M Computer & Mgt. Education Forex:- A promises to decliner goods to B on a certain day on payment of Rs. 1000. A dies before that day. A representations are band to deliver the goods to B, and B is band to pay Rs. 1000 to A representatives. 4. By third person:- If the promisee accepts performance of the promise from a third party, there is a discharge of the contract. Once the third party performs the contract, and that is accepted by the promise. There is an end of the matter and the premisor is there by discharged (section 11). Thus, where a person has accepted apart payment from a third person in full satisfaction of his claims, he cannot later on sue the debtor for the balance. CONCLUSION:- Performance of a contract is the most natural and usual mode of extinction of an obligation. *********************************************************************************************** Q.3:- What is a contract of sale goods? Discuss the essential features of a contract of sale goods. Define the term ‘Sale’ and ‘Bailment’ Ans:- Definition:- According to Sec 4(1) A contract of sale of goods is a contract whereby the seller transfer or agrees to transfer the property in goods to the buyer for a price. A contract of sale may be absolute the property in the goods passes from the seller to the buyer immediately and nothing remains to be done by the seller. Sale on a counter in a shop is an absolute sale. In a conditional contract of sale, the property in the goods does not pass to the buyer absolutely until a certain condition is fulfilled. Contract of sale is a general tem and comprises of :1) Sale 2) Agreement to sell. The seller transfer the property in the goods immediately to the buyer there is a sale. The transfer of the property in two goods is to take place at a future time or subject to some condition thereafter to be fulfilled, the contract is called on agreement to sell. Essentials of a contract of sale. 1. Contract:- Contract means an agreement enforceable by law. Under contract include two main components:a) Agreement b) Legal obligation 2) Two parties:- Contract of sale, there must be a transfer or agreements to transfer the property in goods by the seller to the buyer. It means that there may be

O.D.M Computer & Mgt. Education two person. One the seller and other the buyer. The seller and the buyer must be two different persons, for a man cannest purchase his own goods the parties must be competent to contract. 3. Transfer the property:- IN a contract of sale there should be transfer or agreement to transfer the absolute or general property in the goods sold or agreed to be sold. It contemplates the transfer of two ownership in the goods. Through passing of two title in the goods is an essential intergradient of sale, physical delivery of goods is not essential. The sale of goods act contemplates the transfer of general property in goods from the seller to the buyer. 4. Goods:- The subject matter of the contract of sale must be the goods, the property in which is to be transferred from the seller to the buyer. Goods of any kind except immovable goods may be transferred. It does not include money and the other actionable claims. The seller must be the owner of the goods the ownership of which is subject to be transfer. A debt is not goods because it can only be assigned as per transfer of property act but cannot be sold. 5. Price:- To constitute a valid contract of sale, consideration for transfer must be money paid or promised. Conclusion:- A contract of sale may be made in writing or by word of mouth or may be implied from the conduct of the parties. THE TERM SALE AND BAILMENT SALE OF GOODS (SEC. 76 TO 123) Sale :- In a sale, the property in the goods is transferred from two seller to the buyer and the buyer can therefore deal with the goods in any way be liker. In a sale the consideration is the price in terms of money. Bailment (Sec 148-181) Bailment:- In a Bailment, there is only transfer of possession of goods from the bailer to the bailee from any of the reasons like safe custody, carriage etc and the bailee can only deal with the goods according to the directions of the bailer. ************************************************************************************************ Q.4:- What is negotiation? What are its methods or modes/ discuss negotiable instrument essential negotiable classification/

O.D.M Computer & Mgt. Education Ans:- Negotiation of an instrument is a process by which the ownership of the instrument is transferred by one person to another. There are two methods of negotiation. By delivery By endorsement Negotiable instruments Act (1881) 1) Negotiation by delivery:- Sec 47 -> Where a promissory note or a bill of exchange or a cheque is payable to a bearer, it may be negotiated by delivery thereof . Ex:- A the holder of a negotiable instrument payable to bearer, delivers it to B’s agent to heep it for B. the instruments has been negotiated 2) Negotiation by Endorsement- sec 48 Endorsement means writing on an instrument. A provisionally note a cheque or a bill of exchange payable to order can be negotiated only be endorsement and delivery. Essential ingredients. 1. Property: - The property in a negotiable instrument can be transferred without any formality. In the case of bearer instrument. The property passes by delivery to the transferee. In the case of an order endorsement & delivery are required for the transfer of property. 2. Written:- Negotiable instruments always in written form.

3. Bonafide Transferee:- A Bonafide transfree for value is not affected by any defect of title on the part of the transfer or of any of the previous holders of the instrument. 4. Rights:- The transferee of the negotiable instrument can sue in his own name in case of dishonour. A negotiable instruments can be transferred any number of times till it is at maturity. 5. Presumptions: Presumptions apply to all negotiable instruments eg. A presumption that consideration has been paid under it. It is not necessary to write in a promissory note the words for value received or similar expressions because. The payment of considers is presumed. The words are usually include to create additional evidence of consideration. 6. Prompt payment:- A negotiable enables the holder to except prompt payment because a dishonour means the ruin of the credit of all persons who are parties to the instrument.

O.D.M Computer & Mgt. Education Negotiable Instrument types/classification:a) i) ii) iii) b) i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) ix) c) Negotiable instruments recognized by statute Promissory notes Bills of exchange Cheques Negotiable instruments recognized by usage or custom are:Hundi Share warrants. Dividend warrants. Bankers draft. Circular note Bearer debenture Railway receipt Delivery orders Debenture of Bombay port trust. Other :- Money order & Postal order.

************************************************************************************************ Q.5:- Discuss the Bill of exchange. How does it differ from a promissory note? Explain essential conditions and classification of Bills. Ans :- Definition:- “ A bill of exchange is an instrument in writing containing unconditional order, signed by the maker, directing a certain person to pay a certain sum of money only to, or to the order of a certain person or to the bearer of the instrument.” (section-5) A bill of exchange is a written acknowledgement of the debt, written by the credit and accepted by the debtor. There are three parties of a bill of exchange drawer, acceptor or drawee and payee. Drawer himself may be payee. Difference between bill of exchange and promissory note. Definition:- A bill of exchange is an instrument in writing containing unconditional order, signed by the maker, directing a certain person to pay a certain sum of money only to, or to the order of a certain person or to the bearer of the instrument.” Promissory Note (section-4)

O.D.M Computer & Mgt. Education A promissory note is an instrument writing containing an unconditional undertaking, signed by the maker to pay a certain sum of money to or to the order of a certain person, or to the bearer of the instruments. DIFFERENCE:Bill of exchange Promissory note 1. Number Bill of exchange there are 3 In this there are only 2 parties of parties parties- drawer, drawee, payee. maker (Debtor) and the payee (creditor) 2. Payment Bill of exchange to the drawer and It cannot be made payable the of the payee or drawee and payee maker himself. maker maybe same person. 3. Prior A bill of exchange is payable after A note is presented of rpayment acceptance sight must be accepted by the without any prior acceptance by drawee or someone else on his maker. behalf, before it can be presented for payment 3.Primary or It is secondary and conditional It is primary and absolute. absolute liability. 5. Relation The maker or drawer of an The maker of the Promissory accepted bill stands in immediate note stands in immediate relations with the accepter and not relation with the payee. the payee. 6. Protest Foreign bill of exchange must be No protest is needed in the case for protested of dishonour when such of a promissory note. dishonour protest is required to be made by the low of the country where there are drawn 7. Notice of Give notice of dishonour No need of notice of dishonour dishonour. Essentials conditions of Bill of exchange:1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) It must be in writing It must be signed by the drawer The drawer, drawee and payee must be certain. It should be properly stamped. The sum payable must also be certain. It must certain an express order to pay money and money alone.

Classification of Bills:Bills can be classified as:1) Inland and foreign bill Inland Bill is named as an inland bill if:-

O.D.M Computer & Mgt. Education It is drawn in India as a person residing in India, whether payable in or outside India. It is drawn in Indian on a person residing outside India but payable in India. Foreign Bill:- A bill which is not an inland bill is a foreign bill. The following are the foreign bills:A bill drawn outside India and made payable in India. A bill drawn outside India on any person residing outside India. A bill drawn outside India on a person residing in India A bill drawn outside India and made payable outside India. 2.) Time and demand bill:-

Time bill:- A bill payable after a fixed time is termed as a time bill. In other words, bills payable ‘after date’ is a time bill. Demand bill:- A bill payable at sight or on demand is termed as a demand bill. 3. Trade and accommodation bill:

Trade Bill:- A bill drawn and accepted for a genuine trade transaction termed as a ‘trade bill’ Accommodation bill:- A bill drawn and accepted not for a genuine trade transaction but only to provide financial help to some party is termed as an ‘accommodation bill’ ************************************************************************************************ Q.6:- Define dishonour Explain dishonour non-acceptance & non-payment when, how and to whom should the notice of dishonour of a bill of exchange be given? Ans:- Negotiable instrument is dishonored the holder must give a notice of dishonour to all the previous parties in order to make them stable. A negotiable instrument can be dishonoured either by non-acceptance or by non-payment. A cheque and promissory note can only be dishonours by non-payment but a bill of exchange can be dishonoured eiher by non-acceptance or by non-payment. Dishonour by non-acceptance (section-91) A bill of exchange can be dishonour by non-accceptance in the following ways:1) If a bill is prescribed to the drawee for acceptance & he does not accept it within 48 hours from the time of presentment for acceptance. When there are

O.D.M Computer & Mgt. Education several drawee even if one of them makes a default is acceptance. The bill is deemed to be dishonoured unless there several drawers are partners. 2) When the drawee is in competent to contract the bill is treated as dishonoured. 3) When a bill is accepted with a qualified acceptance, the holder may treat the bill of exchange having been dishonoured. 4) When the drawee has either become insolvent or is dead. Dishonour by non-payment section – 92 A bill after being accepted has got to be presented payment on the date of its maturity. If the acceptor fails to make payment when it is due, the bill is dishonoured by non-payment. In the case of promissory note if the maker fails to make payment on the due date the note is dishonoured by non-payment. A cheque is dishonoured by non-payment as soon as a banker refuses to pay. An instrument is also dishonour by non-payment when presentation for payment is excused and the instrument, when overdue remains unpaid (Section 76) Notice of dishonour. Notice of dishonour means the actual notification of the dishonour of the instrument by non-acceptance or by payment. When a negotiable instrument refused acceptance or payment notice of such refusal must immediately be given to parties to whom the holder wishes to make liable. Failure to give notice of the dishonour by the holder would discharge al parties other than the maker or the accept. (sec.93) Notice by whom:- Where a negotiable instrument is dishonoured either by nonacceptance or by non-payment,. The holder of the instrument or some party to it who is liable there on must give a notice of dishonour to all the prior parties whom he wants to make liable on the instruments (section93). The agent of any such party may also be given notice of dishonour. Notice to whom:- Notice of dishonour must be given to all parties to whom the holder seeks to make liable. No notice need to be given to make, acceptor or drawee, who are the principle debtors (Sec 93) How? The notice of dishonour may be oral or written. It may be sent by post. It may be in any form but it must inform the party to whom it is given either in express terms or by reasonable intendent. That the instrument has been dishonoured an din what way it has been dishonoured and that the person seemed with the notice will be held liable there on. ***********************************************************************************************

O.D.M Computer & Mgt. Education Q.7:- Write a short note on :a) b) c) d) Wagering agreements Cheques Hundi Noting & protest



Ans:- a) Wagering agreements:- Wager mean a bet. A wager defined as an agreement to pay money or money’s worth on the happening of a specified uncertain event. It is a game of chance in which the change of either winning or losing is wholly dependent on an event. The parties to a wagering contract must agree that upon the determination of the said uncertain even, one should win from the other. b) Cheques:- Section 6 of the act defines,” A cheque is a bill of exchange drawn on a specified banker and not expressed to a payable other wise than on demand.” A cheque is bill of exchange with tow more qualifications:It is always drawn on a specified banker. It is always payable on demand c) Hundi:- A ”Hundi” is a negotiable instrument written in an oriental language. The term hundi includes all indigeneour negotiable instrument. Whether they be in the form of notes or bills. The word “Hundi” is said to be derived from the ‘Sanskrit’ word “Hundi” which means to “to collect”. Hundi are several varieties:• Darsbani Hundi • Nam Jog Hundi. • Muddati Hundi • Firman Jog Hundi • Shahjog Hundi • Jawabee Hundi etc. d) Noting and protest :- Noting is merely a record of the fact of dishonour when the notary public issues a certificate stating the particulars regarding the dishonour. It is called a protest. e) Prospectus:- The prospectus is the document which tens the prospective investors about the future prospectus of the company and the purpose for which the capital is required so as to enable them to make up their mind whether to invest in its shares or debentures or not. ************************************************************************************************

O.D.M Computer & Mgt. Education

Q.8:- What is compulsory winding-up? What are the grounds for compulsory winding-up? Ans:- Introduction:Winding up is the process for realization of the assets, the payment of creditors and the distribution of the surplus. If any, among the shareholders, so that the company may be finally dissolved. Winding up is the last stage in the life of a company. It means a proceeding by which a company is dissolved. Compulsory winding up:- Compulsory winding up is a important modes. It is also known winding up by court. A company may be wind up by an order of the court. Under section 433 lay down the following grounds where the court may wind up a company. 1. Special Resolution :- A company may be wounded up by the court if it has by a special resolution, resolved that it be wound up by the court. But it is to be noted that the court is not bound to order for winding up merely because the company by a special resolution has SD resolved. Given in such a case it is the discretion of he court to order for winding up or not. 2:Default in filing statutory report. Holding statutory meeting:if a company has made a default in delivering the statutory report to the registrar or in holding the statutory meeting. A petition on this ground may be presented to the court by a member or registrar or a creditor. 3:Failure to commence business within one year. If a company does not commence its business within one year from its incorporation or suspends its business for a whole year, a winding up petition may be presented to the court. 4:Reduction of membership below minimum Where the number of member is reduced in the case of a public company, below 7 and in the case of a private company, below 2 a petition for winding up of the company may be presented to the court. 5:Company’s in ability to pay its debts:a winding up petition may be presented if the company is unable to pay its debt. ‘debt’ means definits sum of money payable immediately or a future date. 6:Just and equitable (Sec. 433 (1)] The court may also order to wind up a company if it is of opinion that it has just and equitable that the company should winding up. The words “Just and

O.D.M Computer & Mgt. Education equitable” are of wide connotation on the part of the court to order winding up or not on this ground. Case:- Shah J. in seth Mohan Lal Vs. Grain Chambers Ltd., The substration of the company is said to have disappeared when the object for which it was incorporated has substantially failed, or when it is impossible to carry on the business of the co. expect at a loss or possible assets are insufficient to meet the existing liabilities. The underlying basis of a company will be judge in following ways.:1) When the business of company become illegal. 2) The object of company is failed 3) When there is a deadlock in the management of the company 4) If shareholders on a minority 5) When the company is a ‘pubic’ i.e. it never has any real business. Others:- Who may file petition? Section 439 of the companies act enumerates the persons those can file a petition to eh court for the winding up of a company. Petition by company, creditors, contributory petition, registrar’s petition. Petition be any person authorized by the central government. Conclusion :- Winding up of a company is the process where by its life is ended and its property administered for the benefit of its creditiors and members. Compulsory winging up depended some rules and regulation. Rules grounds decided by court. ***********************************************************************************************

Q.9:- Who is an unpaid seller of goods and what are his rights against the goods? Has he any remedy against the buyer personally? Ans:- A seller of goods is deemed to be an unpaid seller with in the meaning of the sale of goods act when:• The whole of price has not been paid or tendered. • The bill of exchange or other negotiable instrument has been received as conditional payment, and the condition on which it was received has not been fulfilled by reason of dishonour after instruments. An analysis of the definition of unpaid seller reveals the following:a) He must be unpaid either wholly or partly b) He must be sell goods against cash only and not on credit, and he must be unpaid.

O.D.M Computer & Mgt. Education c) He must not refuse payment when tendered, otherwise he will cease to be an unpaid seller.

Rights of an unpaid seller:Under two sales of goods act:- Two kinds of rights to an unpaid seller of goods: A) I) i) Against the goods When the property in the goods has passed:-

Right to lien – section (47-49) Lien is the right to retain possession of goods until payment in respect of then is paid. Conditions:• The ownership must have passed to the buyer. • The goods must be in possession of the seller or under his control as bailee etc. • The possession of the goods by the seller must be expressly include the right to lien. • The whole or part of the price must remain unpaid. It may noted that the lien can be exercised only for price. Ex:- A sells to B a certain quantity A sells to B a certain quantity of wheat. It is agred that three months credit shall be given. B allows the wheat to remain in A’s warehouse till the expiry of the three months, and then does not pay for them. A may retian the goods for price. ii) Right of stoppage of goods in transit- section(50-52)

The rights to stoppage means the right to stop further transit of the goods, to resume possession there of and to retain the some till the price is paid. Conditions:• The seller must be unpaid. • The buyer must be insolvent. • The property must have passed from the seller to the buyer. • When the buyer reject the goods wholly or partly. Case:- When the goods reach their destination and after taking delivery the buyer puts them on his cart, though the cart has not left the station. The railway company cannot stop the goods at this stage if the seller asks. The transit has already ended. (GIP Railway co,. Vs. Hanuman das) iii) Right to re-sale – section 54

O.D.M Computer & Mgt. Education The Right to resale is conferred by the section 54 which also environment the circumstances under which the right of re-sale may be exercised. Conditions:- Where the goods are of a perishable nature. In this case the unpaid seller need not give a notice to the buyer of his intention to resell the goods. Above Discuss:- These rights to an unpaid seller do not depend upon any agreement, express or implied between the parties. They arise by the implication of law. b) i) When property in the goods has not passed.

Right to with holding delivery When the property in goods has not passed to the buyer, the unpaid seller has an addition to other remedies a right of winding delivery, similarly to and coextensive with his right of lien and stoppage in transit where the property has passed to the buyer. Right of unpaid seller against the buyer personally. i) Suit for price –Section 55 Where property in goods has passed to the buyer, or where the sale price is payable ‘on a day certain’ although the property in goods has not passed, and the buyer wrongly refuses to pay the price according to the terms of the contract, the seller is entitled to suit the buyer for price, irrespective of the delivery of goods. ii) Suit for damages for non-delivery – section 5 Where the buyer wrongfully refuses to accept and pay of the goods. The seller may sue him for damages for non-acceptance. The seller’s remedy in this cases is a suit for damages rather than an action for the full price of the goods. iii) Suit for special damages & interests – section 61

Under section 73 of the Indian contract act. The loss arising directly and naturally from the breach i.e. the difference between the value of the goods as delivered, and suit for recovery of the price together with interest. Above discuss:Buyer’s right against seller recover under contract and procedures. ************************************************************************************************ *


Write short notes on the following:Reconstruction and amalgamation

O.D.M Computer & Mgt. Education b) c) d) Consumer protection act. Accounting and auditing Cyber law in India.

Ans:- a) Reconstruction :- It is used where only one company is involved and rights of its share holder or creditors are varied. It is also known as re-organisation Amalgamation:- It is used where two or more companies are amalgamated or where one is merged in another or taken over by another is know as Amalgamation. Under section 394 and 395:Modes:• By transfer of under taking • By transfer of shares. b) Consumer Protection Act (CPA)

CPA 1986 was introduced. It’s aim at protection of the interests of consumers. It provides for the establishment of consumer councils and other authorities for the settlements of consumers disputes. CPA main objectives :- the right to be protected against marketing of goods which are hazardous to life an property. The right to be informed about the quality, quantity, purity, and price of goods etc. the right to consumer education. To protect the consumer from the unfair trade practices, the union government of India has enacted various legislations. c) Accounting and auditing

Accounting :- It is a means of collecting summarizing, analysing, and reporting of monetary term information about business. Different types of accounting:- Financial Accounting, Cost Accounting, Managerial Accounting, Tax Accounting, Social responsibility accounting. Auditing:- means ‘to hear’ Auditing is a systematic examination of the books and records of a business or other organisation in order to ascertain a verify and to report upon the fats regarding its financial operation and the result thereof. d) Cyber law in India Now a day cyber law in India is very important. Cyber law are contained in the IT Act 2000. This act aims to provide the legal infrastructure for e-commerce in India. Cyber laws have a major impact for e-businesses and the new economy in India, so it is important to understand what are the various perspectives of the IT Act 2000 & What it offers?

O.D.M Computer & Mgt. Education Under cyber law various businesses shifts. • • • • • • Internet service provides Application service provides B2B (Business to Business Segments) C2C (Consumer to consumer segments) B2C (Business to Consumer segments) C2B (Consumer to Business segment)

Advantage of cyber laws:• Comprises shall now be able to carry out electronic commerce using the legal infrastructure provide by the act. • Digital signature has been given validity and sanction in the act. The present status of cyber law in India is increasing. ************************************************************************************************

Q.11:- Describe the various types of auditing and various principles in accounting. Ans:- The main objectives of auditing is to verify the books of the accounts prepared by the client and his employees. Types of auditing AUDITING

According to organisation business

According to practically

Statutory audit

Private audit

Govt. auditInternal audit

Continuous Periodic auditInterim Complete Partial audit audit audit audit 1: According to Organization business

Cash audit

Cost audit

Managerial audit

O.D.M Computer & Mgt. Education a) Statutory audit:- Under the various acts concerning the various business organizations it is mandatory for the organisation audit their account such as in the case of the company. This type of the auditing which is mandatory by law is called statutory audit. b) Private Audit:- Private audit is not mandatory by the law that is dependent on the wish of the owner. It is also called the voluntary audit. c) Government audit:- The audit of the govt. department is called govt. Auditing. According to the articles 149 of the constitution of India, comptroller and auditor general of India has right and duties in the relation of account of the govt. dept. d: Internal Audit :- Internal audit done by the employer is called internal and under internal audit check day to day transactions. 2.) a) According to Practically:Complete audit:- That audit which examines the all transactions, entry books, totals, balances, vouchers, deeds and documents in detail & mandatory by law is called complete audit. Partial audit:- When all books are examined but some of books are examine is called partial audit such as checking of the purchase book, checking of the sale book, cash book etc. Continuous Audit:- is one where the auditor and his staff is constantly engaged in the checking of the accounts during the whole period or where the auditor or his staff attends at regular intervals. Periodical audit;- A periodical audit is one where the auditor visit of the auditing at the end of the period of the accounting and does whole checking at a time. Interim audit:- When the books of the accounts are audited with some special purpose at any time during the financial year of an enterprise is known as interim audit. Cash audit:- When an institution appoints an auditor to check its cash transactions for a particular period it is called cash audit. Cost audit:- The verification and checking of the cost accounts and check an adherence to the cost accounting plan is called cost audit.





f) g)

O.D.M Computer & Mgt. Education h) Management Audit:- Refers to the examination of the issue connected with the management of an enterprises. Its main criterion is performance just as efficiency audit and proprietary audit is called management audit.

Principles of accounting The word principles mean a general law or rule adopted to guide an action. In accounting certain principles are also on which the accounting system is based, these principles are called in two categories. 1) based. 2) long. Part of Principles: I) Accounting concepts i) II) III) IV) V) VI) VII) VIII) IX) II) j) ii) iii) iv) Business entity concepts Going concern concept The cost-concept Dual aspect concept Money measurement concept Accounting period concept Accrual concept Realization concept Mathening of the cost and revenue Accounting conventions:Conventions are the tradition, usages, and customs which are in use since Accounting Concepts:Concepts are necessary assumptions and condition on which accounting is

Accounting conventions Convention of disclosure Convention of consistency Convention of conservatism Convention of materiality


O.D.M Computer & Mgt. Education Q.12:- Define share. What are the different kind of shares which a company may issue. Ans:- Meaning:- Section 2 (46) “ A share in the share capital of a company and includes stock except where a distinction between stock and shares is expressed or implies.” A share is the interest of a shareholders in a definite portion of the capital. Nature of shares is movable property number share certificate, right and interest Kinds of shares:- Mainly divide in three kinds/types/classification

Preference shares Equity Shares 1. Cumulative 2. Non-cumulative 3. Participating 4. Non-participating 5. Convertible 6. Non-convertible 7. Redeemable preference shares

Deferred shares

1) Preference shares:- A preference shares must satisfy the following two conditions:• It shall carry a preferential right as to the payment of dividend at a fixed rate. • In the event of winding up, there must be preferential rights to the payments of the paid up capital. Kinds of preferences a) Cumulative and Non-cumulative preference shares:Cumulative shares of the profits of the company in any year are not sufficient to pay the fixed dividend on the preference shares, the deficiency must be made up out of the profits of subsequent years. Non-cumulative preference shares the dividend is only payable out of net profits of each year. b) Participating and non-participating preference shares:Participating preference shares are those shares which is entitled in addition to preference dividend at a fixed rate to participate in the balance of profits with the equity shareholders after they get fixed rate of dividend on their shares. Non-participating preference shares are entitled only to fixed rate of dividend and do not share in the surplus profit.

O.D.M Computer & Mgt. Education c) Convertible and non-convertible preference shares

Convertible preference shares are those shares which can be converted into equity shares within a certain period. Those shares which do not carry the right of conversion into equity shares are called non-convertible preference share. d.) Redeemable preference shares Under section 80 a company limited by shares if so authorized by its articles, may issue redeemable preference shares. Such shares may be redeemed either after a fixed period or earlier at the option of the company. In case:Irredeemable shares, the capital is to be returned on the winding up of the company. 2) Equity shares:- Equity shareholders have the residual right of the company. They may get higher dividend then preference shareholders if the company is prosperous or get nothing if the business of the company globs. 3.) Deferred shares :- It is also known as promoter’s or founder shares. It shall carry a preferential right as to the payment of dividend at fixed rate. The deferred shares are entitled to the entire surplus assets remaining after the payment of the liabilities and the capital of the company. *********************************************************************************************

13:- Can one man meeting is possible if yes, how? Explain Quorum. Ans:- Yes, one man meeting is possible for a meeting to be there, the presence of two or more than two persons is required. Accordingly to the general law, there cannot be a one-man meeting. But their are some exceptions stated in the Companies Act where a meeting is deemed to have been held by the presence of only one person. These exception are as under:1. Meeting convened by central government. According to section 167, if a default is made in holding annual general meeting in accordance with the provision is of section 166, the central Government may direct that one member of the company, present personally or by proxy, shall be deemed to constitute a meeting. 2. Absence of Quorum in an adjoured meeting. Incase there is no quorum in a meeting called by the directors of a company within half an hour of the time specified for such meeting, the directors may adjourn the meeting to be held at the same place and the same time after one week and given a time of half an hour would be followed for the quorum to attend the meeting. If after the expiry of this time, no member of the company come to attend the meeting, then the meeting

O.D.M Computer & Mgt. Education would be deemed to have been held even if there is only one member is presented of such meeting. 3. Meeting convened by company law board. A general meeting held according of section 167(1) of the Act should, subject to the directions of the company law board, be deemed to be an annual general meeting of the company even if only one member of the company is present in such meeting, personally or by proxy. 4. Meeting convened by court. Where the court orders that a meeting to be convened, it can also order that such meeting shall be deemed to have been held even if only one member of the company is present personally or by proxy. 5. Class meetings of shareholders or creditors. When, out of the various clas of shareholders and creditors of a company, one class of shareholders or creditors has only one member, the presence of such shareholders or creditor shall constitute a meeting. 6. In solvency of the company. If only one creditor of a company makes a claim of the company to pay its debt to him in the case of the company being declared insolvent, it shall be deemed to be meeting. 7. Meeting of one-man committee of Board of Directors:- The board of directors may subject to the provisions of eh act, delegate any of its powers to committees consisting of such member or one such members of its body as it thinks fit. The presence of one such member constituting the committee is deemed to be a meeting.


O.D.M Computer & Mgt. Education

Q.14:- What is a company? Discuss its main characteristics. Explain the different types of companies, which may be incorporated under the companies act.

Ans:- The word ‘Company’ is the most widely used word in the whole of commence dom there days. This word ‘com’ means together and ‘pains’ means bread. Companies referred to an association of persons who took their meals together. According to Justice James “company means an association of persons united for a common object.” Characteristics of company:1) Artificial person:A company is an artificial person existing in the eyes of law only. It is invisible, intangible immortal and lacks the physical attribute possessed by nature persons, which means that a company does not eat food, cannot marry and cannot be sent to prison. The law treats it as a legal person as it can conduct lawful business and enter into contracts with other persons in its own names. It can sell or purchase property. 2) Independent corporate existence:A company has a separate independent corporate existence. Its entity is always separate from its members. 3) Perpetual Succession A company is created by law and it can be brought ot an end by the life of the company does not depend upon the life of its members. 4) Common seal:A Company is an artificial person and is competent to enter into contracts. Every company must have a seal with its engraved it. The seal of the company is affixed on the documents which require the approval of the company. 5) Limited Liability The liability of the member of the company is limited up to unpaid value of their shares. 6. Transferability of shares

The shares of a public company are fully transferable. Section 82 of the companies act declares that the shares or other interests of any member in a company shall be

O.D.M Computer & Mgt. Education movable property transferable in the manner provided by the articles of the company. 7. Separate Property: A company can own, manage, control and dispose of property in its own name. The company becomes the owner of its capital and assets. 8. Right to sue: A company being a legal person can enforce its rights through suits and by the same token, it can be sued for breach of its legal duties eg. A company was engaged in the manufacturing of radio sets. It purchases certain electronin components from another company named Gupta Company and paid the price for the same. But Gupta co. supplied the components of poor quality. 9. Professional Management” Management is divorced from ownership in the case of the company from of organisation. Due to these factors, the corporate sector is capable of attracting the growing cadre of professional managers. The managers are experts in the field of management because of their specialized knowledge of the subject and they function independently and without any interference. Different types of companies may be incorporated under the Companies Act. The act of forming a corporation or company is called incorporation. It is the process of uniting a group of persons into a legal body by the following the prescribed procedure. According to mode of incorporation companies may be divided into the following three categories: (A) Chartered Companies:

These companies are incorporated under the Royal or a special charter granted by the British king or queen. The powers and nature of business of the companies of this type are defined in the charter. The sovereign has the power to put an end to the charter if the company fails to follow its terms The objective of these companies was generally to rule over certain territories, perpetuate army control or to hold trade. (B) Statutory Companies:

These companies are incorporated by a special act passed by central or state legislature. The objective, scope , rights and responsibilities of these companies are clearly mentioned in the act under which there are incorporated. These companies are formed to undertake business of public welfare are national importance. The Reserve Bank of India, the State Bank Of India, The Life Insurance Corporation of India, Memorandum of Association or Articles of Association. They also need not use the word limited with their names.

O.D.M Computer & Mgt. Education Companies Act 1956: The provisions of this act are also applicable to these companies provided they are not inconsistent with the provisions of the special act under which they are formed. It should be kept in mind that through a statutory company is owned by the Government. (C) Registered Companies:

Companies formed by registration under the Companies Act 1956are known as registered companies. Most of the companies in India belong to this type. Any existing company which had been formed and registered under any of the earlier companies Acts is also included in this category. It must be noted that such companies came into existence only when they are registered under the act and a certificate of incorporation is granted to them by the register of companies. The registered companies are governed by the provisions of the company Act 1956 & by the rules and regulation laid down in memorandum and articles of association of the companies. The liabilities of the members of this type of company is limited up to the unpaid value of their shares or the amount of guarantee undertaken by them.


Q.15: “ A promoter stands in fiduciary relation towards the company he promotes” Explain.

Ans:- A promoter is one who “plans to form a company, prepares memorandum of association and articles of association, gets them registered, looks for directors, enters into preliminary contracts and makes arrangements for advertising and circulating the prospectus and placing the capital”. According to Palmer A promoter is one who undertakes to forma company with reference to a given project and to set it going and who takes the necessary steps to accomplish that purpose.

O.D.M Computer & Mgt. Education (A) Functions of Promoters The following are included in :(1) Planning Promoters decide what business should be done, when it should be done, where it should be done and how it should be done. (2) Nomenclature A promoter is to decide the name of the proposed company. They also decide the location of the registered office of the company and the objective of the company. (3) Infrastructure: The promoters arrangements of necessary infrastructure facilities like land, building, machinery and other equipments. (4) Preparation of documents: Promoters help in preparations of important documents, which may be submitted, to the registrar for the legislation of the company. (5) (6) Capital Promoters help in arrangements of capital

Consent of directors: the promoters decide two first directors of the company and get their consent to act as directors. Sometime, they themselves may become the directors of the company. (7) Appointments Promoters appoint the bankers the auditor, the legal adviser and the broker of the company. (8) Miscellaneous: The promoters submit the necessity documents along with the required fees of the registrar of companies after completing the necessary legal formalities and get the certificate of incorporation. They also arrange license of any required for any purpose of the company. (B) Legal position of promoters.

A fiduciary position of promoters gives rise to the following legal consequences:-

O.D.M Computer & Mgt. Education 1. A promoter is not allowed to make any secret profits. If it is found that in any particular transactions of the company. The promoter has obtained a secret profit for himself, he will be bound to refund the same to the company. 2. He is not allowed to derive a profit form the sale of his own property unless all the material facts are disclosed. If a promoters contract to sell the companies a property without making a full disclose and the property was acquired by him at a time when he stood in a fiduciary position towards the company. The company either reside the sale or affirm the contract. He recovers the profit made from it by the promoters. Thus promoters stands in a fiduciary relationship & it impose an obligation on him to disclose fully at the material facts relating to the formation of the company. His dealing with the proposed company must be open and fair. The promoters stand in a fiduciary relation i.e. relation requiring confidence or trust to the company which they promote. It is well described by LORD Cairns in Enlarger Vs. New Sombrero Phosphate Co. 1878 in the following words: They stand in my opinion undoubtedly in a fiduciary position. They have in their hand the creation and molding of the company. They have the power of defining how and when what shape and when, what Supervision the company shall start into existences and begin to act as a trading corporation. Thus the courts have imposed an important responsibility on the promoters to act as a fiduciary agent. The liabilities of the promoters can be summed up as follows:(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) Liability for secret profit Liability for non-disclosing his profit and interest. Liability for misfeasance or breach of trust. Public examination of a promoter. Liability for preliminary contracts. Liability of mis-statements in the prospectus.


O.D.M Computer & Mgt. Education

O.D.M Computer & Mgt. Education