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Application of slider-crank mechanism can be found in reciprocating (steam) engines in the power plant i.e. internal combustion engines, generators to centrifugal pumps, etc. Output is non-uniform torque from crankshaft; accordingly there will be fluctuation is speed and subsequently in voltage generated in the generator that is objectionable or undesirable. Output torque at shaft is required to be uniform. Other kind of applications can be in punch press. It requires huge amount of power for small time interval. Remaining time of cycle it is ideal. Large motor that can supply huge quantity of energy for a small interval is required. Output power at piston is required to be non-uniform. These can be overcome by using flywheel at the crank- shaft. This will behave like a reservoir of energy. This will smoothen out the non-uniform output torque from crankshaft. Also it will store energy during the ideal time and redistribute during the deficit period.

Turning moment diagrams and fluctuations of the crank shaft speed: A turning moment (crank torque) diagram for a four-stroke internal combustion engine is shown in Figure 1. The complete cycle is of 720º. From the static and inertia force analyses T − θ can be obtained (at interval of 15º or 5º preferably).

Engine turning moment diagram: mean torque output from flywheel Crank L A B C torque T O 180 ° 360 ° input to flywheel

D

540° °

E

FM

720°

P crank angle

Figure 1 Turning moment diagram

Torque is negative in some interval of the crank angle, it means energy is supplied to engine during this period i.e. during the compression of the gas and to overcome inertia forces of engine members. This is supplied by the flywheel (and inertia of engine members), which is attached to the crankshaft. When flywheel is attached to the crankshaft. LM in diagram shown is the mean torque line. It is defined as

BC. During interval AB. CD and EF . DE and FM. there is deficit in energy i.e. Area OLMP = net (energy) area of turning moment diagram = Tm ( 4π ) . the crank torque is more than the mean torque means hence excess of energy is supplied to crank i. crank will decelerate (ω ↓ ) .Tm = ∑T i =1 N i N (1) If.e. Tm 〉 0 then there is an excess of the net energy in the system and Tm 〈 0 then there is a deficit of the net energy in the system. During other interval i. it will accelerate (ω ↑ ) . we have ∑ T = Iα 53 . F1 ma F2 a -ma I T F1-ma-F2 =0 Figure 2 Linear acceleration of a body T L Torque due to load T Torque from crank shaft T-TL Tm d Figure 3 Angular acceleration of a body Figure 4 T-θ diagram From Newton’s second law. Tm = 0 then no net energy in the system.e. the crank torque T is less than the mean torque Tm i.e LA.

For this case area of diagram between C and D or between D and C through points E. M. it is usual and necessary to fix a flywheel to the crankshaft and a flywheel of relatively small moment of inertia will reduce crank speed variations to negligibly small values (1 or 2% of the crank speed). where c is the minimum speed location. we get E= θωmax θωmin 1 2 2 ∫ (T − TL )dθ = ∫ Iωdω = 2 I (ωmax − ωmin ) ωmax ωmin (5) where E is the net area in T-θ diagram between θωmin and θωmax . we get T − TL = Iω dω dθ or (T − TL )dθ = Iω dω (4) Integrating θ from θω =ωmin to θ ω −ωmax and ω from ωmin to ωmax . F → decelerate.e. and I is the polar mass moment of inertia. having velocity maximum or minimum.T − TL = Iα with (2) α= d ω d ω dθ dω = =ω dt dθ dt dθ (3) Substituting eqn. F. Points A. Net energy between the maximum speed and the minimum speed instant is termed as fluctuation of energy. We cannot change out put torque from the engine (it is fixed) but by putting flywheel we can regulate speed variation of crankshaft in cycle. So crank starts accelerate from deceleration from such points or vice versa. Area of turning moment diagram represents energy for a particular period. E and F are the points where T − θ diagram cuts the mean torque line. Our interest is to find maximum and minimum speeds and its positions in Figure 5. A. These points are transition points from deficit to extra energy or vice versa. At all such points have zero velocity slope i. Since in same phases the torque is in the same sense as the crank motion and in other phases the torque is opposite to the crank motion. B. C. L. It would seem that the assumption of constant crank speed is invalid since a variation in torque would produce a variation in crank speed in the cycle. E → accelerate and at B. A plot of shaft torque versus crank angle θ shows a large variation in magnitude and sense of torque as shown in Figure 4. D. However. Turning moment diagram for multi cylinder engine can be obtained by T − θ of individual engine by super imposing them in proper 54 . D. (3) in (2). B and C. C. For example at points: A. Crank speed diagram can be drawn qualitatively (approximately) as shown in Figure 5.

For a four cylinder (four-stroke) engine the phase difference would be 720º/4=180º or for a six cylinder four-stroke engine the phase difference = 720º/6= 120º. is represented by corresponding area in T − θ diagram as 2 E=1 I ω 2 − ωmin )=I 2 ( max (ωmax + ωmin ) ω − ω = δ I ω 2 ( max min ) S 2 (8) 55 . TL Torque due to ram (Torque from the Crank flywheel to the torque load) mean + T torque TL L - Torque of the fly wheel from the engine T M P A + B - C D - E +F - 180 360 540 720crank angle maxi. The coefficient of fluctuation of speed is defined as δS = with ωmax − ωmin ω ωmax + ωmin 2 (6) ω= (7) where ω is the average speed. The fluctuation of energy. E. speed d e f m Crank speed l a mean speed b without the flywheel C O minimum speed Figure 5 Fluctuation of the energy For multi cylinder engine T − θ will be flat compare with single cylinder engine also the difference of maximum and minimum speed will be less.phase.

the fluctuation of speed can be reduced for the same fluctuation of energy.By making I as large as possible. For rim type flywheel diameter is restricted by centrifugal stresses at rim 2 I = Mrm with k = rm (10) Equation (9) or (10) gives the mass of rim. Let V is the linear velocity of a point at a radius r from the center of rotation of flywheel E can be written as 2 2 E = 0. which in turn gives the fluctuation of speed slightly less than required.006 for electric generators and 0. The mass of the hub and the arm also contribute by small amount to I.002 to 0.5Ir 2 (Vmax − Vmin ) (12) Also coefficient of fluctuation can be written as 56 . the kinetic energy will be T=1 Iω 2 2 (11) For a flywheel having the maximum speed is ω max and the minimum speed is ω min the change in the 2 2 − ωmin kinetic enegy or fluctuation of energy E = I (ωmax ) / 2 .2 for centrifugal pumps for industrial applications. By experience equation (10) gives total mass of the flywheel with 90% of the rim & 10% for the hub and the arm. For the disc type flywheel the diameter is constrained by the space and thinness of disc by stress I=1 Mr 2 2 with k = r/ 2 (9) where r is the radius of the disc and k is the radius of gyration. Typical values of the coefficient of fluctuation are δ S = 0. Flywheel: A rigid body rotating about a fixed point with an angular velocity ω (rad/s) and having mass moment of inertia I (kg-m2) about the same point.

and k = rm .δS = with V= ωmax − ωmin Vmax − Vmin = ω V (13) Vmax + Vmin 2 (14) r Rim k= r 2 r hub Arm r (i) For rim k=r Disc-type flywheel (automobile) Rim-type flywheel (for steam engine or punch press) Figure 6 A rim type flywheel Figure 7 Polar mass moment of inertia of rim and disc type flywheel Combining equations (13) and (14) with equation (12). we get M= E δ SV 2 (18) 57 . Taking r = rm . we get E = I δ 2ω 2 = I δ SV 2 r2 with I = mk 2 (15) Equation (15) becomes E = mδ S k 2ω 2 = m δ S k 2V 2 r2 (16) Mass of flywheel (or polar mass moment of inertia) can be obtained as M= E Er 2 = δ S k 2ω 2 δ S k 2V 2 I= E δ Sω 2 = Er 2 (17) δ Sω 2 On neglecting the effect of arm and hub. k can be taken as the mean radius of rim rm .

Flywheel of a Punch Press: Let d be the diameter of hole to be punched. the energy required to punch a hole is equal to rectangular area (shaded area). hence Energy required for punching a hole W = Pt / 2 In other words the average force is half the maximum force.1T ) and N is speed of motor in rpm to which the flywheel is attached. t p is the time for the actual punching operation.On using equation (13).5 (Vmax − Vmin ) Equations (18) or (19) can be used for finding mass of the flywheel. we get M= 2E 2 (V − Vmin ) 2 max (19) 2 2 − Vmin = Since Vmax (Vmax + Vmin ) 2 2 (Vmax − Vmin ) = V ( 2δ SV ) . By experience the maximum velocity Vmax is limited by the material and centrifugal stresses at the rim. f smax is the resistance to shear (shear stress).e. T is the time between successive punch (punching period). The 90% of M will be distributed at rim and 10% for the hub and arms. max. t is the thickness of plate to be punched. Experiments show that: (i) the maximum force P occurs at time = (3/ 8)t p and (ii) the area under the actual force curve i. force Actual force variation (21) force average force d t P/2 t dispalcement Figure 8 Punching force variation with deformations 58 . hence (20) 2 2 δ SV 2 = 0. ( ≈ 0.

g. d in m. of the order of 1/10).5 Pt = 0. it gives (22) W = 0. Average power during punching ( ) (23) W/(time for actual punching) = 0. then the flywheel store energy during ideal time and will give back during the actual punching operation 0. W in N-m and tp in sec. Steam engine I Punch Press T( ) T( ) .5 f smax π d t 2 tp ( ) Watt (24) Hence. in absence of the flywheel the motor should be capable of supplying large power instantly as punching is done almost instantaneously.5 f smax π d t 2 T Average power required from motor = W/(Punching interval) = ( ) Watt (25) Average power from eqn. If flywheel is attached to the motor shaft.TL= I TL T I TL( ) Figure 9 (a) Steam engine Figure 10(a) Punch press T( ) min +_ max k Total energy consumed Tm =TL max min P J 4 L M O T 0 V 4T Figure 9(b) A turning moment diagram N F igure 10(b) A turning moment diagram 59 .5 f smax π dt t where f smax is in N/m2. t in m.Maximum force required to punch a hole P = f smax π dt Combining equations (21) and (22). (25) will be for less than that from equation (24) (e.

Whatever energy is supplied during the actual punching will also be consumed in the punching operation. Maximum speed will occurs just before the punching and minimum speed will occur just after the punching. (26). 60 . The mass of flywheel can be obtained by: M = E / δ SV 2 for given δ S and V . from the minimum speed to the maximum speed (or vice versa) will be the fluctuation of energy. 1 / 2 f S π dt 2 E= T or 1 / 2 f S π dt 2 ×T − t p T t p 1 E = f S π dt 2 1− T 2 = Average power supplied by motor × ideal time (26) The fluctuation of energy will be the power supplied by the motor during the ideal period.In Figure 10(b) the total energy consumed during ωmax and ωmin = area IJLM. once E is calculated from eqn. The total energy supplied in period during same period ( ω max to ω min ) =area IVPM Hence. The net energy gained by the flywheel during this period i. the fluctuation of the energy E= IJLM-IVPM = area NOPM – area IVPM.e. k Power constant Energy supplied by motor Energy required for punching min max O N V I J L P M Time tP One full cycle T Figure Turning moment diagram if a punch press Hence.

Let period of T(θ) is 360°. At end of cycle total energy should be zero. so we can express torque as a sum of harmonics by Fourier analysis T=T(θ) = C0 + A1 sinθ + A2 sin 2θ + ⋅⋅⋅⋅ + An sin nθ + ⋅⋅⋅⋅ + B1cosθ + B2 cos 2θ + ⋅⋅⋅⋅ + Bn cos nθ + ⋅⋅⋅ (27) With the knowledge of T(θ). ωo is the speed at start of cycle (datum value). we can get θ . This will be very useful in analysis of torsional vibration of engine rankshaft. Location of maximum and minimum speeds: Energy after T each loop 0 (datum) O A =4 2 0 7 A1=7 + 3 5 -2 2 -1 1 A5 =4 A =2 2 max + min + A 4=7 - 0 A =2 7 + A =1 9 Tav A =3 6 Engine cycle Figure 12 Turning moment diagram Analytical expressions for turning moment: The crankshaft torque is periodic or repetitive in nature (over a cycle). For all practical purpose first few harmonics will give a sufficient result. Putting T − Tm = 0 in (27). then 2π Work done per revolution = and 1 Mean torque = Tm = 2π 2π ∫ T (θ ) dθ = C 2π 0 0 (28) ∫ T (θ ) dθ = 2π C 2π = C 0 0 1 0 (29) Now we have to obtain the intersection point of “T(θ). E = Net area between ω max and ω min (-4+2-7=-9 units) or between ω min and ω max 2 2 − ωmin (4-3+2-1+7=9 units) = 0.Location of the maximum and minimum speeds: Let Ai be the area of the respective loop. The maximum speed is at the maximum energy (7 units) and the minimum speed is at the minimum energy (-2 units). We will take datum at starting point and will calculate energy after every loop. as 61 . C0 .θ “ curve with Tm line. We will use this analysis for finding mass of flywheel.5I (ωmax ). A1 . A2 ⋅⋅⋅⋅ can be obtained.

8 Nm (In Figure 14 height: AC) 62 .02 . Let during period of 360° two intersections θ1 and θ 2 are there.41 rad/s . P = 25 kW. in terms of θ .stroke oil engine develops 25 kW at 300 rpm. Tav = P / ω = 25 × 103 /(100π ) = 2500 / π Nm = 795. from which we can get θ = θ1 . four. The work done by the gases during expansion stroke is 2.θ 2 ⋅⋅⋅⋅ . find the moment of inertia of the flywheel.3 times the work done on the gases during compression stroke and the work done during the suction and exhaust strokes is negligible. Solution: Given data are: δ s = 0. Wexp = 2.T (θ ) − Tm = 0 = A1 sinθ + A2 sin 2θ + ⋅⋅⋅ + An sin nθ + ⋅⋅⋅ + B1cosθ + B2 cos 2θ + ⋅⋅⋅ + Bn cos nθ + ⋅⋅⋅ which gives A1 sinθ + A2 sin 2θ + ⋅⋅⋅ + An sin nθ + ⋅⋅⋅ + B1cosθ + B2 cos 2θ + ⋅⋅⋅ + Bn cosnθ + ⋅⋅⋅ = 0 (30) Equation (30) is a transdental (non-linear) eqn. then the fluctuation of energy can be obtained as (Figure 13): E = ∫ (T (θ ) − Tm ) dθ θ1 θ2 (31) T( ) one cycle min + max - Tm 2 - Fly wheel for reciprocating machinery installation Figure 13 Example 1: A single-cylinder. ω = 3000 rpm = 2π 300/60 = 100π rad/s = 31. If the turning moment diagram during expansion is assumed to be triangular in shape and the speed is to be maintained within 1% of the mean speed.3Wcomp .

3 Nm Tmax.6 Nm We have ∆E = I δ sWav 2 Or or I = 15280.3 − 795.5 Nm .3 N.92 = 15280.7631) ] = 15.3) or ab = 2. excess turning moment = Tmax − Tav = AB . B T a c b E Tav. ∆ODB & ∆abB are similar. 4π rad.6 ) { 2 } = 774.02 × ( 31.4 kg-m 2 2 ∆E = Wexp 1 − ( AC / AB ) = 17.3 .m = AB .28 Nm 2 Or From similar ∆OBD & ∆aBD : ab / OD = BC / AB 63 . rotation) Wtotal = Tav 4π = ( 2500 / π ) 4π = 10000 Nm We have.92 .692 [1 − (0.795733/11.8 = 10467. which gives Tmax = 11263.e.3 Nm and hence 10000 = 2.40.6 / 0. Hence the fluctuation of energy is ∆E = (1/ 2 ) BC×ab ab / π = BC/AB or ab = π (10467.5 /11263.Total work done in one cycle (i.5 × 2. Wtotal = Wexp − Wcomp which gives Wcomp = 7692. BC = maxi.AC = 11263. hence Which gives ∆E = (1/ 2 )10467. D 2 3 4 O A Figure 14 Turning moment diagram Work done during expansion stroke: (1/ 2)Tmaxπ = Wexp = 17692.3Wcomp − Wcomp Wexp = 17692.

∆E (1/ 2 ) ab × BC = ab BC = BC BC = BC = 10467.85. -0.7 cm 2 ≡ 1.5 /11263.2 0. M (Torque) M N.2 − (−0.45.3 2 2 Wexp Area Bab = ∆E = (10467. -0. shown in Figure 15.5. The vertical scale of the turning moment diagram for a multi-cylinder engine.825 N-m 180 64 .3 = 15280.06.3) × 17692.2. +1. is 1 cm = 7000 Nm of torque. +1.7 × 7000 × π 30 = 6230. -1.06 0 M N.M A B C D E F G H ωmin ωmax θ Figure 16 Fluctuation of the energy ∆E = Emax − Emin = 1.25 maxi 1. The engine speed is 800 rpm and it is desired that the fluctuation from minimum to maximum speed should not be more then 2% of average speed. and horizontal scale is 1 cm = 300 of crank rotation.35 1.5) = 1.55 Nm 2 Example 2. Determine the moment of inertia of the flywheel. +0. The areas (in cm2) of the turning moment diagram above and below the mean resistance line.5 0. are 0.7 -0. starting from A in Figure @ and taken in order.5 Area Bab = Area OBD (1/ 2 ) OD × AB OD AB AB AB AB 11263.m A B C D E F G H (≡ A) θ Figure 15 Example 2 Solution: 0 mini -0.95.71.

Use coefficient of fluctuation of speed = 0. mass of connecting rod = 4.5 kg. 65 .5 cm plate whose resistance to shear is 35316 N/cm2.1 MPa. The actual punching takes place in one-fifth of the interval between successive operations. counterbalance mass of the crank at crank radius = 2 kg. A flywheel coupled to the crankshaft has a moment of inertia 450 kg m2 about the axis of rotation.776 rad/s and δs = 0.which can be described as follows: The compression starts with an initial pressure of 0. (3) The equation of a turning moment curve of an IC engine running at 300 rpm is given by T = [ 25000 + 8500 sin 3θ ] . (2) Twenty 1-cm holes are to be punched every minute in a 1. piston pin.4. stroke = 25 cm. time for 60 complete swings of the connecting rod about piston pin = 72 s. 8 and 8 cm respectively.39 kgm 2 ω 2 δs (Answer) Exercise Problems: (1) The following data refers to a single-cylinder four cycle diesel engin: speed = 2500 rpm. equivalent mass of crank at crank radius = 2 kg. crank pin and main bearing diameters 2. The speed of the flywheel is 300 rpm.5 kg. The exhaust and suction takes place at constant pressure of 0.4. diameter of cylinder = 21 cm. Determine (a) Horse power of the engine (b) total percentage fluctuation of speed (c) maximum angle by which the flywheel leads or lags an imaginary flywheel running at a constant speed of 300 rpm. The compression ratio is 16. CG of connecting rod is 18 cm from crank pin center. length of connecting rod = 44 cm. Suggest a suitable flywheel for this engine if the coefficient of fluctuation of speed is 0.02 Hence. The indicator card is assumed as an idealised diesel cycle. The fuel is admitted for 30% of the stroke. at constant pressure and the expansion law is given by the exponent 1. mass of piston with rings = 2. Making the usual assumptions specify the dimensions of a suitable CI rimmed flywheel. I= ∆E = 44.01 and V = 60 m/s.1 MPa and the law of compression curve is given by the exponent 1.03. which takes place at the end of the stroke.ω = 800 rpm = 83.

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