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# FUNCTION ALGEBRAS OVER GROUPS

V. MURUGANANDAM

Abstract. One of the primary aspects of harmonic analysis is

the study of functions on a homogenous space by means of suitable
group actions. The other end of this thread is to introduce various

classes of functions on groups and study their properties vis-a-vis the underlying groups. In this compact course, we focus on this We concept with particular reference to the most useful and widely studied notion in harmonic analysis namely Amenability. aim to  look beyond the amenability at the end of the course.

1.

Preliminaries

Denition 1.1. A topological space G is said to be a topological group if it is a group and the map (x, y) → xy−1 is continuous from G × G into G.
Let us give some important classes of locally compact Hausdor groups.

Examples 1.2. (i) Rn is a locally compact group. (ii) For every n ≥ 1, Tn is a compact group. (iii) For every xed n, let GL(n, R) be the group consisting of all n × n invertible matrices with real entries. Then GL(n, R) is a locally compact group as it is an open subset of Rn2 . (iv) SL(n, R) = {x ∈ GL(n, R) : det(x) = 1} and O(n) consisting of orthogonal matrices are also locally compact groups as they form closed subsets of GL(n, R). a b (v) S = x = 0 1 : a > 0, b ∈ R . (vi) If G is the Heisenberg group given by
    1 x z    0 1 y  : x, y, z ∈ R g=   0 0 1
0This notes is based on a series of lectures given in the Workshop and a centenary
conference on Analysis and Applications, IISc Mathematics Initiative (IMI), I.I.Sc, Bangalore, from May, 14-23, 2009. writing down the notes.
1

The author thanks R. Lakshmi Lavanya for

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V. MURUGANANDAM

then G is noncompact and nonabelian. (vii) Let F2 denote the free group generated by a, b, with ab = ba. It is a nonabelian discrete group. Arbitrary element of this group is of the form am bn ak · · · where m, n, k belong to Z.
Let tively. Let

Cc (G)

and

Cb (G)

denote the space of all continuous functions

with compact support and continuous bounded functions on

G, respec-

Clu (G), Cru (G) and Cu (G) denote the space of all left uniformly G.

continuous functions, right uniformly continuous functions and uniformly continuous functions on 1.1.

Measure algebra. Denition 1.3. Let X be a locally compact space. A Borel measure µ is said to be regular if (1) µ(K) < ∞, for every compact set K. (2) For every Borel set E , µ(E) = inf{ µ(U ) : U is open and E ⊆
(3)

U }. If E is any Borel set and µ(E) < ∞, then µ(E) = sup µ(K) : K is compact, K ⊆ E .

Denition 1.4. A Banach space A over C is called a Banach algebra if A is an algebra satisfying
xy ≤ x y , ∀ x, y ∈ A

and is called Banach -algebra if it admits an involution x → x on A such that x = x for all x in A.
Let

G

be a locally compact Hausdor group. If

M (G)

denotes the

space of complex Borel measures on

G,

then it forms a Banach Space.

In what follows, we briey show that the underlying group structure gives rise to two additional structures on

M (G),
are in

with respect to which

M (G)

forms an Banach

algebra. If

µ, ν

M (G),

then dene

φ(x) d(µ ∗ ν)(x) = µ∗ν
is called the

φ(xy) dµ(x) dν(y).
For every

belongs to

Recall that if

x.

If

M (G) and µ ∗ ν ≤ µ ν . x belongs to G, then δx denotes x, y are in G, then φ d(δx ∗ δy ) =

convolution of the measures.

µ and ν , µ ∗ ν

the Dirac measure at

φ(uv) dδx (u) dδy (v) = φ(xy) =

φ dδxy .

3

Therefore,

M (G).

The involution

δx ∗ δy = δxy . See µ→µ

that on

δe is the multiplicative M (G) is dened by φ(x−1 ) dµ(x). M (G).

identity of

φ dµ =
It is easy to see that 1.2.

δe

is the identity for

Group algebra.

One of the milestones in the history of abstract

Harmonic analysis was the existence of left invariant measure on a general locally compact Hausdor group that reads as follows. A Borel measure Borel

m on G is said to be left invariant if m(xE) = m(E) for every set E, and for all x in G.

Theorem 1.5. (Haar, Von Neumann) Let G be a locally compact Hausdor group. There exists a non-zero, positive, left invariant, regular Borel measure on G. Moreover, it is unique up to a positive constant.
Such a measure is called Haar measure and the corresponding integral is called Haar integral. Loomis[11] for a proof. Let We refer to the books by A. Weil[18], always denote the Haar integral.

dx

Let us see some examples of Haar measures. (1) For any subset

E

of a discrete group, if

m(E)

is dened to be

the number of elements in

counting measure.

E,

then it is a Haar measure called

(2) The Lebesgue measure is the Haar measure for the group

Rn ,

as it is translation invaraint. 2π 1 (3) For the Torus T, f (eıx )dx is the Haar integral. 2π 0 1 (4) If G = GL(n, R) then verify that dg11 dg12 · · · dgnn denes (det g)n a Haar measure. 1 (5) If G denotes the group given in 1.2(v) then 2 dadb is the Haar a measure. (6) The Lebesgue measure

dg = dxdydz
is the Haar measure for the Heisenberg group given in 1.2(v). Let

Lp (G), 1 ≤ p < ∞

of all measurable functions ∞ one denes L (G).

denote as usual, the Banach space consisting f such that G |f (x)|p dx is nite. Similarly

Theorem 1.6. (Lusin). For every p, 1 ≤ p < ∞, Cc (G) is dense in
Lp (G).

Proposition 1.7. If f in Lp (G), 1 ≤ p < ∞ is xed then the map x →x f from G into Lp (G) is continuous.

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V. MURUGANANDAM

f ∈ Cc (G). Then, f is uniformly continuous. f. Let > 0 be given. Since G is locally compact, there exists a neighborhood W of identity e such that W is compact. Choose a neighborhood U of e such that U ⊆ W and if x, y ∈ G are such that x ∈ U y then
Let us assume that Let K be the support of

Proof.

|f (x) − f (y)| < µ
being the xed Haar measure. Then for every

µ(KW )

,

x, y ∈ G

such that

x ∈ Uy

, we have

||x f −y f ||p <

.

Use Lusin's theorem to show that the result holds for arbitrary elep ment of L (G). A Haar measure need not be right invariant. In fact, for a xed if we dene

x

dmx by f, dmx = G f (yx)dy then one can see that it is left integral. Therefore, there exists a function x → ∆(x) called

modular function satisfying the following:
f (yx)dy = ∆(x−1 )
G

f (y)dy
G

The modular function of G can easily be seen to be a homomorphism + from G into R . By Proposition 1.7, we see that ∆ is continuous. A group

G

is called

Unimodular if

∆(x) = 1 ∀x ∈ G.
It is trivial that any abelian group or discrete group is unimodular. As

is a continuous homomorphism, any compact group is unimodular.

In fact all groups enumerated in 1.2 except the group are unimodular.

S

in example (v)

∆(x) = a−1 ,

if

x=x=

a b 0 1

. L1 (G)
as a

Recall that by Radon-Nikodym theorem we can view closed subspace of

M (G) consisting of all measures which are absolutely 1 continuous with respect to Haar measure. We show that L (G) is a Banach subalgebra of M (G). 1 For every f, g ∈ L (G), since φ(x)d(f ∗ g)(x) dx =
G G G

φ(xy)f (x)g(y) dx dy φ(x)f (y)g(y −1 x) dy dx,
G G

=

5

we have

f ∗ g(x) =
G
Similarly, the involution of

f (y)g(y −1 x) dy.
restricted to

(1.1)

M (G),

L1 (G),

is given by

f (x) dx = f (x−1 ) d(x−1 ).
That is,

f (x) = ∆(x−1 )f (x−1 ).

(1.2)

algebra.

the involution (1.2), involution. In fact

Summarizing we observe that with the convolution product (1.1) and L1 (G) forms an Banach -algebra called

group

Moreover it is a two-sided ideal in

M (G)

and closed under

µ ∗ g(x) =
G

g(y −1 x) dµ(y).

f ∗ µ(x) =
G
One can easily see that if converse also. That is, if

∆(y −1 )f (xy −1 ) dµ(y). G
is commutative then

L1 (G)

is a com-

mutative Banach -algebra. With a little more eort, one can prove the L1 (G) is commutative with the convolution product then the underlying group is commutative. Let us also remark that if G is discrete then δe is the identity for 1 L (G). We recall that the converse also holds. That is L1 (G) has identity if and only if

G

is discrete. We briey construct one

But nevertheless, the group algebra of a general locally compact group, has bounded approximate identity. such as follows. Let

{Vα }α∈ I

be a neighbourhood system consisting of compact neigh-

bourhoods at e. Set

fα =
where

µ

is the Haar measure and

gα , µ(Vα ) gα is in Cc (G)

(1.3) with support of

is

contained in 1

Vα .

Then

{fα }α∈I

is a bounded approximate identity for

L (G).

Proposition 1.8. If f belongs to Lp (G), 1 ≤ p < ∞ then
lim fα ∗ f − f
α p

= 0 = lim f ∗ fα − f
α

p

Proof.

For any

f

in

Cc (G) one can prove using Proposition 1.7 and the

general case follows by Lusin's theorem.

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V. MURUGANANDAM

Let us end our discussion about the group algebra by recalling some important properties of group algebras of commutative groups. We assume that phism from

G

into

of G is denoted

G is commutative. A continuous group homomorT, is called a character. The set of all characters by G. It can be seen that G forms a locally com-

pact abelian group under pointwise multiplication and compact - open 1 topology and is called as dual group of G. Let ∆(L (G)) denote the set 1 of all non-zero complex homomorphisms of L (G).

Theorem 1.9. The map χ to τχ from G in to ∆(L1 (G)) given by
τχ (f ) =
G

f (x)χ(x)dx ∀f ∈ L1 (G),

(1.4)

denes a homeomorphism from G into ∆(L1 (G)), with Gelfand topology.

Denition 1.10. For every f ∈ L1 (G) the Fourier transform of f is dened to be a function on G given by
ˆ f (γ) =
G

f (x) x, γ

dx.

(1.5)

Proposition 1.11. The Fourier transform is a injective homomorphism from L1 (G) to C0 (G) and its range is dense in C0 (G). Theorem 1.12 (Fourier Inversion formula). Let G be a locally compact abelian group. Then there exists a Haar measure dγ on G satisfying the following. If f ∈ L1 (G) and f ∈ L1 (G), then
f (x) =
G

f (γ)γ(x) dγ

a. e

(1.6)

Theorem 1.13. [Plancherel theorem] Let G be a locally compact abelian group. If f ∈ L1 (G) ∩ L2 (G) then
f
2 L2 (G)

ˆ = f

L2 (G) .

The Fourier transform extends to a unitary operator from L2 (G) onto
L (G).
For the proofs and more details we refer to Loomis[11] and the recent book Folland [7]

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1.3.

Representation theory.

Denition 1.14. A representation of G on a Hilbert space H is a homomorphism π from G into GL(H), the group consisting of all invertible operators in BL(H), such that the map
x× → π(x)ξ

from G → H is continuous for every ξ in H..
Here tation

H is called the representation space. We π is unitary if π(x) is unitary for every x π(ξ)u, π(x)η = ξ, η

say that the represenin

G.

That is,

∀x ∈ G ∀ ξ, η ∈ H.

A representation

(π, H)

is said to be an

irreducible representation of

G,

G-invariant subspace. (π, H) is said to be cyclic with a cyclic vector ξ if the linear span of {π(x)ξ : x ∈ G} is a dense subspace of H. Any two (unitary) representations (π1 , H1 ) and (π2 , H2 ) are said to be (unitarily) equivalent if there exists an invertible bounded (unitary) operator T : H1 → H2 such that
if

H

does not have any non-trivial closed

A representation

T ◦ π1 (g) = π2 (g) ◦ T, ∀ g ∈ G.
On any Hilbert space one can have trivial representation. That is, for every

x

in

G, G,

dene if

π(x) = IH .

But this apart, there is a built-in

representation for every group, given as follows. For any

x

in

λ(x)

denotes the operator on and

L2 (G)

given by

λ(x)f (y) = f (x−1 y) ∀y ∈ G
then map

∀f ∈ L2 (G), G
and is known as

left regular representation of G. Notation Let G be the set of equivalence classes of irreducible unitary
representation of

λ(x) is unitary as x → λ(x)f denes

Haar measure is left invariant. Moreover, the a unitary representation of

representation of

G and let G be the set of equivalence classes of unitary G.

Remark 1.15. 1. If H is a Hilbert space let H denote the conjugate Hilbert space. If (π, H) is a representation dene π , H by π(x) = π(x). ¯ ¯ It is called conjugate representation. 2. Let (πi , Hi ), i = 1, 2 be two unitary representations of a group G. Let H = H1 ⊕ H2 be the direct sum of Hilbert spaces. If we dene π(x)(ξ1 , ξ2 ) = (π1 (x)ξ1 , π2 (x)ξ2 ), then it forms a unitary representation called the direct sum of (π1 , H1 ) and (π2 , H2 ).

8

V. MURUGANANDAM

ˆ 3. Let H be the tensor product H1 ⊗H2 of H1 and H2 obtained by completing the algebraic tensor product H1 ⊗ H2 by dening the inner product ξ1 ⊗ ξ2 , η1 ⊗ η2 = ξ1 , η1 ξ2 , η2 . Recall that if T1 and T2 are bounded linear maps on H1 and H2 respectively then there exists a bounded linear map T1 ⊗ T2 such that T1 ⊗ T2 (ξ1 ⊗ ξ2 ) = T1 (x)ξ1 ⊗ T2 (x)ξ2 , and T1 ⊗ T2 = T1 T2 . If π1 and π2 are two unitary representations of G then π1 ⊗ π2 on ˆ H1 ⊗H2 given by π1 ⊗ π2 (x) = π1 (x) ⊗ π2 (x) denes a unitary representation on G. It is called tensor product of π1 ˆ and π2 and is denoted by (π1 ⊗ π2 , H1 ⊗H2 ).

Denition 1.16. Let
˜ B(G) = πξ, η : ξ, η ∈ H, π ∈ G .
By the above remark, we observe that

B(G) is a subalgebra of Cb (G)

closed under complex conjugation having identity. This space is going to be an important object of study throughout this course.

Denition 1.17. Let A be a Banach - algebra. Any -homomorphism π of A into BL(H) for some Hilbert space H is called -representation of A. Remark 1.18. Let us recall that if A be a Banach - algebra and B is a C -algebra and if φ : A → B is a -homomorphism then
φ(x) ≤ x

for every x ∈ A. (see Takesakai [17] for a proof.) In particular any representation of L1 (G) is norm decreasing.
Any representation

π

is said to be

non-degenerate
H.

if the closure

of the subspace spanned by

[π(A)(H)] L1 (G)

is equal to

Similarly, we can

dene irreducibility and equivalence among the

-representations of

A.
A -representation

(π, H)

of

is non-degenerate if and only if

the following holds. For any bounded approximate identity L1 (G), π(fα ) → I in strong operator topology.

{fα }

in

Theorem 1.19. Suppose (π, H) is a unitary representation of G. For every f in L1 (G) if we dene π(f ) on H by ˜
π (f )(ξ) η ˜ =
G

f (x) π(x)ξ, η dx,

9

then f → π(f ) denes a non-degenerate -representation of L1 (G). ˜ Moreover the correspondence π → π is bijective from the equivalence ˜ classes of all unitary representations of G and the equivalence classes of all non-degenerate -representations of L1 (G). Proof.
by Suppose that

π

is a unitary representation of

G.

If we dene

π ˜

π (f ) = ˜
G
that is, for every

f (x)π(x)dx,

(1.7)

ξ, η

in

H,

if

π (f )(ξ) η ˜

=
G

f (x) π(x)ξ, η dx,
-homomorphism. exists

then it can be easily seen to be a Let

{fα }
and

be the bounded approximate identity given in (1.3). Fix

ξ

in

H

such that,

> 0 Since x → π(x)ξ is continuous at e there x ∈ Vα0 ⇒ π(x)ξ − ξ < . For every α > α0 , π (fα )ξ − ξ ˜ =
G

Vα0

fα (x)π(x)ξ dx − ξ |fα (x)| π(x)ξ − ξ dx

< =
Hence

.

|fα (x)| dx.

. π |L1 (G) ˜
is non-

π (fα ) → I ˜

in strong operator topology and so

degenerate.

1 Conversely suppose that ρ : L (G) → BL(H) is a non-degenerate 1 -representation of L (G). 1 Set K = [ρ(L (G)(H)]. Then K is dense in H. Dene

π(x)(ρ(f )ξ) = ρ(δx ∗ f )(ξ).
Since

δx ∗ fα ∗ f → δx ∗ f,

for all

f ∈ L1 (G),

we have

π(x)(ρ(f )ξ) = lim ρ(δx ∗ fα )
α

ρ(f )(ξ)

Therefore by 1.18, as an operator on

ρ(f )(ξ) .

π(x) is bounded on K. Hence π(x) gets extended H. It is easy to see that π(xy) = π(x) ◦ π(y). Since

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V. MURUGANANDAM

ξ = π(x−1 )π(x)(ξ) ≤ π(x)ξ ≤ ξ , π f, g in L1 (G), ρ(f ) ◦ ρ(g) = ρ(f ∗ g)(ξ) =
G

is unitary. Since for every

f (y)ρ(δy ∗ g) f (y)π(y)(ρ(g))dy
G

=

= π (f )(ρ(g)) ˜
we have

ρ(f ) = π (f ). ˜

˜ Remark 1.20. For example λ, corresponding to λ is given by left convolution operators, since ˜ λ(f )(g)(x) =
G

λ(y)(g)(x)f (y)dy =
G

g(y −1 x)f (y)dy = f ∗ g(x).

˜ This representation is faithful in the sense that if λ(f ) = 0 then f = 0 1 in L (G).
2.

Positive definite functions
n

Denition 2.1. A function φ : G → C is said to be positive denite if for all c1 , c2 , ..., cn ∈ C and x1 , x2 , ..., xn ∈ G,
ci cj φ(x−1 xi ) ≥ 0. ¯ j
i,j=1

Example 2.2. If (π, H) is any unitary representation of G then for any ξ H function φ = πξ,ξ is positive denite since for any choice of xi and ci as in the denition
n

ci cj φ(x−1 xi ) = ¯ j
i,j=1

η, η

where η =

i ci π(xi )(ξ).

Note that, taking n=1 and

c1 = 1 in Denition 2.1, we have φ(e) ≥ 0.

Proposition 2.3. Let φ be a positive denite function. Then
(1) (2)

φ(x−1 ) = φ(x) |φ(x)| ≤ φ(e), ∀ x ∈ G.
By hypothesis, the matrix

Proof.

nite. Consider

A=

(φ(x−1 xj ))1≤i,j≤n is positive semi dei φ(e) φ(x) . Since A = A , and det(A) ≥ 0, φ(x−1 ) φ(e)

the result follows.

11

Theorem 2.4. Let φ be a continuous function on G. Then the following are equivalent (1) φ is positive denite. (2) φ is bounded and φ, f ∗ f ≥ 0, ∀ f ∈ Cc (G).
(3)

φ, µ ∗ µ µ

≥ 0, ∀ µ ∈ M (G).

Proof.

n
If is a measure with nite support, that is if

µ =
i=1

α i δx i ,

observe that

n

φ, µ ∗ µ =
i,j=1
Assume that

ci cj φ(x−1 xi ). ¯ j

φ, µ ∗ µ ≥ 0. Let f belong to Cc (G). Then there exists {µα } of measures with nite support such that µα converges to f (y)dy in the weak -topology. φ
is positive denite. Then Therefore, (1) implies (2). Let us prove (2) implies (3). support. Then for any If to Let us suppose that

µ

has compact

f in Cc (G) the function µ ∗ f belongs to Cc (G). {fα } is a bounded approximate identity such that each fα belongs Cc (G), then µ ∗ fα belongs to Cc (G) and it converges to µ in the
-topology. Therefore (3) is true in this case. belongs to

weak If

µ

pact support such that

M (G), then there exists {µα } in M (G) with com{µα } converges to µ in the weak - topology.

Therefore (2) implies (3). It is trivial that (3) implies (1).

Notation:
P (G).

Let

functions on

G.

P (G) denote If φ belongs

the set of all continuous positive denite to

P (G)

then observe that

¯ φ

belongs to

Remark 2.5. In Example 2.2 we have seen that any matrix coecient belonging to a unitary representation is positive denite. Now we shall show that these are the only positive denite functions. In other words, we show that if φ belongs to P (G), then there exists a cyclic representation (π, H) with cyclic vector ξ such that φ(x) = πξ, ξ .
2.1.

GNS construction.

Theorem 2.6. Let φ be any continuous positive denite function on G. Then there exists a cyclic representation (π, H) with the cyclic vector ξ such that φ(x) = πφ (x)u, u locally almost everywhere.

12

V. MURUGANANDAM

Proof.

Dene

·, ·
φ

φ on

L1 (G)

by

f, g

= g ∗f

=
G

¯ φ(x−1 y)g(x)f (y)dxdy.

1 It is easy to see that it denes a sesquilinear form on L (G). If N = 1 {f ∈ L (G) : f, f φ = 0} , one can see by Cauchy Schwarz inequality 1 one can see that N = {f ∈ L (G) : f, g φ = 0∀g ∈ L1 (G)} . There1 fore it forms a closed subspace of L (G).
Moreover, since

x f,x
we see that

g

φ

= f, g

φ

(2.1)

is invariant under left translation. 1 Let H0 denote the quotient space L (G)/N . Complete it to get a to

N

Hilbert space

˜ f belongs

H. We shall dene L1 (G)/N take

a representation

π

on

H

as follows. If

˜ π(x)(f ) = x−1 f =
Then

x−1 f

˜ G.

π

extends to a unitary representation of

Let us show that (π, H) is cyclic. If {fα } is a bounded approximate 1 ˜ identity of L (G) then take a subnet if necessary to conclude that fα converges to a vector

ξ

weakly in

H.

Then

˜ f, ξ
Since

φ

˜ ˜ = lim f , fα
α φ

φ

= lim fα ∗ f, φ =
α G

f (x)φ(x)dx.
and

(2.2)

g, f ˜ ˜

=

G

G

¯ φ(x−1 y)f (x)g(y)dxdy

φ(x−1 y)g(y)dy =
G
we see by (2.2) that

φ(y)g(xy)dy = π(x−1 )˜, ξ g
G

φ

= g , π(x)ξ ˜

g, f ˜ ˜

φ

=
G

¯ ˜ f (x) g , π(x)ξ g , π(f )(ξ) ˜ H
φ.
(2.3)

=
Hence

[π(L1 (G))ξ]

is total in

and so the representation is cyclic.

Finally,

˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ξ, f = lim fα f , = lim fα , π(f )ξ
α α
Therefore, by (2.2),

= ξ, π(f )(ξ)

G

f (x)φ(x)dx = π(f )(ξ), ξ

Remark 2.7. Using the preceding theorem, we conclude that the vector space B(G) dened in 1.16 is in fact linear span of continuous positive denite functions.

13

3.

C

algebras of groups
x ∈ A. C(X)
of

Denition 3.1. An Banach - algebra A is said to be C -algebra if the involution of A satises the additional condition
x x = x 2,

Remark 1.

Let

X

be a compact Hausdor space. The space

X is a unital Banach algebra ¯ f → f is an involution that makes C(X) into a C -algebra. Similarly if X is a locally compact noncompact Hausdor space then C0 (X) consists of continuous functions which vanish at innity forms a C -algebra without identity. ∞ 2. L (X, dµ) for any measure µ, is a C -algebra. 3. Let H be a Hilbert space. Then the unital Banach algebra BL(H) is a C algebra with the operator norm and the involution given by the map T → T . In general any norm closed -subalgebra of BL(H) is a C -algebra.
continuous complex valued functions on with the uniform norm. The map

Theorem 3.2. If · is dened on L1 (G) by f = sup { π(f ) : π is any non-degenerate -representation} (3.1) then it denes a norm on L1 (G). Moreover, the completion of L1 (G) with respect to this norm is a C -algebra. Proof. Clearly,
λf + g
Suppose that

≤ |λ| f

+ g

= 0. Then λ(f ) = 0 where λ : L1 (G) → BL(L2 (G)) is the left regular representation. As λ is a faithful representation, we have f = 0. Therefore . is indeed a norm. f

Denition 3.3. The C -algebra obtained above is called full C of G and is denoted by C (G).
The following theorem gives yet another way to realize us rst recall

-algebra

C (G).

Let

Theorem 3.4. A C -algebra has suciently many irreducible representations to separate points of A. That is, for every x ∈ A, x = 0 there exists an irreducible representation π of A such that π(x) = 0. Theorem 3.5. let A denote the C (G)-algebra obtained by completing L1 (G) with · where f = sup π(f ) : π ∈ G . Then C (G) and A are isometrically isomorphic

14

V. MURUGANANDAM

Proof.

Ψ : (L1 (G), . ) → (A, . ) . Then Ψ(f ) ≤ f . So Ψ extended into a -homomorphism from C (G) into A. We claim that Ψ is injective. Suppose Ψ(f ) = 0, ∀ f ∈ C (G). Then π(f ) = 0, ∀ π ∈ G. By the preceding Gelfand-Raikov Theorem, f = 0. Therefore Ψ is injective. Since an injective -homomorphism between C -algebras is
Dene an isometry, we have

Ψ(f ) = f ,
Therefore,

∀ f ∈ C (G).
Thus

Ψ(C (G)) is closed in A. C -completion of (L1 (G), . )

Ψ(C (G)) = A.

Hence

A

is

Proposition 3.6. Suppose that the group G is abelian. Then the full ˆ C -algebra of G is identied with C0 (G).
Proof.
π
If

(π, H)

is a unitary irreducible representation of

G

then by

Schur's lemma it is given by one-dimensional representation. That is, there exists a character going to Now

χπ

identies

χπ such that π(x)ξ = χπ (x), for every x ∈ G. ˆ G with the dual group given in Section 1. f (x)χπ (x) dx. = f (χπ ), ˇ
G

π(f ) =
G
where

f (x)π(x) dx. =
Therefore,

χπ = χπ (x−1 ). ˇ f
π∈ G

= sup π(f ) = sup f (χπ ) = f ˇ
χ∈ G

∞ , since

χ ∈ G. ˇ

C (G) is the completion of (L1 (G), . ) and ∆(L1 (G)) = G, we have C (G) is the completion of {f ∈ C0 (G) : . ∞ − norm}. Since {f : f ∈ Cc (G)} is dense in L1 (G), we have C (G) = C0 (G).
Since

Remarks 3.7. 1. If ρ is any -representation of L1 (G), then ρ gets extension to a -representation of C (G). 2. If ρ1 and ρ2 are two non-degenerate representations of L1 (G) then they are equivalent if and only if their extensions to C (G) are equivalent. 3. Summarizing by we observe by Theorem 1.19 and the preceding theorem that there is a bijective correspondence between the unitary representations of G and non-degenerate -representations of C (G) such that irreducible ones go into irreducible ones. Moreover this identication respects equivalence relation among the representations.

15

From the proof of Theorem 3.2 we observe that instead of taking all unitary representations in the equation (3.1), if we take the left regular representation alone, we get another

C

-algebra.

Denition 3.8. The closure of -subalgebra λ(L1 (G)) in BL(L2 (G)) is a C -algebra and is called reduced C -algebra of G. We denote this C -algebra by Cλ (G).
We recall that if

G

is abelian then

ˆ f (γ) ≤ λ(f )

for every

f

in

ˆ L1 (G) and for every γ in G. So f = λ(f ) for every f in L1 (G), so ∼ C (G). that C (G) = λ Similarly if G is compact, by Peter-Weyl theory we observe that ˆ π(f ) ≤ λ(f ) for every π in G and so C (G) ∼ Cλ (G). = The question that for which groups, these two C -algebras are isometrically -isomorphic gives rise to a class of groups called

amenable

groups, which are to be discussed below. 3.1.

Weak containment: Denition 3.9. Suppose that G is a locally compact group. Let Σ ⊆ G, π ∈ G. We say that π is said to be weakly contained in Σ if the corresponding -representation π of C (G) is weakly contained in corresponding Σ. We denote it by π Σ.
We recall that if

representations of

π is a representation of A and Σ is a collection of A then π is weakly contained in Σ denoted by π Σ
(1)

if any of the equivalent conditions in the following theorem is satised.

Theorem 3.10.
(2) (3)

ker(π) ⊇
ρ∈Σ

ker(ρ)

(4)

π(x) ≤ sup ρ(x) : ρ ∈ G . For every ξ ∈ Hπ , there exists a net {φα } consisting of the matrix coecients belonging the representations in Σ such that {φα } converges to πξ, ξ in the weak topology. In fact Every positive form πξ,ξ associated to π is weak limit of linear sum of positive linear form associated to Σ. Every state of A associated with π is a weakstar limit of states which are sums of positive forms associated with Σ.
For more details regarding the

See Theorem 3.4.4 of Diximier [4]. to Section 3.4 of Diximier [4]. If we take

weak containment among the representations of a

C

-algebra we refer

Σ = {λ}

then we observe by the preceding discussion

and Theorem 3.5, that

C (G)

and

Cλ (G)

are isometrically isomorphic

16

V. MURUGANANDAM

if and only if every irreducible unitary representation of contained in

G

is weakly

λ. G.

The following theorem is useful in understanding the weak containment among the representations of

Theorem 3.11. Let P1 (G) = {ψ ∈ P (G) : ψ = ψ(1) = 1} . On P1 (G) the weak topology and the topology of uniformly convergence on compact sets are equivalent.
See Theorem 13.5.2. of Diximer [4].

˜ Theorem 3.12. Let G be a locally compact group and π belong to G ˜ Then the following are equivalent: and Σ ⊆ G.

Every positive denite function ψ associated to π is limit of sum of positive denite functions associated to Σ with respect to the topology of uniformly convergence on compact sets. If π is further assumed to be irreducible, then the above if equivalent to the following. 3. If πξ,ξ for some ξ in H, is the limit of sum of positive denite functions associated to Σ with respect to the topology of uniformly convergence on compact sets.
(2)

(1)

π

Σ.

Proof.
3.2.

The proof follows by Theorem 3.10, Theorem 3.11.

Fourier and Fourier Stieltjes algebra.

Theorem 3.13. Let G be a locally compact group. Let C (G) denote the C -algebra of G. The Banach space dual [C (G)] of C (G) is given by {πξ,η : ξ, η ∈ Hπ , π is a unitary representation of G} . (3.2)
We shall rst prove the following lemma.

Lemma 3.14. If φ is a positive linear form L1 (G), then φ gets extended to a positive linear form φ on C (G). The map φ → φ is bijective and
φ = φ .

Proof.

Let

τ : L1 (G) → C (G)

denote the imbedding. As every pos-

itive form on a Banach gets extended to

is continuous (See [1, p396]).

-algebra with bounded approximate identity 1 Therefore any positive form on L (G)

φ

on

We need to see that

C (G) such that, φ = φ ◦ τ. Let x ∈ C (G). φ = φ . If f ∈ L1 (G) then |φ(f )| = |φ (f )| ≤

17

|φ (e)|1/2 f ∗ f
Then,

1/2 C (G)

≤ φ

f

1 . Therefore

φ ≤ φ .

Let

x ∈ A.

|φ (x)| = |φ(x)| ≤ ≤ ≤
e Therefore, Hence

φ φ φ

1/2 1/2 1/2

(φ(x x))1/2 . φ φ
1/2 1/2

xx x .
2

C (G)

φ ≤ φ 1/2 φ 1/2 ⇒ φ = φ as claimed.

φ

1/2

≤ φ

1/2

φ

≤ φ .

Let us prove the theorem.

Proof.

Let us recall Jordan Decomposition Theorem for

C

-algebras.

(see Theeorem (3.2.5) of Pederson [13]). For each hermitean functional

φ on C -algebra A, there exist positive elements φ+ and φ− such that φ = φ+ −φ− and φ = φ+ + φ− . By GNS construction theorem for C -algebras we see that if φ is any positive linear form, then there exists a unique (up to unitary equivalence) cyclic -representation (π, H, ξ) with the cyclic vector ξ, satisfying φ(x) = π(x)(ξ), ξ ∀ x ∈ A. C
-algebra is Therefore, we observe that any element in the dual of a and Remark 3.7 the result follows.

a linear combination of positive linear forms. By the preceding lemma,

Remark 3.15. The vector space B(G) is identied with the Banach space dual [C (G)] of the C -algebra of G and is called Fourier-Stieltjes algebra of G.
In particular, if That is

G

is abelian then

B(G)

ˆ ˆ [C0 (G)] = M (G).

In fact

the identication is given by the inverse Fourier-Stieltjes transform.

B(G) = {φ = µ : ˆ

for some

ˆ µ ∈ M (G)},

with

φ

B(G)

= µ ,

where the inverse Fourier-Stieltjes transform is given by

µ(γ) = ˆ
ˆ G

γ(x)dµ(x). G. Refer the clasG
is

But then this is precisely Fourier stieltjes algebra on

sical book by Rudin [15] for more details on harmonic analysis over abelian groups. The result that it forms a Banach algebra when

18

V. MURUGANANDAM

abelian was extended to all non-abelian groups by Eymard [6]. following theorem is due to Eymard.

The

Theorem 3.16. B(G) forms a Banach algebra with unity under pointwise product. Proof. We have already seen that B(G) forms an algebra with unity
under pointwise product. By the preceding remark it forms a Banach space. In order to show that the norm satises Banach algebra condition we need the following fact due to Eymard. If

φ

belongs to

B(G)

then

φ = inf{ ξ
the minimum is attained.)

η : φ = πξ,η }, πξ,η
such that

(3.3)

where the inrmum is taken over all

φ = πξ,η .

(In fact

Using the above equation it is easy to show that for all

φ·ψ ≤ φ

ψ ,

φ, ψ

in

B(G).

Denition 3.17. Let G be locally compact group. The closure of the ideal B(G)∩Cc (G) in B(G) is called the Fourier algebra and is denoted by A(G).
When

G

is abelian, recall that Fourier algebra

ˇ A(G) = {f : f ∈ L1 (G)}
where the

ˆ L1 (G) . that whose proof can be found in Rudin [15].
Again, when ization of

f

A(G) It is one of the classical results of abelian harmonic analysis

ˇ f denote

the inverse Fourier transform of

f

and

ˇ f

=

G

is abelian, one can arrive at the following character-

A(G)

using Plancherel theorem.

A(G) = f ∗ g , ˜
where

f, g ∈ L2 (G) ,

g (y) = g(y −1 ). ˜

This result was extended to all locally compact

groups by Eymard.

Theorem 3.18

(Eymand)

. Let G be a locally compact group. Then

A(G) = λf,g : f, g ∈ L2 (G) ,

where λf,g is the matrix coecient associated to the left regular representation λ of G.
1.

A(G)

has identity if and only if

two sided ideal in is compact. 2.

A(G) = B(G) B(G). Equivalently, A(G) = B(G)

since

A(G)

is a

if and only if

G

A(G)

is a commutative regular, semi simple Tauberian Banach

algebra.

19

3. The canonical embedding of by

G in ∆(A(G)) namely, x into τx given

τx (φ) = φ(x)

is a bijective homeomorphism.

For the proofs of all these results we refer to Eymard [6]. 4.

Amenable groups

Denition 4.1. A linear map m : L∞ (G) → C is said to be a mean on L∞ (G), if m(f ) ≥ 0 for all f ≥ 0 in L∞ (G) and m(1) = 1. Moreover, a mean is said to be a left invariant mean if
m(x f ) = m(f ) ∀f ∈ L∞ (G), ∀x ∈ G.

Denition 4.2. A locally compact group G is said to be L∞ (G) has a left invariant mean.

amenable

if

Amenable groups were rst introduced by John von Neumann in 1929 in his study of Banach-Tarski paradox. (See a fairly recent book by Runde[16] for a discussion on Banach-Tarski paradox.) But it was M.M. Day [2], who baptized the name. As we are going to see below, amenable groups form a vast collection of groups, which include for instance abelian groups, solvable groups and compact groups. Any compact group is amenable. In fact the normalized Haar measure is the required left invariant mean. That is, if then

f, m =
1

m

G

f (x)dx

is easily seen to be a left invariant mean.

We shall use Markov- Kakutani xed point theorem any abelian group is amenable. If

to show that

K

denotes the set of all means on

L∞ (G), then it forms a nonempty

convex set. Moreover, it is a weak -compact set as it is a subset of the ∞ unit ball of the dual of L (G). ∞ ∞ For all x ∈ G, dene ρ(x) : L (G) → L (G) by

f, ρ(x)(F ) =
Then it is easy to see that

x−1 f, F

∀F ∈ L∞ (G) .

ρ(x) is continuous, linear on L∞ (G) and leaves K invariant. Since ρ(xy) = ρ(x) ◦ ρ(y), for all x, y in G and G is abelian, {ρ(x)}x∈G forms a commuting family. If m is a xed point, then m is left invariant.
The following theorem is useful. We refer to Runde [16] for the proof.

Theorem 4.3. Let G be a locally compact group. Then the following are equivalent, (1) G is amenable.
1MarkovKakutani xed point theorem: If

K

is a compact convex subset of

a topological vector space and if mappings which map

F

is a commuting family of continuous linear

T (p) = p for all T

in

K into itself, then there exists a point p in K such that F. (See Dunford and Scwartz[5, Theorem V.10.6] for a proof.)

20

V. MURUGANANDAM

(2) (3)

Cu (G) has a left invariant mean. Cb (G) has a left invariant mean.

Corollary 4.4. Let Gd denote G with discrete topology. Then if Gd is amenable then G is amenable. Proof. Suppose Gd is amenable. Then l∞ (G) has left invariant mean,
say

m.

Observe that

mean on

Cb (G) ⊆ l∞ (G). Then m|Cb (G) Cb (G). Therefore G is amenable.

is left invariant

The following properties of amenable groups are useful to generate more examples of amenable groups and nonamenable groups.

Lemma 4.5. Let H be a locally compact group, and let φ : G → H be a continuous, open homomorphism with φ(G) is dense in H. If G is amenable then H is amenable. Proof. Let m denote a left invariant mean on Cb (G).
Dene a continuous homomorphism

φ : Cb (H) → Cb (G)

by

φ (f )(g) = f (φ(g)), g ∈ G.
If we dene

m ˜

on

Cb (H)

by

f, m = φ (f ), m , ˜
then it is easy to see that

m ˜

is left invariant mean on

Cb (H).

Corollary 4.6. Let G be amenable, and let N be a closed normal subgroup of G. Then G/N is amenable. Proposition 4.7. Let H be a closed subgroup of G. Then there is a Bruhat function for H. That is, there exists a function β : G → C associated to H, called Bruhat function satisfying the following: (1) β - is continuous and positive. (2) For all compact set K, support of (β|KH ) is compact. (3) For all g ∈ G, β(gh) dh = 1.
H

Theorem 4.8. Let H be a closed subgroup of G. If G is amenable, then H is also amenable.
Proof.
If β denotes Cb (H) → l∞ (G) by the Bruhat function associated to

H,

dene

T :

T φ(g) =
G

β(g −1 h)φ(h) dmH (h),

g ∈ G.

21

the constant function

Cb (H) into Cb (G) mapping 1H into 1G . Let φ belongs to Cb (G). Then we rst show that T (φ) is a continuous function on G. Fix g0 ∈ G. If V is a compact neighbourhood V of g0 , then by condition (2) of the preceding proposition, β|V H is uniformly continuous. There exists a neighbourhood W of e such that
We show that is a contraction from

T

| β|V H (g) − β|V H (h)| < .
for all

h

in

gW.

In particular if

g ∈ g0 W,

then

g ∈VH

and

−1 β(g −1 h) − β(g0 h) <
Now it can be seen that

mH (support

of

(β|V H )) φ

.

| T φ(g) − T φ(g0 ) |≤ . If m is a left invariant mean on Cb (G), dene m on Cb (H) by φ, m = T φ, m . It is routine ˜ ˜ to check that m is left invariant mean. ˜

Theorem 4.9. Let N be a closed normal subgroup such that both N and G/N are amenable. Then G is amenable. Proof. Let mN be the left invariant mean on Cb (N ). Dene T : Cb (G) →
Cb (G)
by

T φ(g) = ( g−1 φ)|N , mN . Then T (φ) is continuous, and T φ ∞ ≤ φ ∞ , mapping the constant function 1G into itself. Use the left invariance of mN to conclude that T φ(gh) = T φ(g), for all g in G, and h in H. Therefore T φ induces a function say T φ on G/N by T φ(˜) = T φ(g). g
Now if by

m ˜

is a left invariant mean on

Cb (G/N )

then dene

m

on

Cb (G)

φ, m = T φ, m . ˜
One can verify that

m

denes a left invariant mean on

Cb (G).

For a detailed proof of these theorems, we refer to Greenleaf [8] and Runde [16].

Remark 4.10. Any solvable group is solvable. Since any abelian group is amenable, we infer by preceding theorem, that Gd is amenable and so by Corollary 4.4, G is amenable.
Now let us give some examples which are not amenable.

22

V. MURUGANANDAM

Theorem 4.11
Proof.
m
on

(Von-Neumann)

. F2 is not amenable.

Suppose on the contrary that there exists a left invariant mean

L∞ (G). Let W (x) = {w ∈ F2 : w starts with x} . Then F2 = {e} ∪ W (a) ∪ W (a−1 ) ∪ W (b) ∪ W (b−1 ) and the union is disjoint. −1 −1 If w belongs to F2 \ W (a), then a w belongs to W (a ). That is, w belongs to aW (a−1 ). Therefore, F2 = W (a) ∪ aW (a−1 ). Similarly F2 = W (b) ∪ bW (b−1 ). Now, if χE denotes the characteristic function of a set E, then 1 = = ≥ = =
So,

m(1) m({e}) + m(χW (a) ) + m(χW (a−1 ) ) + m(χW (b) ) + m(χW (b−1 ) ) m(χW (a) ) + m(χaW (a−1 ) ) + m(χW (b) ) + m(χbW (b−1 ) ) m(χW (a)∪aW (a−1 ) ) + m(χW (b)∪bW (b−1 ) ) m(χF2 ) + m(χF2 ) = 2.
That is,

m cannot be a left invariant mean.

F2

is not amenable.

Using Theorem 4.8 and the preceding theorem, we conclude that

Corollary 4.12. Any locally compact group that contains F2 as a closed subgroup, is not amenable.
For instance, generated by with

SL(2, R) is not amenable since the the closed subgroup 1 0 1 2 is isomorphic and b = elements a = 2 1 0 1 SL(n, R) is SL(2, R) as
not amenable for all

F2 . n > 2,
be-

Similarly we see that cause reason

SL(n, R) contains GL(n, R) is seen

closed subgroup. With the same In fact, any connected

to be not amenable.

noncompact semisimple Lie group is not amenable. From the above we learn that a locally compact group containing is not amenable. It is worthwhile to know whether there exist dis-

F2

crete groups which are non-amenable groups and do not contain

F2 . We

wish to point out that the existence of such groups remained a fundamental open problem (sometimes called von Neumann problem) until Olshanskii[12] established such groups in 1980. There exists another class of innite discrete groups (à la Gromov) with Kazdhan property

T, (much stronger than non-amenability),
group.

yet not having any free sub-

23

5.

Some characterizations of Amenable groups

Theorem 5.1. Let G be a locally compact group. Then the following are equivalent:
(1) (2) (3)

G is amenable.

There exists a net {gi } in S(G) such that {h ∗ gi − gi } → 0 in the weak topology of (L∞ (G)) , ∀ h ∈ S(G). There exists a net {gi } in S(G) such that, lim h ∗ gi − gi 1 =
i

(4)

0, ∀ h ∈ S(G). For given > 0, for every compact set K, there exists g ∈ S(G) such that λ(x)g − g 1 < , ∀ x ∈ K.

Remark 5.2. Condition (iv) of the preceding theorem is called P1 property. More generally, Denition 5.3. We say that a locally compact group G is said to have the property Pp , 1 ≤ p < ∞ if the following holds. For given > 0, for every compact set K, there exists g ∈ Lp (G) such that g is non-negative and g p = 1 satisfying
λ(x)g − g
p

< , ∀ x ∈ K.

Theorem 5.4. Let G be a locally compact group. Then G has property P1 if and only if G has the property Pp , ∀ p such that 1 ≤ p < ∞.
See Reiter [14] and Runde [16] for the proofs of the theorems cited above.

Theorem 5.5. G is amenable if and only if there is a net {fi } in the unit sphere of L2 (G) such that {fi ∗ fi } converges to 1 uniformly on compact subsets of G.
See Pederson [13, Proposition 7.3.8]. In fact we can say something more.

Theorem 5.6. Let G be a locally compact group. Then G has property P2 if and only if there exists {fi } ⊆ Cc (G) such that fi 2 = 1 and ˜ fi ∗ fi → 1 uniformly on compact subsets of G.
Proof.
Let

K

be a compact subset of

f ∈ Cc (G)

be such that

f

2

G and let > 0 be given. Choose ˜ = 1 and |(f ∗ f )(x) − 1| < 2 , ∀ x ∈ K.

24

V. MURUGANANDAM

Then we have

˜ (f ∗ f )(e) = 1.
2 2

Furthermore,

λ(x)f − f

= =

λ(x)f − f, λ(x)f − f λ(x)f, λ(x)f + f, f − 2Re λ(x)f, f

˜ = 2 − 2Re(f ∗ f (x)) ˜ = 2Re 1 − (f ∗ f )(x) ˜ ≤ 2 1 − (f ∗ f )(x) < .
If we take

g = |f | G

then,

λ(x)g − g
Therefore has the property Conversely, suppose

2 2

= λ(x)f − f

2 2

< .

P2 .

any compact set

G has the property P2 . Then for given > 0, for K, there exists f ∈ L2 (G) such that λ(x)f − f 2 < , f ≥ 0 and f 2 = 1, ∀ x ∈ K. Since Cc (G) is dense in L2 (G), given 2 > 0 there exists g ∈ Cc (G) with g 2 = 1 such that g − f < 4 . Therefore, for any x ∈ K, we have ˜ ˜ |g ∗ g (x) − 1| ≤ |g ∗ g (x) − f ∗ f (x)| + |f ∗ f (x) − 1| ˜ ˜ =
Therefore

˜ ˜ g ∗ (˜ − f )(x) + (g − f ) ∗ f (x)| + |f ∗ f (x) − 1|. g ˜ g + f {g}
in

|g ∗ g (x) − 1| ≤ g − f ˜
We deduce that there exists

+ λ(x)f − f ≤ .
2

g∗g →1 ˜
Let

uniformly on compact subsets of

Cc (G) with g G. Hence

= 1

such that

the theorem.

G be a locally compact group. Then G is amenable if and only if ˜ there exists {fi } ⊆ Cc (G) such that fi 2 = 1 and fi ∗ fi → 1 uniformly on compact subsets of G. Let us recall an all time important theorem
in the representation theory of groups, namely, Godement's theorem.

Theorem 5.7 (Godement). Let φ be any square-integrable continuous positive denite function on G. Then there exists a square-integrable function ψ such that φ = ψ ∗ ψ.
Refer Dixmier [4, Theorem 13.8.6] for a proof and more details.

Theorem 5.8 (Hulanicki). Let G be a locally compact group. Then the following are equivalent. (1) G is amenable. (2) Every irreducible unitary representation of G is weakly contained in λ. (3) The trivial representation G is weakly contained in λ.

25

Proof.

We shall rst show that (1) and (2) are equivalent. Suppose

G

is amenable. Then there exists

{fi }

in

Cc (G)

such that

fi = 1

and

˜ fi ∗ fi → 1 in topology of uniform convergence on compact sets. That ˜ is, if φi = fi ∗ fi then φi → 1 in topology of uniform convergence on compact sets. Hence 1 λ, by (3) of Theorem 3.12. Conversely, suppose that if 1 λ. Then by Theorem 3.12 and by Theorem 5.5 we observe that G is amenable.
Now we shall show that (2) and (3) are equivalent. Of course one has to show only that (3) implies (2). is weakly contained in inite functions Let the trivial representation

λ.

By the above paragraph such that

G

is amenable.

Therefore by the preceding remark, there exists a net of positive def-

{ψi }

in

Cc (G),

formly convergence on compact sets.

{ψi } → 1 in topology of uniLet π ∈ G and φ = πξ,ξ . Then

{φψi } → φ and φψi belongs to Cc (G). By Godement's theorem, there 2 exists gi ∈ L (G) such that φψi = gi ∗ g . Thus gi ∗ gi → φ in topology of ˜ ˜
uniform convergence on compact sets. Hence by Theorem 3.12, again we have that

π

is weakly contained in

λ.

The preceding theorem is due to Hulaniki [9]. Finally,

Corollary 5.9. A group G is amenable if and only if C (G) ∼ Cλ (G). = Lemma 5.10. If {uα } is a bounded approximate identity in A(G). Then {uα } → 1 uniformly on compact sets. Proof. Recall that for every φ = πξ,ξ in B(G),
|φ(x)| = | π(x)ξ, η | ≤ ξ
Therefore

η .

Let

K

be

such that

≤ φ . a compact set. Since A(G) is regular, φ|K = 1. For every x ∈ K, φ

there exists

φ ∈ A(G)

|uα (x) − 1| = |(uα .φ(x))(x) − φ(x)| ≤ uα .φ − φ
Hence

A(G) .

{uα } → 1

uniformly on compact sets.

˜ = 1 and fi ∗ fi → 1 uniformly on compact subsets of G. Denote ψi ˜ by fi ∗ fi . We claim that ψi is a bounded approximate identity in A(G). Since Cc (G) ∩ P (G) spans a dense subsets of A(G) and ψi A(G) ≤ fi
2

Theorem 5.11 (Leptin). Let G be a locally compact group. If G is amenable if and only if A(G) has a bounded approximate identity. Proof. Let G be amenable. Then there exists {fi } ⊆ Cc (G) such that

26

V. MURUGANANDAM

fi

2

˜ fi

2

= 1, it is sucient to show that lim ψi φ−φ
i

A(G)

= 0, ∀ φ ∈

Cc (G) ∩ P (G). Let φ ∈ Cc (G) ∩ P (G). Take χi = ψi φ. Then χi ∈ P (G). 2 For f ∈ Cc (G), we let ρ(f ) denote the bounded operator on L (G)
given by convolution

ρ(f )g = g ∗ f,
By Godement's theorem,

f ∈ L2 (G).

ρ(χi ), ρ(φ) are positive and there exists hi , h ∈

L2 (G)
and

such that

˜ ˜ χi = hi ∗ hi , φ = h ∗ h ρ(χi )1/2 (f ) = f ∗ hi , ρ(φ)1/2 (f ) = f ∗ h,
We shall show that

∀ f ∈ Cc (G).

S.

Since

ψi → 1

i uniformly on i

lim hi −h

2

= 0. Let S = supp(φ). Then supp(χi ) ⊆ S, we have

lim χi − φ
For any 1/2

= 0.
clearly,

(5.1)

∆(y)

f ∈ Cc (G), let fy (x) = f (xy −1 ), x ∈ G. Then f 2 . Therefore for any f ∈ Cc (G), we have = =
G

fy

2

=

ρ(χi ) − ρ(φ)

f ∗ (χi − φ)

2

χi (y) − φ(y) ∆(y)−1 fy dy

2

G

χi (y) − φ(y) ∆(y)−1/2 dy

f

2

S
Therefore, by (5.1), we have ber

∆(y)−1/2 dy

χi − φ

f

2.

lim ρ(χi ) − ρ(φ)
i

= 0

and the num-

c = sup ρ(χi )

is nite. By approximating the function

√ t

with

polynomials uniformly on the interval

[0, c]

we see that

lim ρ(χi )1/2 − ρ(φ)1/2 = 0.
i
Thus for every

f ∈ Cc (G),
2

lim f ∗ (hi − h)
i
Since

= lim
i

ρ(χi )1/2 − ρ(φ)1/2 (f )
we have

2

= 0.

f (x) = ∆(x)−1 f (x−1 ), x ∈ G,
i

lim hi − h, f ∗ g
i

= lim f ∗ (hi − h), g

= 0, ∀ f, g ∈ Cc (G).

27

Moreover,

hi

2 2

=
G

| hi (x)|2 dx =
G

hi (x)hi (x)dx

=
G
Since

˜ ˜ hi (x)hi (x−1 )dx = (hi ∗ hi )(e).
is dense in

Cc (G) ∗ Cc (G)
i

L2 (G)

and

sup hi

2 2

= sup χi (e) < ∞,

we have

lim hi , f
Also

= h, f ,

f ∈ L2 (G).
Therefore,

lim hi
i

2

= lim χi (e) = φ(e) = h 2 .
i 2 2

lim hi − h
i
Now,

=2 h

2 2

− 2 lim Re hi , h = 0.
i

ψi φ − φ

A(G)

= = = ≤ =

χi − φ

A(G) A(G)

˜ ˜ hi ∗ hi − h ∗ h

˜ ˜ ˜ hi ∗ (hi − h) + (hi − h) ∗ h A(G) hi 2 hi − h 2 + hi − h 2 h 2 hi − h = 0.
2

hi

2

+ h

2

. lim φψi −
i

Therefore,

lim ψi φ − φ
i
Hence

A(G)

Similarly we can get

φ

A(G) claimed.

= 0.

ψi

is a bounded approximate identity in

A(G)

as

Conversely, suppose that claim that

{uα }

is a bounded approximate identity. We

A(G)

is weak

dense in

B(G).

{φ.uα }

compact. By Lemma 5.10,

B(G). Any uα → 1 uniformly on compact sets. Therefore φ.uα → φ. By Theorem 3.11, φ.uα → φ in weak topology. SinceA(G) is dense in B(G), uα ∈ A(G). Therefore A(G) is weak dense in B(G).
is a bounded net in Consider

φ ∈ B(G). Consider bounded set in B(G) is weak
Let

A(G)+ = {φ ∈ A(G) : φ
We show that

is positive denite}.

A(G)+

is weak

dense in

B(G)+ = P (G).
such that

Since

A(G)+

is a convex set, there exists

T ∈ C (G)

T, u = 0, ∀ u ∈ A(G)+ .
As

A(G) is weak dense in B(G), T = 0. (Cc (G) ∩ A(G))+ is dense in A(G)+ , (Cc (G) ∩ A(G))+ is weak dense in B(G)+ . As 1 ∈ B(G), there exists φi ∈ Cc (G) ∩ A(G) and
Since

28

V. MURUGANANDAM

bounded such that

φi → 1

in weak

topology.

Therefore

φi → 1

in

topology of uniform convergence on compact sets. By Godement's 2 ˜ theorem, there exists {fi } in L (G) such that φi = fi ∗ fi . Hence G is amenable. This completes the proof of the Theorem 5.11.

The preceding theorem is due to Leptin [10]. of De Canniere and Haagerup [3].

But the proof given

here is adopted from what is given in Pederson [13]. See also Appendix

References
1. F.F. Bonsall and J. Duncan, Complete normed algebras, Ergebnisse der mathematik, no. 80, Springer - Verlag, Berlin and New York, 1973. 2. M. M. Day, Means on semigroups and groups, Bull. Amer. Math. Soc 10541055. 3. J. DeCannière and U. Haagerup, Multipliers of the Fourier algebra of some
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55 (1949),
(1984),

107

455500. 4. J. Dixmier, C -algebras, North-Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam, 1977. 5. N. Dunford and J. Schwartz, Linear operators, part I: General theory, Interscience, New York - London, 1958. 6. P. Eymard, L'algèbre de Fourier d'un groupe localement compact, Bull. Soc. Math. France.

92 (1964), 181236.

7. G. Folland, A course in abstarct harmonic analysis, CRC Press, 1994. 8. F.P. Greenleaf, Invariant means on topological groups and their applications, Von Nostrand Mathematical Studies, no. 16, Von Nostrand, Princeton, New York, 1960. 9. A. Hulanicki, Means and Følner's conditions on locally compact groups, Studia. Math.

27 (1966), 87104.

10. H. Leptin, Sur l'algèbre de Fourier d'un groupe localement compact, C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris. Sér.A New York, 1953. 12. A.Ju. Ol'shanskii, On the question of the existence of an invariant mean on a
group, Russian Math. Surveys

266 (1968), 11801182.

11. L.H. Loomis, An introduction to abstract harmonic analysis, Van Nostrand,

35 (1980), 180181.

13. Gert K. Pederson, C -algebras and their automorphism groups, London Math. Society Monographs, no. 14, Academic Press, London-New york, 1979. 14. H. Reiter and J. D. Stegeman, Classical harmonic analysis and locally compact
groups, second ed., Oxford University Press, Oxford New York, 2000.

15. W. Rudin, Fourier analysis on groups, Interscience, New York - London, 1962. 16. V. Runde, Lectures on amenability, Lecture Notes in Mathematics, vol. 1774, Springer, Berlin, Heidelber, New York, 2002. 17. M. Takesakai, Theory of operator algebras I, Springer, New York, 1979. 18. A. Weil,
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Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1938.

29

Department of Mathematics, Pondicherry University, Pondicherry 605 014