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Austin, S. B., et al. (2005).

"Clustering of fast-food restaurants around schools: A novel application of spatial statistics to the study of food environments." American Journal of Public Health 95(9): 1575-1581. Objectives. We examined the concentration of fast food restaurants in areas proximal to schools to characterize school neighborhood food environments. Methods. We used geocoded databases of restaurant and school addresses to examine locational patterns of fast-food restaurants and kindergartens and primary and secondary schools in Chicago. We used the bivariate K function statistical method to quantify the degree of clustering (spatial dependence) of fast-food restaurants around school locations. Results. The median distance from any school in Chicago to the nearest fast-food restaurant was 0.52 km, a distance that an adult can walk in little more than 5 minutes, and 78% of schools had at least 1 fast-food restaurant within 800 m. Fast-food restaurants were statistically significantly clustered in areas within a short walking distance from schools, with an estimated 3 to 4 times as many fast-food restaurants within 1.5 km from schools than would be expected if the restaurants were distributed throughout the city in a way unrelated to school locations. Conclusions. Fast-food restaurants are concentrated within a short walking distance from schools, exposing children to poor-quality food environments in their school neighborhoods. Barron, J. M., et al. (2004). "Number of sellers, average prices, and price dispersion." International Journal of Industrial Organization 22(8-9): 1041-1066. A variety of models provide differing predictions regarding the effect of an increase in the number of competitors in a market (seller density) on prices and price dispersion. We review different approaches to generating equilibrium price dispersion and then empirically estimate the relationship between seller density, average product price and price dispersion in the retail gasoline industry using four unique gasoline price data sets. Controlling for station-level characteristics, we find that an increase in station density consistently decreases both price levels and price dispersion across four geographical areas. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Becerra, M., et al. (2013). "Being better vs. being different: Differentiation, competition, and pricing strategies in the Spanish hotel industry." Tourism Management 34: 71-79. We study the effects of vertical and horizontal differentiation on pricing policy in a large sample of hotels in Spain. We show that hotels with more stars (i.e., vertically differentiated) offer smaller discounts over listed prices, in addition to charging higher prices. Similarly, hotels that belong to a branded chain (i.e., horizontal differentiation) also charge higher prices and provide smaller discounts. We show how the degree of local competition moderates the effect of differentiation on pricing policy, but only for vertical differentiation. Differentiation indeed protects hotels from the pressure to reduce prices as competition increases, but being better seems to be more effective than just being different. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Bell, D. R., et al. (1998). "Determining where to shop: Fixed and variable costs of shopping." Journal of Marketing Research 35(3): 352-369. The authors develop and test a new model of store choice behavior whose basic premise is that each shopper is more likely to visit the store with the lowest total shopping cost. The total shopping cost is composed of fixed and variable costs. The fixed cost is independent of, whereas

the variable cost depends on, the shopping list (i.e., the products and their respective quantities to be purchased), Besides travel distance, the fixed cost includes a shopper's inherent preference for the store and historic store loyalty, The variable cost is a weighted sum of the quantities of items on the shopping list multiplied by their expected prices at the store. The article has three objectives: (1) to model and estimate the relative importance of fixed and variable shopping costs, (2) to investigate customer segmentation in response to shopping costs, and (3) to introduce a new measure (the basket size threshold) that defines competition between stores from a shopping cost perspective. The model controls for two important phenomena: Consumer shopping lists might differ from the collection of goods ultimately bought, and shoppers might develop category-specific store loyalty. Benoit, D. and G. P. Clarke (1997). "Assessing GIS for retail location planning." Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 4(4): 239-258. Proprietary GIS is rapidly becoming a popular tool in the retail industry for site location analysis. GIS vendors have been quick to exploit this market. At the same time, however, vendors have recognized the limitations concerning the level of spatial analysis available in many of these packages, and have invested in new techniques to add to the kitbag of available GIS solutions. The aim of this paper is to critically evaluate the use of proprietary GIS for retail location planning, using data built up for the city of Leeds in the UK. The paper addresses the appropriateness of simple functions such as mapping, overlay and buffer and overlay, which have been used in many examples of retail planning. Following this appraisal, we move on to look at more sophisticated techniques, such as spatial interaction models, which have only recently begun to appear in proprietary GIS, but to date have received very little evaluation in the literature. In particular, we examine the ease of use of such methods and compare their results with much simpler forms of analysis. Finally, we compare the results from models run within GIS packages with those from more customized software. Chancellor, C. and S. Cole (2008). "USING GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM TO VISUALIZE TRAVEL PATTERNS AND MARKET RESEARCH DATA." Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing 25(3-4): 341-354. Travel pattern data collected from a rural county in western North Carolina, United States, was analyzed using a geographic information system. Travel pattern data are valuable to destination marketers as it highlights potential regional promotions and development partners. Geographic information systems (GIS) can easily display in map form spatially oriented concepts such as travel patterns and provides easy viewing of the data. The generated maps provided a clear indication of regions, counties, and towns that tourism promoters in the rural county may consider as potential marketing and development collaborators. Additionally, by modeling trip distances per travel pattern, potential new markets were identified. Chen, C.-F. and R. Rothschild (2010). "An application of hedonic pricing analysis to the case of hotel rooms in Taipei." Tourism Economics 16(3): 685-694. This study Investigates the impact of a variety of attributes or 'characteristics' on the rates charged for hotel rooms in Taipei. The authors employ a 'hedonic pricing' method and use data obtained for 73 hotels from an Internet travel agent. The results show that hotel location, the

availability of LED TV and the presence of conference facilities have significant effects on both weekday and weekend room rates. By contrast, Internet access and the presence of a fitness centre have significant effects on weekday races only, while room size has a significant effect on weekend rates only Of particular interest, given the results obtained in earlier work, is that in Taipei there is a negative relationship between proximity to the city centre and room rates, both on weekdays and at weekends Chou, T.-Y., et al. (2008). "A fuzzy multi-criteria decision model for international tourist hotel's location selection." International Journal of Hospitality Management 27(2): 293-301. The main purpose of this paper is to present a fuzzy multi-criteria decision making (FMCDM) model for international tourist hotel location selection. In this article we created 21 criteria for selecting the international tourist hotel location acquired from literatures review and practical investigations. And the methods of fuzzy set theory, linguistic value, hierarchical structure analysis, and fuzzy analytic hierarchy process are used to consolidate decision-makers' assessments about criteria weightings. Finally, an empirical study for identifying the international tourist hotel location selection in Taiwan is conducted to demonstrate the computational process and effectiveness of FMCDM proposed by this paper. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Feng, R. and A. M. Morrison (2002). "GIS Applications in Tourism and Hospitality Marketing: A Case in Brown County, Indiana." Anatolia 13(2): 127-143. ABSTRACT Since tourism has a close relationship with space and geography, using geographic information systems (GIS) in tourism and hospitality research and marketing practice seems both relevant and potentially effective. However, GIS applications, especially in tourism and hospitality marketing, have been limited to date, presumably because of a lack of familiarity with GIS and its benefits. This paper explores potential GIS applications through the five-step PRICE system model of tourism and hospitality marketing developed by Morrison (2002). Next, a case study is presented in which GIS is applied in a destination market analysis for Brown County, Indiana, USA. Three major conclusions were drawn from the review and case study. Karande, K. and J. R. Lombard (2005). "Location strategies of broad-line retailers: an empirical investigation." Journal of Business Research 58(5): 687-695. This research is an exploratory investigation into location strategies used by broad-line specialist retailers. Location data for 86 broad-line specialists in the home repair and office supply category located in three southeast metropolitan areas are analyzed. Using distance as a measure of retail structure, it is shown that broad-line specialist retailers tend to locate close to general merchandise retailers. Also, broad-line specialists employ two location strategies with respect to other broad-line specialists - proximity (locating close to a competing broad-line specialist) and distancing (not locating close to a competing broad-line specialist). Moreover, the adoption of proximity or distancing as a location strategy depends upon market characteristics. Broad-line specialists tend to use proximity in trade areas with high income, high population density, high per capita income, with younger populations, and high home ownership. Managerial implications and suggestions for future research are offered. (c) 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Krider, R. E. and D. S. Putler (2013). "Which Birds of a Feather Flock Together? Clustering and

Avoidance Patterns of Similar Retail Outlets." Geographical Analysis 45(2): 123-149. A key factor in a retailer's location decision is whether to avoid direct competitors or to join them in a cluster. A review of theoretical research provides reasons why some types of stores should locate together while others should avoid one another. Although application of the theory is straightforward for some store types, the somewhat stylized theory is ambiguous for many store types. Empirical work, which could reduce this ambiguity, faces methodological difficulties and is very limited. Few store types have been studied, and findings often are inconsistent. First, we address this problem by assessing the degree of avoidance or clustering of 54 different store types in two cities using a rich, intuitive measure that avoids common methodological difficulties encountered in previous research. We find both theoretically expected and unexpected location behavior, as well as some surprisingly complex location patterns. Second, we explore two unexpected and intriguing configurations. Finally, we discuss our results and propose further research opportunities. Lau, G. and B. McKercher (2006). "Understanding Tourist Movement Patterns in a Destination: A GIS Approach." Tourism and Hospitality Research 7(1): 39-49. This paper presents preliminary findings of research examining the movement patterns of tourists within a destination. The study focuses on fully independent individual travellers visiting Hong Kong. Little research has been conducted looking at movements within a destination. Macro or inter-destination movement patterns may inform intra-destination movements. Factors affecting tourists' choices of itineraries give reasons to support the shaping of the patterns. These factors include human factors (type of individual, travel party, motivations, etc), physical factors (destination geomorphology), trip factors (main or secondary destination, first-time or repeat visitor, etc) and the time factor (length of stay in destination, total trip duration). Geographic Information System is used for documenting spatialtemporal movements of tourists through mapping. Miller, C. E., et al. (1999). "The effects of competition on retail structure: An examination of intratype, intertype, and intercategory competition." Journal of Marketing 63(4): 107-120. Discount retailers and "category killers" are believed to be so detrimental to the existing retail environment that many communities have fought their entry through zoning and other regulations, However, the authors suggest that the patterns of competition among different types of retailers are more complex than previously believed. To understand this complexity better, they explore the cross-sectional relationship of competition and retail structure for different types of retailers. Contrary to popular opinion, the findings suggest a positive association between the number of larger stores and the number and size of smaller stores. This implies a mutually beneficial relationship among different types of retailers rather than an overwhelming competitive advantage for larger stores. Miller, F. L. (2008). "USING A GIS IN MARKET ANALYSIS FOR A TOURISM-DEPENDENT RETAILER IN THE POCONO MOUNTAINS." Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing 25(3-4): 325-340. The role of Geographic Information System (GIS) technology in retail market area analysis and site selection is well established. Though approaches range from simple rings to complex multivariate models of customer loyalty patterns, they share the common understanding that

market areas for retailers are relatively compact geographically. This assumption is much less appropriate for retail operations in tourist destinations, where stores rely heavily on visitors to the area who spend most of the year far removed from the retailer's location. Though location is still an important factor for such retailers, market area analysis based on geographic proximity is not as useful. However, GIS tools can still play a major role in market analysis for tourism-dependent retailers. This study uses Pocono Mountain Treasures, a hypothetical retailer in Pennsylvania, to describe how a GIS application, Environmental Systems Research Institute's (ESRI) ArcGIS 9.2 system, can be used to help tourist-dependent retailers serve existing customers more effectively and to target prospective new customers more precisely. Muller, C. C. and C. Inman (1994). "The Geodemographics of Restaurant Development." Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly 35(3): 88-95. The combination of demographic and geographic information can be applied to identifying locations for restaurant units. By analyzing restaurant-density patterns, an operator can determine the number and types of restaurants in a market area. Next, the operator can acquire computerized street-level maps showing business generators and traffic patterns for existing restaurants. Finally, the operator can identify potential locations for new restaurants. As an example, the analysis of a neighborhood in Boston shows a location that would likely support a new casual-theme restaurant. Rigall-I-Torrent, R., et al. (2011). "The effects of beach characteristics and location with respect to hotel prices." Tourism Management 32(5): 1150-1158. This paper measures the effects of beach characteristics and hotel location with respect to the beach on sun-and-beach hotel prices by using a well-established hedonic perspective. The paper's main results are that, after controlling for the relevant variables, location in front of a beach increases the price of a room in costal hotels of Catalonia by a figure between 13 and 17%, and that a Blue Flag increases the price by around 11.5%. The effects on hotels' prices of other beach characteristics (such as beach length, width, sand type or beach services) are also estimated. With these estimates, the paper ranks beaches according to their characteristics and provides a setting to assess different policies regarding beaches from the point of view of hotels, such as regeneration, maintenance or achieving a Blue Flag award. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Shriber, M., et al. (1995). "Population changes and restaurant success." The Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly 36(3): 43-49. As a region's population grows, one might expect similar growth in restaurant sales. While that's generally the case, the relationship is not directand sometimes it doesn't work at all. Smith, S. L. J. (1985). "Location patterns of urban restaurants." Annals of Tourism Research 12(4): 581-602. Locational patterns of five categories of restaurants in eight Canadian cities in Ontario are examined to identify spatial regularities. Spatial regularities sought include tendencies to agglomerate or deglomerate with respect to restaurants of the same category as well as of different categories; spatial correlations with other land uses; apparent effects of varying traffic

levels (AADTs) on restaurant location; and variations in restaurant patterns in cities of different population sizes. Specific hypotheses relating to these expected spatial regularities were formulated, the majority of which were confirmed. The paper concludes with some observations on the types of locations that appear to support successful restaurants in urban areas. Teller, C. and T. Reutterer (2008). "The evolving concept of retail attractiveness: What makes retail agglomerations attractive when customers shop at them?" Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 15(3): 127-143. This paper attempts to contribute to a more thorough understanding of the on-site (in vivo) evaluation of retail agglomerations once shoppers have already made their destination choices. To address this issue, a modification of more conventional concepts of retail attractiveness that considers situational contexts is proposed and empirically tested. The survey comprised more than 2,000 on-site interviews of customers of an inner city shopping street and a competing peripheral shopping mall. The results show that the tenant mix and the atmosphere, unlike parking and accessibility, exert a major impact on distinct dimensions of perceived attractiveness. Furthermore, the empirical findings provide evidence that factors characterizing aspects of the individual shopping situation significantly affect on-site evaluation. Some methodological limitations and future research directions are also discussed.