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How to get rate, base and percentage

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6.3

OBJECTIVES

1. Identify the rate in an application problem 2. Identify the base in an application problem 3. Identify the amount in an application problem

There are many practical applications of our work with percents. All these problems have three basic parts that need to be identied. Lets look at some denitions that will help with that process.

The base is the whole in a problem. It is the standard used for comparison. The amount is the part of the whole being compared to the base. The rate is the ratio of the amount to the base. It is written as a percent.

NOTE The rate (which we will

label R%) is the easiest of the terms to identify. The rate is written with the percent symbol (%) or the word percent.

(a) What is 15% of 200? R% (b) 25% of what number is 50? R% (c) 20 is what percent of 40? R%

Here the rate is unknown. 25% is the rate. Here 15% is the rate because it has the percent symbol attached.

CHECK YOURSELF 1

Identify the rate.

(a) 15% of what number is 75? (c) 200 is what percent of 500?

The base (B) is the whole, or 100%, in the problem. The base will often follow the word of. Look at our next example.

489

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CHAPTER 6

PERCENTS

Example 2 Identifying Bases Identify each base. (a) What is 15% of 200 ? B (b) 25% of what number is 50 ? B (c) 20 is what percent of 40 ? B

40 is the base. Here the base is the unknown. 200 is the base. It follows the word of.

CHECK YOURSELF 2

Identify the base.

The amount (A) will be the part of the problem remaining once the rate and the base have been identied. In many applications, the amount is found with the word is.

Example 3 Identifying Amounts Identify the amount. (a) What is 15% of 200? A (b) 25% of what number is 50 ? A (c) 20 is what percent of 40? A

2001 McGraw-Hill Companies Again the amount, here 20, can be found with the word is. Here the amount, 50, follows the word is. Here the amount is the unknown part of the problem. Note that the word is follows.

CHECK YOURSELF 3

Identify the amount.

SECTION 6.3

491

Lets look at another example of identifying the three parts in a percent problem.

Example 4 Identifying the Rate, Base, and Amount Determine the rate, base, and amount in this problem: 12% of 800 is what number? Finding the rate is not difcult. Just look for the percent symbol or the word percent. In this exercise, 12% is the rate. The base is the whole. Here it follows the word of. 800 is the whole or the base. The amount remains when the rate and the base have been found. Here the amount is the unknown. It follows the word is. What number asks for the unknown amount.

CHECK YOURSELF 4

Find the rate, base, and amount in the following statements or questions.

We will use percents to solve a variety of applied problems. In all these situations, you will have to identify the three parts of the problem. Lets work through some examples intended to help you build that skill.

Example 5 Identifying the Rate, Base, and Amount Determine the rate, base, and amount in the following application. In an algebra class of 35 students, 7 received a grade of A. What percent of the class received an A? The base is the whole in the problem, or the number of students in the class. 35 is the base. The amount is the portion of the base, here the number of students that receive the A grade. 7 is the amount. The rate is the unknown in this example. What percent asks for the unknown rate.

CHECK YOURSELF 5

Determine the rate, base, and amount in the following application: In a shipment of 150 parts, 9 of the parts were defective. What percent were defective?

2001 McGraw-Hill Companies

Example 6 Identifying the Rate, Base, and Amount in a Business Application Determine the rate, base, and amount in the following application: Doyle borrows $2000 for 1 year. If the interest rate is 12%, how much interest will he pay?

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CHAPTER 6

PERCENTS

The base is again the whole, the size of the loan in this example. $2000 is the base. The rate is, of course, the interest rate. 12% is the rate. The amount is the quantity left once the base and rate have been identied. Here the amount is the amount of interest that Doyle must pay. The amount is the unknown in this example.

CHECK YOURSELF 6

Determine the rate, base, and amount in the following application: Robert earned $120 interest from a savings account paying 8% interest. What amount did he have invested?

CHECK YOURSELF ANSWERS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. (a) 15%; (b) 8.5%; (c) what percent (the unknown) (a) 350; (b) 300; (c) what number (the unknown) (a) 30; (b) what is (the unknown); (c) 96 (a) R% 25%, B 300, A 75; (b) R% 20%, B what number, A 50 B 150, A 9, R% what percent (the unknown) R% 8%, A $120, B what amount (the unknown)

Name

6.3

Exercises

Section

Date

Identify the rate, base, and amount in each statement or question. Do not solve the exercise at this point. ANSWERS

1. 23% of 400 is 92. 2. 150 is 20% of 750. 1. 3. 40% of 600 is 240. 4. 200 is 40% of 500 . 2. 3. 5. What is 7% of 325? 6. 80 is what percent of 400? 4. 5. 7. 16% of what number is 56? 8. What percent of 150 is 30? 6. 7. 9. 480 is 60% of what number? 10. What is 60% of 250? 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Identify the rate, base, and amount in the following applications. Do not solve the applications at this point.

13. Commission. Jan has a 5% commission rate on all her sales. If she sells

14. Salary. 22% of Shirleys monthly salary is deducted for withholding. If those

2001 McGraw-Hill Companies

493

ANSWERS

16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 16. Mixtures. A can of mixed nuts contains 80% peanuts. If the can holds 16 ounces

21.

17. Selling price. The sales tax rate in a state is 5.5% . If you pay a tax of $3.30 on an

19. Enrollments. A college had 9000 students at the start of a school year. If there is an

enrollment increase of 6% by the beginning of the next year, how many additional students are there?

20. Investments. Paul invested $5000 in a time deposit. What interest will he earn for

21. Using the latest census gures for your state, determine the percent of the following

minorities: African-American, Hispanic, and Asian. These gures can be found on the World Wide Web at www.census.gov/.

Answers

1. 23% of 400 is 92 3. 40% of 600 is 240 5. What is 7% of 325

R%

R%

R%

B B

15. 30 is the base. 5 is the amount. The unknown percent is the rate. 17. 5.5% is the rate. The tax, $3.30, is the amount. The unknown selling price is the base. 19. The base is 9000. The rate is 6%. The unknown number of additional students is the amount. 21.

494

R%

R%

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