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LRET Research Centre of Excellence at Pusan National University

Prof. Jeom Kee Paik Pusan National University

Fire and Explosion


Jung Kwan Seo and Jeom Kee Paik Pusan National University
The Lloyds y Register g Educational Trust ( (LRET) ) Marine & Offshore Research Workshop 16-18 February, 2010 at Engineering Auditorium, NUS

LRET Marine & Offshore Research Workshop 16-18 February 2010, The National University of Singapore

LRET Research Centre of Excellence at Pusan National University

Prof. Jeom Kee Paik, Director

Presentation Plan - LRET CoE at PNU Part 1: Plenary by Prof Prof. . J.K. Paik (Director) Part 2: Hydrodynamics by Assistant Prof Prof. . J.K. Seo Part 3: Structures 1 by D.K. Kim (Graduate Student) Part 4: Structures 2 by J.M. Sohn (Graduate Student)

Part 1 Overview

Staff LRET Research Centre at PNU Test Facilities LRET Research Centre at PNU Background Nonlinear Structural Mechanics and Design associated with Limit States and Ri k Based Risk B d Methods M th d On On-going g g Research Topics p

Staff LRET Research Centre of Excellence, Excellence PNU

Facilities LRET Research Centre of Excellence Excellence, PNU


No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Low temperature chamber 8 9 9 Dropped object 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 ANSYS LS-DYNA ANSYS CFX MAESTRO ALPS Kameleon FireEx (KFX) FLACS USFOS NEPTUNE Free fall type, Height 4.5m Nonlinear finite element method (quasi-static) Nonlinear finite element method (Dynamic/impact) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Robust ship structural design Intelligent super-size finite element method CFD code for fire analysis CFD code for gas dispersion and explosion analysis Nonlinear structural consequence analysis under fire Qualitative risk calculations High temperature chamber Equipment Name Universal Test Machine (UTM) Dynamic loading actuator Impact loading actuator Quasi-static Quasi static loading actuator 1,000kN 100kN Stroke 500mm, 100kN, 500mm Max Max. speed 1m/s 500kN, Stroke 500mm, Max. speed 0.2m/s 1,000kN, Stroke 1,000mm, Max. speed 20m/s 2,000kN, Stroke 500mm 5,000kN, Stroke 500mm -192C ~ 200C, Max. model size 400 400 600mm (inside) -170C ~ 100C, Max. model size 1000mm 2000mm 2000mm (inside) Max 20C ~ 700C, Max. model size 1000mm 2000mm 2000mm (inside) Cannon type, Max. speed 30m/s Specification Remark

Background Nonlinear Structural Mechanics and Design

Background Nonlinear Structural Mechanics and Design

International Journal Papers


Peer-reviewed international journals (13)

Summary of Activities during 2009 (1/2)

International Journal of Maritime Engineering (1 paper), International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering (1 paper), Structural Longevity (1 paper), Thin-Walled Structures (3 papers), Corrosion Science (1 paper), Ocean Engineering (2 papers), Ships and Offshore Structures (1 paper), M i Technology Marine T h l (2 papers), ) C Computer t Modeling M d li in i Engineering E i i and d Sciences S i (1 paper)

International and National Conference Proceedings Papers


Conferences
International Conference on Marine Structures (MARSTRUCT), March 2009 Portugal (3 papers) 2009,

Role
Paper presentations, Session chair Keynote speaker Mini-symposium organizer Paper presentations Co-sponsor, Paper presentations Paper presentations Mini-symposium organizer Paper presentations P t ti Mini-symposium organizer

International conference (7 papers)

International Conference on Computational and Experimental Engineering and Sciences (ICCES), April 2009, Thailand (1 paper) International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering (OMAE), June 2009, USA (2 papers) International Conference on Ship and Offshore Technology (ICSOT): Ice Class Vessels, September 2009, Korea (2 papers)

National conference (24 papers)

Spring meeting of the Society of Naval Architects of Korea (SNAK), May 2009, Changwon, Korea (10 papers) A t Autumn meeting ti of f th the S Society i t of fN Naval lA Architects hit t of f Korea K SNAK, SNAK October 2009, Moonkyung, Korea (14 papers)

International Workshop and Lectures


Explosion and Fire Engineering of FPSOs JIP, JIP April 2009 2009, Korea Ship and Offshore Structures Congress (ISSC), 16-21 August 2009, Korea International Standard Organization/ TC 8 meetings, October 2009, Turkey Explosion p and Fire Engineering g g of FPSOs JIP, , November 2009, , Norway y Ship and Offshore Structures Congress (ISSC), December 2009, UK Organizer Technical committee III.1 Chairman ISO 18072 Convenor Organizer g Technical committee III.1 Chairman Prof. S.N. Atluri (U.C. Irvine)

International workshop (5 times)

Lecture (3 times)

Special Lecture on Nonlinear Structural Mechanics and Analysis, Pusan National University, June 2009, Korea

Summary of Activities during 2009 (2/2)


International Journal Editorship
International Journals
Ships and Offshore Structures, Taylor & Francis, UK (32 papers) Structural Longevity, Tech Science Press, USA (4 papers) Ocean Engineering, Computer Modeling in Engineering and Sciences, International Journal of Impact Engineering, Journal of Marine Science and Technology, International Journal of Maritime Engineering, Journal of Engineering for the Maritime Environment, Institute of Marine Engineering Engineering, Journal of Ship Mechanics (8 journals)

Role
Editor-in-Chief Editor in Chief Editor-in-Chief Associate Editor Editorial Board

Book Chapters (Computer(Computer-Based Ship Structural Design: Theory and Practice, SNAME)
Chapter
8 10 12 13 15 16 Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis Deformation and Strength Criteria for Stiffened Panels under Impact Pressure Elastic Buckling of Plates Large Deflection Behaviour and Ultimate Strength of Plates Large Deflection Behaviour and Ultimate Strength of Stiffened Panels Ultimate Strength of Ship Hulls Jeom Kee Paik

Title

Author

International Conferences Organized


I t International ti l Conferences C f
International Conference on Computational and Experimental Engineering and Sciences (ICCES), 28 March -1 April 2010, Las Vegas, USA International Conference on Ocean, Offshore, and Arctic Engineering (OMAE), 6-7 June , Shanghai, g , China 2010, International Conference on Computational and Experimental Engineering and Sciences (ICCES), Special Symposium on Meshless and Other Novel Computational Methods, 1721 August 2010, Busan, Korea

R l Role
Paper presentations, Keynote speaker Symposium organizer Paper presentations, Keynote speaker, p , Symposium y p organizer g Paper presentations, Keynote speaker, Conference organizer

OnOn -going Research Topics

Research Topics
1. Mechanical Properties of Various Materials in Both Cold and Elevated Temperatures 2. Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis 3. Tank Sloshing Impact Design of Membrane-Type LNG Carriers 4. Ice Class Ship Structural Design 5. Fire Risk Assessment and Management of Offshore Installations 6. Gas Explosion Assessment and Management of Offshore Installations 7. Progressive P i Failure F il A l i for Analysis f Entire E i Ship Shi Structures S 8. Sandwich Plate System (SPS) Design 9. Quality Q lit Assurance A of f Cold C Coldld-forming f i Process P of f Three Th -Dimensionally ThreeDi i ll Curved Metal Plates using Changeable Die System 10. 10 . Condition Assessment of Aged Structures 11. 11 .

1. Mechanical Properties p of Various Materials in Both Cold and Elevated Temperatures p

Material Types for Ships and Offshore Structures Mild / high tensile steel (with different grades), aluminum alloy, stainless steel, foam, elastomer

Temperatures Room arctic, Room, arctic cryogenic, cryogenic elevated

Loading Condition Quasistatic, dynamic / impact

High strain rate

Database Mechanical properties (elastic modulus, yield stress, ultimate tensile stress, fracture strain) strain), effect of temperature temperature, effect of strainrate strain rate

Minimum Requirements

2. Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis

Longitudinal edge

e dinal u t i g Lon

dge

Longitudinal edge

Nonlinear i FEA A
Ultimate Strength Extreme loads Large deformation / small strain - buckling, buckling collapse Plasticity Structural Crashworthiness Accidental loads Large deformation / large strain - crushing / folding Fracture Plasticity

Modeling Techniques Extent of analysis Mesh size Material model Initial imperfections Boundary condition Loading condition

Modeling Techniques Mesh size True stresstrue strain relation Dynamic yield stress Dynamic fracture strain Dynamic / impact load profile

Applied Examples and Verifications

1600 1400 1200

16C

Mean crushing strength (Pmean) Abramowicz-Jones formula: 372.7kN Test: 404.5kN FEA: 383.6kN

Force( (kN)

1000 800 600 400

FEA

Test

First fracture

200 0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

Indentation(mm)

3. Tank Sloshing Impact Design

y
Symmetric y condition

Ux=0, Roty=0, Rotz=0 Uy=0, Rotx=0, Rotz=0

T k Sl Tank Sloshing hi D Design i

Design Loads

Structural Failure Analysis Fracture of corrugated membrane Fracture of insulation system (foam) Modeling Extent of analysis Mesh size (corrugation, foam) True stresstrue strain relation in cryogenic condition y y yield stress Dynamic Dynamic fracture strain Mastic Sloshing load profile FirstFracture Based Structural Design Curve

Sloshing Frequency

Sloshing Scenarios Tank filling level Duration of tank motion Amplitude of tank motion Rolling angle CFD Si Simulations l ti SloshingLoad Characteristics Sloshing Sl hi load l d profile fil with i h time i Peak pressure Pressure impulse Design Sloshing Loads Probabilistic exceedance curve

Sea Trials

4. Ice Class Ship Structural Design

Ice Class Ship Structural Design Initial scantling


Internal Mechanics External mechanics Initial kinetic energy (Ei)
Energy absorption of both ship and iceberg

Collision Scenarios
Iceberg size Iceberg shape Iceberg draft Iceberg material (age) Ship type and size Ship draft Collision C lli i location l i Collision angle Collision speed

Ship Collision with Rigid Iceberg Structural Crashworthiness Analysis

Iceberg Collision with Rigid Ship Structural Crashworthiness Analysis Reaction force indendation relation for
iceberg g Absorbed energy (Eai )
No

Reaction force indendation relation for


ship p structures Eas ) Absorbed energy (

Ei Eas + Eaii
Yes

stop

A Modeling for Nonlinear FEA of Ship Mesh type and size (steel) Engineering stressengineering strain relation True stresstrue strain relation Knockdown factor for true stresstrue strain relation Fracture strain used for nonlinear FEA Dynamic yield strain (strainrate effect) Dynamic fracture strain (strainrate effect) Extended true stresstrue strain relation

B Modeling for Nonlinear FEA of Iceberg Mesh h type and d size i (iceberg) (i b ) Engineering stressengineering strain relation (test database) True stresstrue strain relation (test database) Effect Eff t of f strainrate t i t on dynamic d i yield i ld stress t (test (t t database) d t b ) Effect of strainrate on fracture strain (test database)

1600 1400 1200

-40C

Mean crushing strength (Pmean) Abramowicz-Jones formula: 400.6kN Test: 473.8kN FEA: 430.7kN

Force(kN N)

1000 800 600 400 200 0


FEA

Test

First fracture

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

Indentation(mm)

5. Quantitative Fire Risk Assessment and Management

Q Quantitative tit ti Fire Fi Risk Ri k Assessment A t and d Management M t

Fire Frequency = Leak frequency x ignition probability

Nonlinear Structural Consequence Analysis

Fire Scenarios Wind direction (X1) Wind speed (X2) Leak rate ( (X3) Leak duration (X4) Leak direction (X5) Leak position X (X6) Leak p position Y ( (X7) Leak position Z (X8) CFD simulations

Risk = Fire frequency x consequence

Risk ALARP
Yes

No

stop

Risk Control Option Design Fire wall Passive fire protection (PFP) Deluge / water spray

Fire Load Characteristics Fire load profile with time Temperature T t Heat dose Design Fire Loads Probabilistic exceedance curve

6. Quantitative Gas Explosion Risk Assessment and Management

Quantitative Gas Explosion Risk Assessment and Management

Explosion E l i Frequency F = Leak frequency x ignition probability CFD Simulations Gas Explosion Load Characteristics Explosion load profile with time Blast Bl t pressure Pressure impulse Design Gas Explosion Loads Probabilistic exceedance curve Nonlinear Structural Consequence Analysis Risk = Explosion frequency x consequence

Explosion Scenarios Wind direction (X1) Wind speed (X2) (X3) Leak rate ( Leak duration (X4) Leak direction (X5) Leak position X (X6) Leak position Y (X7) Leak position Z (X8) Gas Dispersion Analysis Gas Cloud Characteristics Gas volume (Y1) Gas concentration (Y2) Gas cloud position X (Y3) Gas cloud position Y (Y4) Gas cloud position Z (Y5) Gas cloud size X (Y6) Gas G cloud l d size i Y (Y ( 7) Gas cloud size Z (Y8)

Risk ALARP
Yes

No

stop

Risk Control Option Design Blast wall

Coarse mesh global NLFEA analysis


PRESSURE [N/mm2]

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

Experiment

Analysis

0 0 20 40 60 80 100 DISPLACEMENT [mm]

Medium mesh subassembly model

Laboratory experiments with corrugated panels

Out-of model component check using fine mesh NLFEA

Pressure

7. Progressive Failure Analysis of Entire Ship Structures

Progressi e Failure Progressive Fail re Analysis Anal sis for Entire Ship Structures Str ct res

New Algorithm Intelligent Supersize Finite Element Method (ISFEM) Intelligent Supersize Finite Elements Beancolumn element Plate element 3dimensional algorithm Buckling B kli and d collapse ll Plasticity Crushing / folding Ductile and brittle fracture Strainrate sensitivity Model Tests Plates (unstiffened box) Stiffened panels (stiffened box) Hulls (box girders) Large scale ship sturcture models Experiment

Nonlinear Finite Element Method

Applied Examples and Validations

Progressive Collapse Analysis of Ship Hulls


Under vertical bending

15.0

16

M uhog_HULL(CSR =9.465GNm

M uhog_FEA(CSR) )=9.654GNm M uhog_CSR=11.049GNm

CSR design
10.0
Net

Height t to neutral axis from ba ase line (m)

Hogging

Vertical bending moment V t (GNm)

14

=8.557GNm M uhog_HULL(Pre-CSR) -

5.0

12
50%

M uhog_req..=5.768GNm

As-built

10
As-built

0.0
M usag_HULL(Pre-CSR)= -7.694GNm M usag_req.= -7.686GNm

Hog Sag

8
Sagging

-5.0
M usag_FEA(CSR) )= 8.107GNm M usag_HULL(CSR)= -8.329GNm M usag_CSR==-8.540GNm (ANSYS) Nonlinear FEA (ANSYS): - CSR design 50% corrosion additions : CSR deducting design deducting 50% corrosion additions ALPS/HULL ALPS/HULL: - CSR design 50% corrosion additions : CSR deducting design deducting 50% corrosion additions - Pre-CSR design deducting 100% corrosion additions : Pre-CSR design deducting 100% corrosion additions -

6
ULS

Net

-10.0

4 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0


-15.0 -4.0 -2.0 -

Curvature10 (1/m)

0.0
4 (1/m) Curvature10-4

2.0

4.0

Change of neutral axis position


33

Ultimate Strength (lll.1)

Progressive Collapse Analysis of Ship Hulls


Under combined hull girder actions

Between Trans. frames


MH

FH FV MV MT

B t Between T Trans. bulkheads b lkh d


34

Ultimate Strength (lll.1)

8. Sandwich Plate System (SPS) Design

SPS Design

A l ti l Method Analytical M th d Governing Differential Equations Buckling strength formula Ultimate strength formula

N li Nonlinear FEA Modeling Techniques Mesh size Material modeling Boundary condition Loading condition

E i t Experiment Model Test Tensile test of material Buckling strength test Ultimate strength test

Comparison

Guidance and Rule Requirements

9. 9 Quality Q li Assurance A of f ColdCold C ld-forming f i Process P of 3D Curved Metal Plates using i Changeable Ch bl Di Die S System t

Quality Assurance of Coldforming Process of 3D Curved Metal Plates using Changeable Die System New Algorithm Springback calculation algorithm using nonlinear structural mechanics CAE System Analysis of Spring-back Behavior (Nonlinear FEA) Plate geometry (target geometry) Material properties Pressing punch geometry CAM System Pressing punch arrangement Pressing punch control

Experiments Changeable g die system y development p (Prototype) Pressing punch strength tests Cold-forming tests Material tests (plates)

Applied Examples and Validations

Quality Assurance Recommendations

10. Condition Assessment of Aged g Structures

Condition Assessment of Aged Structures

Timevariant Corrosion Model

Timevariant Fatigue Cracking Model

Ultimate Strength Model (Residual Strength)


Analytical model Numerical model

Experiment
Buckling Plastic collapse

Reliabilitybased Assessment and Management

Guidance and Recommendations

LRET Marine & Offshore Research Workshop 16-18 February, 2010

Hydrodynamics

Fire and Explosion

Jung Kwan Seo and Jeom Kee Paik

LRET Research Centre of Excellence at Pusan National University

Overview
I. Backgrounds II. Aims and Scope III. Fire Engineering
z Validation and verification of CFD Simulations z Fire Load Characteristics

IV. Explosion Engineering


z Thermal Diffusion Analysis z CFD Simulations

V.

On-going Studies

Backgrounds
{ Piper alpha(1998), Enchova central offshore(1998) { Fire and explosion caused by gas and oil leakage { API(American Petroleum Institute), DOE (Department of Energy), NPD(Norwegian Petroleum Direktorare), Lloyds rules

Piper alpha accident

Enchova central offshore accident

Aims and Scope


z Developing Quantitative Fire & Explosion Risk Assessments procedure z Establishing a procedure for defining design actions based on CFD simulations for FPSOs z Developing deterministic and probabilistic methodologies for the analysis of fire and gas explosion actions using modern CFD codes

Phase I: Fire Engineering


CFD Simulations
Validation and Verification of CFD Codes

CFD Simulations
ANSYS-CFX and Kameleon FireEx (KFX)
Program Element Application areas Difference Modeling
Radiation Wall heat transfer Sub grid geometry Soot

ANSYS-CFX Tetrahedra, Prism Multiphase Heat transfer Radiation Combustion Multipurpose simulation tool ANSYS CFX method
P1 model Adiabatic, Temperature and Heat transfer coefficient Tetrahedra None

Kameleon FireEx Grid All kind of fires Fire impact Mitigation Combustion CFD Fire simulation tool Kameleon FireEx method
The Discrete Transfer model (DTM) Conductivity Porosity The Eddy Dissipation Concept (EDC) model

HSE Laboratory Test (Jet Fire)


Propane gas (CH3CH2CH3) jet fire test
Thermally insulated plate 3.54m Air condition : O2 (21%),N2 (79%) 9.80m

A A
3.91m

C C

B B
Nozzle

2.00m

D D
2.50m

Propane gas Fuel release rate: 0.33kg/s 0.33 kg/s

Opening (ventilation)

Temperature sensor

[Source: HSE 1995]

CFD Simulations (1/3)


Heat transfer conditions of the wall
2200 2000 1800
3.91m

C-D (Height: 1.7m)

3.54m A A

9.80m 9.80m

Temperature (K)

1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12


Adiabatic Wall heat transfer with heat transfer coefficient (30W/m2K) Wall heat transfer with ambient temperature of 281K

1.7m B B

C C

Experiment

1.7m D D

1.7m 2.50m

2.00m

Nozzle

Opening

Height (m) Heat transfer Radiation Mass flow rate (kg/s)


22

1.7 Thermal energy P1 model 0.33

Time (s)

14

16

18

20

CFD Simulations (2/3)


Results of CFX versus KFX
1600

A-B
1400 1200

1600

C-D
1400 1200

Temperature (K)

1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 1 2

Temperature (K)

1000 800

3.54m A A 3.91m

9.80m 9.80m C C

600 400

1.7m B B

1.7m D D

1.7m

2.00m

Nozzle

CFX Experiment KFX (Conduct 1e-6W/m2K)

200 0 0 1 2

2.50m

Opening

CFX Experiment KFX (Conduct 1e-6W/m2K)

Height (m)

Height (m)

CFD Simulations (3/3)


The result of CFD simulations

ANSYS CFX (CFD) simulation

Kameleon FireEx simulation

Kameleon FireEx tends to have more accuracy and less computing time than ANSYS CFX

Phase II: Fire Engineering


Fire Load Characteristics
Concrete and steel tubular member

Fire Load Characteristics (1/5)


Jet fire test with concrete tubular member
Concrete

=
Temperature (K) Temperature (K)

Convection

Temperature (K)

+ + Conduction
Radiation

Time (s)

Time (s)

Time (s)

Jet fire test with steel tubular member


Steel
Temperature (K) Temperature (K) Temperature (K)

Convection

+ + Conduction
Radiation

Time (s)

Time (s)

Time (s)

Fire Load Characteristics (2/5)


Gas component: CH4: 100%, volume late: 20L/min
LNG CH4: 88.9% C2 H6: 8.9% C3 H8: 1.3% LPG C3 H8: 61.6% N2: 30.2% C4 H10: 8.2%
CH4 10L/min CH4 15L/min CH4 20L/min

Working pressure: 4bar, volume rate: 20L/min


Leak rate (g/sec) Leak diameter (mm) Ambient temperature (K) Fuel fraction 0.857 8 300.2 CH4 100%

V mP =V t RTt

Fire Load Characteristics (3/5)

Fire Load Characteristics (4/5)


Leak rate= 0.000857516kg/sec, Methane= 100%
200mm x 4

1400

Section A1

Test(Concrete) Test(Steel)

1200

Temperature(K)

1000

Fire direction

1140mm

800

5
600

4 3 2

6 7 8 1

400

200 0 20 40

Time(s)

60

80

100

Measurement points

Fire Load Characteristics (5/5)


Results at section A (average for 90~100s)
A-5
C
200mm x 4

A-4

A-6
CFD (KFX) CFD (CFX) Test(Concrete) Test Test(Steel outside) Test Test(Steel inside) Test

Fire direction

1140mm

A-7 A-3
0 300 600 900 1200

Temperature(K)

5 4 3 6 7 2 1 8

A-2

A-8

A-1

Measurement points

Phase III: Explosion Engineering


Thermal Diffusion Characteristics
To examine the effect of wind velocity and direction

Thermal Diffusion Characteristics (1/6)


Limitation of the wind tunnel test facility
Diameter of the turn table is 3m Projected area of test model < 5% cross section of wind tunnel Cross section of wind tunnel: 8.0m X 2.5m= 20m2 Ideal projected area of model: 20m2 X 5(%)= 1m2

Cross section of wind tunnel

2.5m

8.0m
Prinscipal dimensions of the wind tunnel Test model set-up in the wind tunnel

23 .0m

Thermal Diffusion Characteristics (2/6)


Test Cases
Heat source position Case1 Case2 Case3 Case4 A A A B Wind direction Rear Side Front Front Wind speed (m/s)
Front Side

1.5 2.0 1.5 2.0 1.5 2.0 1.5 2.0

Rear

Thermal Diffusion Characteristics (3/6)


Wind speed: 1.5m/s vs. 2.0m/s
308 306
A-R1 A-R2

308 306

A-R1 A-R2

Temperature(K)

304 302 300 298 296 0 200 400

Temperature(K)
Wind direction: Rear Wind speed: 1.5m/s 600 800

304 302 300 298 296 0 200 400

Wind direction: Rear Wind speed: 2.0m/s 600 800

Time(s)

Time(s)
Temperature(K) Temperature(K) (at t= 771 ~ 800s)

A-R2 A-R1

Speed

Points

A-R1 306.4 303.4

A-R2 302.0 301.1

1.5m/s 2.0m/s

Thermal Diffusion Characteristics (4/6)


Thermal diffusion characteristics (at t= 800s)

A-S2 A-S3 A-S4

A-S2 A-S3 A-S4

434 414

Test(1.5m/s) Test(2.0m/s)

1.5m/s
Temperature(K)
394
A-S2

374 354 334

CFX(1.5m/s) CFX(2.0m/s)

A-S3

A-S2
A-S4

314 294 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700


A-S3 A-S4

Distance from the center of heat source (mm)

2.0m/s

Thermal Diffusion Characteristics (5/6)


Thermal diffusion characteristics (at t= 800s)

A-R4 A-R3 A-R2

A-R4

A-R3 A-R2

394
Test(1.5m/s) Test(2.0m/s)

374

1.5m/s

Temperature(K)

CFX(1.5m/s)

354
CFX(2.0m/s)

334
A-R4 A-R3 A-R2

314
A-R2 A-R3 A-R4

294 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800

Distance from the center of heat source (mm)

2.0m/s

Thermal Diffusion Characteristics (6/6)

Temperature distribution

Velocity distribution

{ Wind direction: Rear { Wind speed: 1.5m/s { Location of heat source: A


A-R4 A-R3 A-R2

Phase IV: On-going Studies


FPSOs Topside

Fire Load Characteristics


Wind direction: +Y (5m/s) z y x

KFX simulation

Fire Load Characteristics


Temperature distribution of elevation A
Total number of grids: 500,000, Leak rate: 48kg/sec

Elevation B
22

Elevation A

23

IP 57m 60m

24

64m

25

FWD

Elevation view

Plan view at elevation A

0.1 (s)

1.0 (s)

5.0 (s)

10.0 (s)

Gas Dispersion Studies


Totally 50 dispersion simulations were carried out. The following parameters defined each leak scenario: - wind direction - wind speed - leak direction - leak rate - leak duration - leak position X - leak position Y - leak position Z

Gas Dispersion Studies


Shape of the big gas cloud (Leak rate: 50kg/s)

top view

front view

Gas Dispersion Studies


The model represents: - main structural members of all modules - bigger equipment items - main pipelines Geometry is supplemented by extra piping to achieve a realistic congestion. Presence of surrounding topside structures affects: - wind flow pattern - gas cloud build-up - magnitude of explosion loads The FLACS model of the entire topside

Gas Cloud Characteristics Studies


Dispersion scenarios Cloud Position Many of the gas clouds build up in adjacent modules. Position of a gas cloud is determined mostly by the wind direction and to a much smaller degree by leak direction.

- Gas Volume, Gas Concentration - Gas Cloud Position (X, Y, Z) - Gas Cloud Size (X, Y, Z)

Design Gas Explosion Loads


Explosion load characteristics: peak over pressure (PMAX) versus duration (T+) based on CFD simulations.

Nonlinear Structural Consequence Analysis


Mitigate Consequences (Nonlinear Structural Mechanics)

Structural response in case of fire

Fire

Required PFP