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Evolving industrialisation facilitating growth

Uttarakhand witnessed massive growth in capital investments due to conducive industrial policy and generous tax benefits. Therefore, Uttarakhand is one of the fastest growing states in India. The states GSDP increased at a CAGR of 20.8 per cent during 2005-12, trailing only Sikkims 25.2 per cent growth in 2005-12 and outpacing the 15.9 per cent growth witnessed by all states combined. The state is located at the foothills of the Himalayas. Presence of several hill stations, wildlife parks, pilgrimage places and trekking routes make Uttarakhand an attractive tourist destination. Domestic tourists received by the state increased at a CAGR of 9.6 per cent to 25.9 million during 2001-11. Foreign tourists received by the state increased at a CAGR of 8.5% to 0.12 million during 2001-11. Uttarakhand is being developed as an energy state to tap the hydropower electric potential of over 25,000 MW. About 91.9 per cent of the capacity owned by state utilities is based on hydropower. Forest area covers about 64 per cent of the state. Supportive state policies and availability of seasonal fruits, such as apples, plums, litchis and peaches, facilitate the development of the agro and food processing industry. Uttarakhand is also the second-largest producer of nuts in India, accounting for 9.4 per cent of the country's total nuts production. Uttarakhand has almost all agro-geo climatic zones, which provide commercial opportunities for floriculture and horticulture. The state has 175 rare species of medicinal and aromatic plants.
Source: PHD Chambers of Commerce and Industry June 2011, IPTU, Uttarakhand Tourism Development Master Plan 2007-22, Ministry of Tourism

Thriving tourism

Hydropower generation potential

Agro and food processing

Floriculture and horticulture

Hydro power generation capacity of about 1,100 MW

Favourable location Growing demandand abundant resources

Stable political environment

The states hydropower potential is 25,450 MW

Close proximity to National Capital Region of Delhi - a leading market of the country. It has excellent connectivity with neighboring states. Abundant natural resources due to hills and forests supporting tourism, and vast water resources favouring hydropower. Agro-climatic conditions support horticulturebased industries Advantage:

The state has a stable political environment with successive governments that have been committed towards creating a progressive business environment.


Adequate labour pool

The average level of literacy is high in the state. A large pool of talented human resources is available here, as Uttarakhand has some of the leading educational institutions in the country. Top-notch institutes, namely IIT Roorkee and IIM Kashipur, are located in the state. Also, Uttarakhand has the 11th highest literacy rate (79.6 per cent) in India.

The engineering sector is delicensed; 100 per cent FDIais allowed inof the The state offers wide range benefits in terms of interest incentives, financial sector
assistance, subsidies and concessions. Uttarakhand a robust social and Due to policyhas support, there was industrial infrastructure, virtual cumulative FDI of USD14.0 billion into connectivity, over 36,600 km road the sector over April 2000 of February network, two domestic airports, 345 km 2012, making up 8.6 per cent of total of rail routes and an installed power FDI into the country in that period capacity of 2,556.5 MW.

Policy and infrastructure

Uttarakhand has diverse geographical features ranging from snow-capped mountain peaks in the north to tropical forests in the south; its climate and vegetation vary accordingly. The state was formed in November 2000 by carving out the 13 hill-districts of Uttar Pradesh. It was formerly named Uttaranchal.

Capital Geographical area (sq km) Administrative districts (No)
Source: Maps of India

Dehradun 53,483 13 189 10.11 5.15 4.96 963 79.6

Uttarakhand is located at the foothills of the Himalayan mountain ranges. The state shares borders with China (Tibet) in the north and Nepal in the east and inter-state boundaries with Himachal Pradesh in the west and northwest and Uttar Pradesh in the south. Hindi, Garhwali and Kumaoni are commonly spoken in the state. English is the medium of education in many of its schools.

Population density (persons per sq km)* Total population (million)* Male population (million)* Female population (million)* Sex ratio (females per 1,000 males)* Literacy rate (%)*

Sources: Uttarakhand at a Glance, 2011-12, Directorate of Economics and Statistics, *Provisional Data Census 2011

GSDP as percentage of all states GSDP Average GSDP growth rate (%)* Per capita GSDP (US$)




1.1 20.1 1,947.6

100 15.6 1,414.2

Planning Commission Databook, 2012-13, current prices

Planning Commission Databook, 2004-05 to 2012-13, current prices

Planning Commission Databook, 2012-13, current prices

Physical Infrastructure
Installed power capacity (MW) Wireless subscribers (No) Broadband subscribers (No) National highway length (km) Airports (No) 2,560.6 122,223,635^ 88,959** 2,042 2 225,133.1 867,803,583 15,050,000 79,116 133 Central Electricity Authority, as of May 2013, Telecom Regulatory Authority of India, as of March 2013 Ministry of Communications & Information Technology, as of March 2013 Ministry of Road Transport & Highways, Annual Report 2012-13 Airports Authority of India
*Calculated in Indian rupee terms, **As of December 2011 ^Including Uttar Pradesh,

Parameter Social Indicators

Literacy rate (%) Birth rate (per 1,000 population)




79.6 18.9

74.0 21.8

Provisional Data Census 2011 SRS Bulletin (, 2012

FDI equity inflows (US$ billion) Outstanding investments (US$ billion) 0.3* 81.3 195.7 10,499.2 Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion, April 2000 to April 2013 CMIE (2012-13)

Industrial Infrastructure
PPP projects (No) SEZ (No) 21 1 881 385 Notified as of March 2013,

PPP: Public-Private Partnership, SEZ: Special Economic Zone, SRS: Sample Registration System *Including Uttar Pradesh

At current prices, the gross state domestic product (GSDP) of Uttarakhand was about US$ 19.8 billion in 2012-13*. Between 2004-05 and 2012-13*, the average annual GSDP growth rate was 20.1** per cent.

GSDP of Uttarakhand at current prices (in US$ billion)

CAGR 20.1%**
14.9 8.1 5.5 6.8 11.4 12.2 19.4 19.8


Source: Planning Commission Databook, 2012-2013 *Advanced estimates, **In Indian rupee terms










The total net state domestic product (NSDP) of Uttarakhand was about US$ 17.0 billion in 2012-13*. The average NSDP growth rate was 19.1** per cent between 2004-05 and 2012-13*.

NSDP of Uttarakhand at current prices (in US$ billion)

CAGR 19.1%**
10.0 6.1 5.1 7.2 10.6 15.7 16.7 17.0


Source: Planning Commission Databook, 2012-2013 *Advanced estimates, **In Indian rupee terms










In 2012-13*, the states per capita GSDP was about US$ 1,947.6. The per capita GSDP increased at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 18.7** per cent between 2004-05 and 2012-13*.

GSDP per capita of Uttarakhand at current prices (in US$)

1,938 1,948

CAGR 18.7%**
1,206 873 596 739

1,272 1,532


Source: Planning Commission Databook, 2012-2013 *Advanced estimates; **In Indian rupee terms










In 2012-13*, the states per capita NSDP was about US$ 1,672.5. The per capita NSDP increased at a CAGR of 17.7** per cent between 2004-05 and 2012-13*.

NSDP per capita of Uttarakhand at current prices (in US$)

CAGR 17.7%**
1,059 665 550 775 1,103 1,585 1,668 1,324 1,673








Source: Planning Commission Databook, 2012-2013 *Advanced estimates, **In Indian rupee terms



The tertiary sectors share in GSDP was 52.1 per cent in 2012-13. Trade, hotels and restaurants the largest subgroup of the sector registered a growth of 13.3 per cent over the previous year. The secondary sector had the fastest growth of 23.8 per cent followed by tertiary sector (20.9 per cent) and primary sector (12.3 per cent) between 2004-05 to 2012-13.

GSDP composition by sector

49.5% 20.9% 52.1%


23.8% 34.3%

The share of the secondary sector in GSDP was 34.3 per cent in 2012-13; its growth was mainly driven by manufacturing, which recorded a growth of 28.1 per cent between 2004-05 and 2012-13.

23.5% 2004-05 Primary sector

12.3% 13.6% 2012-13 Secondary sector Tertiary sector Source: CMIE *In Indian rupee terms

Sugarcane, wheat, rice and potato are the key agricultural products of the state. In 2011-12, the total food grain production of the state was around 1.85 million tonnes. Sugarcane is the major crop in the state with production of about 6.59 million tonnes in 2011-12. The production of oilseeds and pulses during the year 201112 was estimated to be 31,000 tonnes and 49,000 tonnes, respectively. The state government aims to set up cold chain storage warehouses in every district by 2022.

Sugarcane Wheat Rice Potato Tomato Peas Onion Total pulses Total oilseeds

Annual production in 2011-12 (000 tonnes)

6,596 874 599 434* 102* 78* 39* 49 31

Total foodgrains


Source: Reserve Bank of India, Indian Horticulture Database 2011, National Horticulture Board *2012-13 advanced estimates

According to the Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion (DIPP), the cumulative FDI inflows from April 2000 to March 2013 amounted to US$ 347 million*. In 2012-13, outstanding investments in the state were US$ 81.3 billion.

Break up of outstanding investments by sectors (2012-13)

4.4% 3.1% 1.4% Electricity 14.2% Services Real Estate Manufacturing 77.0% Irrigation

Of the total outstanding investments, the electricity sector accounted for around 77.0 per cent.

Source: CMIE *Including Uttar Pradesh

State highways length was 3,788 km, Major district road length was 3,321.9 km and village roads totaled to 13,282.2 km in the state, as of 2010-11. As of October 2012, there were three public-private partnership (PPP) projects in the road sector under construction.

In June 2012, US$ 379.8 million was sanctioned by the central government to the state to develop rural roads. Also, the state government would infuse US$ 128.9 million to construct rural roads.

Road type
National highways
Source: Maps of India

Road length (km) as of 2010-11

2,042* 3,788 3,321.9

State highways Major district roads

Total road network in the state was 49,277.0 km in 2010-11. According to Ministry of Road Transport & Highways, national highways running through the state had a total length of 2,042 km.

Source: Uttarakhand at a Glance 2011-12, Ministry of Road Transport & Highways, *As of March 2013

Uttarakhand had 345 km of rail routes in 2010-11.

Growing demand

The state is focusing on increasing the share of railways in cargo and passenger transport. Initiatives have been made to start monorails at Dehradun, Haridwar and Rishikesh, on the inter-city linkage routes. The main railway stations in the state are Dehradun, Haridwar, Roorkee, Kotdwar, Kashipur, Udham Singh Nagar, Haldwani, Ramnagar and Kathgodam. In February 2012, the Uttarakhand government announced plans to expedite the construction of the broad gauge rail link between Muzaffarnagar in Uttar Pradesh and Roorkee in Uttarakhand. The US$ 61.9 million project is expected to reduce the travelling time between two destinations by one hour.

Source: Maps of India

The state has two domestic airports: one at Jolly Grant in Growing demand the Dehradun district and another at Pant Nagar in the Udham Singh Nagar district. All flights connect the state to Delhi. Upgradation work has been completed at the Jolly Grant airport in coordination with Airports Authority of India. Due to the hilly terrain, the government has proposed the construction of at least one helipad per district. The state intends to position air-transport as a reliable allweather transport option for the hills. In December 2012, the state government announced plans to secure financial aid of US$ 4.6 million from the Centre for the modernisation and expansion of the NainiSaini airport in the Pithoragarh district.
Domestic airport Source: Maps of India

As of May 2013, the state had an installed power generation capacity of 2,560.56 MW, which consisted of 1,426.97 MW under state utilities, 718.54 MW under centre utilities and 415.05 MW under the private sector. The installed power generation capacity in the state has increased from 2,383.00 MW in 2008-09 to 2,560.56 MW in 2012-13*.

Installed power capacity (MW)


CAGR 1.8%
2,455 2,405


The state is in the process of implementing and testing the public-private partnership model in the power sector. As of July 2012, the state had achieved 98.9 per cent of village electrification.






Source: Central Electricity Authority *As of April 2013

The Uttarakhand Power Corporation Limited (UPCL), was established to look after electricity transmission and distribution in the state after Uttarakhands separation from Uttar Pradesh in 2000. The transmission function was later entrusted to Power Transmission Corporation of Uttarakhand Limited (PTCUL).

Structure of power utilities of Uttarakhand Activity

Power generation Power transmission

Company name
Uttarakhand Jal Vidyut Nigam Limited (UJVNL) Power Transmission Corporation of Uttarakhand Limited (PTCUL) Uttarakhand Power Corporation Limited (UPCL)

Uttarakhand Jal Vidyut Nigam Limited (UJVNL) controls the states hydropower generation.
The states power sector is regulated by the Uttarakhand Electricity Regulatory Commission (UERC).

Power distribution

Source: Uttarakhand Power Corporation Limited, Uttarakhand Jal Vidyut Nigam Limited, Power Transmission Corporation of Uttarakhand Limited

Uttarakhand is being developed as an Energy State to tap its huge hydro electric power (HEP) potential of approximately 25,450 MW. Uttarakhand has also supported the development of alternate sources of power generation such as solar energy and energy from bio-gas plants. A state-level energy park has also been established in Dehradun. Industry is a major power consumption segment followed by domestic consumers in the state.

Projects under operation in Uttarakhand state

Under State Under Centre Under private sector 34 3 8

Estimated potential (MW)

1,305.9 1,400.0 458.9

Source: Uttarakhand Jal Vidyut Nigam Limited

Due to plentiful water resources, the state is focusing on the development of its hydro power generation capacity. The state has enormous potential for hydropower production and several hydroelectric projects on the following rivers: Yamuna, Bhilangana, Bhagirathi, Alaknanda, Saryu Gauri, Mandakini, Kosi and Kali. In December 2012, the central government approved the 300 MW Lakhwad hydro-power project in Uttarakhand. The project is estimated to cost US$ 730.2 million; of which the central government would offer US$ 474.6 million, while the state would contribute US$ 255.6 million. The project is estimated to be complete in four years. In August 2011, World Bank signed a US$ 648.0 million funding agreement with THDC India Ltd to develop the Vishnugad Pipalkoti Hydro Electric Project on the Alaknanda river with a total capacity of 444 MW. The project is expected to produce 1,665 million kilowatt hours of electricity per annum.

Projects under development

UJVNL Central public sector undertakings Independent power producers 32 25 38

Estimated potential (MW)

2,815.3 7,302.0 2,118.4

Source: Uttarakhand Jal Vidyut Nigam Limited

The state has a well-developed communication network including both wired and wireless-connectivity. According to Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI), the state had 1.82 million^ wire-line subscribers and 122.22 million^ wireless subscribers as of March 2013. As of December 2011, the state had 481 telephone exchanges. Uttarakhand State Wide Area Network (USWAN) is operational in the state. Some of the projects under Information Technology Development Agency (ITDA) Uttarakhand are National eGovernance Plan (NeGP) Capacity Building Project, Common Service Centre (CSC) and State Data Centre (SDC).

Telecom infrastructure
Wireless subscribers Wire-line subscribers BSNL mobile phone connections BSNL telephone connections (including wireless local loop) Broadband subscribers Public call offices (PCOs) Post offices Telephone exchanges Telegraph offices 122,223,635^ 1,815,421^ 1,215,729* 311,699* 88,959 8,599

2,719** 481 2*

Sources: Telecom Regulatory Authority of India, Department of Telecommunications, Annual Report 2011-12, Ministry of Communications and Information Technology Uttarakhand at a Glance, 2011-12, India Post ^Including Uttar Pradesh *As of March 2011 **As of January 2013 #As of December 2011

Under JNNURM, 14 projects costing US$ 91 million have been sanctioned for Dehradun, Nainital and Haridwar. The projects, sanctioned between 2007 and 2011, include development of roads and flyovers, water supply, sewerage, and solid-waste management. The total water supply to Dehradun city is 127.05 MLD of which around 80.0 per cent (102.51 MLD) is supplied from ground water sources while the remaining 24.54 MLD is supplied from surface sources. The average per capita supply in the city is 124 LPCD. About 50.0 per cent of the population of Dehradun city is covered with sewerage systems.

Drinking water supply in Uttarakhand (2010-11)

Inhabited villages covered (no) Population covered (million) Fully covered (million) Partly covered (million) 15,545 6.2 5.1 1.1

Sources: Uttarakhand at a Glance, 2011-12, Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Government of Uttarakhand JNNURM, Ministry of Urban Development MLD: Million litres per day, LPCD: Litres per capita per day Data for ADB Funding Sourced from Construction World news article

In January 2013, Asian Development Bank (under the second tranche of Uttarakhand Urban Sector Development Investment Program) agreed to a funding of US$ 100 million to Uttarakhand to improve water supply, sewerage systems and civic infrastructure. While the first tranche covered Dehradun, Nainital and Haridwar, the second tranche would be directed towards the Haldwani, Roorkee and Ramnagar towns. Besides, the central government would fund US$ 42.9 million of the total investment requirement of US$ 142.9 million.

In November 2012, Uttarakhand unveiled a new PPP policy to boost infrastructure projects and facilities. The policy aims to create a favorable environment to attract private investments and ensure a sound regulatory mechanism. The state has identified 107 projects under the PPP model. Empowered Committee on Infrastructure (ECI) was created to coordinate the state governments infrastructure development efforts, which includes participation of the private sector and funding measures. A PPP cell would be established for speedy clearances. Projects worth up to US$ 0.9 million would be approved under prevailing business norms related to Uttarakhand Procurement Rules 2008. Projects of US$ 0.9-46.0 million would be approved by an empowered group of ministers, while projects exceeding US$ 46.0 million would have to obtain clearance from the state cabinet. Earlier, projects with investments lower than US$ 4.5 million also required approval of the state cabinet. The new system seeks to ensure speedy project execution.

Key sectors to be focused through PPP model

Urban development Energy Agriculture Rural development Transport Tourism Health Education Trade and industry

Sources: Data sourced from Business-Standard news article Note: PPP Public-Private Partnership

Project Name
Muzaffarnagar-Haridwar Haridwar-Dehradun

Roads Roads

PPP Type
BOT-Toll BOT-Annuity

Project Cost (US$ million)

229.5 144.2

Under construction Under construction

Khutani SHP
Nayar SHP and Santudhar II Balgad SHP Sarju Valley Hydel Project

Energy Energy Energy Urban development Healthcare Urban development Healthcare Textile

BOOT BOOT BOOT Management Contract BOT BOT -

36.2 30.3 8.9 5.1 4.8 4.1 3.1 -

Under bidding
Under bidding Under bidding Under construction Under construction Under operation Under operation Under operation Planning

Door to door collection of solid waste composting and landfill at Dehradun

Operation and management of mobile hospital units ISBT Cardiac care unit at coronational hospital in Dehradun Textile park

Source: BOT: Build-Operate-Transfer, BOOT: Build-Own-Operate-Transfer

Uttarakhand is the home to some of the countrys best institutes of higher education, which include: GB Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee Indian Institute of Management, Kashipur Indian Institute of Remote Sensing Wildlife Institute of India

Basic/secondary education (2010-11)

Number of schools and colleges Number of students Number of teachers 22,865 2,301,860 91,500

Higher education
Number of institutions
Number of students Number of teachers

178,733 1,677

Forest Research Institute, Dehradun

GB Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, Almora Rural Biotechnology Complex in Kosi Herbal Research Gopeshwar and Development Institute,

Vocational and technical education

Industrial training institutes Polytechnics Distant institutes of education and training centres 115 40 13

Source: Uttarakhand at a Glance, 2011-12, Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Government of Uttarakhand

The state has a literacy rate of 79.6 per cent according to the provisional data of Census 2011; the male literacy rate is 88.3 per cent and the female literacy rate is 70.7 per cent. The state has 124 higher education institutions, 115 industrial training institutes (ITIs) and 40 polytechnic colleges. There are about 178,733 students in the higher education institutions. There are 13 district institutes of education and training centres in the state.

Literacy rates (%)

Literacy rate Male literacy Female literacy 79.6 88.3 70.7
Source: Census 2011 (Provisional Data)

Government degree colleges in Uttarakhand

For the year 2012-13, the state government has allocated US$ 814.3 million for school education and US$ 47.3 million for higher education. Government of India has proposed to set up a textile skill training programme in Uttarakhand at an estimated cost of US$ 18.4 million. Around 15,000 people are expected to be trained under the programme in the next five years.
Government P G College, Ranikhet Pt. L M S Government P G College, Rishikesh

L S M Government P G College, Pithoragarh

Ram Chandra Uniyal P G College, Uttarkashi Government P G College, Bageshwar Government P G College, Gopeshwar Government P G College, Lohaghat
PG: Post-graduate

The state has a good network of hospitals and health centres. The state had 257 primary health centres (PHCs), 55 community health centres (CHCs), 12 district-level hospitals, three base hospitals and 322 state allopathic hospitals as of 2010-11.

Health infrastructure (2010-11)

District level hospitals Base hospitals Primary health centres (PHCs) Community health centres (CHCs) State allopathic hospitals Joint hospitals, hospitals for women Tuberculosis hospitals and clinics Leprosy hospitals 12 3 257 55 322 41 18 3 8,193

For the year 2012-13, the state government has allocated US$ 160.6 million for medical, health, family welfare and Ayush department and US$ 67.7 million for medical education.
Based on the findings of the Annual Health Survey* of nine states covering 284 districts and accounting for 50 per cent of population, Uttarakhands health indicators appear favorable. The state reported lowest MMR (maternal deaths per 100,000 births) of 162. Rudraprayag and Pithoragarh in Uttarakhand have the lowest neo-natal mortality rate of 12. Also, Pithoragarh in Uttarakhand has the lowest under-five mortality rate of 23

Beds in government hospitals

Family welfare services (2010-11)

Women and child welfare centres Main centres Women and child welfare sub-centres 2 84 1,848

Sources: Uttarakhand at a Glance, 2011-12, Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Government of Uttarakhand, Annual Health Survey * Survey fieldwork was done between November 2011 and April 2012

As of March 2011, the state had 107 homeopathic hospitals and dispensaries, 543 ayurvedic hospitals and five unani hospitals. The state had 1,848 women and child welfare sub-centres as of March 2011.

Other hospitals in Uttarakhand as of 2010-11

Homeopathic hospitals and dispensaries Ayurvedic hospitals Unani hospitals 107 543 5

Sources: Uttarakhand at a Glance, 2011-12, Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Government of Uttarakhand

Health indicators (2011)

Birth rate* Death rate* Infant mortality rate** 18.9 6.2 36

Key hospitals in Uttarakhand

Doon Hospital, Dehradun

St. Mary Hospital, Mussoorie

Coronation Hospital, Dehradun G.B. Pant Hospital, Nainital

Sources: Sample Registration System (SRS) Bulletin 2012 ( *Per thousand persons **Per thousand live births

B.D. Pandey Hospital, Nainital J L N District Hospital, Rudrapur

There are numerous avenues for recreation in the state, particularly, in key cities such as Dehradun, Nainital and Mussoorie. There is a Botanical Museum in the Forest Research Institute at Dehradun. The Indian Military Academy has a museum, library, war memorial, arms and ammunition, shooting demonstration room, and an 18-hole golf course. There is another popular golf course located in Ranikhet. There are several heritage hotels such as the Chevron Rosemount, Chevron Fairhavens and the Ramgarh Bungalows. Besides, there are a number of unique entertainment and adventure avenues including wildlife resorts like Solluna resort in Nainital, Quality Inn Corbett Jungle Resort, and Tiger Camp: Camp Forktail Creek in Jim Corbett Park.

Major hotels in Uttarakhand

Hotel Jaypee Residency Manor, Mussoorie Hotel Honeymoon Inn, Mussoorie Claridges Naini Retreat, Nainital

Hotel Madhuban, Dehradun

Youth hostels in Uttarakhand

Hotel Yash, Pithoragarh Hotel Yash, Dharchula Hotel Sheela, Nainital Hotel Saina Inn, Dehradun O.G.S Tourist Home, Rishikesh Youth Hostel, Ranikhet Hotel Jim Corbett (youth hostel), Jim Corbett

The state has transformed from an essentially agrarian and services driven economy into a hub of industrial activity. Following are the industrial estates in the state: Three integrated industrial estates (IIEs) at Haridwar, Pantnagar and Sitarganj. Pharma city at Selaqui. IT park at Sahastradhara road (Dehradun). Growth centre at Siggadi (Kotdwar). Some of the other initiatives towards increasing industrial activity include: Under the special integrated industrial promotion policy (2008), the governments incentives include exemption from stamp duty, rebate of up to 90 per cent on value added tax, rebate on power tariffs and transport subsidy. The government expects to attract ventures in eco-tourism, adventure sports and service sectors through this policy. Proposed strengthening of the single-window contact, information and facilitation mechanism. Provision of arranging financing through a consortium of banks and financial institutions. Provision to facilitate expeditious land availability for setting industrial venture and infrastructure projects.

Floriculture Chaffi is a joint venture between the Dutch government and Uttarakhand government to manufacture and process the planting material of flowers such as chrysanthemum, tulips, zantedesia, lilium and gladioli. The alliance aims to reduce the reliance on imports of flower bulbs and meet the demand of cut-flower growers and exporters in India. The production facility in Bhimtal, equipped with Dutch machinery and technology, has an annual production capacity of 20 million flower bulbs. Also, the company can produce 2 million plants annually in the tissue culture laboratorium, through tissue culture facility. In February 2013, the government announced plans to set up an empowered committee chaired by the Chief Minister to approve mega projects over US$ 9.2 million. The decision follows the plans to develop a 1700 acre industrial estate at Sitarganj in the Udham Singh Nagar district, Uttarakhand. The state aims to attract investment of about US$ 90-180 million for the planned industrial estate, which would be developed by the State Infrastructure and Industrial Development Corporation of Uttarakhand Limited. The state government is planning to set up an integrated textile park through PPP model. The park would be spread over an area of 100 acres in the Kashipur-Jaspur area of the Kumaon region.
Sources: State Infrastructure and Industrial Development Corporation of Uttarakhand Limited, Data sourced from Business Standard news article

Estate name



Financial incentives
100 per cent central excise exemption for 10 years 100 per cent income tax exemption for first five years and 30.0 per cent for next five years Central sales tax (CST) at the rate of 1.0 per cent for five years Capital investment subsidy at the rate of 15.0 per cent, subject to a maximum of US$ 65,832

Proposed industries
Cosmetics and allied units Plastic and allied units Apparel and allied units Agro, food and allied units Pharmaceuticals Electrical, electronics and allied units Institutional, commercial and allied units
Cosmetics and allied units Plastic and allied units Apparel and allied units Agro, food and allied units Pharmaceuticals Electrical, electronics and allied units Furniture hub Institutional, commercial and allied units

Integrated Industrial Estate Haridwar

3 km from Delhi-Haridwar National Highway (NH)

2,034 acres

Integrated Industrial Estate Pantnagar


3,339 acres

100 per cent central excise exemption for 10 years 100 per cent income tax exemption for first five years and 30.0 per cent for next five years CST at the rate of 1.0 per cent for five years Capital investment subsidy at the rate of 15.0 per cent, subject to a maximum of US$ 65,832

Sources: State Infrastructure and Industrial Development Corporation of Uttarakhand Limited

Estate name



Financial incentives
100 per cent exemption from central excise for 10 years 100 per cent income tax exemption for first five years and 30.0 per cent for next five years CST at the rate of 1.0 per cent for five years Capital investment subsidy at the rate of 15.0 per cent, subject to a maximum of US$ 65,832 100 per cent central excise exemption for 10 years 100 per cent income tax exemption for first five years and 30.0 per cent for next five years CST at the rate of 1.0 per cent for five years Capital investment subsidy at the rate of 15.0 per cent with a maximum of US$ 65,832

Proposed industries

Pharma City, Selaqui Industrial Area, Dehradun

25 km from Dehradun

50 acres

Pharmaceutical formulation units to be given preference

Sigaddi Growth Centre

120 km from Dehradun

100 acres

Thrust sector industries only

Sources: State Infrastructure and Industrial Development Corporation of Uttarakhand Limited

Estate name



Proposed facilities
Ready-to-occupy, hi-tech, intelligent building Developed plots of varying sizes Academic zone for educational and research organisations Software Technology Parks of India (STPI) incubation centre to promote local entrepreneurs Large tracts of land to be devoted to green areas and open spaces Habitat centre to cater to business support and recreational needs of the occupants Other support facilities such as conference hall, training centres, guest house, travel and foreign exchange service, banks and automated teller machine (ATM), multi-cuisine food court, healthclub with gym, medical centre, serviced apartments, library and information bureau, indoor and outdoor sport facilities such as squash, tennis, badminton courts and billiards

State-of-the-art IT park

Sahastradhara Road, Dehradun

60 acres

Sources: State Infrastructure and Industrial Development Corporation of Uttarakhand Limited

The Hill Policy yielded strong results as evidenced by the growth in micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) in Uttarakhand during the last four years. The policy attracted investments of over US$ 99 million from 2008 (when it came to effect) until June 2012. The policy facilitated the creation of over 3,000 small (mainly micro) units and provided employment for over 10,500 people. MSMEs were mainly created in the herbal, floriculture, hotels, food processing, packaging, flour mills, handlooms, mineral water, pharmaceuticals, auto repair and steel fabrication sectors.

Progress from Hill Industrial Policy Year

2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12

Units set
643 706 827 911

Jobs created
2,225 2,797 2,738 3,077

Sources: Data sourced from eUttaranchal news article

Parsavanath Developers, IT/ITeS


Sigaddi Growth Centre IT Park at Sahastradhara Road Pharma City, Salequi Industrial Area,
Pauri Tehri Garhwal Rudra Prayag Chamoli



Integrated Industrial Estate-Haridwar



Champawat Udham Singh Nagar

Index Notified SEZs

Integrated Industrial EstatePantnagar

Integrated Industrial EstateSitarganj

Industrial estates

The natural resources, policy incentives and infrastructure in the state support investments in the drugs and pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, IT/ITeS, mines and minerals, textiles, leather and tourism sectors. Uttarakhand has been successful in attracting long-term investments because of its key industrial and sector-specific policies. Developing appropriate infrastructure has also been a key strategy of the state to attract investments in various industries. Directorate of Industries is the state level office responsible for implementing the policies and programmes for industrial development in the state.

Key industries in Uttarakhand

Agro-based industry and food processing Information and communications technology (ICT) Floriculture Horticulture Pharmaceuticals and biotechnology Hydropower Tourism Engineering and allied industries Fast moving consumer goods

Information and communication technology (ICT) has received special attention from the state government and it has been accorded the status of an industry. Several initiatives have been taken to promote the ICT industry in Uttarakhand. With the establishment of the Software Technology Parks of India (STPI) earth station at Dehradun, Uttarakhand now offers high-speed connectivity. There are more such earth stations planned at other locations. Facilities by BSNL and Reliance are also available in the state. An IT development agency has been constituted by the state government at Shasthradhara Road, Dehradun. An IT park has been set up at Dehradun. The state has a notified IT/ITeS SEZ of 13.54 hectares situated at Sahastradhara Road, Dehradun.

Some of the key players

Hiltron HCL Infosystems Wipro Infotech Modi Infotech Service


Hiltron initially worked to promote the development of electronics and allied industries and services in Dehradun, Uttarakhand. It functions as an IT and communication service provider to the state under the administrative control of the department of IT.

HCL Infosystems

HCL is among the largest vertically integrated IT manufacturing companies of India. The group reported revenues of US$ 4.15 billion in FY12. It is the largest hardware, system integration, networking solutions and distribution company in India. It has its manufacturing facility at Rudrapur in the SIDCUL Industrial Estate, which has an overall capacity of 2 million personal computers per annum.

Wipro Infotech

Wipro Infotech is a division of Wipro Limited. It provides enterprise customers with high-value IT products, software services, solutions and consulting services in India and the Middle-East. Wipro reported revenues of US$ 6.94 billion in 2012-13. It has a unit at Kotdwar in Uttarakhand. The unit is spread over 5.8 acres of land with a built-up area of 75,000 sq ft. It has fully-automated production lines designed on Lean manufacturing practices and houses product engineering and R&D labs for continuous innovation in products and processes.

Modi Infotech Services

Modi Infotech is located in Haridwar. It is involved in the business of website designing, software development, web-hosting, web-advertising, ERP solutions, e-commerce based application development and educational segments of the IT market.

Many agri-export zones (AEZs) have already been declared under the AEZ scheme of Government of India for products such as litchi, floriculture & horticulture, herbs, medicinal plants and basmati rice. A biotech park near Pant Nagar is coming up in the state. Uttarakhand has been included in the difficult area category by the Ministry of Food Processing Industry (MoFPI) and hence units being set up in Uttarakhand are also eligible for higher incentives under the scheme of MoFPI.

In April 2013, Golden Infocon Private Limited announced plans to invest US$ 27.6 million in Uttarakhand under the state governments industrial promotion programme SIDCUL Phase-II. The programme involves 50 per cent relaxation on stamp duty and 1 per cent on central trade tax. The company plans to set up food processing and other industrial units. In April 2013, Hindustan Coca-Cola Beverages Private Limited, the largest bottling partner of Coca-Cola Company, signed an agreement with State Infrastructure & Industrial Development Corporation of Uttarakhand Ltd (SIDCUL) to invest US$ 110.5 million for setting up a plant in Dehradun to make carbonated beverages, juice and fruit-based drinks. The state would provide 60 acres of land for the plant.

Fruits such as apples, oranges, pear, grapes peach, plum apricot, litchi, mangoes and guava are widely grown in the state and therefore have immense potential for development of horticultural crops and processing units.
The state government provides assistance in establishing small and medium-sized agro parks and food parks, which in turn are expected to provide common infrastructure facilities for storage, processing, grading and marketing.

Some of the key players

Britannia Industries Ltd Nestle India Ltd PepsiCo KLA India Public Ltd

Britannia Industries Ltd

Britannia is one of Indias leading food product companies, with an estimated 33.0 per cent biscuit market share. The principal activity of the company is the manufacturing and sale of biscuits, bread, cakes and dairy products like cheese, butter and milk. It has a plant in the integrated industrial estate at Pantnagar. The plant is located in Integrated Industrial Estate (IIE), Pantnagar, and the project cost incurred was US$ 12.5 million. The company had revenues of US$ 1.03 billion in 2011-12 and employs almost 1,987 people nationwide.

Nestle India Ltd

Nestle is the world's largest and most diversified food company. It manufactures products under famous brand names such as Nescafe, Maggi, Milkybar, Kit-Kat, Bar-One, etc. It has around 280,000 employees worldwide and 500 factories in about 77 countries. The companys Indian operations had revenues of US$ 1.55 billion in 2012. In 2006, Nestle India commissioned its seventh factory at Pantnagar in Uttarakhand.

PepsiCo India

PepsiCo established its business operations in India in 1989 and is one of the largest and fastest growing food and beverage businesses in India. The companys Indian operations reported revenues of US$ 1.22 billion in 2012. It provides direct and indirect employment to over 285,000 people globally and has 38 beverage bottling plants and three food plants in India. There is a company-owned bottling plant in Bajpur, Uttarakhand, which has an installed capacity of 100,000 cases of soft drink per day.

KLA Foods (India) Ltd

KLA Foods (India) Limited is involved in international trading in agricultural commodities. The company diversified into exports of minerals and metals and is exporting large quantities of ironore to China. Their rice processing unit, located at Rudrapur in Uttarakhand, was founded in 1977.

Proximity to key markets and supply centres of north India further add to the attractiveness of the state as an investment destination. Pantnagar is a primary location for FMCG companies in the state.

Some of the key players

ITC Ltd Dabur India Ltd CavinKare Private Ltd Hindustan Lever Ltd


ITC is one of Indias foremost consumer goods companies, and is truly diversified with a product assortment ranging from cigarettes, apparel, personal-care products and food products. The company is also one of the leading hoteliers in the country and is involved in agri-business. The company reported revenues of around US$ 5.76 billion in 2012-13. It has established a manufacturing facility in Uttarakhand for producing soaps and shampoos. The plant, located at Integrated Industrial Estate (IIE) Haridwar, was set up with an investment of US$ 27.4 million.

Dabur India Ltd

Dabur is one of the leading consumer goods companies in India with a turnover of US$ 1.13 billion in 2012-13. It has 17 ultra-modern manufacturing units spread across the globe and its products have markets in over 60 countries. It has established a manufacturing facility in Uttarakhand. The company manufactures products for healthcare, personal-care and ayurvedic cosmetics segments. The plant located in IIE Pantnagar was set up with an investment of US$ 10.7 million.

CavinKare Pvt Ltd

CavinKare is a leading FMCG company in India. The company has an employee strength of around 3,000, an all-India network of 5,351 stockists catering to about 2.5 million outlets. CavinKare Group has a turnover of US$ 229 million in 2011-12. It has established a manufacturing facility at the IIE Haridwar in Uttarakhand. It manufactures products such as cosmetics, shampoos, creams and deodorants. The plant was built with an investment of US$ 15.3 million.

Hindustan Unilever Ltd

Hindustan Unilever Limited (HUL) is the largest FMCG company in India. It recorded revenues of US$ 4.84 billion during 2012-13. It has a state-of-the-art personal care products factory, set up with an initial investment of US$ 28.5 million in SIDCUL IIE at Haridwar.

Many Indian and multi-national companies have established their manufacturing bases in Uttarakhand as a result of the states emphasis on industrial and infrastructure development by providing incentives as well as easy availability of manpower. Many automobile and auto component companies have set up their manufacturing units and R&D centres in the state. BHEL is one of the oldest and most important companies in the engineering sector in the state. Tata Motors, Ashok Leyland, Hero Honda, and Mahindra and Mahindra are some of the well-known automotive companies that have set up units in the state. The Mahindra & Mahindra (M&M) group and Volkswagen have evinced interests in setting up new manufacturing facilities in Uttarakhand. M&M wants 500 acres of land and proposes to invest US$ 552.3 million to set up a plant with annual production capacity of 2.5 lakh units. Volkswagen has demanded 200-300 acres from SIDCUL.

Some of the key players

Tata Motors Ltd Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd (BHEL) Surya Polar Industries Ltd

Tata Motors Ltd

Tata Motors is one of the leading firms in the country in the automobile and engineering sectors. The company reported consolidated revenues of around US$ 34.5 billion in 201213. It has set up its fourth plant in Uttarakhand. This plant in Pantnagar has been set up for manufacturing the firms mini-truck named Ace.

Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd (BHEL)

BHEL is one of the leading power generation equipment manufacturers in the world and reported revenues of about US$ 8.8 billion in 2012-13. It has installed equipment for over 100,000 MW of power generation for utilities, captive and industrial users. BHEL also offers comprehensive services to its customers in the conventional and nonconventional sectors including energy, industry, transport, defence and oil & gas. BHEL, Ranipur, is a township developed by the company in the Haridwar district of the state. BHEL, Haridwar, has a campus of 7,000 acres, of which, 2,034 acres is home to 200 companies including Hero Honda, Maruti and ITC.

Surya Roshni Ltd

Surya is among India's leading manufacturers of lighting products. The company is a leader in the exports of fluorescent tubes and has achieved high brand visibility in over 40 countries. In 1984, Surya set up its first factory for lighting products at Kashipur in Nainital. Its steel pipe manufacturing plant is among the largest in Asia; located at Bahadurgarh, Haryana.

Polar Industries Ltd

Polar is a popular fan making company. It has established a manufacturing facility in Uttarakhand. The company manufactures electrical fans, water-lifting pumps, geysers, water purifiers and laminations. The plant, located in IIE Haridwar, was set up with an investment of US$ 4.7 million.

Uttarakhand has several agro-geo-climatic zones, making it particularly conducive to commercial horticulture and floriculture. The floriculture industry is being developed aggressively in order to meet the demands of domestic as well as foreign markets. The climate of the state makes it ideal for growing flowers all round the year. Floriculture parks with common infrastructure facilities for sorting, pre-cooling, cold chain, processing, grading, packing and marketing facilities have been planned in order to provide adequate incentives and facilities to the industry. As per 2012-13 advanced estimates, the state produced 1,810 tonnes loose flowers and 356.8 million cut flowers. The state government has decided to set up a horticulture marketing board to boost horticulture products in the state.

Key player

Uttarakhand Organic Commodity Board (UOCB)

Uttarakhand Organic Commodity Board (UOCB)

The Uttarakhand Organic Commodity Board (UOCB) is a government body founded in 2003. It is supported by the Government of Uttarakhand and is located in the Dehradun district of Uttarakhand. UOCB advises and assists the state government in the overall strengthening and implementation of the institutional set up. It is also engaged in the production, processing, marketing and promotion of organic farming in the state. The Board also focuses on promoting organic farming in the fields of land use agriculture, horticulture, animal husbandry, dairy, sericulture, apiculture, floriculture, herbs and medicinal plants, tea, fisheries, forest and all related areas for the promotion and development of organic farming in the state, and networks and liaisons with various department of the state.

The states forest revenues increased at a CAGR of 9.0 per cent during 2005-12 to US$ 49.6 million. Forest products have excellent potential for development due to easy availability of raw materials in the state. The state has ample scope to develop industries based on forest- and agro-wastes such as lantana, pine-needles, plant and vegetative fibres. Uttarakhand is a storehouse for a rich variety of herbs, medicinal and aromatic plant species. This enables the state to offer immense opportunities for the development of export-oriented units based on such products.

Forest revenues of Uttarakhand (in US$ million)


CAGR 9.0%*



The state is home to more than 175 species of rare medicinal, aromatic & herbal plants. Forest Research Institute (FRI) is a premier institution under the Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education (ICFRE), situated in Dehradun, Uttrakhand. The recorded forest area of the state is 34,651 square km, which constitutes around 64.7 per cent of its geographical area.
*Calculated in rupee terms

Uttarakhand is a well-renowned religious and wildlife tourism destination. In 2012, 28.29 million domestic tourists and 140,524 international tourists visited the state. In February 2013, the state identified 21 new places in Uttarakhand that have the potential to become major tourist destinations. These places include Jageshwar, Baijnath, Saat Taal, Bhimtal, Patal Bhuvaneshwar, Chakori, Someshwar, Pithoragarh, Chakrata, Roopkund, Hanaul, Anson Barrage, Harshil, Dhanaulti and Dayara meadow. Jauljiwi in Kumaon and Tons in Garhwal division are planned to be developed as adventure tourism destinations. Investment opportunities in the tourism sector include:

National parks/Wildlife sanctuary in Uttarakhand

Askot Sanctuary Kedarnath Sanctuary Valley of Flowers (national park) Nanda Devi National Park Rajaji National Park Corbett National Park Govind Wildlife Sanctuary

Religious tourism in Uttarakhand

Development of facilities for providing spiritual lessons, Reiki and other rejuvenating courses
Eco-tourism hotels, spa, resorts, amusement parks and ropeways Winter sports at locations such as Auly that have the requisite terrain for the purpose Adventure tourism

Yamunotri Gangotri Kedarnath Badrinath Haridwar-Har ki Pauri Hemkund Sahib

Home to a variety of flora and fauna and rare species of plants and animals, Uttarakhand has a natural advantage in the sector. The state accords an industry status to the units coming under this sector (policy provisions applicable to the IT sector are applicable to this sector) and aims to establish an internationally competitive business infrastructure and environment for developing this industry. Biotechnology parks are to be developed to integrate resources and provide a focused institutional set up for accelerated commercial growth of biotechnology and bioinformatics. The government is also planning to develop Uttarakhand as a centre of excellence in biotechnology. In August 2011, the proposal to set up a biotech park in Uttarakhand was included in the state biotechnology programme. The park is expected to include modern biotechnological facility and other common facilities such as a business centre, laboratories and an animal house. The Uttarakhand Biotechnology Department also plans to set up a Centre of Excellence on Mountain Biology to support research and development work.

The single-window contract facility is available under a two-tier system: The District Industrial Centres (DIC) at the district-level. SIDCUL at the state-level. These centres are responsible for providing information and escort services to the entrepreneurs. They also maintain a data bank.


SIDCUL, a Government of Uttarakhand enterprise, was incorporated as a limited company in 2002. It has equity participation from the Union Bank of India (UBI), the Oriental Bank of Commerce (OBC) and Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI). SIDCUL functions as the nodal agency of the state to administer all existing Government of India (GoI) and Government of Uttarakhand schemes for industrialisation and industrial promotion. The corporation provides the industrial units with the requisite information and guides them on the approvals needed for potential investors. It is a multipurpose company for industrial promotion investment and infrastructure development. The corporations key aim is to promote industrial development in the state; provide financial assistance by way of debt, equity, or venture capital; develop infrastructure; and assist private initiatives in the industry. It also implements and manages projects and provides specialised consultancy for finances and construction. It allows the industries and infrastructure projects in the state to be developed either directly or through special purpose vehicles, joint ventures, assisted companies, etc.

Contact information

State Infrastructure and Industrial Development Corporation of Uttarakhand Limited (SIDCUL)

29, IIE (IT Park), Sahastradhara Road, Dehradun-248001 Phone: 91-135-2708 100 Fax: 91-135-2708 109 Website:

Uttarakhand Handloom & Handicraft Development Council (UHHDC)

Uttarakhand Handloom & Handicraft Development Council is registered council constituted by the Government of Uttarakhand. The council acts as a facilitator to motivate, guide and organise artisans and provide common platforms for direct interactions between creators and connoisseurs, producers and buyers.

Directorate of Industries, Industrial Area Patel Nagar Dehradun-248001 Uttarakhand Phone: 91-135-2728 227 Fax: 91-135-2728 226 Website:



Contact information
Industries Association of Uttarakhand, Mohabelwala Industrial Area Dehradun - 248110 Phone: 91-135-2640 530 Fax: 91-135-2643 382 E-mail:,iauuttarak Website: SIDCUL Building, 1st floor, IT Park, Shasthradhara Road, Dehradun, Uttarakhand Phone: 91-135-2708 122 Fax: 91-135-2708 174 Website:

Industries Association of Uttarakhand (IAU)

IAU is an apex body of small and medium scale industries of Uttarakhand. IAU is committed to the development of the state and its small entrepreneurs. It follows a two-tier system at the city-level and operates through the respective chapters. The thrust and focus of IAU is on taking initiatives to help the existing industry and to attract new industry in Uttarakhand.

Information Technology Development Agency (ITDA)

The ITDA is an independent and autonomous body to guide and monitor various projects and provide expert inputs, monitor, evaluate and execute the state's IT initiatives and projects under the National e-Governance Plan (NeGP).

List of approvals and clearances required

Prior to setting up the unit Registration Allotment of land/shed Power load approval for construction load Approval for construction of building activity under the Factories Act No-objection Certificate

Departments to be consulted

Industries Department State Infrastructure and Industrial Development Corporation of Uttarakhand Limited (SIDCUL) Uttarakhand State Electricity Department Chief Inspector of Factories Fire and Forest Departments

Provisional trade tax registrations

Registration under the Central Sales Tax (CST) Act, 1956 Before commencement of production Environmental clearances No-objection Certificate Permanent trade tax Registration Registration under CST Act

Central and State Excise Departments

Central and State Excise Departments

Uttarakhand Environment Protection and Pollution Control Board Fire and Forest Departments Trade Tax Department Central and State Excise Departments

Industrial land purchase (per sq ft) Office space rent (per sq ft) Residential rent (2,000 sq ft) Five-star hotel room rent (per night) Power (industrial) Labour (minimum wage per day) Unskilled: Semi-skilled: Skilled: Highly skilled: US$ 4 to US$ 10

Cost estimate

Dehradun: US$ 21 to US$ 200 per month Dehradun: US$ 350 to US$ 550 per month Mussoorie: US$ 200 to US$ 350 US 7 cents per kWh US$ 1.7-2.7 US$ 2.1-2.8 US$ 2.4-3.1 US$ 2.6-3.5

Sources: Ministry of Labour and Employment, Government of India, Uttarakhand Power Corporation Limited, Industry sources

Policy for Harnessing Renewable Energy Sources in Uttarakhand


To harness the environment friendly RE resources and enhance their contribution to the socioeconomic development of the state.

Read more

Hill Policy 2008


The Hill Policy was introduced in April 2008, as a special integrated industrial promotion policy for the hilly and remote areas of Uttarakhand. The scheme is valid up to March 31, 2018.

Read more

Information Technology Policy 2006 Objectives

To have a fully digitised state and a networked society where information flow is seamless and its access across all sections of the society is enabled through effective ICT infrastructure. To propel the states economic growth through the use of IT, leading to a high quality of life for the citizens with greater employment opportunities.

Read more

Industrial Policy 2001


To harness industrial resources and put them to productive use, boost investments in industry and infrastructure, create employment opportunities and increase per capita income.

Read more

The Uttarakhand cabinet approved a new mining policy to generate revenues of US$ 73.6 million, improve transparency and reduce the involvement of government agencies. As per the new policy, the district magistrates are assigned authority to give mining rights to local youths on maximum five acres of land; the government would issue tenders for 5-50 acres of land. The new policy, termed as khanan, aims to eliminate illegal operators who have been causing loss of revenue to the government. According to the new policy, the Uttarakhand Forest Development Corporation has received a mandate to undertake mining on 7,000 hectares in reserve forest. Moreover, 1,000 hectares of area is allocated to Garhwal Mandal Vikas Nigam and 250 hectares of area is allocated to Kumaon Mandal Vikas Nigam.

Sources: Data sourced from Business Standard news article

Exchange rates Year

2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13

INR equivalent of one US$

44.95 44.28 45.28 40.24 45.91 47.41 45.57 47.94 54.31
Average for the year

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