14.0-1 14.

0 - Definitions

14.0 - DEFINITIONS
This section defines most of the units, abbreviations, technical terms, and slang used in this manual. 14.1 Units The following units and unit abbreviations are commonly used with regard to the Isocracker and its operation. °API Degree API. Used to describe the density of liquid hydrocarbon streams at 15.6°C (60°F). Denser streams like residuum have a low API gravity number while lighter streams like gasoline have a high API gravity. API gravity is related to specific gravity by the following equation:
°API = 141.5 − 131.5 Specific Gravity

BPOD

Barrels Per Operating Day. Used to describe the flow rate of oil streams. One barrel contains 42 U.S. gallons or 5.614 cubic feet. An "operating" day refers to a day on which the plant is operating. These barrels are corrected to standard conditions of 15.6°C (60°F). If the oil is a different gravity or flowing at a different temperature than the orifice meter design, the meter reading must be corrected. Sometimes feed rates are expressed per "calendar" day (BPCD), which averages the rate over the whole year, including downtime. Barrels Per Stream Day. The same as BPOD (Barrels Per Operating Day). Degree Baumé. Used to describe the gravity of some aqueous streams, especially caustic. A 25°Bé caustic solution contains about 19.2 wt % caustic and has a specific gravity of 1.208. Centipoise. A unit of viscosity. Water has a viscosity of 1.00 cP at 20°C.

BPSD °Bé

cP

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14.0-2 14.1 - Units

cSt

CentiStoke. A unit of kinematic viscosity. Centistoke viscosity of a fluid is the centipoise viscosity divided by the density of the fluid. Water has a kinematic viscosity of 1.00 cSt at 20°C. Kilocalorie. Used to describe a quantity of heat. It takes 1 kcal to heat 1 kg of water 1°C and about 556 kcal to vaporize 1 kg of water into 1 kg of steam. Kilograms per Square Centimeter Absolute. Used to express pressures relative to total vacuum [0 kg/cm2 (a)] used in calculating meter correction factors and compression ratios. Atmospheric pressure at sea level is 1.033 kg/cm2 (a). Kilograms per Square Centimeter Gauge. Used to express gauge pressures (pressure above atmospheric pressure). This is the pressure shown on the face of a pressure gauge. To determine absolute pressure, add 1.033 to the reading on a pressure gauge. Kilograms per Hour. Used to describe the mass flow rate of a stream. Kilogram-Mole. Used to describe a quantity of compounds or mixture of compounds equal in weight to its average molecular weight. For example, 1 kg-mole of oxygen (O2, molecular weight = 32.0) weighs 32.0 kg, while 1 kg-mole of butane (C4H10, molecular weight = 58.1) weighs 58.1 kg. Kilowatt. Used to describe the power (rate of energy usage) of an electric motor or other electrical device. Liters per Minute. Used to describe the flow rate of liquid streams at process conditions such as pump suction. Unlike BPOD or BPSD, these units are not corrected to standard conditions. Cubic Meters per Hour. Used to describe the flow rate of liquid streams at either standard or process conditions. In this project, m3/hr refers to flow at process conditions; m3/hr @ 15.6°C refers to flow at standard conditions. Millimeters of Mercury. (The chemical symbol for mercury is Hg.) Used to express absolute pressures, especially for vacuum systems. Atmospheric pressure at sea level is 760 mm Hg. A total vacuum is 0 mm Hg absolute or 760 mm Hg vacuum

kcal

kg/cm2 (a)

kg/cm2 (g)

kg/hr kg-mole

kW L/Min.

m3/hr

mm Hg

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Used to describe a relative gasto-oil ratio. especially hydrogen consumption or recycle gas ratio.92 SCFB. It takes 10. especially hydrogen consumption or recycle gas ratio. 1000 ppb is equal to 1 ppm. 22. Used to describe the rate of heat transfer in an exchanger or fired heater. 22. Standard Cubic Feet Per Barrel of Oil.4 Nm3 of a gas is equivalent to 1 kg-mole.14.6°C (60°F) and atmospheric pressure at sea level. Normal Cubic Meter per Cubic Meter of Oil. One normal cubic meter of gas per cubic meter of oil is equivalent to about 5. Normal Cubic Meter. Parts Per Million. One normal cubic meter is equivalent to about 37. Thus. Nm3/m3 ppb ppm SCF SCFB TO BE REPRODUCED. Used to express a small weight concentration of liquids (ppmw) or volume concentration of gases (ppmv).4 Nm3 of oxygen (O2) weighs 32. Used to express gas volume at standard conditions of 15.3 SCF. Standard Cubic Feet.0 kg.000 ppm to make 1%.1 .0-3 14. ONLY IN ACCORDANCE WITH WRITTEN PERMISSION OF CHEVRON RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL PROPERTY OF CHEVRON RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY COMPANY Revision 0 29 Sep 95 . Parts Per Billion. Used to describe a relative gas-to-oil ratio.Units MM kcal/hr Nm3 Million Kilocalories per Hour. Used to describe a quantity of gas which would occupy 1 cubic meter at 0°C and 760 mm Hg. AND USED.

0-4 14. The point in time when the catalyst has fouled so much that catalyst replacement or regeneration is required.Abbreviations 14.14. Specially treated and deaerated water which is low in dissolved solids and oxygen and used to make steam in a boiler. Cold Low Pressure Separator. Hot High Pressure Separator. Boiler Feedwater. AND USED. The arithmetic average of the inlet and outlet level average temperatures (LATs) of a given catalyst bed. An ASTM test method used to determine the boiling point distribution of a cut with an end point higher than about 370°C (700°F). An ASTM test method used to determine the boiling point distribution of a cut with an end point lower than about 370°C (700°F). ONLY IN ACCORDANCE WITH WRITTEN PERMISSION OF CHEVRON RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL PROPERTY OF CHEVRON RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY COMPANY Revision 0 29 Sep 95 . Bed Average Temperature. Catalyst Average Temperature. Full Vacuum. A technique for dense loading of catalyst pellets which gives 5-10% more catalyst in a given volume than sock loading. Catalyst Oriented Packing. A molecule (CH3SSCH3) used to sulfide fresh catalyst. The weighted average of the BATs. ATF BAT BFW CAT Aviation Turbine Fuel. Hot Low Pressure Separator. End-of-Run. Dimethyl Disulfide. A cut which generally boils between 121°C (250°F) and 285°C (545°F).2 Abbreviations The following abbreviations are from refinery processing in general and hydrocracking in particular. Each individual BAT is weighted by the fraction of the total active catalyst in that bed. Cold High Pressure Separator. CHPS CLPS COP DMDS D 86 D 1160 EOR F. HHPS HLPS TO BE REPRODUCED.V.2 .

Partial Pressure of Hydrogen or average partial pressure (denoted with a line over the p).0 for example. The point in time when the catalyst is fresh or newly regenerated.0 for example. The sour water treating facilities. AND USED. used especially with gasolines and gasoline blending stocks.Abbreviations ID ICR LAT LHSV Inside Diameter. Liquid Hourly Space Velocity. (See Section 13.2 . Start-of-Run. The average partial pressure in the reactor generally refers to the linear average of the inlet and outlet. The TBP cut point between the heaviest product cut and recycle feed. Isocracker or Isocracking.) Per Pass Conversion.0 for example. True Boiling Point. (See Section 13. A measure of the vapor pressure of a light hydrocarbon stock. ONLY IN ACCORDANCE WITH WRITTEN PERMISSION OF CHEVRON RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL PROPERTY OF CHEVRON RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY COMPANY Revision 0 29 Sep 95 . (See Section 13.) Reid Vapor Pressure. The ratio of reactor feed rate (bbl/hr or m3 at standard conditions) to catalyst volume (bbl or m3).0-5 14. The boiling point of a pure liquid at atmospheric pressure. Average temperature at a level in a catalyst bed. Middle-of-Run. A valve with a motor operator. Liquefied Petroleum Gas. Primarily propane and butanes with lesser amounts of ethane and pentane. Level Average Temperature. LPG MOR MOV _ pH2 or pH2 PPC RCP RVP SOR SWS TBP TO BE REPRODUCED. Per pass conversion is the percentage of combined first-stage unconverted product and second-stage recycle oil which is converted to products in the second-stage reactor during each pass through the reactor. A point in time midway between SOR and EOR. Unit of measure is inverse hours (l/hr). For Chevron’s kinetic estimates. Sour Water Stripping. Motor Operated Valve.14. the hydrogen partial pressure in the reactor is calculated by assuming all oil molecules are vaporized.) Recycle Cut Point.

0 for illustration.0 for illustration.0 for illustration.Abbreviations TEOR TSOR T* Catalyst Average Temperature when the catalyst is at End-of-Run." A temperature used to characterize feeds.0-6 14. Catalyst Average Temperature when the catalyst is at Start-of-Run or fresh conditions. "T-Star. (See Section 13.2 . It is the intersection of a line drawn through the TBP 30% and 50% points and the 0 LV % axis. and reactors.) Conversion Below T*. vessels.14. The amount of product boiling below T*. minus the expansion.) T-T VGO X(RCP) X(T*) TO BE REPRODUCED. It is intended to approximate the initial cut point of the feed. Vacuum Gas Oil. AND USED. The amount of product boiling below RCP. minus the expansion.) Tangent to Tangent Length. (See Section 13. Length of cylindrical sections of columns. An oil which is taken as a sidecut from a crude vacuum column. (See Section 13. ONLY IN ACCORDANCE WITH WRITTEN PERMISSION OF CHEVRON RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL PROPERTY OF CHEVRON RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY COMPANY Revision 0 29 Sep 95 . Conversion Below Recycle Cut Point.

3 Technical Terms The following technical terms are useful in understanding the operations of the Isocracker. some of the feed aromatics are saturated to naphthenes by hydrogenation. A set of boiling point data used to describe a mixture of molecules. A cut which generally boils between about 121°C (250°F) and 285°C (545°F). A compound (NH4Sx) which is injected into the effluent cooler to eliminate cyanide-induced corrosion and to harden iron sulfide scale to limit erosion. etc. A class of molecules which contain a very high number of unsaturated rings and high levels of metals. sulfur. Ammonia forms a basic solution in water and helps to absorb hydrogen sulfide. A test method used to obtain an assay of a mixture whose heaviest molecule boils higher than 370°C (700°F). A high pressure stream drawn from or "bled off" from the reactor loop recycle gas stream to control loop pressure or recycle gas purity. Mo. ONLY IN ACCORDANCE WITH WRITTEN PERMISSION OF CHEVRON RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL PROPERTY OF CHEVRON RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY COMPANY . most are used in this manual: Ammonia A molecule (NH3) which is formed by reaction of hydrogen with organic nitrogen molecules in the feed. A nonnoble metal. A synonym for gate valve. Quantitatively measured as material insoluble in hot heptane. and nitrogen. A class of molecules which contain one or more benzene rings.3 . Maldistribution of liquid and vapor flow in a catalyst bed such that sections of the bed are bypassed by liquid.0-7 14. In the hydrotreating process. Fe. AND USED.Technical Terms 14. Revision 0 29 Sep 95 Ammonium Polysulfide Aromatics Asphaltenes Assay ASTM D 86 ASTM D 1160 Aviation Turbine Fuel Base Metal Bed Channeling Bleed Gas Blind Block Valve TO BE REPRODUCED. Typical base metals are Ni. A test method used to obtain an assay of a mixture whose heaviest molecule boils at about 370°C (700°F). A flat plate inserted between flanges in a pipe to prevent flow.14.

the more "active" a catalyst is. A substance which partially destroys the ability of a catalyst to speed up a reaction. The percentage of pure cetane in a blend of cetane and alpha-methylnaphthalene which matches the ignition quality of a diesel fuel sample. This is performed when deposits severely plug the upper catalyst layer. imposing a pressure drop across the first bed.0-8 14.] CONFIDENTIAL PROPERTY OF CHEVRON RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY COMPANY Boiling Range Bottoms Bubble Point Catalyst Catalyst Activity Catalyst Life Catalyst Poison Catalyst Scalping (Skimming) Caustic Cetane Number Check Valve TO BE REPRODUCED. the boiling point of water is 100°C at atmospheric pressure.Technical Terms Boiling Point The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid equals the system pressure. usually at atmospheric pressure. ONLY IN ACCORDANCE WITH WRITTEN PERMISSION OF CHEVRON RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY COMPANY Revision 0 29 Sep 95 . A valve which permits flow in the forward direction but not in the reverse direction. is analogous to the octane number for gasolines. specified for middle distillate fuels. [Also called a nonreturn valve (NRV). The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a mixture just equals the system pressure (same as boiling point). The range of temperatures over which a mixture boils. A substance which accelerates the rate of a reaction but which remains basically unchanged after the reaction is complete.3 . For example. or hydrocracking (depending on the type of catalyst) ability of a catalyst at a particular temperature. The boiling point refers to atmospheric pressure if no pressure is stated. The liquid stream which leaves the bottom of a distillation column. So called because this is the temperature at which the first "bubble" of vapor forms as the mixture is heated.6 kg/cm2 (g) pressure in a steam drum. denitrification. The desulfurization. Removal and replacement of the top layer of catalyst in the first reactor bed.14. A basic molecule usually used in a water solution to neutralize an acid. such as sodium hydroxide (NaOH). But it is also 208°C at the 17. demetalization. This quality. The total time a single catalyst charge is in service from startup until EOR is reached. AND USED. The greater its degree of conversion for a given temperature. saturation.

14. A fine steel mesh pad used to promote the separation of water from oil.0 for example. The process by which coke is deposited on catalyst or process equipment and piping. protective layer of corrosion-resistant metal bonded to the surface of a thicker layer of a base metal with less corrosion resistance. A heavy cut contains high boiling components and comes from the lower section of the column. Also known as a pumparound. cooled below its bubble point then returned to a tray further up the column to partially condense some of the upflowing vapor. (See Section 13. The part of a fired heater immediately above the firebox in which most of the heat is transferred by convection rather than radiation. (See Section 13. A light cut contains low boiling components and comes from the upper section of the column. Cladding Coalescer Pad Coke Coking Column Convection Section Conversion Corrosion Cut Cut Point Demetalation TO BE REPRODUCED. One of the products from a distillation column. Deposits of carbon-rich material which slowly accumulate on the catalyst from undesirable side reactions and reduce its activity. The boiling point corresponding to the intersection of the cumulative composite assay curve drawn between two adjacent cuts and a vertical line connecting the start and end points of the two cuts. A tall vertical vessel containing trays or packing used for distillation or absorption. A thin.) An undesirable reaction between the metal of a vessel wall or pipe and certain chemicals which gradually "eats" away enough metal to require replacement.0 for illustration.0-9 14.) The process by which metal-bearing molecules react with hydrogen to form metal sulfides which deposit on the catalyst surface. ONLY IN ACCORDANCE WITH WRITTEN PERMISSION OF CHEVRON RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL PROPERTY OF CHEVRON RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY COMPANY Revision 0 29 Sep 95 . AND USED. The amount of feed material which becomes light products in the reactor.Technical Terms Circulating Reflux A stream which is drawn from the side of a distillation column.3 .

Technical Terms Demister Pad A fine steel mesh pad placed at the top of a vessel just below the vapor outlet to coalesce and remove tiny liquid droplets or mist entrained in the rising vapor. A molecule (CH3SSCH3) used to sulfide fresh catalyst.14. Used for positive isolation of two systems. Desulfurization Dew Point Diesel The process by which sulfur is removed from hydrocarbon compounds by reaction with hydrogen to form hydrogen sulfide. Used to give positive isolation between two systems. The exit or high pressure end of a pump or compressor. Dimethyl Disulfide Discharge Distillation Double Blocks and Bleeder leak Draft Dropout Spool Effluent Embrittlement TO BE REPRODUCED.3 . A measure of furnace firebox gauge pressure usually measured in inches of water. The aging process of reactor metal. A typical draft is 13 mm of water at the burners of a fired heater. A cut which generally boils between about 150°C (302°F) and 370°C (700°F). The stream leaving the bottom of the reactor. The third valve is usually kept open to detect if there is a through either of the two main valves. in which prolonged exposure to high temperatures causes the metal to deteriorate slightly and become brittle. Two consecutive block valves. which means that the pressure inside the firebox near the burners is 13 mm of water less than atmospheric. DenitrificationThe process by which nitrogen is removed from hydrocarbon compounds by reaction with hydrogen to form ammonia. The temperature at which a mixture of vapor molecules first forms a drop of liquid when it is cooled. AND USED. truck. The process of separating a mixture of molecules into two or more boiling ranges by contacting upflowing vapor with downflowing liquid. separated by a short length of pipe with a third block valve off a tee. used to power automobile. Also known as a removable spool (RS). or marine engines. ONLY IN ACCORDANCE WITH WRITTEN PERMISSION OF CHEVRON RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL PROPERTY OF CHEVRON RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY COMPANY Revision 0 29 Sep 95 . A short length of pipe with flanges at both ends to permit easy removal.0-10 14. particularly weld metal. Higher draft means lower pressure (higher gauge reading).

Air which enters a furnace over and above the amount theoretically required for complete. In a chemical system. so the concentrations of reacting substances remains constant. stoichiometric combustion of the furnace fuel. The rate at which catalyst temperature must be increased with time to hold the target product level constant. The lowest temperature at which an oil gives off enough vapor to make a small flash when a flame is passed over it. the state of affairs in which a chemical reaction and its reverse reaction are taking place at equal velocities.14.Technical Terms Endothermic Reaction End Point Entrainment Equilibrium A chemical reaction which absorbs heat. The section of a distillation column where the feed enters and flashes into separate vapor and liquid streams. ONLY IN ACCORDANCE WITH WRITTEN PERMISSION OF CHEVRON RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL PROPERTY OF CHEVRON RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY COMPANY Revision 0 29 Sep 95 .0-11 14. Excess Air Exothermic Reaction Firebox Flash Point Flash Zone Flooding Flue Gas Fouling Rate Fractionator TO BE REPRODUCED. The lowest temperature at which the vapor of an oil can ignite. The last and highest temperature reported in an assay which indicates the boiling point of the molecules boiling when the assay was stopped. Catalyst temperature is increased to offset loss of activity due to coking and metals deposition on the catalyst. A chemical reaction which gives off heat. The gas stream containing fired heater combustion products which flows through the convection section and up the stack. The section of a fired heater where the burners are located and where heat is transferred to the tubes by radiation. The physical phenomenon of a mist or fog of liquid droplets being transported in a vapor stream. A name used for a distillation column which makes three or more cuts. AND USED.3 . A condition in a distillation column where the liquid and vapor rates are so high that either massive amounts of liquid are carried upward with the vapor (vapor rate is too high) or liquid backs up in the downcomers and spills out on the trays above. The radiant section.

Significant valve trim erosion can occur if a gate valve is used to regulate flow. molecules which contain only trace levels of sulfur. It is normally used to make gasoline. Catalyst in hot spot areas is deactivated much more rapidly than under design operating conditions. A class of molecules which contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms. the oil is reacted under more severe conditions and overcracking and coking can result. It causes a substantial pressure drop. A valve designed to be either fully open or fully closed. A valve designed to regulate the flow rate of a stream. The hydrocracker heavy naphtha cut generally boils between 110°C (230°F) and 121°C (250°F). often after being processed in a catalytic reformer.Technical Terms Freeze Point Fresh Catalyst Fresh Feed Gate Valve The temperature at which the first wax crystals become visible when a light oil (usually jet or naphtha) is chilled. In the open position. Feed which has not yet passed through the reactor. Maximum naphtha recovery increases the boiling end point to 165°C (330°F). nitrogen. Catalyst which has not yet been deactivated by coke or catalyst poisons. The product from a hydrocracker. the valve will cause essentially no pressure drop. AND USED. Areas of a catalyst bed in which large amounts of heat are released due to maldistribution of liquid and vapor feed across the bed. In practice. ONLY IN ACCORDANCE WITH WRITTEN PERMISSION OF CHEVRON RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL PROPERTY OF CHEVRON RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY COMPANY Revision 0 29 Sep 95 . or metals are also called hydrocarbons. In areas of low flow. The process of adding hydrogen to a compound either to saturate it or to separate it into two or more compounds.14. Crude oil and its refined products are hydrocarbons. Defined by Chevron Research and Technology Company as the partial Globe Valve Heavy Ends Heavy Naphtha Hot Spots Hydrocarbon Hydrocrackate Hydrocracking Hydrogenation Hydrogen Partial TO BE REPRODUCED.0-12 14. even in the open position.3 . The highest boiling molecules in a mixture. The high boiling molecules of the naphtha cut. A process in which large molecules are cracked into smaller ones accompanied by a large consumption of hydrogen such that the products are richer in hydrogen than the feed.

Live Catalyst Manufactured Hydrogen Any sulfided catalyst which has been in hydrocarbon service. Within this manual it is synonymous with ATF. The trade name of the hydrocracking process licensed by Chevron Research and Technology Company. The reaction products are hydrogen and carbon oxides. demetalized. Water injected into the effluent vapor air cooler to dissolve ammonium salts from the effluent. A molecule (H2S) which is formed by reaction of hydrogen with organic sulfur molecules in the feed.3 . The top of the water layer and the bottom of the oil layer in a separator. Typically butane and lighter molecules. The ratio of isoparaffins (branched chain) to normal paraffins (straight chain). it is synonymous with ATF. High purity hydrogen (95-100%) produced by reacting hydrocarbons with steam in a hydrogen plant. denitrified. ONLY IN ACCORDANCE WITH WRITTEN PERMISSION OF CHEVRON RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY COMPANY Revision 0 29 Sep 95 . CONFIDENTIAL PROPERTY OF CHEVRON RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY COMPANY TO BE REPRODUCED.14. A highly toxic gas. The hydrocracker light naphtha cut generally boils between 30°C (90°F) and 110°C (230°F) (C5-110°C cut). The viscosity in cP divided by the density in g/cc equals the kinematic viscosity in centistokes (cSt). The lowest boiling molecules in a hydrocarbon mixture. Often used interchangeably with kerosene. Within this manual. The viscosity of a fluid divided by its density. AND USED. and mildly cracked in the presence of excess hydrogen and a catalyst. saturated. A process in which oil feed is desulfurized.Technical Terms Pressure pressure of hydrogen in the reactor assuming all the components of the oil feed are vaporized. High pressure gas (mostly hydrogen) lost from the high pressure section through loose connections or through the recycle gas compressor seals. Hydrogen Sulfide Hydrotreating Injection Water Interface Level Isocracking Iso/Normal Ratio Jet Kerosene Kinematic Viscosity Leaks Light Ends Light NaphthaThe lightest boiling molecules of the naphtha cut. Usually expressed as the arithmetic mean of inlet and outlet hydrogen partial pressures.0-13 14.

3 . A term numerically indicating the relative antiknock value of a gasoline. ONLY IN ACCORDANCE WITH WRITTEN PERMISSION OF CHEVRON RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL PROPERTY OF CHEVRON RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY COMPANY . Usually a rare metal. The situation is “off control” when the control valve goes fully open or fully closed. Straight. These compounds typically have a noxious odor. The chemical structure of a mercaptan contains a sulfur atom bonded to one carbon atom and one hydrogen atom. A situation in which a controller is modulating a control valve stem position to match a process variable with the desired set point. Revision 0 29 Sep 95 Metal Carbonyls Millimeters of Mercury Naphtha Naphthenes Nickel Carbonyl Noble Metal Octane Number Olefins On Control Orbit Valve Overflash Overflash Liquid TO BE REPRODUCED. Thiols are a class of hydrocarbon molecules containing sulfur. A unit of pressure used to define absolute pressures below 1 atmosphere.14. CO must be purged to below 30 ppm in the recycle gas before cooling the reactor below 205°C (400°F). (See Section 9. If a reactor is to be opened following a shutdown. palladium (Pd).or branched-chain hydrocarbon compounds which contain one or more unsaturated bonds. The liquid passing through the flash zone from the tray above. A class of molecules which contain one or more saturated rings but no unsaturated rings. Highly poisonous compounds which are produced by reaction between catalyst metals and carbon monoxide in the recycle gas. sometimes used in catalysts.) A precious metal. A cut which generally boils between 30°C (90°F) and about 170°C (338°F) and is used to make gasoline. Carbonyls form at temperatures less than 205°C (400°F). and gold (Au). A measure of the extent of overvaporization of the fractionator feed as it enters the flash zone.0. A special valve which gives exceptionally tight shutoff. Typical noble metals are platinum (Pt). 760 mm of mercury represents a pressure equal to 1 atmosphere.Technical Terms Mercaptans Mercaptans is a common name for Thiols. AND USED. Skunk scent is butyl mercaptan.0-14 14. A metal carbonyl [Ni(CO)4] which is one of the most toxic substances known to man.

The spread between two assay temperatures of two adjacent cuts. Straight.or branched-chain hydrocarbon compounds with no unsaturated bonds or rings.0. Solutions with pH below seven are ten times more acidic for each lower pH number. Example: A solution with a pH of 9. The lowest temperature at which an oil will flow.0.3 . (a) A specially formed metal ring (Pall ring) or other shaped objects used to promote effective contact between liquid and vapor in a column. Oxidation pH Packing Paraffins Partial Pressure Polysulfide Pour Point Precious Metals Pumparound Purge Steam Pyrophoric Quench Gas TO BE REPRODUCED. (b) A device used to seal the shafts of valves and pumps.14. The phase during catalyst regeneration in which coke and sulfur are oxidized (burned off) by reaction with oxygen.) See ammonium or sodium polysulfide. The most common spread is the difference between the ASTM D 86 95% point of the lighter cut and the ASTM D 86 5% point of the heavier cut. (a) (Distillation) . (See Section 13. iron sulfide) capable of spontaneous ignition when exposed to the air. A word used to describe a solid material (for example. ONLY IN ACCORDANCE WITH WRITTEN PERMISSION OF CHEVRON RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL PROPERTY OF CHEVRON RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY COMPANY Revision 0 29 Sep 95 . (b) (Feed) .0. The portion of recycle gas which is injected between catalyst beds to control the temperature of the reactants. The proportionate share of the total vapor pressure attributed to a given molecular compound in a mixture of compounds.0-15 14. Neutral water has a pH of 7. AND USED. Solutions with pH above seven are ten times more basic for each higher pH number. See Noble Metal. Within this manual. A scale for describing how acidic or basic a solution is. Steam that is injected into a firebox to prevent the possibility of an uncontrolled fire.Technical Terms Overhead Overlap The vapor stream leaving the top of a column. it is synonymous with circulating reflux.0 is 100 times more basic than a solution with a pH of 7.The volume percent of feed that boils less than T*.

0-16 14. A fired heater or heat exchanger which partially vaporizes some of the column bottoms to generate vapor for stripping. A compound (Na2Sx) which is injected into the effluent vapor air cooler to eliminate cyanide-induced corrosion and to harden iron sulfide scale to limit erosion. A graph showing the CAT as a function of days onstream. See oxidation and reduction. The portion of the recycle compressor discharge which is not used as quench gas.14. A portion of fractionator bottoms containing second-stage fresh feed and recycle feed returned to the second-stage reactor as feed. The temperature of the outside of a fired heater tube wall or reactor wall. A liquid product drawn from the side of a distillation column. The portion of the condensed overhead vapor which is returned to the top tray of the column. A hydrocarbon compound in which all carbon atoms are connected by single bonds. ONLY IN ACCORDANCE WITH WRITTEN PERMISSION OF CHEVRON RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL PROPERTY OF CHEVRON RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY COMPANY Revision 0 29 Sep 95 . A phase during catalyst regeneration in which metal sulfates formed during the oxidation phase are partially reduced by controlled reaction with hydrogen to prevent temperature runaway during subsequent catalyst sulfiding. Reboiler Recycle Feed Recycle Gas Reduction Reflux Regeneration Run Plot Saturated Sidecut Skin Temperature Smoke Point Sodium Polysulfide TO BE REPRODUCED. A test used to indicate the tendency of a jet fuel to smoke upon combustion. Products are used as recycle feed during startup and sometimes during emergency situations.Technical Terms Quench Solution Radiant Section A solution used during regeneration to cool the acid gases through their dew point and neutralize them before any severe corrosion occurs. AND USED. The section of a fired heater contained in the firebox in which most of the heat is transferred by direct radiation from the flames rather than by convection.3 . The process of restoring the activity of the catalyst.

the total mass flowing into a system is equal to the total moss flowing out of the system. The specific gravity of a gas is the ratio of its density to the density of air at the same temperature and pressure as those of the gas. An element contained in some of the feed molecules which gets converted to hydrogen sulfide in the reactor.Technical Terms Sour Specific Gravity A term used to characterize any stream containing H2S or sulfur or any equipment processing such a stream. A valve which functions as a check valve when the handwheel is unscrewed and as a closed block valve when the handwheel is screwed down. Spent CatalystCatalyst which has lost its activity and which will be discarded or regenerated. Spillback A stream which "spills back" from compressor (or pump) discharge to suction to ensure that the compressor (or pump) operates above a minimum flow rate. The entrance or low pressure end of a pump or compressor. ONLY IN ACCORDANCE WITH WRITTEN PERMISSION OF CHEVRON RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY COMPANY Revision 0 29 Sep 95 .3 . AND USED. and the temperature of the system is constant). CONFIDENTIAL PROPERTY OF CHEVRON RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY COMPANY Stabilization Steady State Stop-Check Valve Straight-Run (Oil) Stripper Suction Sulfiding Sulfur Surge TO BE REPRODUCED. (a) A condition of highly unstable operation of a centrifugal compressor due to low flow.14. A product from crude distillation. An oil stream which has not undergone any cracking or other chemical modification. A process in which the highly active metals deposited on a base metal catalyst are converted from oxides to metal sulfides. more stable hydrotreating reactions. A system is in steady state when there is no accumulation or depletion of heat or mass (i.. The process which strips light hydrocarbons from a product stream to meet storage requirements.e. A small distillation column which is used to remove the light ends from a cut by reboiling or steam stripping. (b) A volume in the bottom of a vessel used to hold liquid.0-17 14. which promotes smoother. The specific gravity of a liquid or solid is the ratio of its density to the density of water at a specified reference temperature.

The curve is usually represented by a series of temperatures. This can only happen if the reaction is exothermic. AND USED. ONLY IN ACCORDANCE WITH WRITTEN PERMISSION OF CHEVRON RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY COMPANY Revision 0 29 Sep 95 . A procedure during startup of a reactor in which ammonia or other basic compounds are adsorbed onto the catalyst surface to improve performance.Technical Terms Sweet Tail A stream containing no hydrogen sulfide or sulfur. A characteristic distillation curve for an oil which relates the volume fraction in which a component vaporizes to its atmospheric boiling point. Naphtha which has a high content of butane and other light gases (hydrocarbons and H2S) such that its RVP is too high to permit safe storage. CONFIDENTIAL PROPERTY OF CHEVRON RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY COMPANY Temperature Excursion Temperature Runaway Thermal Shock Thermosiphon Reboiler Titration True Boiling Point Curve (TBP Curve) Turnaround Unstabilized Naphtha Valve Tray Vapor Pressure TO BE REPRODUCED.3 . leads to a higher temperature and so on. A condition in which a high temperature leads to a high reaction rate which. tn. A reboiler in which the process fluid moves due to the density difference of the inlet and outlet fluid caused by partial vaporization. A period of downtime used for general maintenance or catalyst handling operations. When the temperature gets high enough that the vapor pressure equals the system pressure.14. The pressure exerted by a liquid in a closed system. The difference between the end point of a cut and the nominal final cut point or the difference between the start point of a cut and the nominal initial cut point. The vapor pressure increases with increasing temperature. where t is the atmospheric distillation temperature at n LV % distilled. A rapidly accelerating temperature excursion. that temperature is called the bubble point and the liquid begins to boil. in turn. A type of tray used in a distillation column which has many small caps which slide up and down in holes through the tray. Structural damage produced in metal equipment (such as reactors) by heating or cooling the equipment too quickly.0-18 14. This gives a higher turndown ratio than the more common sieve tray.

Weeping Yield TO BE REPRODUCED.3 . A condition in a distillation column where the tray pressure drop is so low (from low vapor rate) that some of the liquid flows through the holes in the tray instead of flowing over the outlet weir into the downcomer. it is synonymous with injection water. the centipoise (cP). A more convenient unit is 1/100th of a Poise. Water injected into the effluent air cooler to "wash out" ammonia and hydrogen sulfide. ONLY IN ACCORDANCE WITH WRITTEN PERMISSION OF CHEVRON RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL PROPERTY OF CHEVRON RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY COMPANY Revision 0 29 Sep 95 . Water has a viscosity of 1 cP at 20°C.14.Technical Terms Viscosity Wash Water The resistance of a fluid to flow. The unit of viscosity is the Poise. AND USED. Within this manual.0-19 14. The percentage of a given product formed in the reactor relative to the fresh feed.

Chemical Symbols 14. AND USED. ONLY IN ACCORDANCE WITH WRITTEN PERMISSION OF CHEVRON RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY COMPANY Revision 0 29 Sep 95 .0-20 14.4 .14.4 Chemical Symbols The following standard chemical symbols are used in this manual: Ca CH3SSCH3 Co CO CO2 Cr Fe Hg H2 H2O H2S Mg Mo Na Na2Sx NH3 NH4Cl NH4HS NH4OH NH4Sx Ni Calcium Dimethyl Disulfide (DMDS) Cobalt Carbon Monoxide Carbon Dioxide Chromium Iron Mercury Hydrogen Water Hydrogen Sulfide Magnesium Molybdenum Sodium Sodium Polysulfide Ammonia Ammonium Chloride Ammonium Bisulfide Ammonium Hydroxide Ammonium Polysulfide Nickel CONFIDENTIAL PROPERTY OF CHEVRON RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY COMPANY TO BE REPRODUCED.

Chemical Symbols Ni(CO)4 N2 O2 TBA V W Nickel Carbonyl Nitrogen Oxygen Tri-n-butylamine Vanadium Tungsten TO BE REPRODUCED. AND USED.4 .0-21 14. ONLY IN ACCORDANCE WITH WRITTEN PERMISSION OF CHEVRON RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL PROPERTY OF CHEVRON RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY COMPANY Revision 0 29 Sep 95 .14.

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