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TCP/JAM/3203 PROMOTING RAINWATER HARVESTING AND SMALL SCALE IRRIGATION IN SOUTH SAINT ELIZABETH FAO AND NATIONAL IRRIGATION COMMISSION LIMITED FERNANDO CHANDUVI KINGSTON JAMAICA MARCH 2011

ACKNOWKEDGEMENT IS GIVEN TO MR. ASHER AZENKOT (CARDI) M.Sc. OF THE MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE, EXTENSION SERVICE,

## WATER FLOW IN PIPES

SAMPLE CALCULATIONS

a. Convert m3/h to cm3/sec, 27,780 cm3/sec b. Cross section of pipe, 314.2 cm2 c. Water flow velocity, 88.8 cm/sec

S A M P L E
C A L C U L A T I O N S

SAMPLE CALCULATIONS

## ANSWER: Q = 67.8 m3/h and V = 9.6 m/sec

SAMPLE CALCULATIONS

HYDROSTATIC

HYDROSTATIC

HYDROSTATIC

HYDROSTATIC

HYDROSTATIC

HYDROSTATIC

http://udel.edu/~inamdar/EGTE215/Hydrostatics.pdf

WE KNOW THAT 1 ATMOSPHERE = 0.76 m OF MERCURY COLUMN SPECIFIC WEIGHT OF WATER = 1 kg/dm3

## SPECIFIC WEIGHT OF MERCURY= 13.6 kg/dm3 THEREFORE:

1 ATMOSPHERE = 10.33 meters of water column.

## C COEFFICIENTS FOR PIPES

S A M P L E
C A L C U L A T I O N S

## HEAD LOSSES IN PLASTIC PIPES

http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/hazen-williams-water-d_797.html

http://www.piping-toolbox.com/pvc-pipes-friction-loss-d_802.html http://www.lmnoeng.com/hazenwilliams.htm

## TOTAL HEAD LOSS = 22 meters

2,155 feet

Visit also FLOW CONVERTER in the WEB Difference in elevation: 125-94 = 31 meters = 89 feet Head loss= 16.2 feet = 5.62 m (from Engineering Toolbox) Required pressure at head of field = 4 atm = 41.32 m = 118.7 feet TOTAL HEAD REQUIRED AT PUMP = 89 ft + 16.2 ft + 118.7 ft TOTAL HEAD REQUIRED AT PUMP = 223.9 ft = 77.91 m = 7.5 atm

## HEAD LOSS IN PIPES AND FITTINGS

LATERAL LINES

REDUCTION COEFFICIENTS

FLOWS IN LATERAL

## HEAD LOSS ALONG A LATERAL PIPE

EXAMPLE PROBLEM
Example:

A flat field, 360 x 360 m, is irrigated with a hand moved aluminum lateral pipe (C = 140). The water source to the lateral pipe is from a sub main, which crosses the center of the field. The selected sprinklers are Naan 233/92 with a nozzle of 4.5 mm, 25 m pressure of (hs) and flow rate (qs ) of 1.44 m3/hr. The space between the sprinklers is 12 meters apart, and the location of the first sprinkler is 6 meters away from lateral inlet. The riser height is 0.8 meter and the diameter is 3/4".

EXAMPLE PROBLEM
360 m

Lateral line

360 m

EXAMPLE PROBLEM

EXAMPLE PROBLEM

EXAMPLE PROBLEM

EXAMPLE PROBLEM

EXAMPLE PROBLEM