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INTRODUCTION Petrol engine is an engine that uses petrol as a fuel.

Inside the engine, the combustion (burning) of fuel mixed with air produces hot gases that expand against parts of the engine and cause them to move. For this reason, petrol engines are called internal-combustion engines. The motion inside the engine is transferred outside it to turn wheels and propellers or to operate machines. In this way, a petrol engine turns heat energy into mechanical work. The rate at which a petrol engine produces work is usually measured in horsepower or watts . Petrol engines are compact and light in weight for the power they produce. This makes them one of the most important types of engines for vehicles. Nearly all cars, lawn mowers, motorcycles, motor scooters, snowmobiles, and small tractors have petrol engines. So do many trucks, buses, aeroplanes, and small boats. Petrol engines may also be used as portable power plants--for example, to supply the power to run pumps and other machinery on farms. There are two main types of petrol engines, reciprocating engines and rotary engines. Reciprocating engines have pistons that move up and down or back and forth. A part called a crankshaft changes this reciprocating motion into rotary motion. A rotary engine, also known as a Wankel engine, uses devices called rotors instead of pistons. The rotors produce rotary motion directly. This article discusses reciprocating engines, the more common type. Reciprocating petrol engines are classified in a number of ways. These include : (1) number of piston strokes per cycle, (2) type of compression, (3) by the way they are cooled, (4) valve arrangement, (5) cylinder arrangement, and (6) way they are supplied with air and fuel. Most reciprocating petrol engines operate on either a two-stroke or a four-stroke cycle. Cycle means the steps that must be repeated for each combustion of the fuel-air mixture in the cylinders. Stroke means the up-and-down or back-and-forth movements of the pistons. A fourstroke cycle engine has intake, compression, power, and exhaust strokes. A two-stroke cycle engine combines the exhaust and intake steps near the end of the power stroke. Although twostroke cycle engines are less fuel-efficient than four-stroke cycle engines, they are simpler and cheaper to build.

A two-stroke cycle engine is used where low cost is important, as in a power lawn mower. It delivers more power for a given weight and size than does a four-stroke cycle engine. Each cylinder in a two-stroke cycle engine produces a power stroke for every turn of the crankshaft. But in a four-stroke cycle engine, a cylinder produces a power stroke on every other turn.

OBJECTIVE Engine oil can generally be divided into three categories: Minerals (SAE 20W-50), Semi Synthetic (SAE 10W-40) and Fully Synthetic (SAE 5W-30). To change the engine oil of a vehicle we must first identify the appropriate type of oil to use, especially at the suggestion or Spec of the vehicle manufacturer. This is because it may affect the performance of the engine during operation if using oils that are not suitable. Why do we need to change the engine oil filter with 5,000 KM per trip for a car? Engine oil viscosity grades respectively according to which this task is as lubricating oil for the moving parts in an engine such as pistons, crankshaft, connecting rod, camshaft and others. When the engine is the engine oil will also flow as lubrication between the internal components of the engine. The longer the engine rotates or moves away car then the engine oil viscosity decreases. This is because the lubrication oil flow between components and heat condition, in other words it burn and transform the viscous nature of the oil less viscous and also change color from yellow to black. If the engine oil is directly used without new replaced after 5,000 KM then the car trip to the oil viscosity decreases and the longer it gets no direct viscous. If oil is no longer sticky then it can cause damage to engine components such as severe wear occurs and the engine quickly became hot during operation. The most significant component wear is damage to piston ring wear, impact engine produce a lot of white smoke and engine oil less quickly because the engine oil up through the rings are worn into the engine combustion chamber, and it was burnt during the power stroke and exhaust fumes out also to be white clouds and smell the oil burning engine. Therefore, take care of our car well and change the engine oil and filter according to the period allowed so that life expectancy is more durable cars.

TOOL EQUIMENT 1.Ring spanner Function: Used to tighten and loosen nuts and bolts.

2.Jack stand
Function:Jack is a tool to increase employment connoisseur facilitate repair work on the bottom

of the vehicle.

3.Floor jack Function:A jack is a tool used to lift heavy objects

PROCEDURE

The steps to change the car lubricants. In doing auto lube oil change, you must have some knowledge in this work. If you do no such knowledge, then here are a few tips or steps to change the car lubricants.

requirements:

Ingredients: 1) Engine Lubricants 2) Lube Oil Filter (Oil Filter) 3) Drain Plug Washier STEP 1.make sure the car and the gear is in neutral 2. Jack the vehicle using a hydraulic jack / floor jack under the appropriate height

3. Installing the fulcrum security (Jack Stands)

4.Make sure the stand is placed in the correct position and flat on the bottom floor of the vehicle so that the vehicle is not dented 5. Open screw lubricant waste (drain plug) on the engine oil reservoir (Oil Sump) using a ring spanner . Earlier waste oil collected using a container and make sure not to spill. Open the cover of the refueling area for air flow so that the oil flows out smoothly.

r 6. Opening the lubricating oil filter (Oil Filter). Special spanner is required to open the oil filter (Oil filter wrench) 7) Install the drain plug and oil filter (new) 8) jack the vehicle and remove the prop box, then lower the vehicle.

9) Install the new oil in the lubricating oil filling. Grade of engine oil used should be appropriate engine.

10. Measure the quantity of lubricant is inserted through the measuring lubricant (oil dipstick)Make sure the oil is at the full level on the dipstick benchmark.

10) Start the vehicle engine and see a leak at the drain plug and oil filter, if any.

REFERENCES 1.library.thinkquest.org/C007574/data/petrol/htm 2.id.promob.net/ jacking.hidrolika.jackscrew.250650.html 3. http://www.radioinformasi.com/2012/10/11/diy-cara-menukar-minyak-enjin-minyak-hitam/


4. http://bengkelautoz.blogspot.com/2013/01/langkah-langkah-menukar-minyak-pelincir.html

5. http://bengkelautomotif.blogspot.com/2009/11/kenapa-perlu-servis-minyak-enjin.html
6.http://minyakenjin.blogspot.com/

DATA/RESULT

Once created vehicles.When lube oil change the car, the better the condition of the vehicle before ini.engine also be quiet and do not produce a lot of noise and unpleasant ..

When tested, the system becomes more smooth gear change .Pickup increasing vehicle. motorists vehicle testers also found the car feels light and easy to handle

DISCUSSION STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM You have to add to the lubricating oil in the engine after the engine is hot and after seeing the oil level on the 'dipstick' that is not right, or you fill lubricants exceed the level needed when you change the black oil. What are the bad things that happen? The problem is when you start the engine then, 'windage' on 'crankcase' and other pressures resulting from the operation of the engine oil, etc.. Subsequently, not much later, protector 'bearing' would break the back of the key and the engine will leak. If you use a manual gearbox, this means that leaking oil will hit the flywheel and clutch disc surface. The oily clutch take on the situation is not good. If you have not noticed this leak, it will in turn affect the protective 'bearing' main front section, and the engine will splash more oil (or it will start to spill oil on each route). Roughly from the oil leak it can cause damage to the engine overall including brake discs. At the same time it also can worsen the condition of the engine. As we can see in the picture, the exact oil level is close to 'Crank' / crank that rotates. When the oil is supposed to be above the 'Crank' will sink into oil and produce foam. Foam is indispensable in every delicious coffee: P but it is not good for the engine. mixing give oil with air pressure to 'bearing' and to air your knowledge is not a lubricant. Basically a 'bearing' will continuously damaged even more so when you are driving on the road. You will know 'bearing' your engine breaks down when the situation really happened to you. Your engine will smell like burning oil and engine noise will be heard. In more severe situations that engine oil can enter the combustion chamber of gasoline and affect engine performance and condition of the combustion of gasoline. MEASURES TO OVERCOME THE PROBLEM If your vehicle's engine cold (eg after overnight in the garage) you can continue to check your engine oil level. Lubricating oil has been drained completely to the bottom. Just make sure the flat position of the vehicle. If the engine is still hot (after being driven) then you pelula wait about 30 minutes so that most of the oil to flow right down. BUT there are some vehicles (such as is recommended by the vehicle manufacturer in the manual) should be checked when the engine is running or at a certain temperature as Porcshe '92 Carrera. OBSERVATION after completion of an oil change and lube oil filter, and measure the level found in the lubricating oil filter betul.oil measure also filled in the quantities specified volume

CONCLUSION

Selection of quality lubricants is very important and even more important if more extreme use and driving. Normal quality oil consumption is also high risk if care is not taken the service seriously.

Among the risk is small when these channels are blocked or become narrow due to the formation of sludge (black dirt) in it.

BIL 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVE TOOL EQUIMENT PROCEDURE DATA/RESULT DISSCUSSION CONCLUSION REFERENCES

PAGES

JA101 AUTOWORKSHOP MINOS SERVICE

NAME MATRIX NUMBER PROGRAME LECTURE NAME DATE

MUHAMMAD NORIKHWAN B HALIM DAD13F1050 MEKANIKAL AUTOMOTIF WAN HUSNI ZAIM B WAN MUHAMMAD