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I. Identify and describe: 1.

Federalism- A way of organizing a nation so that two levels of government have formal authority over the same land and people. It is a system of shared power between units of government. 2. unitary governments- A way of organizing a nation so that all power resides in the central government. Most national governments today, including those of Great Britain and Japan, are unitary governments. 3. intergovernmental relations- The workings of the federal system, the entire set of interactions among national, state, and local governments. 4. supremacy clause- Article VI of the Constitution, which makes the Constitution, national laws, and treaties supreme over state laws when the national government is acting within its constitutional limits. 5. 10 th Amendment- The constitutional amendment stating that the powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people. 6. McCulloch v. Maryland- An 1819 Supreme Court decision that established the supremacy of the national government over state governments. In deciding the case, Chief Justice John Marshall and his colleagues held that Congress had certain implied powers in addition to the enumerated powers found in the constitution. 7. enumerated powers- Powers of the federal government that are specifically addressed in the Constitution; for Congress, these powers are listed in Article 1, section 8, and include the power to coin money, regulate its value, and impose taxes. 8. implied powers- Powers of the federal government that go beyond those enumerated in the Constitution. The constitution states that Congress has the power to make all laws necessary and proper for carrying into execution the powers enumerated in Article 1. Many federal policies are justified on the basis of implied powers. 9. elastic clause- The final paragraph of Article I, section 8, of the Constitution, which authorizes Congress to pass all laws necessary and proper to carry out the enumerated powers. 10. Gibbons v. Ogden- A landmark case decided in 1824 in which the Supreme Court interpreted very broadly the clause in Article I, section 8 of the Constitution giving Congress the power to regulate interstate commerce, encompassing virtually every form of commercial activity. The commerce clause has been the constitutional basis for much of Congress regulation of the economy. 11. full faith and credit- A clause in Article IV, section 1, of the Constitution requiring each state to recognize the official documents and civil judgments rendered by the courts of other states. 12. extradition- A legal process whereby an alleged criminal offender is surrendered by the officials of one state to officials of the state in which the crime is alleged to have been committed. 13. privileges and immunities- A clause in Article IV, Section 2 of the Constitution according citizens of each state most of the privileges of citizens of other states. 14. dual federalism- A system of government in which both the states and the national government remain supreme within their own spheres, each responsible for some policies. 15. cooperative federalism- A system of government in which powers and policy assignments are shared between states and the national government. They may also share costs, administration, and even blame for programs that work poorly. 16. fiscal federalism- The pattern of spending, taxing, and providing grants in the federal system; it is the cornerstone of the national governments relations with state and local governments.

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categorical grants- Federal grants that can be used only for specific purposes or categories of state and local spending. They come with strings attached, such as nondiscrimination provisions. project grants- Fedearl grants given for specific purposes and awarded on the basis of the merits of applications. A type of the categorical grants available to states and localities. formula grants- Federal categorical grants distributed according to a formula specified in legislation or in administrative regulations. block grants- Federal grants given more or less automatically to states or communities to support broad programs in areas such as community development and social services.

II. Compare and contrast: 1. federalism and unitary government While both federalism and unitary government are ways of organizing nations, federalism has the powers shared between two levels of government whereas unitary governments have all the power in the central government. 2. intergovernmental relations and fiscal federalism While both intergovernmental relations and fiscal federalism deal with interactions among national, state and local governments, fiscal federalism exclusively deals with spending, taxing, and providing grants unlike intergovernmental relations which covers all relations between the national and state/local governments. 3. supremacy clause and 10 th Amendment- While both the supremacy clause and the 10th amendment are part of the description of states rights given in Constitution, the supremacy clause says that national laws will be supreme over state laws when the government is acting within constitutional limits whereas the 10th amendment gives the states power by giving all powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution to the states. 4. enumerated powers and implied powers- While both enumerated and implied powers deal with the power of the federal government, enumerated powers are powers of the federal government that are specifically addressed in the constitution whereas implied powers are not specifically addressed. 5. McCulloch v. Maryland and Gibbons v. Ogden- Both McCulloch v Maryland and Gibbons v Ogden were landmark US Supreme Court cases that were decided at the beginning of the new judicial system. Both cases expanded federal government power. McCulloch v Maryland dealt with the supremacy of national government over state government and Gibbons v Ogden dealt with Congress powers over regulating the economy. 6. full faith and credit, extradition, and privileges and immunities- Both full faith and credit, extradition, and privileges and immunities deal with states recognizing the policies of other states. Whereas full faith and credit requires states to recognize the laws of other states, extradition is when the criminal is surrendered to the state where the crime was committed and privileges and immunities is when citizens of one state share most of the privileges of other states. 7. dual federalism and cooperative federalism- Both dual and cooperative federalism are types of federalism. Whereas dual federalism has the federal and state governments supreme in their own spheres, cooperative federalism blurs those lines and has powers shared between states and national government. 8. categorical grants and block grants- Both categorical and block grants are the two major types of federal aid. Whereas categorical grants are for a specific purpose/categories, block grants are normally for broader categories like community development. 9. project grants and formula grants- Both project grants and formula grants are types of categorical grants. Whereas project grants are given based on competitive applications,

formula grants are based on a formula, like demographics.