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# UNIVERSITI TEKNIKAL MALAYSIA MELAKA

## SOLID MECHANICS 2 Thin & Thick Cylinders Analysis

OBJECTIVES OF EXPERIMENTAL WORK 1. To investigate and analyze the stress systems in thin and thick cylinders 2. To compare stress systems or distributions between thin and thick cylinders LEARNING OUTCOMES (N.B Students should not include these as part of their report) At the end of this laboratory session students should be able to 1. apply the thin and thick cylinder formulations to obtain the principle stresses due to internal pressures. 2. determine the magnitude of stresses in thin cylinder under closed and open end conditions. 3. analyze the stress distributions of the thick cylinder with respect to the radial dimension or its wall thickness. 4. understanding of basic laboratory practice, including design of experiments, write a clear and well-presented technical report, data acquisition, interpretation and analysis, and the relationship between experiments and theory.

THEORY The analysis of the stress distribution in a thin or thick walled cylinder is of considerable practical importance in pressure vessels and gun barrels. Strain gauges mounted on various radius and at different alignments throughout the cylinder wall provide the measurement of the strains. Thus stress distribution throughout the wall of a cylinder subjected to an internal pressure could be analyzed. Theory of Thick Cylinder
H r H L R

Figure 1

## Cylinder under Internal

Figure 1 shows a hollow cylinder, which is subjected to a uniformly distributed internal pressure P. The figure details an element of material at some radius r, contained within an elemental cylinder. Due to the design of the SM1011 Thick Cylinder the longitudinal stress L may be ignored (i.e L = 0) and only a bi-axial stress system be considered. Hence the stress formulas are shown below and Figure 2 shows the variations of radial stress R and hoop stress H throughout the cylinder wall. Maximum R occurs at the inner radius (R1) i.e. R = -P (where P = Internal Pressure) Minimum R occurs at the outer radius (R2) i.e. R = 0 Maximum H occurs at the inner radius (R1) i.e. H (1) Minimum H occurs at the outer radius (R2) i.e. H = (2) where K = R2 R1

(K = P (K (K
( 2P )
2

2 2

+ 1) 1)

1)

H 0 -P R

(K

( 2P )
2

(K (K

2 2

+ 1) 1)

1)

Figure 2

## Stressses variation throughout a cylinder thickness

Now for a cylinder under internal pressure P (MPa) and free from axial loading (L = 0), the maximum shear stress will occur at the inner radius. i.e. Maximum shear stress,max= (difference of the two principal stresses). =
R H 2

(3)

Substituting we get:Therefore:

(4) (5)

max

## K=4.054 and therefore max =1.065P.

Note: The theoretical development of thin cylinder theory may be found from any reference books for Mechanics of Solids. Students are required to include this thin cylinder theory as part of their formal report.

## APPARATUS Thin Cylinder Cylinder Hand Wheel

Mechanical Pressure Gauge Pump Socket for Communicatio n Cable Figure 3 Layout of the SM1007 1.

## Diagram, Indicating Gauge Factor

2.

Figure 3 shows the SM1007 Thin Cylinder apparatus. It consists of a thin walled aluminum cylinder of 80 mm inside diameter and 3 mm wall thickness. Operating the hydraulic pump pressurizes the cylinder with oil. The cylinder has six sensors on its surface that measure strain. A mechanical gauge and electronic sensor measure the hydraulic pressure in the cylinder. The cylinder is held in sturdy frame in which it is free to move along its axis. The strain (and thus the stress) can be measured with the cylinder in two configurations: a. Open ends where the axial loads are taken by the frame (not the cylinder), therefore there is no direct axial stress b. Closed ends where the axial loads are taken by the cylinder, therefore there must be direct axial stress 3

The two configurations are achieved using the large hand wheel at the end of the frame. 3. In the open ends condition the hand wheel is screwed fully in. This pushes the two pistons away from the cylinder end caps so that there is no contact between them. Therefore, the axial force is transmitted from the pressurized oil into the frame rather than the cylinder. See Figure 4.

Pistons (touching frame) End cap Oil under pressure Handwheel wound in FrameGap Path of load Figure 4 Open Ends Condition 4.
End cap

Pistons (touching end cap) End cap End cap Oil under pressure

Gap

## Frame Figure 5 Closed Ends Condition

5.

6.

In the closed ends condition the hand wheel is wound out. This allows the pistons to move outward against the cylinder end caps so that there is no contact with the frame. Therefore the axial force is transmitted from the pressurized oil into the cylinder itself. See Figure 5. In relation to stress analysis, cylinders are divided into two groups: thin and thick. The distinction between the two relates to the ratio of internal diameter to wall thickness of a particular cylinder. A cylinder with a diameter to thickness ratio of more than 20 is considered to be thin. A ratio of less than 20 is considered to be thick. This distinction is made as the analysis of a cylinder can be simplified by assuming it is thin. The SM1007 cylinder has a ratio of approximately 27, which is well above the ratio for being considered thin.

PROCEDURES Experiment 1 Thin Cylinder with Open Ends In this experiment we will pressurize the cylinder in the open ends condition taking readings from all six strain gauges, we will then analyze the results in various ways to establish some important relationships. Examine the cylinder and the diagram on the front panel to understand the notation and placement of the strain gauges in relation to the axis of the 4