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Phng trnh bc nht bc hai

Trn S Tng

CHNG III
PHNG TRNH V H PHNG TRNH
I. I CNG V PHNG TRNH
1. Phng trnh mt n f(x) = g(x) (1)
x0 l mt nghim ca (1) nu "f(x0) = g(x0)" l mt mnh ng.
Gii phng trnh l tm tt c cc nghim ca phng trnh .
Khi gii phng trnh ta thng tm iu kin xc nh ca phng trnh.
Ch :
+ Khi tm KX ca phng trnh, ta thng gp cc trng hp sau:
1
Nu trong phng trnh c cha biu thc
th cn iu kin P(x) 0.
P( x )
Nu trong phng trnh c cha biu thc P( x ) th cn iu kin P(x) 0.
+ Cc nghim ca phng trnh f(x) = g(x) l honh cc giao im ca th hai hm
s y = f(x) v y = g(x).
2. Phng trnh tng ng, phng trnh h qu
Cho hai phng trnh f1(x) = g1(x) (1) c tp nghim S1
v f2(x) = g2(x) (2) c tp nghim S2.
(1) (2) khi v ch khi S1 = S2.
(1) (2) khi v ch khi S1 S2.
3. Php bin i tng ng
Nu mt php bin i phng trnh m khng lm thay i iu kin xc nh ca n
th ta c mt phng trnh tng ng. Ta thng s dng cc php bin i sau:
Cng hai v ca phng trnh vi cng mt biu thc.
Nhn hai v ca phng trnh vi mt biu thc c gi tr khc 0.
Khi bnh phng hai v ca mt phng trnh, ni chung ta c mt phng trnh h
qu. Khi ta phi kim tra li loi b nghim ngoi lai.

Tm iu kin xc nh ca mi phng trnh v gii phng trnh :


5
5
1
1
a) 3 x +
= 12 +
b) 5 x +
= 15 +
x-4
x-4
x +3
x +3
1
1
2
2
c) x 2 = 9d) 3 x +
= 15 +
x -1
x -1
x -5
x -5
Bi 2. Tm iu kin xc nh ca mi phng trnh v gii phng trnh :

Bi 1.

a) 1 + 1 - x = x - 2
c)
e)
Bi 3.

a)
c)

b)

x +1 = 2 - x

x +1 = x +1
d) x - 1 = 1 - x
x
3
f) x 2 - 1 - x = x - 2 + 3
=
x -1
x -1
Tm iu kin xc nh ca mi phng trnh v gii phng trnh :
x - 3( x 2 - 3 x + 2) = 0
x
x -2

1
x -2

- x -2

b)
d)

x + 1( x 2 - x - 2) = 0
x2 - 4
x +1

Trang 14

x+3
x +1

+ x +1

Trn S Tng
Bi 4.

a)
c)
Bi 5.

a)
c)

Phng trnh bc nht bc hai

Tm iu kin xc nh ca mi phng trnh v gii phng trnh :


x - 2 = x +1
b) x + 1 = x - 2
2 x -1 = x + 2
d) x - 2 = 2 x - 1
Tm iu kin xc nh ca mi phng trnh v gii phng trnh :
x
x
x -2
x -2
b)
=
=
x -1
x -1
x -1
x -1
x
x
x -1
1- x
d)
=
=
2- x
2-x
x -2
x -2

Bi 6.

a)

II. PHNG TRNH ax + b = 0


ax + b = 0
H s

(1) c nghim duy nht x = -

a0
a=0

(1)
Kt lun

b0
b=0

b
a

(1) v nghim
(1) nghim ng vi mi x

Ch : Khi a 0 th (1) gl phng trnh bc nht mt n.


Bi 1. Gii v bin lun cc phng trnh sau theo tham s m:

a) (m 2 + 2) x - 2 m = x - 3

b) m( x - m ) = x + m - 2

b) m( x - m + 3) = m( x - 2) + 6

d) m2 ( x - 1) + m = x (3m - 2)

e) (m 2 - m ) x = 2 x + m 2 - 1
f) (m + 1)2 x = (2 m + 5) x + 2 + m
Bi 2. Gii v bin lun cc phng trnh sau theo cc tham s a, b, c:
x-a
x-b
a)
-b =
- a (a, b 0)
b) (ab + 2) x + a = 2b + (b + 2a) x
a
b
x + ab x + bc x + b2
c)
+
+
= 3b (a, b, c -1)
a +1
c +1
b +1
x -b-c x-c-a x -a-b
d)
+
+
= 3 (a, b, c 0)
a
b
c
Bi 3. Trong cc phng trnh sau, tm gi tr ca tham s phng trnh:
i) C nghim duy nht
ii) V nghim
iii) Nghim ng vi mi x R.
a) (m - 2) x = n - 1

b) (m 2 + 2 m - 3) x = m - 1

c) (mx + 2)( x + 1) = (mx + m 2 ) x

d) (m 2 - m ) x = 2 x + m 2 - 1

Bi 4.

a)
Trang 15

Phng trnh bc nht bc hai

Trn S Tng

III. PHNG TRNH BC HAI ax2 + bx + c = 0 (a 0)


1. Cch gii
ax2 + bx + c = 0

D = b2 - 4 ac

(a 0)
(1)
Kt lun

D>0

(1) c 2 nghim phn bit x1,2 =

D=0

(1) c nghim kp x = -

D<0

(1) v nghim

-b D
2a

b
2a

c
.
a
c
Nu a b + c = 0 th (1) c hai nghim l x = 1 v x = - .
a
b
Nu b chn th ta c th dng cng thc thu gn vi b = .
2
2. nh l Viet
Ch :

Nu a + b + c = 0 th (1) c hai nghim l x = 1 v x =

Hai s x1 , x2 l cc nghim ca phng trnh bc hai ax 2 + bx + c = 0 khi v ch khi


chng tho mn cc h thc S = x1 + x2 = -

b
c
v P = x1 x2 = .
a
a

VN 1: Gii v bin lun phng trnh ax 2 + bx + c = 0


gii v bin lun phng trnh ax 2 + bx + c = 0 ta cn xt cc trng hp c th xy
ra ca h s a:
Nu a = 0 th tr v gii v bin lun phng trnh bx + c = 0 .
Nu a 0 th mi xt cc trng hp ca D nh trn.
Bi 1. Gii v bin lun cc phng trnh sau:

a) x 2 + 5 x + 3m - 1 = 0

b) 2 x 2 + 12 x - 15m = 0

c) x 2 - 2(m - 1) x + m 2 = 0

d) (m + 1) x 2 - 2(m - 1) x + m - 2 = 0

e) (m - 1) x 2 + (2 - m) x - 1 = 0
f) mx 2 - 2(m + 3) x + m + 1 = 0
Bi 2. Cho bit mt nghim ca phng trnh. Tm nghim cn li:
3
a) x 2 - mx + m + 1 = 0; x = b) 2 x 2 - 3m 2 x + m = 0; x = 1
2
c) (m + 1) x 2 - 2(m - 1) x + m - 2 = 0; x = 2
Bi 3.

a)

Trang 16

d) x 2 - 2(m - 1) x + m 2 - 3m = 0; x = 0

Trn S Tng

Phng trnh bc nht bc hai

VN 2: Du ca nghim s ca phng trnh ax 2 + bx + c = 0 (a 0) (1)


D 0
(1) c hai nghim cng du
P > 0
D 0
D 0

(1) c hai nghim dng P > 0


(1) c hai nghim m P > 0
S > 0
S < 0
Ch : Trong cc trng hp trn nu yu cu hai nghim phn bit th D > 0.

(1) c hai nghim tri du P < 0

Bi 1. Xc nh m phng trnh:

i) c hai nghim tri du


iii) c hai nghim dng phn bit

ii) c hai nghim m phn bit

a) x 2 + 5 x + 3m - 1 = 0

b) 2 x 2 + 12 x - 15m = 0

c) x 2 - 2(m - 1) x + m 2 = 0

d) (m + 1) x 2 - 2(m - 1) x + m - 2 = 0

e) (m - 1) x 2 + (2 - m) x - 1 = 0

f) mx 2 - 2(m + 3) x + m + 1 = 0

g) x 2 - 4 x + m + 1 = 0

h) (m + 1) x 2 + 2(m + 4) x + m + 1 = 0

Bi 2.

a)

VN 3: Mt s bi tp p dng nh l Viet
1. Biu thc i xng ca cc nghim s
b
c
Ta s dng cng thc S = x1 + x2 = - ; P = x1 x2 = biu din cc biu thc i
a
a
xng ca cc nghim x1, x2 theo S v P.
V d:

x12 + x22 = ( x1 + x2 )2 - 2 x1x2 = S 2 - 2 P


x13 + x23 = ( x1 + x2 ) ( x1 + x2 )2 - 3 x1 x2 = S (S 2 - 3P )

2. H thc ca cc nghim c lp i vi tham s


tm h thc ca cc nghim c lp i vi tham s ta tm:
b
c
S = x1 + x2 = - ;
P = x1 x2 =
(S, P c cha tham s m).
a
a
Kh tham s m gia S v P ta tm c h thc gia x1 v x2.
3. Lp phng trnh bc hai
Nu phng trnh bc hai c cc nghim u v v th phng trnh bc hai c dng:
x 2 - Sx + P = 0 ,

trong S = u + v, P = uv.

Bi 1. Gi x1, x2 l cc nghim ca phng trnh. Khng gii phng trnh, hy tnh:

A = x12 + x22 ;

B = x13 + x23 ;

C = x14 + x24 ;

D = x1 - x2 ;

E = (2 x1 + x2 )(2 x2 + x1 )

a) x 2 - x - 5 = 0

b) 2 x 2 - 3 x - 7 = 0

c) 3 x 2 + 10 x + 3 = 0

d) x 2 - 2 x - 15 = 0

e) 2 x 2 - 5 x + 2 = 0

f)

Trang 17

3x 2 + 5x - 2 = 0

Phng trnh bc nht bc hai

Trn S Tng

Bi 2. Cho phng trnh: (m + 1) x 2 - 2(m - 1) x + m - 2 = 0 (*). Xc nh m :

a) (*) c hai nghim phn bit.


b) (*) c mt nghim bng 2. Tnh nghim kia.
c) Tng bnh phng cc nghim bng 2.
Bi 3. Cho phng trnh: x 2 - 2(2 m + 1) x + 3 + 4 m = 0 (*).

a) Tm m (*) c hai nghim x1, x2.


b) Tm h thc gia x1, x2 c lp i vi m.
c) Tnh theo m, biu thc A = x13 + x23 .
d) Tm m (*) c mt nghim gp 3 ln nghim kia.
e) Lp phng trnh bc hai c cc nghim l x12 , x22 .
2
2
1 2 7
d) m =
6

HD: a) m

b) x1 + x2 - x1 x2 = -1

c) A = (2 + 4m )(16 m 2 + 4m - 5)

e) x 2 - 2(8m 2 + 8m - 1) x + (3 + 4m )2 = 0

Bi 4. Cho phng trnh: x 2 - 2(m - 1) x + m 2 - 3m = 0 (*).

a) Tm m (*) c nghim x = 0. Tnh nghim cn li.


b) Khi (*) c hai nghim x1, x2 . Tm h thc gia x1, x2 c lp i vi m.
c) Tm m (*) c hai nghim x1, x2 tho: x12 + x22 = 8 .
HD: a) m = 3; m = 4

b) ( x1 + x2 )2 - 2( x1 + x2 ) - 4 x1 x2 - 8 = 0

c) m = 1; m = 2.

Bi 5. Cho phng trnh: x 2 - (m 2 - 3m) x + m 3 = 0 .

a) Tm m phng trnh c mt nghim bng bnh phng nghim kia.


b) Tm m phng trnh c mt nghim bng 1. Tnh nghim cn li.
HD: a) m = 0; m = 1

b) x2 = 1; x2 = 5 2 - 7; x2 = -5 2 - 7 .

Bi 6. (nng cao) Cho phng trnh: 2 x 2 + 2 x sin a = 2 x + cos2 a (a l tham s).

a) Chng minh phng trnh c nghim vi mi a.


b) Tm a tng bnh phng cc nghim ca phng trnh t GTLN, GTNN.
Bi 7. Cho phng trnh:
a)

Trang 18

Trn S Tng

Phng trnh bc nht bc hai

IV. PHNG TRNH CHA N TRONG DU


GI TR TUYT I
1. nh ngha v tnh cht
A
khi A 0
A =
khi A < 0
- A

A 0, "A
2

A.B = A . B
A = A2
A + B = A + B A.B 0
A - B = A + B A.B 0
A + B = A - B A.B 0
A - B = A - B A.B 0
2. Cch gii
gii phng trnh cha n trong du GTT ta tm cch kh du GTT, bng cch:
Dng nh ngha hoc tnh cht ca GTT.
Bnh phng hai v.
t n ph.
f ( x) 0
C1
C2 g( x ) 0
f ( x ) = g( x )

Dng 1:
f ( x ) = g( x )
f ( x ) = g( x )
f ( x ) < 0
f ( x ) = - g( x )
- f ( x ) = g( x )
Dng 2:

C1

f ( x ) = g( x ) [ f ( x )] = [ g( x )]

C2

f ( x ) = g( x )

f ( x ) = - g( x )

Dng 3:
a f ( x ) + b g( x ) = h( x )
i vi phng trnh c dng ny ta thng dng phng php khong gii.
Bi 1. Gii cc phng trnh sau:

a) 2 x - 1 = x + 3
x2 + 6 x + 9 = 2 x - 1
g) x - 1 - x + 2 x + 3 = 2 x + 4
Bi 2. Gii cc phng trnh sau:
a) 4 x + 7 = 4 x + 7
d)

d) x 2 - 2 x - 3 = x 2 + 2 x + 3
Bi 3. Gii cc phng trnh sau:
a) x 2 - 2 x + x - 1 - 1 = 0

b) 4 x + 7 = 2 x + 5

c) x 2 - 3 x + 2 = 0

e) x 2 - 4 x - 5 = 4 x - 17
f) 4 x - 17 = x 2 - 4 x - 5
h) x - 1 + x + 2 + x - 3 = 14 i) x - 1 + 2 - x = 2 x
b) 2 x - 3 = 3 - 2 x

c) x - 1 + 2 x + 1 = 3 x

e) 2 x - 5 + 2 x 2 - 7 x + 5 = 0 f) x + 3 + 7 - x = 10
b) x 2 - 2 x - 5 x - 1 + 7 = 0

c) x 2 - 2 x - 5 x - 1 - 5 = 0

d) x 2 + 4 x + 3 x + 2 = 0
e) 4 x 2 - 4 x - 2 x - 1 - 1 = 0 f) x 2 + 6 x + x + 3 + 10 = 0
Bi 4. Gii v bin lun cc phng trnh sau:
a) mx - 1 = 5
b) mx - x + 1 = x + 2
c) mx + 2 x - 1 = x
d) 3 x + m = 2 x - 2 m
e) x + m = x - m + 2
f) x - m = x + 1
Bi 5. Tm cc gi tr ca tham s m sao cho phng trnh sau c nghim duy nht:
a) mx - 2 = x + 4
b)
Bi 6.

a)

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Phng trnh bc nht bc hai

Trn S Tng

V. PHNG TRNH CHA N DI DU CN


Cch gii: gii phng trnh cha n di du cn ta tm cch kh du cn, bng cch:
Nng lu tha hai v.
t n ph.
Ch : Khi thc hin cc php bin i cn ch iu kin cc cn c xc nh.
2

Dng 1:
f ( x ) = g( x ) f ( x ) = [ g( x )]
g( x ) 0
f ( x ) = g( x )
f ( x ) = g( x )
f ( x ) 0 (hay g( x ) 0)
t = f ( x ), t 0
af ( x ) + b f ( x ) + c = 0 2
at + bt + c = 0

Dng 2:
Dng 3:

f ( x ) + g( x ) = h( x )

Dng 4:

t u = f ( x ), v = g( x ) vi u, v 0.
a phng trnh trn v h phng trnh vi hai n l u v v.
f ( x ) + g( x ) +

Dng 5:

t t =

f ( x ).g( x ) = h( x )

f ( x ) + g( x ), t 0 .

Bi 1. Gii cc phng trnh sau:

a)

2x - 3 = x - 3

b)

5 x + 10 = 8 - x

c) x - 2 x - 5 = 4

d)

x 2 + x - 12 = 8 - x

e)

x2 + 2 x + 4 = 2 - x

f) 3 x 2 - 9 x + 1 = x - 2

h)

x 2 - 3 x - 10 = x - 2

i) ( x - 3) x 2 + 4 = x 2 - 9

3x 2 - 9 x + 1 = x - 2
Bi 2. Gii cc phng trnh sau:
g)

( x - 3)(8 - x ) + 26 = - x 2 + 11x

a) x 2 - 6 x + 9 = 4 x 2 - 6 x + 6

b)

c) ( x + 4)( x + 1) - 3 x 2 + 5 x + 2 = 6

d) ( x + 5)(2 - x ) = 3 x 2 + 3 x

e) x 2 + x 2 + 11 = 31
Bi 3. Gii cc phng trnh sau:

f) x 2 - 2 x + 8 - 4 (4 - x )( x + 2) = 0

a)

x +1 - x -1 = 1

b)

3x + 7 - x + 1 = 2

c)

x2 + 9 - x 2 - 7 = 2

d)

3x 2 + 5x + 8 - 3 x2 + 5x + 1 = 1

e) 3 1 + x + 3 1 - x = 2

f)

x2 + x - 5 + x2 + 8x - 4 = 5

5 x + 7 - 3 5 x - 13 = 1
Bi 4. Gii cc phng trnh sau:
g)

h)

9 - x +1 + 3 7 + x +1 = 4

a)

x + 3 + 6 - x = 3 + ( x + 3)(6 - x ) b)

2 x + 3 + x + 1 = 3 x + 2 (2 x + 3)( x + 1) - 16

c)

x - 1 + 3 - x - ( x - 1)(3 - x ) = 1

7 - x + 2 + x - (7 - x )(2 + x ) = 3

e)

x + 1 + 4 - x + ( x + 1)(4 - x ) = 5 f)

g) 1 +

2
x - x2 = x + 1 - x
3

d)

h)

3x - 2 + x - 1 = 4 x - 9 + 2 3 x2 - 5x + 2
x + 9 - x = - x2 + 9 x + 9

Trang 20

Trn S Tng

Phng trnh bc nht bc hai

Bi 5. Gii cc phng trnh sau:

a)

2 x - 4 + 2 2 x - 5 + 2 x + 4 + 6 2 x - 5 = 14

b)

x + 5 - 4 x +1 + x + 2 - 2 x +1 = 1

2x - 2 2x -1 - 2 2x + 3 - 4 2x -1 + 3 2x + 8 - 6 2x -1 = 4
Bi 6. Gii cc phng trnh sau:
a)
c)

VI. PHNG TRNH CHA N MU THC


Cch gii: Khi gii phng trnh cha n mu thc, ta phi ch n iu kin xc nh
ca phng trnh (mu thc khc 0).
Bi 1. Gii cc phng trnh sau:

a) 1 +
c)
e)
Bi 2.

a)
d)
Bi 3.

2
10
50
=
x - 2 x + 3 (2 - x )( x + 3)

2x +1 x +1
=
3x + 2 x - 2

b)

x +1 x -1 2x +1
+
=
x + 2 x - 2 x +1
x2 - 3x + 5

= -1
x2 - 4
2 x 2 - 5 x + 2 2 x 2 + x + 15
x +3
4x - 2
=
f)
=
2
x -1
x-3
( x + 1)
(2 x - 1)2
Gii v bin lun cc phng trnh sau:
mx - m + 1
mx + m - 2
x - m x -1
=3
b)
=3
c)
+
=2
x+2
x-m
x -1 x - m
x +m x +3
(m + 1) x + m - 2
x
x
f)
=
e)
=m
=
x -1 x - 2
x +3
x+m
x +1
Gii v bin lun cc phng trnh sau:
d)

a)

Trang 21

Phng trnh bc nht bc hai

Trn S Tng

VII. PHNG TRNH TRNG PHNG


ax4 + bx2 + c = 0 (a 0)
t = x 2 , t 0
1. Cch gii: ax 4 + bx 2 + c = 0 (1) 2
at + bt + c = 0 (2)
2. S nghim ca phng trnh trng phng
xc nh s nghim ca (1) ta da vo s nghim ca (2) v du ca chng.
(2) vo nghiem
(1) v nghim (2) co nghiem kep am

(2) co 2 nghiem am
(2) co nghiem kep bang 0
(1) c 1 nghim
(2) co 1 nghiem bang 0, nghiem con lai am
(2) co nghiem kep dng
(1) c 2 nghim
(2) co 1 nghiem dng va 1 nghiem am
(1) c 3 nghim (2) co 1 nghiem bang 0, nghiem con lai dng
(1) c 4 nghim (2) co 2 nghiem dng phan biet
3. Mt s dng khc v phng trnh bc bn
Dng 1:
( x + a)( x + b)( x + c )( x + d ) = K , vi a + b = c + d
t t = ( x + a)( x + b) ( x + c )( x + d ) = t - ab + cd
t 2 + (cd - ab)t - K = 0

PT tr thnh:

( x + a )4 + ( x + b )4 = K

Dng 2:

a+b
a-b
b-a
x+a =t+
, x+b=t+
2
2
2

a-b
PT tr thnh:
2t 4 + 12a 2 t 2 + 2a 4 - K = 0 vi a =

2
t t = x +

ax 4 + bx 3 + cx 2 bx + a = 0 (a 0) (phng trnh i xng)

Dng 3:

V x = 0 khng l nghim nn chia hai v ca phng trnh cho x 2 , ta c:

1
1
PT a x 2 + + b x + c = 0
(2)
2

x
x

t t = x +

1
1
hoac t = x - vi t 2 .
x
x

PT (2) tr thnh:

at 2 + bt + c - 2a = 0

( t 2) .

Bi 1. Gii cc phng trnh sau:

a) x 4 - 3 x 2 - 4 = 0
d) 3 x 4 + 5 x 2 - 2 = 0
Bi 2. Tm m phng trnh:
i) V nghim
iv) C 3 nghim

b) x 4 - 5 x 2 + 4 = 0

c) x 4 + 5 x 2 + 6 = 0

e) x 4 + x 2 - 30 = 0

f) x 4 + 7 x 2 - 8 = 0

ii) C 1 nghim
v) C 4 nghim

iii) C 2 nghim

a) x 4 + (1 - 2m ) x 2 + m 2 - 1 = 0

b) x 4 - (3m + 4) x 2 + m 2 = 0

c) x 4 + 8mx 2 - 16m = 0
Trang 22

Trn S Tng

Phng trnh bc nht bc hai

Bi 3. Gii cc phng trnh sau:

a) ( x - 1)( x - 3)( x + 5)( x + 7) = 297

b) ( x + 2)( x - 3)( x + 1)( x + 6) = -36

c) x 4 + ( x - 1)4 = 97

d) ( x + 4)4 + ( x + 6)4 = 2

e) ( x + 3)4 + ( x + 5)4 = 16

f) 6 x 4 - 35 x 3 + 62 x 2 - 35 x + 6 = 0

g) x 4 + x 3 - 4 x 2 + x + 1 = 0
Bi 4. Gii cc phng trnh sau:
a)

Trang 23

Phng trnh bc nht bc hai

Trn S Tng

VIII. H PHNG TRNH BC NHT NHIU N


1. H phng trnh bc nht hai n
a1 x + b1y = c1
a x + b y = c
2
2
2

(a12 + b12 0, a22 + b22 0)

Gii v bin lun:


Tnh cc nh thc: D =

a1

b1

a2

b2

Xt D
D0
D=0

Dx 0 hoc Dy 0
Dx = Dy = 0

, Dx =

c1

b1

c2

b2

, Dy =

a1

c1

a2

c2

Kt qu

Dy
D
H c nghim duy nht x = x ; y =

D
D
H v nghim
H c v s nghim

Ch : gii h phng trnh bc nht hai n ta c th dng cc cch gii bit nh:
phng php th, phng php cng i s.
2. H phng trnh bc nht nhiu n
Nguyn tc chung gii cc h phng trnh nhiu n l kh bt n a v cc
phng trnh hay h phng trnh c s n t hn. kh bt n, ta cng c th dng cc
phng php cng i s, phng php th nh i vi h phng trnh bc nht hai n.
Gii cc h phng trnh sau:
5 x - 4 y = 3
a)
b)
7 x - 9 y = 8

Bi 1.

2 x + y = 11
5 x - 4 y = 8

3
2
( 2 + 1) x + y = 2 - 1
4 x + 3 y = 16
d)
e)
2 x - ( 2 - 1) y = 2 2
5 x - 3 y = 11
2
5
Bi 2. Gii cc h phng trnh sau:
1 8
10
1
x - y = 18
x - 1 + y + 2 = 1
a)
b)
5 + 4 = 51
25 + 3 = 2
x y
x - 1 y + 2
2 x - 6 + 3 y + 1 = 5
2 x + y - x - y = 9
d)
e)
5 x - 6 - 4 y + 1 = 1
3 x + y + 2 x - y = 17
Bi 3. Gii v bin lun cc h phng trnh sau:

mx + (m - 1) y = m + 1
mx + (m - 2) y = 5
a)
b)
2 x + my = 2

(m + 2) x + (m + 1) y = 2

3 x - y = 1
c)
6 x - 2 y = 5
3 x - y = 1
f)
5x + 2 y = 3
27
32
2 x - y + x + 3y = 7
c)
45 - 48 = -1
2 x - y x + 3 y
4 x + y + 3 x - y = 8
f)
3 x + y - 5 x - y = 6
(m - 1) x + 2 y = 3m - 1
c)
(m + 2) x - y = 1 - m

(m + 1) x - 2 y = m - 1
mx + 2 y = m + 1
(m + 4) x - (m + 2) y = 4
d)
e)
f)
2
2
m x - y = m + 2m
(2 m - 1) x + (m - 4) y = m
2 x + my = 2m + 5

Bi 4. Trong cc h phng trnh sau hy:


i) Gii v bin lun. ii) Tm m Z h c nghim duy nht l nghim nguyn.
(m + 1) x - 2 y = m - 1

mx + y - 3 = 3
mx - y = 1
a)
b)
c)
2
2
x
+
4(
m
+
1)
y
=
4
m
m x - y = m + 2m

x + my - 2m + 1 = 0

Trang 24

Trn S Tng
Bi 5.

a)
Bi 6.

a)
d)

Phng trnh bc nht bc hai

Trong cc h phng trnh sau hy:


i) Gii v bin lun.
ii) Khi h c nghim (x; y), tm h thc gia x, y c lp i vi m.
mx + 2 y = m + 1
6mx + (2 - m ) y = 3
mx + (m - 1) y = m + 1
b)
c)
2 x + my = 2m + 5
2 x + my = 2

(m - 1) x - my = 2

Gii v bin lun cc h phng trnh sau:


ax + y = b
y - ax = b
ax + y = a + b
b)
c)
3 x + 2 y = -5

2 x - 3 y = 4
x + 2y = a
ax + by = a2 + b 2
ax - by = a 2 - b
(a + b) x + (a - b) y = a
e)
f)

2
(2 a - b) x + (2a + b)y = b
bx - b y = 4b
bx + ay = 2 ab

Gii cc h phng trnh sau:


3 x + y - z = 1

a) 2 x - y + 2 z = 5
b)
x - 2 y - 3z = 0

Bi 7.

x + 3y + 2z = 8

2 x + y + z = 6
3 x + y + z = 6

Bi 8.

a)

Trang 25

x - 3 y + 2 z = -7

c) -2 x + 4 y + 3z = 8
3 x + y - z = 5

Phng trnh bc nht bc hai

Trn S Tng

IX. H PHNG TRNH BC HAI HAI N


1. H gm 1 phng trnh bc nht v 1 phng trnh bc hai
T phng trnh bc nht rt mt n theo n kia.
Th vo phng trnh bc hai a v phng trnh bc hai mt n.
S nghim ca h tu theo s nghim ca phng trnh bc hai ny.
2. H i xng loi 1
f ( x, y) = 0
H c dng:
(I)
(vi f(x, y) = f(y, x) v g(x, y) = g(y, x)).
g( x , y ) = 0
(C ngha l khi ta hon v gia x v y th f(x, y) v g(x, y) khng thay i).
t S = x + y, P = xy.
a h phng trnh (I) v h (II) vi cc n l S v P.
Gii h (II) ta tm c S v P.
Tm nghim (x, y) bng cch gii phng trnh: X 2 - SX + P = 0 .
3. H i xng loi 2
f ( x, y) = 0
(1)
H c dng:
(I)
(2)
f ( y, x ) = 0
(C ngha l khi hon v gia x v y th (1) bin thnh (2) v ngc li).
Tr (1) v (2) v theo v ta c:
f ( x , y ) - f ( y , x ) = 0 (3)
(I)
(1)
f ( x, y) = 0
Bin i (3) v phng trnh tch:
x = y
(3) ( x - y ).g( x , y ) = 0
.
g( x, y) = 0
f ( x , y) = 0
x = y
Nh vy,
(I)
.
f ( x , y ) = 0
g( x , y ) = 0
Gii cc h trn ta tm c nghim ca h (I).
4. H ng cp bc hai
a x 2 + b xy + c y 2 = d
1
1 .
H c dng:
(I) 1 2 1
2
a2 x + b2 xy + c2 y = d2
Gii h khi x = 0 (hoc y = 0).
Khi x 0, t y = kx . Th vo h (I) ta c h theo k v x. Kh x ta tm c phng
trnh bc hai theo k. Gii phng trnh ny ta tm c k, t tm c (x; y).
Ch :

Ngoi cc cch gii thng thng ta cn s dng phng php hm s


gii (s hc lp 12).
Vi cc h phng trnh i xng, nu h c nghim ( x 0 ; y0 ) th ( y0 ; x0 )
cng l nghim ca h. Do nu h c nghim duy nht th x0 = y0 .

Trang 26

Trn S Tng
Bi 1.

Phng trnh bc nht bc hai

Gii cc h phng trnh sau:

2
2
2
b) x - xy = 24
a) x + 4 y = 8
x + 2y = 4
2 x - 3 y = 1
2
2
3 x - 4 y + 1 = 0
d) x - 3 xy + y + 2 x + 3y - 6 = 0 e)
xy = 3( x + y ) - 9
2 x - y = 3
2

2 x + 3 y = 5
g) y + x = 4 x
h) 2
2
2 x + y - 5 = 0
3 x - y + 2 y = 4
Bi 2. Gii v bin lun cc h phng trnh sau:
x + y = 6
x + y = m
b) 2
a) 2
2
2
x + y = m
x - y + 2x = 2
Bi 3. Gii cc h phng trnh sau:
x + xy + y = 11
x + y = 4
a) 2
b) 2
2
2
x + y - xy - 2( x + y ) = -31
x + xy + y = 13

d)
Bi 4.

a)
Bi 5.

a)

d)

Bi 6.

a)
Bi 7.

a)
d)
Bi 8.

a)
Bi 9.

x y 13
3 3
3
3
+ =
e) x + x y + y = 17
y x 6
x + y + xy = 5
x + y = 6
Gii v bin lun cc h phng trnh sau:
x + y + xy = m
x + y = m + 1
b) 2
2
2
2
2
x y + xy = 2m - m - 3
x + y = 3 - 2m
Gii cc h phng trnh sau:
x 2 = 3 x + 2 y
x 2 - 2 y 2 = 2 x + y
b) 2
2
2
y = 3 y + 2 x
y - 2 x = 2 y + x

y2 + 2

y
3
y
=

x - 3 y = 4 x

x2
e)

2
x
y - 3x = 4
3 x = x + 2
y

y2

Gii v bin lun cc h phng trnh sau:


x (3 - 4 y 2 ) = m(3 - 4m 2 )
x 2 = 3 x + my
b)
2

2
2
y = 3y + mx
y (3 - 4 x ) = m(3 - 4m )
Gii cc h phng trnh sau:
x 2 - 3 xy + y 2 = -1
2 x 2 - 4 xy + y 2 = -1
b)
2
2
2
2
3 x - xy + 3 y = 13
3 x + 2 xy + 2 y = 7
3 x 2 + 5 xy - 4 y 2 = 38
x 2 - 2 xy + 3 y 2 = 9
e)
2
2
2
2
5 x - 9 xy - 3 y = 15
x - 4 xy + 5 y = 5
Gii v bin lun cc h phng trnh sau:
x 2 + mxy + y 2 = m
xy - y 2 = 12
b)
2
2
2
x + (m - 1) xy + my = m
x - xy = m + 26
Gii cc h phng trnh sau:

a)

Trang 27

c) ( x - y ) = 49
3 x + 4 y = 84

2 x + 3 y = 2
f)
xy + x + y + 6 = 0
2 x - y = 5
i) 2
2
x + xy + y = 7
3 x - 2 y = 1
c) 2
2
x + y = m
xy + x + y = 5
c) 2
2
x + y + x + y = 8
x 4 + x 2 y 2 + y 4 = 481
f) 2
2
x + xy + y = 37
( x + 1)( y + 1) = m + 5
c)
xy( x + y ) = 4 m
x 3 = 2 x + y
c) 3
y = 2 y + x
2
1
2 x = y + y
f)
2 y 2 = x + 1

x
xy + x 2 = m( y - 1)
c)
2
xy + y = m( x - 1)
y 2 - 3 xy = 4
c) 2
2
x - 4 xy + y = 1
3 x 2 - 8 xy + 4 y 2 = 0
f) 2
2
5 x - 7 xy - 6 y = 0
x 2 - 4 xy + y 2 = m
c) 2
y - 3 xy = 4

Phng trnh bc nht bc hai

Trn S Tng

BI TP N CHNG III
Bi 1.

Gii v bin lun cc phng trnh sau:

a) m2 x + 4m - 3 = x + m 2

b) (a + b)2 x + 2 a2 = 2a(a + b) + (a2 + b2 ) x

c) a2 x + 2 ab = b2 x + a 2 + b2
d) a(ax + b) = 4 ax + b2 - 5
Bi 2. Tm m cc phng trnh sau c nghim:
2x + m x + m -1
m2 x
b)
=1
- m x = 2m + 1
x -1
x
x -1
2mx - 1
m +1
c)
d) x - 1 + 2 x - 3 = m
- 2 x -1 =
x -1
x -1
Bi 3. Gii v bin lun cc phng trnh sau:
a)

a) 2 x 2 + 12 x - 15m = 0

b) x 2 - 2(m - 1) x + m 2 = 0

d) x 2 - 2(m - 2) x + m(m - 3) = 0
b) x 2 - mx + m - 1 = 0
Bi 4. Tm m phng trnh c mt nghim x0. Tnh nghim cn li:
3
a) x 2 - mx + m + 1 = 0; x0 = b) 2 x 2 - 3m 2 x + m = 0; x 0 = 1 .
2
Bi 5. Trong cc phng trnh sau, tm m :
i) PT c hai nghim tri du
ii) PT c hai nghim m phn bit
iii) PT c hai nghim dng phn bit
iv) PT c hai nghim phn bit x1 , x2 tho: x13 + x23 = 0 ; x12 + x22 = 3
a) x 2 - 2(m - 2) x + m(m - 3) = 0

b) x 2 + 2(m - 1) x + m 2 = 0

c) x 2 - 2(m + 1) x + m 2 - 2 = 0

d) (m + 2) x 2 - 2(m - 1) x + m - 2 = 0

e) (m + 1) x 2 + 2(m + 4) x + m + 1 = 0
f) x 2 - 4 x + m + 1 = 0
Bi 6. Trong cc phng trnh sau, hy:
i) Gii v bin lun phng trnh.
ii) Khi phng trnh c hai nghim x1 , x2 , tm h thc gia x1 , x2 c lp vi m.
a) x 2 + (m - 1) x - m = 0
c) (m + 2) x 2 - 2(m - 1) x + m - 2 = 0
Bi 7. Gii cc phng trnh sau:

b) x 2 - 2(m - 2) x + m(m - 3) = 0
d) x 2 - 2(m + 1) x + m 2 - 2 = 0

a) x 2 + x 2 - 6 = 12

b) x 2 + x 2 + 11 = 31

c) 16 x + 17 = 8 x - 23

d)

x 2 - 2 x - 8 = 3( x - 4)

f)

51 - 2 x - x 2 = 1 - x

h)

x + 3 + 1 = 3x - 1

e)

3x 2 - 9 x + 1 + x - 2 = 0

g) ( x - 3) x 2 - 4 = x 2 - 9
Bi 8. Gii cc phng trnh sau:
a)

4 - 3 10 - 3 x = x - 2

b)

x - 5 + x + 3 = 2x + 4

c)

3x + 4 - 2 x - 1 = x + 3

d)

x2 - 3x + 3 + x 2 - 3x + 6 = 3

e)

x + 2 - 2 x - 3 = 3x - 5

f)

3x - 3 - 5 - x = 2 x - 4

h)

x +1 -1 = x - x + 8

g) 2 x + 2 + 2 x + 1 - x + 1 = 4
Bi 9. Gii cc phng trnh sau:

Trang 28

Trn S Tng
a)
c)

Phng trnh bc nht bc hai

x + 2 x -1 - x - 2 x -1 = 2

b)

x - x2 - 1 + x + x2 - 1 = 2

d) x 2 - x - x 2 - x + 13 = 7

e) x 2 + 2 x 2 - 3 x + 1 = 3 x + 4

x + 2 x -1 + x - 2 x -1 =

x +3
2

f) 2 x 2 + 3 2 x 2 + x + 1 = 9 - x

g) x 2 - x 2 - 2 x + 4 = 2 x - 2
h) 2 x 2 + 5 x 2 + 3 x + 5 = 23 - 6 x
Bi 10. Trong cc h phng trnh sau:
i) Tm s nguyn m h c nghim duy nht l nghim nguyn.
ii) Khi h c nghim (x, y) , tm h thc gia x, y c lp vi m.
mx + 2 y = m + 1
mx + y = 3m
a)
b)
2 x + my = 2 a - 1
x + my = 2m + 1
x - 2y = 4 - m
2 x + y = 5
c)
d)
2
x
+
y
=
3
m
+
3

2 y - x = 10m + 5
Bi 11. Gii cc h phng trnh sau:
x 2 y + y 2 x = 30
x + xy + y = -1
x 2 + y 2 = 5
c)
a) 2
b)
4
3 3
2
2 2
4
x - x y + y = 13
x + y = 35
x y + y x = -6
x + y + xy = 11
x 3 + y 3 = 1
x 2 + y 2 + xy = 7
d) 5
e)
f) 2
4
2
5
2
2
4
2 2
x + y = x + y
x + y + x y = 21
x + y + 3( x + y ) = 28
Bi 12. Gii cc h phng trnh sau:

1
y ( x 2 + 1) = 2 x ( y 2 + 1)
( x + y )(1 + xy ) = 5

a)
b) 2
1
2
1
x
+
y
1
+
= 24
2
2

( x + y )(1 +

) = 49
x 2 y 2
2
2

x y

1 1
x + y + x + y = 4

c)
1
1
x2 + y2 +
+
=4

x 2 y2

x
y
2
+
=
2
2
3

d) x + 1 y + 1
( x + y )(1 + 1 ) = 6

xy

1
xy + xy = 4
f)
( x + y ) 1 + 1 = 5

xy

2 x 2 y + y 2 x + 2 y + x = 6 xy

e)
1 y x
xy + xy + x + y = 4

Bi 13. Gii cc h phng trnh sau:

x 2 = 3 x + 2 y
a) 2
y = 3 y + 2 x

x 3 = 2 x + y
b) 3
y = 2 y + x

2 x + y =

e)
2 y + x =

Bi 14. Gii cc h phng trnh sau:


a)
2 1
2 x = y + y
d)
2 y 2 = 1 + x

3
x2
3
y2

Trang 29

x 3 = 3 x + 8 y
c) 3
y = 3 y + 8 x

y2 + 2
3 y =

x2
f)
2
3 x = x + 2

y2