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DALBY SOUTH STATE SCHOOL

THINKING SKILLS PROGRAM

Support Material

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THINKING SKILLS PROGRAM


Thinking Warm Ups Higher Order Thinking and Metacognition (includes Bloom's Taxonomy and Evaluation/Review)

Preschool

PMI plus solving problems by drawing pictures and telling the story Six Thinking Hats Extended Brainstorming Questioning Techniques Graphic Organisers CoRT 1 (Breadth) CoRT 2 (Organising), CoRT 4 (Creativity) Creative Problem Solving

Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Year 7

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APPLYING BLOOM'S TAXONOMY OF COGNITIVE PROCESSES


THINKING PROCESS USEFUL VERBS SAMPLE QUESTION STEMS SOME POTENTIAL ACTIVITIES AND PRODUCTS

K N O W L E D G E

C O M P R E H E N S I O N A P P L I C A T I O N

tell list describe relate locate write find state name recall repeat define explain interpret outline discuss distinguish predict restate translate compare describe express recognise identify locate solve show use illustrate calculate construct complete examine classify apply employ practise schedule demonstrate sketch dramatise operate

What happened after ? How many ? Who was it that ? Can you name the ? Describe what happened at ? Who spoke to ? Can you tell why ? Find the meaning of ? What is ? Which is true or false ?

Make a list of the main events of the story. Make a time line of events. Make a facts charts. Write a list of any pieces of information you can remember. List all the animals in the story. Make a chart showing Make an acrostic. Recite a poem.

Can you write in your own words ? Can you write a brief outline ? What do you think could have happened next ? Who do you think ? What was the main idea ? Who was the key character ? Can you distinguish between ? What differences exist between ? Can you provide an example of what you mean ? Can you provide a definition for ?

Cut out, or draw pictures to show a particular event. Illustrate what you think the main idea was. Make a cartoon strip showing the sequence of events. Write and perform a play based on the story. Retell the story in your own words. Paint a picture of some aspect of the story you like. Write a summary report of the event. Prepare a flow chart to illustrate the sequence of events. Make a colouring book. Construct a model to demonstrate how it will work. Make a diorama to illustrate an important event. Make a scrapbook about the areas of study. Make a papier-mache map to include relevant information about an event. Take a collection of photographs to demonstrate a particular point. Make up a puzzle game using ideas from the study area. Make a clay model of an item in the material. Design a market strategy for your product using a known strategy as a model. Dress a doll in national costume. Paint a mural using the same materials. Write a text book about for others.

Do you know of another instance where ? Could this have happened in ? Can you group by characteristics such as ? Which factors would you change if ? Can you apply the method used to some experience of your own ? What questions would you ask of ? From the information given, can you develop a set of instructions about ? Would this information be useful if you had a ?

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THINKING PROCESS

USEFUL VERBS

SAMPLE QUESTION STEMS

SOME POTENTIAL ACTIVITIES AND PRODUCTS

A N A L Y S I S

analyse distinguish examine compare contrast investigate categorise identify explain separate advertise differentiate inspect relate solve test experiment appraise

S Y N T H E S I S

E V A L U A T I O N

create invent compose predict plan construct design imagine improve propose devise formulate arrange assemble prepare manage organise write collect judge select choose decide justify debate verify argue recommend assess discuss rate prioritise determine evaluate appraise

Which events could not have happened? If happened, what might the ending have been? How was this similar to ? What was the underlying theme of ? What do you see as other possible outcomes? Why did changes occur? Can you compare your with that presented in ? Can you explain what must have happened when ? How is similar to ? What are some of the problems of ? Can you distinguish between ? What were some of the motives behind? What was the turning point in the game? What was the problem with ? Can you design a to ? Why not compose a song about ? Can you see a possible solution to ? If you had access to all resources, how would you deal with ? Why don't you devise your own way to? What would happen if ? How many ways can you ? Can you create new and unusual uses for ? Can you write a new recipe for a tasty dish? Can you develop a proposal which would ?

Design a questionnaire to gather information. Write a commercial to sell a new product. Conduct an investigation to produce information to support a view. Make a flow chart to show the critical stages. Construct a graph to illustrate selected information. Make a jigsaw puzzle. Make a family tree showing relationships. Put on a play about the study area. Write a biography of a person studied. Prepare a report about the area of study. Arrange a party. Make all the arrangements and record the steps needed. Review a work of art in terms of form, colour and texture.

Invent a machine to do a specific task. Design a building to house your study. Create a new product. Give it a name and plan a marketing campaign. Write about your feelings in relation to Write a TV show, play, puppet show, role play, song or pantomime about Design a record, book or magazine cover for Make up a new language code and write material using it. Sell an idea. Devise a way to Compose a rhythm or put new words to a known melody.

Is there a better solution to ? Judge the value of Can you defend your position about? Do you think is a good or bad thing? How would you have handled ? What changes to would you recommend? Do you believe ? Are you a person? How would you feel if ? How effective are ? What do you think about ?

Prepare a list of criteria to judge show. Indicate priority and ratings. Conduct a debate about an issue of special interest. Make a booklet about five rules you see as important. Convince others. Form a panel to discuss views, for example, "Learning at School". Write a letter to advising on changes needed at Write a half yearly report. Prepare a case to present your view about

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THINKERS' KEYS
Select from:
REVERSE LISTING WHAT IF DISADVANTAGES BAR 5 sounds that you have never heard all shoes turned into skates a bicycle. How can it be improved. a lawnmower. Make a part bigger, add something, replace something of a pair of scissors and a shopping trolley of the environment How many ways can you hang the washing? How can be linked with space

COMBINATION ALPHABET VARIATIONS THE PICTURE PREDICTIONS DIFFERENT USES RIDICULOUS COMMONALITY QUESTION BRAINSTORM INVENT BRICKWALL CONSTRUCTION FORCED RELATIONSHIP ALTERNATIVE INTERPRETATION

What will school be like in 100 years Find 10 uses for cut off fingernails. Defend the statement - all food must be eaten at home between a sponge and a chimney Find questions for the answer - fried eggs. ways to travel in the city a bedmaker consider alternatives to teachers build a home for a bull ant catch a mouse with a toothbrush, a rubber band and a piece of bubble gum 5 ways to wash the car without water give reasons for the grass turning purple

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P M I
PLUS

MINUS

INTERESTING

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Put on your thinking hat!

Six Thinking Hats


Edward de Bono
WHITE HAT: What are the facts? Gathering information What do we know already? What do we need to know? YELLOW HAT: Good points, positives, benefits, advantages Why will it work? BLACK HAT: Bad points, negatives, problems, weaknesses, disadvantages What is wrong with it? RED HAT: Emotions, feelings, intuition, hunches How will this affect people? GREEN HAT: Creativity, different, new ideas, suggestions, proposals, alternatives What could be done if anything were possible? BLUE HAT: Thinking about thinking, organizing thinking, reflecting What thinking hat will help?

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Extended Brainstorming Mini-Beasts Years P-6


To encourage
Fluency
Ask how many * ideas * solutions * possibilities * consequences

Flexibility
Ask how many different * kinds of ideas * categories of ideas * types of solutions * directions or pathways How many different ways can you group mini-beasts?

Originality
Ask for new or original ideas * better ideas * unusual ideas
*

Elaboration
Ask for expanded ideas * detailed ideas * a plan of action * a complex idea
*

Curiosity
Ask questions that begin * Suppose that * What if? * When might? * Where could?

Complexity

Risk Taking

Imagination
Ask questions that begin * How would you feel if? * Pretend that * Imagine yourself in

List: * all the minibeasts you know * ways minibeasts protect themselves * places to find mini-beasts * all the facts you know about mini-beasts

You have just discovered a new mini-beast that has never before been seen. Describe what it looks like, where you found it and anything special about it.

Ask questions Ask questions that begin that begin * What reason * Say why you could there be? think * What * Justify why contributes to? * Which is * What makes better? people? * Decide and * What factors explain contribute to? A spider is a If you were to What makes Explain why mini-beast, but interview an ant, people want to you think it is it an insect? a butterfly, a bee kill insects? might be better What do you or some other Why do you to be think? mini-beasts, think that insects * a butterfly or Tell how you what questions are not found in a moth would convince would you ask? oceans? What * a wasp or a someone that makes a minibee your explanation beast useful? * an ant or a is correct. cockroach

You are a flea living on a dog. Tell about your life and adventures. What if flies were the size of cats? What would it be like to change from a caterpillar into a butterfly?

Learning to Think - 2000 Hawker Brownlow Education #4552

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"Open Door" questions. These sorts of questions require lots of discussion and explanation with interesting examples. They take time to think through and answer in depth.

"Closed Door" questions. These sorts of questions require a simple yes/no/maybe or a nod or shake of the head. These questions usually lead you nowhere.

Blackline Masters - Blueprints for Thinking; Chapter 5, Page 74 Hawker Brownlow Education 1991

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OPEN AND CLOSED QUESTIONS: CHARACTERISTICS


OPEN QUESTIONS
1. Do not necessarily have a definite right or wrong answer, instead they have the potential to generate a variety of satisfactory responses. Example: How might you go about correcting your spelling? 2. It is less easy to predict the possible response. Example: What sort of changes will you be making in your next draft? 3. Pupils are more often required to explain, justify, speculate, interpret, compare, predict and reflect upon their responses and enhance higher order thinking skills. Example: Do you want the grandfather to be a main part of your narrative? Why? 4. In answering the question, pupils may find it necessary to draw upon their prior knowledge. Example: Do you think all frogs are green? Why? 5. By allowing for more detailed responses from pupils, "open" questions promote more effective classroom interaction. 4. Responses often involve pupils in recalling information they have learned or from the text. Example: How was the frog described in the science report yesterday? 5. Using "closed" questions limits classroom interaction to quick question/answer patterns which move quickly and allow little time for speculation or reflective thought.

CLOSED QUESTIONS
1. Lack a range of possible answers. Usually responses will be either right or wrong and do not challenge higher order thinking skills. Example: How do you spell elephant? 2. The range of possible answers is limited to the expected response. Example: Could you change the conclusion to make a better ending for your play? 3. Little original thought is required for the response and often responses require no original thought at all. Example: Who is the main character?

Participant Coursebook - Flip Unit 6 (Rev): Composing and Comprehending as Purposeful Interaction

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COGNITIVE ORGANIZERS Venn Diagram p.90 Matrix

p.90

Thinking Skill: Comparing & Contrasting

Thinking Skill: Classifying

Mind Map

p.90

Web

p.90

Thinking Skill: Brainstorming

Thinking Skill: Analyzing Attributes

Questions
Open Door? 1 2 3 1 2 3

p.90
Closed Door? P

P.M.I.
M

p.90
I

Thinking Skill: Hypothesizing

Thinking Skill: Evaluating

T-Chart
Looks Like

p.90
Sounds Like

Ranking

p.90

Thinking Skill: Visualizing

Thinking Skill: Prioritizing

Thinking at Right Angles

p.90

Bridging Snapshots

p.90

Thinking Skill: Associating Ideas

Thinking Skill: Sequencing

Fish Bone

p.90

KWL
What we know

p.90
What we learn

What we want to find out

Thinking Skill: Analyzing

Thinking Skill: Predicting / Evaluating

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CoRT Thinking
CoRT 1: BREADTH
CoRT 1 broadens perception by demonstrating a number of different directions thinking can follow.

CoRT 2:

ORGANISATION

CoRT 2 helps students organise their thinking. The first five operations are basic ones concerned with moving forward from an initial idea. The second five operations concern the general organisation of thinking.

CoRT 4:

CREATIVITY

Creativity is not a special gift which some people have and others can never acquire. In CoRT 4, creativity is treated as a normal part of thinking processes than can be learned, practiced and applied in a deliberate manner. The purpose of creativity is to arrive at an effective new idea. CoRT 4 encourages the "design" type of creativity. This may be concerned with changing concepts and changing patterns - in other words, "lateral thinking".

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A Sample Management Plan for CPS


(Creative problem-solving)
Group members

Group goal

1. Fact finding - make use of key words such as what, when, who, where, why and how. What do we know?

What would we like to know?

What resources might help us?

2. Problem finding - What do we see as the problems? Can we rank them?

What is the most important problem? Restate the problem so that we can work on ideas for it. 3. Idea finding - brainstorm as many ways as possible to solve the problem. Remember, accept all ideas, don't judge! After all ideas are listed, go back and circle your best ones.

4. Solution finding - How will we judge our ideas? What criteria will we use? A. B. C. A grid to help Give marks or ratings to the ideas against the criteria: 3 = good 2 = fair 1 = poor Put a mark in each box for each idea, then add the total across. The ideas with the highest marks are the solution to try. A B C Total

Ideas

5. Acceptance finding - How will we put our plan into action? What steps will we follow? Who might help us?

What problems must be watched for?

How will we overcome them?

Parnes

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THE PROBLEM SOLVING CYCLE

1. The Problem

2. Outcome I would like to have if the problem was solved.

3. Possible and outrageous alternatives to think about. 1. 2. 3. 4.

8. Did it work?

5. 6. 7. 8.

7. Action Plan What When Where Who 5b. Consequences of selection #2 6. Final alternative selected 5c. Consequences of selection #3 5a. Consequences of selection #1

9. 10.

4. Select best three alternatives 1. 2. 3.

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THINKING SKILLS OUTCOMES BANK


draws pictures to solve problems understands the concept of PMI uses PMI in practical contexts

understands Six Thinking Hats applies Six Thinking Hats to organize thinking integrates Six Thinking Hats into daily situations uses a number of thinking frameworks in a variety of contexts

understands brainstorming concept participates in brainstorming activities to expand his/her own thinking uses imagination in thinking is prepared to take risks in brainstorming uses a number of thinking frameworks in a variety of contexts understands the difference between open and closed questions formulates open questions to gather a wide range of information seeks information by using imaginative thinking to adapt closed questions into open questions uses a number of thinking frameworks in a variety of contexts understands the concept of graphic organizers uses and selects appropriate graphic organizers for enhanced thinking interprets information from graphic organizers uses a number of thinking frameworks in a variety of contexts

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THINKING SKILLS OUTCOMES BANK


knows CoRT1 strategies understands and uses CoRT1 strategies in a variety of situations contributes effectively in group thinking sessions acknowledges thinking as a skill and reflects on own thinking processes uses a number of thinking frameworks in a variety of contexts knows CoRT2 and 4 strategies understands and uses CoRT2 and 4 strategies in a variety of situations uses creative thinking tools to advantage uses a number of thinking frameworks in a variety of contexts identifies steps in the creative problem solving process selects and uses the creative problem solving process to develop an action plan implements plan and evaluates the effect of the process transfers creative problem solving skills into real life situations uses a number of thinking frameworks in a variety of contexts