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Digital Communications
EE-6322
Dr. Sarmad Sohaib
Assistant Professor
Department of Electrical Engineering
University of Engineering and Technology, Taxila
sarmad.sohaib@uettaxila.edu.pk
Contact Details
Dr. Sarmad Sohaib
Room-16, Electrical Engineering Department
051 9047 558
Office hours: after class or by appointment
sarmad.sohaib@uettaxila.edu.pk
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Digital Communication (Dr. Sarmad Sohaib)
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Assessment and Grading
Quizzes 20%
No make-up quizzes
Mostly un announced so revise the last lec before coming
N-1 quizzes will be counted towards the final grading
Midterm exam 40%
Final exam 40%
Assignment
Will be given time to time for your own practice
Solve as many end of chapter problems as possible
University attendance policy will be adhered (85%)
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Digital Communication (Dr. Sarmad Sohaib)
Course Objective
To study the design and implementation of
digital communication systems
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Pre Requisites
Background in probability
Basic concepts of Signals & Systems
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Books
Text Books
Digital Communication: Third Edition, John R. Barry, Edward A.
Lee and David G. Messerschmitt (Photocopied chapters will be
provided)
Digital Communications, J. Proakis and M. Salehi, 5
th
edition, McGraw
Hill
Reference Books
Digital Communications, B. Sklar, 2
nd
edition, Prentice Hall,
ISBN:0130847887
Communication systems, S Haykin, 4th / 5th edition, Wiley.
Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems, B. P. Lathi,
Oxford Press, ISBN: 0195110099
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Tentative Course Contents
Introduction to Communication Systems.
Shannons Capacity and SNR
Fourier Transform review
Base band and Pass band signals.
Hilbert transform and Phase splitters
Down converters and Up converters
Signal Space Representation of Waveforms
Gram Schmidt Procedure
Digital Modulation Schemes
PAM, M-ary Communications
Detection Techniques
Min-distance, Maximum likelihood, MAP, LLR
Bit wise and symbol wise detection, decision regions
Power-vs-Bandwidth: The Shannon Limit
For different M-ary communication modulation schemes
Performance Analysis in AWGN
M-PAM, M-QAM
Fading Channel
Equalization
OFDM
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A Communication System
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Big Picture
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Information
source and input
transducer
Source
encoder
Channel
encoder
Digital
modulator
Channel
Output
transducer
Source
decoder
Channel
decoder
Digital
demodulator
Source
analog (e.g., audio, video) or digital
(e.g., output of a computer).
Source Coding (Data Compression)
The process of efficiently converting the output of
either an analog or digital source into a sequence
of binary digits.
Sequence of binary digits from the source encoder
is called information sequence
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Channel Encoder
Introduce redundancy in controlled manner.
Used at the receiver to overcome the effects of
noise and interference encountered in the
transmission of the signal through a channel.
Increases the reliability of the received data.
Mapping k-bit sequence into a unique n-bit
sequence, called a code word.
Code rate: k/n
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Digital Modulator
Interface to the communication channel
Maps the binary sequence into signal waveforms.
E.g.
binary digit 0 is mapped into a waveform s
0
(t)
binary digit 1 is mapped into a waveform s
1
(t)
b coded information bits can be transmitted using M=2
b
distinct
waveforms s
i
(t), i=0,1,,M-1, one waveform for each of the 2
b
possible b-bit sequences. (Also called M-ary modulation)
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Channel
Physical medium that is used to send the signal fro the
transmitter to the receiver
E.g. atmosphere (wireless), optical fiber cables,
microwave radio e.t.c.
It corrupts the transmitted signal in random manner
Additive thermal noise generated by electronic devices
Man-made noise, e.g., automobile ignition noise
Atmosphere noise, e.g., electrical lightning discharge during
thunderstorms
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Digital demodulator
Reduce the waveforms to a sequence of numbers
that represent estimates of the transmitted data
symbols (binary or M-ary)
Channel decoder
Attempts to reconstruct the original information
sequence from knowledge of the code used by the
channel encoder and redundancy contained in the
received data
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Source decoder
Accepts the output sequence from the channel
decoder
Attempts to reconstruct the original signal that was
transmitted from the source
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Measure of distortion introduced by
Digital Communication System (DCS)
Probability of a bit-error
It is a measure of how well the demodulator and
decoder perform
It is a function of
code characteristics
type of waveform used for information transmission
transmit power
characteristics of channel
method of demodulation and decoding
Bit error rate (BER)
Worst possible BER ?
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Mathematical Models for
Communication Channels
Reflects the most important characteristics of
the transmission medium
Helps in designing the channel encoder and
modulator at transmitter and the demodulator
and channel decoder at the receiver
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The additive noise channel
Simplest mathematical model
Additive noise process may arise from electronic components
and amplifiers at the receiver of the communication system or
from interference encountered in transmission
If the noise has Gaussian distribution it is called additive white
Gaussian noise (AWGN)
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+
s(t)
n(t)
r(n)=s(t)+n(t)
Channel
Linear Filter Channel
Filter used to ensure that the transmitted signals do not exceed
specified bandwidth limitations and thus do not interfere with
one another.
Such channels are generally characterized mathematically as
linear filter channels with additive noise
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+
s(t)
n(t)
r(n) = h(t) * s(t) + n(t)
h(t) is the impulse response of the linear filter
* denotes convolution
Channel
Linear
Filter
h(t)
Linear Time-variant Filter Channel
Characterizes time-invariant multipath propagation of the transmitted signal
Such filters are characterized by a time-variant channel impulse response
h(;t), where h(;t) is the response of the channel at time t due to an impulse
applied at time t-
represents the age (elapsed-time) variable
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+
s(t)
n(t)
Channel
Linear
Filter
h(;t)
( ) ( ) ( ; ) ( )
( ; ) ( ) ( )
r t s t h t n t
h t s t d n t

= +
= +

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3 key parameters for reliable
communication
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s(t)
r(t)
H(f)
n(t)
Signal power P [W]
Bandwidth W [Hz]
one-sided
Noise power spectral density N
0
[W/Hz]
2
0
The 3 combine to give signal-to-noise ratio at Rx ( )
P
SNR H f
N W
(
=

Thinking in 20s (Before Shannon)
Nyquist [1924]: The maximum symbol rate is W complex symbols/second
Complex symbol send as : real x cos (.) imaginary x sin(.)
Only has to do with sampling theorem
Deterministic idea, as there is no noise.
If the symbols alphabet is A, then each symbol conveys log
2
|A| bits.
R
b
=W log
2
|A| (W=symbol rate)
A={-1,1}(one bit per sample) R
b
=W (BPSK)
A={1j} (two bits per sample) R
b
=2W (4-QAM)
A={1,2,3,} R
b
= (Problem with this alphabet)
Hartley [1928]: With amplitude constraint A, and determinist resolution
, the maximum bit rate is:
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2
log
b
A
R W
+ | |
=
|
\
What will be the size of alphabet as a
function of A and ?
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+A
-A
Deal with
the power
constraint
2
Point separation for
detecting the
element at receiver
(i.e. dealing with
noise)
Modulation was instantaneous
i.e. you map a bit to a symbol or a collection of
bits to a symbol
Now we take block of 10,000 bits and map it
to a block of 5000 or 10,000 symbols.
Increase signal noise or power, or live with
inevitable noise.
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Turning Point: Claude Shannon, 1948
The father of information theory and modern communication theory
1948 paper A (The) Mathematical Theory of Communication
Quantified information; separation theorem; noisy channel theorem
Two forms of the channel capacity (speed limit) for H(f) -- constant over
bandwidth W
Given W, P, the maximum bit rate is:
Give W, R
b
, the minimum SNR is:
The speed limit:
a modem achieving bit rate R
b
with no errors R
b
< C
How to get close?
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2
0
log 1
P
C W
N W
| |
= +
|
\
/
0
2 1
b
R W
P
N W
=
Review: Deterministic Signal
Processing
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Notation
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Examples
Energy of s(t) = cos(200t)?
Energy of x(t) = e^{-t}u(t)?
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Some Important Signals-I
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1 | | 1/ 2
( ) 1/ 2 1/ 2
0 otherwise
t
rect t t
<

= =

1 1 0
( ) ( ) ( ) 1 0 1
0 otherwise
t t
t rect t rect t t t
+ <

= = + <

Some Important Signals-II


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1 0
sgn( ) 1 0
0 t=0
t
t t
>

= <

sin( )
0
sinc ( )
0
1
t
t
t t
t


=

=

t
t
1
-1
Some Important Signals-III
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1 0
( ) 1/ 2 0
0 t<0
t
u t t
>

= =

Also known as unit step function


Fourier Transforms (F.T.)
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2
( ) ( )
j f t
X f x t e dt

2
( ) ( )
j f t
x t X f e df

LTI system
h(t)
x(t)
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
Fourier
y t x t h t
x h t d
X f f Y H f

=
=
=

c
Frequency response
Fourier Transform (FT)
Inverse Fourier Transform (IFT)
| ( ) | response
( ) response
H f magnitude
H f phase


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F.T. Example-1
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sin( )
( ) ( ) sinc( )
t f T
x t rect X f T f T T
T f T

| |
= = =
|
\

sin(2 )
( ) ( ) 2 sinc(2 ) 2
2 2
f W t
G f rect g t W W t W
W W t

| |
= = =
|
\

T/2 -T/2
1 x(t)
W -W
1 G(f)
t
f
f
0
1/T
2/T
-1/T
T
X(f)
t
0
1/(2W)
2/(2W)
-1/(2W)
2W
x(t)
F.T. Example-2
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0
2
0
( ) ( ) ( )
j f t
x t e X f f f

= =
Delay in time domain phase shift in frequency domain
AND VICE VERSA
0
2
0
( ) ( ) ( )
j f t
x t t t X f e


= =
F.T. Example-3
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0 0
2 2
0
0 0
1 1
( ) cos(2 )
2 2
1 1
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
j f t j f t
x t f t e e
X f f f f f

= = +
= + +
c
0
f
0
-f
0
f
1/2 1/2
F.T. Example-4
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0 0
2 2
0
0 0
1 1
( ) sin(2 )
2 2
1 1
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
j f t j f t
x t f t e e
j j
X f f f f f
j j

= =
= +
c
0
f
0
-f
0
f
1/(2j)
-1/(2j)
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F.T. Example-5
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( ) 1 t
t 0
( ) t
f 0
1
1 ( ) f
f 0
( ) f
t 0
1
Filtering
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Baseband versus Passband
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