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Motivation is one of the most important factors affecting human behaviour and performance. This is the reason why managers attach great importance to motivation in organizational setting. Effective directing of people leads the organization to effectiveness, both at organizational and individual levels.

Motivation and Its Definition:

The willingness to exert high level of effort to reach organizational goals, conditioned by the efforts ability to satisfy some individual need. Robert Dubin defines Motivation as the complex forces starting and keeping a person at work in an organization. Motivation is something that moves the person to action. and continues him in the course of action of action already initiated

Nature of Motivation:
On the basis of the above description, the following characteristics of motivation can be identified 1.Motivation is a psychological concept. It is based on human needs which generate within an individual. Needs are feelings which influence the behaviour and activities of the individual. 2.Motivation is total, not piece-meal. A person cannot be motivated in parts. An employee is an indivisible unite and he needs are interrelated. He cannot be motivated by fulfilling some of his needs partly.

3.Motivation is a continuous process. It is not a time bound programme or a touch-and-go affair. Human needs are infinite. A soon as one need is satisfied new ones arise. 4.Motivation causes goal-directed behaviour. A person behaves in such a way that he can satisfy his goals or needs. 5.Motivation may be financial or non-financial. The form of motivation depends upon the type of needs. Financial incentives include pay, allowance, bonus and prerequisites. Non-financial incentives consist of recognition, praise, responsibility, participation in decision-making, challenging job ,etc.,

6.Motivation is a complex process. There is no universal theory or approach to motivation. Moreover, individuals differ in what motivates them. Therefore, a manager has to analyze and understand variety of needs and has to use variety of rewards to satisfy them. He should not expect overnight results.

Types of Motivation
There are two types of motivation, Intrinsic and Extrinsic motivation. It's important to understand that we are not all the same; thus effectively motivating your employees requires that you gain an understanding of the different types of motivation. Such an understanding will enable you to better categorize your team members and apply the appropriate type of motivation. You will find each member different and each member's motivational needs will be varied as well. Some people respond best to intrinsic which means "from within" and will meet any obligation of an area of their passion. Quite the reverse, others will respond better to extrinsic motivation which, in their world, provides that difficult tasks can be dealt with provided there is a reward upon completion of that task. Become an expert in determining which type will work best with which team members.

Intrinsic Motivation
Intrinsic motivation means that the individual's motivational stimuli are coming from within. The individual has the desire to perform a specific task, because its results are in accordance with his belief system or fulfills a desire and therefore importance is attached to it.

Our deep-rooted desires have the highest motivational power. Below are some examples:

Acceptance: We all need to feel that we, as well as our decisions, are accepted by our coworkers. Curiosity: We all have the desire to be in the know. Honor: We all need to respect the rules and to be ethical. Independence: We all need to feel we are unique. Order: We all need to be organized. Power: We all have the desire to be able to have influence. Social contact: We all need to have some social interactions. Social Status: We all have the desire to feel important.

Extrinsic Motivation
Extrinsic motivation means that the individual's motivational stimuli are coming from outside. In other words, our desires to perform a task are controlled by an outside source. Note that even though the stimuli are coming from outside, the result of performing the task will still be rewarding for the individual performing the task. Extrinsic motivation is external in nature. The most well-known and the most debated motivation is money. Below are some other examples:

Employee of the month award Benefit package Bonuses Organized activities

Theories of Motivation:
A. Maslows Need Hierarchy Theory B. Herzbergs Motivation-Hygiene Theory C. McGregors Theory X and Theory Y D. Theory Z E. Alderfers ERG Theory F. Vrooms Expectancy Theory G. Porter-Lawler Model of Motivation

PORTER LAWLER THEORY OF MOTIVATION Lyman W. Porter and Edward E. Lawler developed a more complete version of motivation depending upon expectancy theory.

Actual performance in a job is primarily determined by the effort spent. But it is also affected by the persons ability to do the job and also by individuals perception of what the required task is. So performance is the responsible factor that leads to intrinsic as well as extrinsic rewards. These rewards, along with the equity of individual leads to satisfaction. Hence, satisfaction of the individual depends upon the fairness of the reward. .

Effort: Effort refers to the amount of energy exerted by an employee on a given task. Perceived reward probability refers to the individuals perception of the probability that differential rewards depend upon differential amounts of effort. These two factors value of reward and perception of effort reward probability determine the amount of effort that the employee will put in.

2. Performance: Effort leads to performance but both these may not be equal; rather, performance is determined by the amount f effort and the ability and role perception of the individual. Thus, if an individual has little ability and/or inaccurate role perception, his performance may be ineffective in spite of his putting in great efforts.

3. Rewards: Performance is seen as leading to intrinsic rewards and extrinsic rewards. However, the intrinsic rewards are much more likely to produce attitudes about satisfaction that are related to performance. 4. Satisfaction: Satisfaction is derived from the extent to which actual rewards fall short, meet or exceed the individuals perceived level of equitable rewards. If actual rewards meet or exceed perceived equitable rewards, the individual will feel satisfied; if these are less than equitable rewards, he will be dissatisfied.

Examples :
Building a better workplace through motivation

1. Kellogg's case study This case study focuses on how Kellogg's motivates its people. It illustrates how the use of motivational techniques helps to develop the business as a 'great place to work'Within Kellogg's, there is a variety of functions and work roles. These include engineering operatives in the manufacturing section. Others work in finance, marketing, sales, information technology or human resources. Keeping everybody motivated no matter what their role is not easy. Kellogg's was recently placed in the top 100 of the Best Companies to Work For list in The Sunday Times. Values and motivation:

Kellogg's values and culture support its role as a good employer. Encouraging everyone to live by the K-Values throughout the whole business creates a culture of people that have ownership over their own projects and strive for continuous improvement and industry-leading results.These values influence the behaviour of individuals within the workplace, making Kellogg's a positive place to work. Employees are encouraged to speak positively about each other when apart, focusing on their strengths. This involves listening to others and accepting their right to their own views regarding the workplace.

The benefits of Kellogg's investing in people can best be illustrated by looking at the work of some of the theorists who have worked on motivation. The remainder of the case study shows how Kellogg's commitment to creating a 'great place to work' is supported by these theories.

Generating ideas

The Kellogg's suggestion box scheme helps to generate ideas and improve productivity. Kellogg's also shows its commitment to making its business a great place to work. It provides personal development planning for employees which includes provisions such as secondments and study leave as part of staff development. This reinforces staff commitment and their sense of being treated well.


This case study illustrates the range of different motivation measures in practice at Kellogg's. It demonstrates that highly motivated employees can improve efficiency, output and quality for a business.Motivating staff helps to make them more committed to the workplace. By understanding the effects of different motivation techniques, Kellogg's is able to make work a more exciting and interesting experience for employees whilst creating a more productive, profitable and competitive business.

2.Building Intrinsic Motivation in the Indian Manufacturing Sector

Questionnaire-based survey to examine the intrinsic motivational state of the employees working in companies from the manufacturing sector (both private and public) in India. The respondents of the survey include males and females, married as well as unmarried, in the age group of 20 to 62 years, with varying qualifications. Part A of the questionnaire contains personal information about the respondent. Part B of the questionnaire contains 28 questions on intrinsic motivators and self-reported performance.Three intrinsic motivators: perceived competence, perceived autonomy and perceived relatedness were chosen for the study. It proposes two types of motivation: Autonomous Controlled Autonomy involves acting with a sense of volition and having the experience. Intrinsic motivation is an example of autonomous motivation. Controlled motivation involves acting under pressure. It is an example of extrinsic motivation. The theory proposes that the individuals have three innate psychological needs. These are: Need for competence: It concerns succeeding at optimally challenging tasks and being able to attain desired outcomes. Need for autonomy: It concerns experiencing choice and feeling like initiator of ones own actions. Need for relatedness: It concerns establishing a sense of mutual respect and reliance with others. These are essential for ongoing psychological growth, integrity and well-being. Satisfaction of these needs will enhance intrinsic motivation Managerial autonomy support, defined as managers acknowledgment of their subordinates perspective, providing information in a non-controlling way, offering choice and encouraging self-initiation were associated with employees being more satisfied with their jobs, having a higher level of trust in management and positive work-related attitudes.

Studies have also found that managers autonomy support led to greater satisfaction of the needs for competence, relatedness and autonomy. This in turn led to more job satisfaction, higher performance, greater persistence, greater acceptance of organizational change and better psychological adjustment based on studies in actual work settings. Measurement of independent and dependent variables was done to examine the relationship between intrinsic motivators and performance as a measure of overall motivation. Independent Variables in the Study Intrinsic motivators It is treated as an independent variable. It is supposed to be strongly influenced by competence, autonomy and relatedness dimensions. Competence: It concerns succeeding in optimally challenging tasks and being able to attain desired outcomes. It has been measured through statements addressing issues like I am good at work, I have done well at this work, I feel confident after working for sometime, I am satisfied with my work and I am satisfied with the challenges provided by work (Items 2-7). Autonomy: It concerns experiencing choice and the feeling of being the initiator of ones own actions. Autonomy was measured through statements such as I enjoy working here, I feel like working here, I could select the way of working/ timing, My superiors are supportive of my actions, I am not unnecessarily worried if I make a mistake and I am encouraged to take initiatives (Items 1, 8-11, 16-17, 25-26). Relatedness: It concerns establishing a sense of mutual respect and reliance with others. It has been measured through statements like I can trust co-workers, I am proud to be working here, I feel related to company goals, the supervisor is sensitive to our feelings and supports in a noncontrolling manner (Items 12-15). Dependent Variable Performance Employee performance has been taken as the indicator of their overall motivation level. It has been measured with the help of statements on adequacy of rewards, recognition of work, feedback and opportunities for self-development .

Sub-Grouping of Demographic Variables The information of the respondents in terms of age, total experience, educational qualification and the background from which they come has been used to check their effect on performance

Results A total of 227 usable responses were obtained from six companies of manufacturing sector. The details show that the officers are predominantly male, with female being only eight in number. The number of married personnel is much higher, as is the number of respondents in above 35 years age group. The age of respondents varies from 20 to 62 years, with the average being 39 years. The experience of respondents varies from 0.5 years to 43 years, with the average being 16 years. The respondents from urban background are more than those from rural background. A number of respondents have varied educational and have been grouped under miscellaneous category. The data shows that the mean of intrinsic motivating factors increases with age. Similarly, average performance value also increases with age. With experience, the mean competence value increases. Means of autonomy and relatedness are also higher for higher age groups. Postgraduates enjoy higher competence which is expected as they are better qualified. Engineers score over the graduates. This is understandable, as engineers are more suitably qualified for the sector. Respondents from rural and urban background do not have significantly different intrinsic motivators and performance.

Conclusion: All three intrinsic motivators do not have equal influence on overall motivation of the employees in the manufacturing sector. Competence of employees has negligible influence on their performance (overall motivation). On the other hand, perceived relatedness has strong influence on performance. Autonomy has moderate influence on performance. Autonomy has more influence with increasing age, indicating autonomy is more appreciated by people of higher age groups. Relatedness has more influence on performance of lower and middle age groups. Relatedness has strong influence on performance of low and high experience groups. Means of autonomy and relatedness are highest for postgraduates and lowest for graduates. Autonomy has strong influence on performance of graduates and postgraduates, whereas, it has moderate influence on performance of engineers and miscellaneous degree holders. Autonomy and relatedness have strong influence on performance for employees of both backgrounds.