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by Amy N. Sissala An Engineering Project Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ENGINEERING IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Hartford, Connecticut August, 2012 (For Graduation December 2012)

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CONTENTS

Finite Element Analysis of a Simple Tension Specimen Using Progressive Failure Feature in ABAQUS ..................................................................................................... i LIST OF SYMBOLS ........................................................................................................ iv LIST OF TABLES ............................................................................................................. v LIST OF FIGURES .......................................................................................................... vi LIST OF KEYWORDS ................................................................................................... vii ACKNOWLEDGMENT ................................................................................................ viii ABSTRACT ..................................................................................................................... ix 1. Introduction and Literature Review ............................................................................. 1 2. Problem Statement ....................................................................................................... 3 3. Theory .......................................................................................................................... 4 4. Methodology ................................................................................................................ 5 4.1 4.2 Model Geometry and Material Properties .......................................................... 5 Analysis .............................................................................................................. 9

5. Results........................................................................................................................ 12 5.1 5.2 Model without Element Deletion (ABAQUS/Standard).................................. 12 Model with Element Deletion (ABAQUS/Explicit) ........................................ 13

6. Conclusion ................................................................................................................. 16 7. References.................................................................................................................. 17 8. Appendices ................................................................................................................ 18 8.1 ABAQUS Keyword File .................................................................................. 18

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LIST OF SYMBOLS

= Stress [ksi] E = Elastic Modulus [ksi] = Strain [in/in] = Poissons Ratio = Shear Stress [ksi]

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Type 1 Standard Tension Specimen Dimensions ................................................ 6 Table 2: HY-80 Material Properties .................................................................................. 7 Table 3: Stress-Strain Values for HY-80 Steel .................................................................. 8 Table 4: Finite Element Model Load Ramping ............................................................... 10

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1: Type 1 Standard Tension Specimen ................................................................... 5 Figure 2: Tension Specimen Finite Element Model .......................................................... 6 Figure 3: Stress-Strain Curve for HY-80 Steel at Various Temperatures (7).................... 7 Figure 4: Finite Element Model Boundary Conditions ..................................................... 9 Figure 5: Finite Element Loads ....................................................................................... 10 Figure 6: Finite Element Model without Element Deletion Option ................................ 12 Figure 7: Finite Element Model with Element Deletion Option Before Failure ............. 13 Figure 8: Finite Element Model with Element Deletion Immediately After Failure ...... 14 Figure 9: Final Finite Element Model with Element Deletion ........................................ 15

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LIST OF KEYWORDS

Finite Element Analysis ABAQUS Progressive Failure HY-80

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ACKNOWLEDGMENT

I would like to thank my advisor, Ernesto Gutierrez-Miravete, for his advice and guidance of this project. Also I thank Kevin Black for helping edit the grammar and readability of the paper.

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ABSTRACT

The focus of this project is finite element modeling using progressive failure of HY-80 steel in tension. A piece of steel will fail through plasticity and cracking under tension. The finite element code ABAQUS calculates the stress for each integration point in each element. It also includes an addition feature to zero out the stresses at integration points that pass a predefined limit. The ASTM A770/A770M-8 Standard Specification for Through-Thickness Tension Testing of Steel Plates for Special Applications offers a simple specimen and scenario to perform a study of how accurate the progressive failure feature in ABAQUS is. Stress was tracked throughout each analysis. Failure stress is a common variable reported for materials and can aid in designing structures. The areas of highest stress occur near the failure point in the middle of the specimen. In the end the ABAQUS progressive failure feature provides a more accurate view of the realistic results of loading steel to failure by account for those elements that have failed and can no longer carry any stress.

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Material strength and failure govern engineering design of structures. The goal of design is to optimize the strength while reducing weight and cost. This pushes materials to their limits and makes it important to know their failure behavior. This helps the engineer schedule adequate inspections and assists the inspector recognizing the manifestations of material failure. Ductile materials, such as high strength steel, fail through two processes: plasticity and damage mechanics. Plasticity is a non-reversible change in shape in response to applied forces due to dislocations along the slip planes inside the materials microscopic structure. Damage mechanics, on the other hand, is the nucleation, growth, and coalescence of microdamages in regions of high stress (1). Physical testing of every material in a load situation can be expensive and time consuming. Therefore, many finite element software codes, such as ABAQUS/Explicit 6.11, offer a progressive failure element option. Chang-Sik Oh had success using ABAQUS to create a stress-strain curve of a material loaded into deformation. The team also performed various sensitivity tests on the element density of their model (2). When loads are applied, deformation occurs in the component. As the component deforms, it loses its ability to carry the applied stress. The load propagating through that section is then applied elsewhere, possibly loading another microscopic section to failure. As loading continues, the stress distribution and elastic modulus are decreased (3). This process can continue until the specimen fractures and macro cracks appear. In a standard finite element analysis, elements never lose their ability to carry loads. However, the stress continues to climb until the loading reaches equilibrium, even after reaching the materials limit. It is the engineers responsibility during post processing job to identify the areas where the material would fail. This does not accurately represent what occurs in realistic application. In an explicit finite element analysis, when the stress at an elements integration point reaches its defined maximum, the point is set equal to zero. In order to do this the finite element code forces the particular value in the stress matrix to equal zero. This is how progressive failure is modeled, which identifies more realistically the areas of the

model that fail and become ineffective at carrying stresses. The progressive failure option also identifies the time the integration point fails for an increasing load (4). In order to study the progressive failure element option, a test with known and verified results was chosen for analysis. ASTM A770/A770M-8, Standard Specification for Through-Thickness Tension Testing of Steel Plates for Special Applications, is a common test that has been performed on various types of materials. By using a known test, the area and values of maximum stress and failure are known.

2. Problem Statement

Engineers study failure in order to understand when and how it occurs in a structure. If the engineer knows when failure occurs for various materials, the appropriate material can be chosen from the beginning and a schedule of inspections can be established. By studying how failure occurs, engineers and inspectors can prevent critical failure through observation. The two main techniques of studying failure are physical testing and computer analysis. Traditional materials and structures have been tested in a lab, but this is time consuming, costly, and subject to human error. With the increasing capacity of computers and advanced finite element software, analytical testing has become more popular. With computers, the same specimen or model can be run in various scenarios multiple times with little time or effort. Also, more complex scenarios that are not possible in a laboratory setting can be studied. Basic finite element codes record the maximum stress, force, and other values in an element with no regard for material limits. The codes have slowly advanced to allow for progressive failures of elements. As the plastic stress is reached, the integration points stress is set to zero and therefore they stop carrying load. This is more accurate of a portion of the specimen failing. Once all integration points of an element fail, it can then be removed from the model. This replicates the plasticity that actually occurs.

3. Theory

The stress-strain relationship for an elastic material is defined below where is the stress, E is the elastic modulus, and is the strain.

= Equation 1

=

Equation 2

Stresses can be calculated where their value is the same regardless of the coordinate system, such as von Mises stress, vm. Von Mises stress is generally used to predict the onset of yielding in ductile materials. Von Mises stresses uses the general stress axial, , and shear, , components as calculated with Equation 3 (5).

=

+ + + + + /

Equation 3

In finite element theory, the results are calculated at every node or integration point of an element. For example, for a C3D8R and C3D6R there are eight and six nodes respectively. Each element may or may not be connected to another via the nodes. This way each element is related to the next and the applied loads are carried through the structure. Finite element codes represent every element and node in large matrices. The progressive failure option sets an integration point to zero when a set stress limit, the failure stress limit of the material, is reached. This places a zero into the appropriate matrix in the finite element code. Physically, this means that this portion of the element has failed and can no longer carry loads or stresses. Once all the integration points of an element have been set to zero the element is deleted from the model. Though, this option can be overridden. The loads and stresses must redistribute themselves to other areas. Essentially that integration point has failed.

4. Methodology

Engineers rely on knowing the method of failure of materials in their design. Knowing when and how a material will fail leads to a more efficient design and use of material. ABAQUS/Explicit 11.0 helps analyze material failure by incorporating a progressive failure element option into their software. In order to explore the progressive failure feature, a simple test with accepted results was modeled. This model follows the ASTM standard for a simple tension test. The method of this study is the following: CAD Model of Tension Specimen Verification in ABAQUS/Standard 11.0 in Section 5.1 Increasing Failure in ABAQUS/Explicit 11.0 in Section 5.2 Analysis of Stresses

The model geometry follows the criteria in ASTM Standard A770/A770M-03, Standard Specification for Through-Thickness Tension Testing of Steel Plates for Special Applications (6). A type 1 specimen represents a one inch thick piece of steel, called the reduced section. This is held in place in the testing machine by two thicker ends, or caps. Figure 1 shows the shape of the type 1 standard tension specimen. The values for the symbols are given in Table 1.

Plate Thickness (t) Diameter (D) Radius (R) Length of Reduced Section (A)

To simplify the model, only half of the specimen was modeled and symmetric boundary conditions were applied to the edge. Figure 2 displays the modeled and meshed specimen in ABAQUS CAE.

The material of the model is HY-80, high strength steel. This is a common material used in pressure vessels, heavy equipment, and large steel structures. It has a high tensile strength, high ductility, and is weldable. Table 2 describes the material properties of HY-80 steel (7).

The other material property in the model was the stress-strain curve. This curve tracks how much a material deforms as it reaches its yield stress and failure stress. Holmquist did a series of tests of HY-80 steel at various temperatures and created the curve in Figure 3. A table of values taken from the curve is in Table 3.

Stress (ksi) Strain 100 102 109 116 123 131 138 144 138 133 0 0.007 0.02 0.039 0.05 0.065 0.09 0.138 0.18 0.20

In the test, the specimen was held at both ends and a force is applied in opposite directions. In the model, the centers of the two caps are held in all six degrees of freedom. The symmetric half of the model was also held to not allow displacement in the x direction and rotation about the y direction. Doing this forced the elements to act as if the rest of the specimen is adjacent to them, thereby simulating a complete specimen.

In order for the elements to zero out their stresses once failure had been reached, two lines had to be added to the ABAQUS keyword file. The tension failure and shear failure keywords can be seen in Appendix 8.1.

4.2 Analysis

The goal of this explicit finite element analysis was to stress the elements such that they reach their failure stress and are subsequently deleted from the model. Since a wellknown test and material was used, a tensile strength of 80 ksi is given (7). Therefore, the stress was monitored throughout the analysis to validate the model and the process. The specimen was loaded in two ways: by forcing an opposing deflection at the caps and by placing two opposing loads at the caps. The deflection load was used in ABAQUS/Standard and the force was used in ABAQUS/Explicit in order to aid convergence. The load was applied to induce failure throughout the reduction area. In

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order to ensure that the model did not crash due to excessive deformation, the load was applied with an increasing amplitude. The steps can be seen in Table 4.

Figure 5: Finite Element Loads Table 4: Finite Element Model Load Ramping

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Several iterations of the model were performed to examine how failure spread across the specimen. Initially, the model was run without the element failure feature turned on to examine the necking phenomenon often seen in testing. To apply the load in this case, a forced deflection was applied to the caps. After the model was verified, the load was continually increased until all elements in the reduction area were observed to fail. Once the analysis was complete, the model was post processed in order to find the maximum von Mises stresses. This value was compared to the known tensile strength of HY-80 steel to confirm the accuracy of the model.

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5. Results

The model consisted of 2548 elements using a combination of C3D8R and C3D6R. The elements were chosen because the reduced integration option would shorten the computing time.

A total deflection of 0.21 inches was applied to the top and bottom of the specimen. As shown in Figure 6, the specimen starts to neck in the center of the reduction area. This is the same result that is seen in physical testing. This verifies that the model produces realistic results. The maximum von Mises stress seen by the model was 179 ksi. The fracture stress from Table 3 is 144 ksi. Since the stress in the model is above the fracture stress the model is accurately representing the physical application.

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For the analysis including the element deletion the load was ramped over the total analysis time of 0.05 seconds. This avoided any errors in the analysis code due to excessive failure in the specimen. It also enabled the program to save results showing how the specimen was slowly loaded and then failed. Figure 7 shows the specimen just before failure where the load applied is 425 kips. The red in the fringe shows the high stress through out the reduction area while the end caps are less stressed. The maximum von Mises stress is 133 ksi, just below the element deletion threshold of 144 ksi.

Figure 7: Finite Element Model with Element Deletion Option Before Failure

Figure 8 is the specimen after the maximum von Mises stress has reached 144 ksi. As shown, the elements in the middle of the reduction area have started to fail at their integration points. As that happens, the load must be carried by other elements.

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Figure 8: Finite Element Model with Element Deletion Immediately After Failure

Figure 9 shows the specimen at the end of the 0.05 second explicit analysis. The final maximum von Mises stress is 126 ksi. There are some indications of trouble with the finite element solver in the lower portion of the model as seen by the dissentious fringe. This could be resolved through adjusting the ramping and time limit of the analysis. This value is lower than the final von Mises stress for the ABAQUS/Standard analysis without element deletion. Yet this analysis is more accurate to the physical limitations of the material. It cannot carry load beyond the failure limit.

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6. Conclusion

Material strength and failure govern engineering design of structures. The goal of design is to optimize the strength while reducing weight and cost. This pushes materials to their limits and makes it important to know their failure behavior. This helps the engineer schedule adequate inspections and the inspector recognize the manifestations of material failure. Physical testing of every material in a load situation is expensive and time consuming. Therefore, many finite element software codes, such as ABAQUS/Explicit 6.11, offer a progressive failure element option. In an explicit finite element analysis, when the stress at an elements integration point reaches its defined maximum, the point is set equal to zero. This is how progressive failure is modeled, which identifies more realistically the areas of the model that fail and become ineffective at carrying stresses. The progressive failure option also identifies the time the integration point fails for an increasing load (4). In order to study the progressive failure element option, a test with known and verified results was chosen for analysis. ASTM A770/A770M-8, Standard Specification for Through-Thickness Tension Testing of Steel Plates for Special Applications, is a common test that has been performed on various types of materials. After establishing that the model behaved as expected in ABAQUS/Standard, i.e. necking and high stress in the reduction area, the model was put under tension with the tension failure defined as the failure stresses. The progressive failure option performed as expected. It accurately loaded the specimen, indicating material failure in the reduction area. It accurate predicted that after the tension failure limit was reached in the reduction area, that area would fail and the load would be carried by the smaller sections at either end. The next step after this study is to explore some of the other codes available that specifically model cracks and calculate their stresses. Instead of removing the elements from the model, elements are disconnected along the crack and then the stresses recalculated.

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7. References

1. Rashid K. Abu Al-Rub, George Z. Voyiadjis. On the coupling of anisotropic damage and plasitcity models for ductile materials. 2003, International Journal of Solids and Structures 40, pp. 2611-2643. 2. Chang-Sik Oh, Nak-Hyun Kim, Yun-Jae Kim, Jong-Hyun Baek, Young-Pyo Kim, Woo-Sik Kim. A finite element ductile failure simulation method using stressmodified fracture strain model. 2011, Engineering Fracture Mechanics 78, pp. 124-137. 3. Ellingwood, Baidurya Bhattacharya and Bruce. Continuum damage mechanics analysis of fatigue crack initiation. 1998, International Journal of Fatigue 9, pp. 631-639. 4. DCS Simulia. ABAQUS 6.11 Analysis User's Manual. Abaqus 6.11 Documentation. Providence : s.n., 2011, p. 22.2.8. 5. Robert Cook, David Malkus, Michael Pelsha, and Robert Witt. Concepts and Applications of Finite Element Analysis. New York City : John Wiley & Sons, INC, 2002. ISBN: 0-471-35605-0. 6. ASTM International. Standard Specification for Through-Thickness Tension Testing of Steel Plates for Special Applications. 2012, pp. A770/A770M-03. 7. Matweb. HY-80 Material Properties. [Online] [Cited: July 16, 2012.] 8. T.J., Holmquist. Strength and Fracture Characteristics of HY-80, HY-100, and HY130 Steels Subjected to Various Strains, Strain Rates, Temperatures, and Pressures. Dahigren, VA and Silver Spring, MA : Naval Surface Warfare Center, Research and Technology Department, 1987. 9. Robert Cook, David Malkus, Michael Pelsha, and Robert Witt. Concepts and Applications of Finite Element Analysis. New York City : John Wiley & Sons, INC, 2002. ISBN: 0-471-35605-0.

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*Amplitude, name=Amp-1 0., 0.6 0.04, ** ** MATERIALS ** *Material, name=HY-80 *Density 0.00073499, *Elastic 3e+07, 0.3 *Plastic 100000., 0. 0.8, 0.05, 1. 0., 0.01, 0.2, 0.02, 0.4, 0.03,

102000., 0.007 109000., 0.02 116000., 0.039 123000., 0.05 131000., 0.065 138000., 0.09 144000., 0.138 138000., 0.18 133000., 0.2 *TENSILE FAILURE, ELEMENT DELETION=YES 144000 *SHEAR FAILURE, ELEMENT DELETION=YES 116000 ** ---------------------------------------------------------------18

** ** STEP: Explicit Load ** *Step, name="Explicit Load" *Dynamic, Explicit , 0.05 *Bulk Viscosity 0.06, 1.2 ** ** BOUNDARY CONDITIONS ** ** Name: BC-1 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre *Boundary _PickedSet19, XSYMM ** ** LOADS ** ** Name: Load-2 Type: Body force *Dload, amplitude=Amp-1 _PickedSet26, BY, -300000. ** Name: Positive Type: Body force *Dload, amplitude=Amp-1 _PickedSet27, BY, 300000. ** ** OUTPUT REQUESTS ** *Restart, write, number interval=1, time marks=NO ** ** FIELD OUTPUT: F-Output-1 ** *Output, field, variable=PRESELECT

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