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Curva de dao motor 1.

1 Motor heating curves are difficult to obtain and vary considerably with various sizes and designs. Further, they are an approximate average of a difficult-to- define thermal zone where varying degrees of damage or shortened insulation life may occur. Thus, it becomes difficult for any design to adequately approximate these variable curves over the entire range from light sustained overloads to the severe locked rotor overload. The thermal overload relays give good protection at the light and medium (long time ) overloads but frequently may not provide adequate protection on heavy overloads as shown in fig. 5-1. The long-time induction over-protects at light and medium overloads. Hence, compromises are required. Some of the more common applications of these types of relays are outlined in chart IV. The application of both type relays (sheme1) is recommended as it gives the best protection. When the thermal overload relay is used, the long time relay can be set high to reduce over protection inherent at light loads with this characteristic. On large motors (around 200-300 HP) there is increasing tendency for the starting time to be greater than the locked rotor locked time. This makes it impossible for the overcurrent relays to distinguish or provide adequate protection at these high currents. NOTE 1: Replica type relay such as BL-1. Adjustment is change in contact setting. Normal setting provides operation in 60 minutes at 125%IR. Can be set at 15 minutes at 125% current. NOTE2: Time selected so that operation occurs on locked rotor current but not on motor starting when starting time is less than locked rotor time. Where data is not available, this setting can be obtained by successive motor starts and advancing the time setting until relay operation does not occur, the add around 1-5 sec to relay operating time. Typical setting might be 10 sec on locked rotor current magnitude. If the relay are used for alarm only settings are reduced to 115% except where service factors or short time overload ratings exist. NOTE 3: This is difficult to determine as d-c offset currents may occur particulary when starting large motors. Setting is best obtained by successive starts to determine the no operation setting and then increasing pick-up approximately 10%. Typical settings might be 160 to 170 of locked rotor current although settings as high as 250 may be rquied. This may be 12 to 15 times rated motor current. NOTE 4: Decision to trip or alarm depends on emphasis placed on service continuity and motor protection. For essential motors of power house auxiliaries (where failure would cause shutdown of generating capacity) alarms are frequently used so that operator can take corrective measures to avoid shut-down or transfer generation before shut-down.

1. Description of Thermal Relays Thermal relays are of two types: one operates from exploring coils embedded in the machine windings such as the types CT and DT -3, and the other directly from the current drawn by the machine as the type BL-1. The first are applied only to large motors, usually 1000 to 1500HP and up where exploring coils are available. The second are the replica type thermal overcurrent relays applied as outlined in Chart IV. The exploring coils form part of a Wheatstone Bridge circuit which is balanced at a particular temperature. As the motor temperature changes the bridge is unbalanced to operate the relay. The type CT or DT-3 relays are applied. With the type CT, two exploring coils are used as shown in Fig. 5-2. The operation unit is an induction disc with the two torque producing windings connected across the bridge. Current from one phase of the machine through a current transformer is used to supply the energy to the bridge. The relay closes contacts when the temperature of the stator windings reach a predetermined value; the current flowing in one line determines the time of operation. Tripping is prevented on starting if the starting duty is within the machine capability because both high temperature and overcurrent must be present for relay operation. In addition, tripping is prevented on thermal overload where the overload is of short duration. The DT-3 relay is a d Arsonval type d-c contact making milliammeter which can be connected across the bridge where one exploring coil forms one arm of the bridge. In these applications the bridge is energized by d-c either 125 or 250 volts. The relay scale is calibrated from 60 to 120 C. with the bridge balanced (no relay current) normally at 90 C. The right and left-hand contacts close when temperature rises or falls from 90 to the set values between 60 and 120. The replica type relays attempt to duplicate on a small scale within the relay operating unit the heating characteristics of the machine. Thus, when current from the C.T. secondary passes through the relay its time-overcurrent characteristic approximately parallels that of the machine as illustrated in Fig. 5-1. The BL-1 relay has two spiral-wound bimetallic springs. One is actuated by the heat produced by the applied current while the other, by the ambient temperature surrounding the relay. This provides ambient temperature compensation so that relay operates on the same time current curve approximately independent of the temperature of the air surrounding the relay. The BL-1 relay is available with one or two thermal overload units with instantaneous trip attachments for applications as outlined in chart IV.