Manolito E. Bambase Jr
Assistant Professor, Department of Chemical Engineering
CEAT, University of the Philippines, Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines
15
hg
15.1 Energy Balance on a Closed System
1
Closed System
E = K + P + U
Q
W
AE = Q W
AK + AP + AU = Q W
A(mv
2
/2) + A(mgh) + AU = Q W
m/2Av
2
+ mgAh + AU = Q W
15.2 Energy Balance on an Open System
2
Q W
Mass In
E
1
Mass Out
E
2
AE = Q W
E
2
E
1
= Q W
If there are multiple inlets and outlets,
EE
2
EE
1
= Q W
The work appearing in the equation is the combined flow work
and shaft work:
W = W
F
+ W
S
W
F
= flow work; work that is necessary to get mass into and
out of the system
W
S
= shaft work; work produced or required beside getting
mass into and out of the system.
Hence,
EE
2
EE
1
= Q (W
F
+ W
S
)
3
15.2 Energy Balance on an Open System
The net flow work is determined as
W
F
= (W
F
)
2
(W
F
)
1
The flow work is usually expressed in terms of pressure and
volume:
W
F
= (PV)
2
(PV)
1
For multiple inlets and outlets,
W
F
= E(PV)
2
E(PV)
1
4
15.2 Energy Balance on an Open System
The energy balance becomes
EE
2
EE
1
= Q [(E(PV)
2
E(PV)
1
) + W
S
]
Since E = K + P + U, then
E(K + P + U)
2
E(K + P + U)
1
= Q [(E(PV)
2
E(PV)
1
) + W
S
]
Rearranging the terms,
E(K + P + U + PV)
2
E(K + P + U + PV)
1
= Q W
S
E(K + P + H)
2
E(K + P + H)
1
= Q W
S
5
15.2 Energy Balance on an Open System
A cylinder with a movable piston contains 4.00 liters of a gas at
30
0
C and 5.00 bar. The piston is slowly moved to compress the
gas to 8.00 bar.
(a) If the compression is carried out isothermally, and the work
done on the gas equals 7.65 Lbar, how much heat (in joules)
is transferred to or from (state which) the surroundings.
(b) Suppose instead that the process is adiabatic, what will
happen to the temperature of the gas.
6
Example 151. Compression of an Ideal Gas in a Cylinder
7
(a) Isothermal Compression
4.00 L
30
0
C
5.00 bar
V
2
30
0
C
8.00 bar
1 2
Isothermal
Compression
W = 7.65 Lbar
This is a closed system and the energy balance is
AK + AP + AU = Q W
Since the system is stationary, AK = AP = 0
Since the process is isothermal, AT = 0 and AU = 0
Example 151. Compression of an Ideal Gas in a Cylinder
The energy balance is simplified to
0 = Q W
Solving for Q:
8
8.314J
Q W 7.65L bar 765J
0.08314L bar
 
= = =

\ .
(b) Adiabatic Compression
The energy balance reduces to AU = W = (765 J) = 765 J
Since AU is positive, AT must also be positive. Hence, the
temperature of the gas will increase.
Example 151. Compression of an Ideal Gas in a Cylinder
Example 152. Nitrogen Gas in a PistonFitted Cylinder
A pistonfitted cylinder with a 6cm inner diameter contains 1.40
g of nitrogen. The mass of the piston is 4.50 kg, and a 20kg
weigh rests on the piston. The gas temperature is 30
0
C and the
pressure outside the cylinder is 1.00 atm.
(a) Calculate the pressure and volume of the gas inside the
cylinder if the pistonweight is at equilibrium.
(b) Suppose the 20kg weigh is abruptly lifted and the piston rises
to a new equilibrium position in which the gas returns to
30
0
C. Calculate the work done by the gas.
9
(a) Pressure of the gas inside the cylinder
If the pistonweight is at equilibrium, then
F
U
= F
D
Calculate F
D
:
10
D ext piston piston 20 kg
F P A W W
= + +
Example 152. Nitrogen Gas in a PistonFitted Cylinder
The crosssectional area of the piston is
( )
2
2
2 3 2
piston
1m
A r 3cm 2.83 10 m
100cm
 
= t = t =

\ .
11
The force due to external pressure:
Example 152. Nitrogen Gas in a PistonFitted Cylinder
( )
2
3 2
ext ext piston
ext
101325N/ m
F P A 1.00atm 2.83 10 m
1.00atm
F 287N
 
= =

\ .
=
The force due to piston and 20kg mass:
F
P
= (4.50 kg + 20.00 kg)(9.81 m/s
2
) = 240 N
The total downward force is
F
D
= (240 + 287) N = 527 N = F
U
12
P
gas
= F
U
/A
piston
= 527 N/(2.87 10
3
m
2
) = 1.86 10
5
N/m
2
Assuming the gas is ideal:
Example 152. Nitrogen Gas in a PistonFitted Cylinder
( )( )
nRT mRT
V 0.677L
P MW P
= = =
(b) Work done by the gas when 20kg mass is removed
Upon removal of the 20kg mass, the downward force is reduced
to:
F
D
= 287 N + (4.50 kg)(9.81 m/s
2
) = 331 N
13
If the piston must attain a new equilibrium position, then
F
D
= F
U
= 331 N
The final pressure of the gas:
P
2
= F
U
/A
piston
= 331 N/(2.87 10
3
m
2
) = 1.16 10
5
N/m
2
And the new volume of the gas is:
Example 152. Nitrogen Gas in a PistonFitted Cylinder
5
1
2 1
5
2
P 1.86 10
V V 0.677L 1.08L
P 1.16 10
   
= = =
 
\ . \ .
Change in volume: AV = V
2
V
1
= (1.08 0.677)L = 0.403 L
14
The change in volume can also be determined as:
AV = A
piston
Ax
Therefore, the displacement Dx can be computed as:
Ax = AV/A
piston
= 0.142 m
Computing for work:
W = FAx = (331 N)(0.142 m) = +47 J
Since AK = AP = AU =0, this work must be accompanied by heat
transfer to the gas equal to +47 J.
Example 152. Nitrogen Gas in a PistonFitted Cylinder
15
Methane enters a 3cm ID pipe at 30
0
C and 10 bar with an
average velocity of 5.00 m/s and emerges at a point 200 m lower
than the inlet at 30
0
C and 9 bar.
Calculate the AK and AP assuming the methane behaves as an
ideal gas.
Solution:
Mass flow must be the same at the inlet to attain steadystate
condition.
AK = m/
2
(v
2
2
v
1
2
) and AP = mg(h
2
h
1
)
Example 153. Methane Flowing in a Pipe
16
Solving for mass flow:
Example 153. Methane Flowing in a Pipe
( )( )
1
mRT
V v A
MW P
= =
Determine the mass flow:
Volumetric flow at the inlet = v
1
A
If methane behaves as an ideal gas:
( )( )( )
1 1
1
v A MW P
m 0.0225kg / s
RT
= =
17
Solving for AP:
Example 153. Methane Flowing in a Pipe
( ) ( )
2 1
2
kg m
P mg h h 0.0225 9.81 200m
s s
J
P 44.1 44W
s
  
A = =
 
\ .\ .
A = =
Determine v
2
:
P
1
V
1
= P
2
V
2
P
1
(v
1
A) = P
2
(v
2
A)
18
Solving for v
2
:
Example 153. Methane Flowing in a Pipe
1
2 1
2
P m 10bar
v v 5.00 5.555m/ s
P s 9bar
   
= = =
 
\ . \ .
Solving for AK:
( )
2
2 2 2 2
2 1
2
m 1 kg m
K v v 0.0225 5.555 5.00
2 2 s s
J
K 0.0659 0.0659W
s
 
 
A = =
 
\ .
\ .
A = =
Example 154. Heating of Water in Boiler Tubes
A fuel oil is burned with air in a boiler furnace. The combustion
produces 813 kW of heat of which 65% is transferred as heat to
boiler that pass through the furnace. Water enters the boiler tubes
as a saturated liquid at 20
0
C and leaves the tubes as saturated
steam at 20 bar absolute.
Calculate the mass flow rate (in kg/h)and volumetric flow rate
(in m
3
/h)at which the saturated steam is produced
19
Example 154. Heating of Water in Boiler Tubes
Boiler Tubes
Q = 0.65 (813 kW)
H
2
O (saturated liquid)
T = 20
0
C
H
2
O (saturated steam)
P
abs
= 20 bar
Using the energy balance for an open system,
E(K + P + H)
2
E(K + P + H)
1
= Q W
S
Assuming AK = AP = W = 0, then
EH
2
EH
1
= Q = 0.65 (813 kW) = 528 kW
20
Example 154. Heating of Water in Boiler Tubes
In terms of specific enthalpy, (kJ/kg)
m
2
2
m
1
1
= 528 kW
where m = mass flow rate of water
If the process is under steadystate condition, then m
1
= m
2
= m
Hence,
m(
2
1
) = 528 kW
Solving for m:
21
2 1
528kW
m
H H
=
1
= 83.9 kJ/kg and
2
= 2797.2 kJ/kg
And the mass flow rate is:
( )
528kJ / s 3600s
m 701kg / h
2797.2 83.9 kJ / kg 1h
 
= =

\ .
Calculating for the volume flow rate:
3 3
kg m m
P2
H
B2
= 0.60n
2
B3
25
Example 155. Mixing and Heating of PropaneButane Mixtures
Find n
1
, n
2
, A, and B
n
1
and n
2
can be obtained from V
1
and V
2
using the ideal gas
equation:
n
1
= 14.7 mol/h ; n
2
= 9.00 mol/h
A and B can be obtained using material balances for propane and
butane:
Propane: A = 0.20n
1
+ 0.40n
2
= 6.54 mol C
3
H
8
/h
Butane: B = 0.80n
1
+ 0.60n
2
= 17.16 mol C
4
H
10
/h
26
Example 155. Mixing and Heating of PropaneButane Mixtures
Solving for the total enthalpies of the components:
H
P3
= (6.54 mol/h)(20.865 kJ/mol) = 136.5 kJ/h
H
B3
= (17.16 mol/h)(27.442 kJ/mol) = 470.9 kJ/h
H
P2
= 0.40(9.00 mol/h)(1.772 kJ/mol) = 6.38 kJ/h
H
B2
= 0.60(9.00 mol/h)(2.394 kJ/mol) = 12.93 kJ/h
Solving for the heat requirement of the process:
Q = (136.5 + 470.9 6.38 12.93) kJ/h
Q = 587 kJ/h
27