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9/13/2012

Digital Communications Lecture-3


Dr. Sarmad Sohaib
Assistant Professor Faculty of Electrical and Electronics Engineering University of Engineering and Technology, Taxila

Downconverter Quad Demodulator

sarmad.sohaib@uettaxila.edu.pk
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Condition for Equivalence:


As long as input BW < 2fc: x( t ) = sI( t ) and y( t ) = sQ( t ).

Complex Model of Quad Demod:

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Quad Demodulator
If this is given, s(t)

Filtering
h(t) r(t)

What will be the C.E. of r(t) or what happens if we pass C.E. of s(t) rather than s(t)?

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Euclidean Space: Rn

Inner Product for Rn

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Geometric Interpretation

Complex Euclidean Space: Cn

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Inner Product for Cn

Geometric Interpretation for Cn

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Linear Space = Vector Space

Other Linear Spaces (Besides Rn & Cn)

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Another Vector Space


{[0 0], [0 1], [0 2], [1 0], [1 1], [1 2], [2 0], [2 1], [2 2]} with mod-3 addition and multiplication, and with the mod-3 field {0, 1, 2}:

Inner Product
A mapping from a pair of vectors x and y to a scalar < x, y > , satisfying axioms: < x + y , z > = < x, z > + < y , z >, and < x, y + z > = < x + y > + < x + z > < x, x > 0, equality iff x = 0 < y , x > = < x, y > < ax, y > = a < x, y > < x, ay > = a < x, y > This leads to the defination of the norm: x by x =< x, x > {
Norm squared 2

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Inner Product for Waveforms

Inner Product for Sequences


< xk , yk >=

< x(t ), y (t ) >= x(t ) =


2

x(t ) y (t ) dt

" Correlation "

x(t ) x (t ) dt =

x(t ) dt

xy
k k =

"Correlation" "Energy"

" Energy "

xk

k =

xk

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Triangle Inequality
x+y x + y

Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality
< x, y > x
2 2 2 2

Equality iff x = ay (i.e. x and y are in same direction) where a is a +ve real scalar

2 2 ( ) ( ) ( ) x t y t dt x t dt y (t ) dt 2 Correlation Ex E y Equality iff x = ay

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