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Assignment-1 Digital Communications Lecture-4

Assistant Professor Faculty of Electrical and Electronics Engineering University of Engineering and Technology, Taxila

Due date is 26 Sep 2012, before the start of the class. Emailed to Mr. Shehzad Taj

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Basis
Span means we can write any vector in R as a linear combination of Basis
_

Key Property
Any x n can be uniquly decomposed in terms of an ON basis {u1 , u 2 , Lu n }: x =a1u1 + a 2u 2 + L + a N u N

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Subspace

Projection

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Example

Solution

r (t ) = ax(t ) + by (t )
2

r(t)=sin(t)

Choose a and b to minimize

( r (t ) ax(t ) by(t ) )
0

dt

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Solution
^

Solution
2

r (t ) = a x (t ) + b y (t )
2

C h o o s e a a n d b to m in im iz e
2 1 2

(r (t )
0 2 2 1

a x (t ) b y (t ) ) d t
1 2

(r (t ) )
0 2

dt +

a ( x (t ) )
2 0

dt +

b ( y (t ) )

dt 2a

r (t ) x (t ) d t
0

2a

r (t ) y (t ) d t + 2 a b x (t ) y (t ) d t
0 1 2

1 = + a2 + b2 2a 2

r (t ) d t 2 b r (t )d t 0 1 1 24 3 1 24 3
I1 I2

T o fin d th e m in d iffe re n tia te it w .r.t. a a n d b a n d s e t it to b e z e ro d = 2 a 2 I1 = 0 a = I1 = 2 da d = 2b 2 I2 = 0 b = I2 = 2 db

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Projection Theorem

The Projection Theorem

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Recall Example

Orthogonality Principle:

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Pythagorean Theorem

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Example

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Orthonormal Set

Expansion using Orthonormal Basis

A signal s(t) in a signal space can be represented as a linear combination of ON set {1, 2, N}

s (t ) = sii (t )
i =1

Unit vector has a unit length

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Quiz

Quiz-1

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