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Assignment-1 Digital Communications Lecture-4

Dr. Sarmad Sohaib


Assistant Professor Faculty of Electrical and Electronics Engineering University of Engineering and Technology, Taxila

Due date is 26 Sep 2012, before the start of the class. Emailed to Mr. Shehzad Taj

sarmad.sohaib@uettaxila.edu.pk
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Basis
Span means we can write any vector in R as a linear combination of Basis
_

Key Property
Any x n can be uniquly decomposed in terms of an ON basis {u1 , u 2 , Lu n }: x =a1u1 + a 2u 2 + L + a N u N

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Digital Communication (Dr. Sarmad Sohaib)

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Subspace

Projection

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Example

Solution

r (t ) = ax(t ) + by (t )
2

r(t)=sin(t)

Choose a and b to minimize

( r (t ) ax(t ) by(t ) )
0

dt

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Digital Communication (Dr. Sarmad Sohaib)

Solution
^

Solution
2

r (t ) = a x (t ) + b y (t )
2

C h o o s e a a n d b to m in im iz e
2 1 2

(r (t )
0 2 2 1

a x (t ) b y (t ) ) d t
1 2

(r (t ) )
0 2

dt +

a ( x (t ) )
2 0

dt +

b ( y (t ) )

dt 2a

r (t ) x (t ) d t
0

2a

r (t ) y (t ) d t + 2 a b x (t ) y (t ) d t
0 1 2

1 = + a2 + b2 2a 2

r (t ) d t 2 b r (t )d t 0 1 1 24 3 1 24 3
I1 I2

T o fin d th e m in d iffe re n tia te it w .r.t. a a n d b a n d s e t it to b e z e ro d = 2 a 2 I1 = 0 a = I1 = 2 da d = 2b 2 I2 = 0 b = I2 = 2 db


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Digital Communication (Dr. Sarmad Sohaib)

Digital Communication (Dr. Sarmad Sohaib)

Projection Theorem

The Projection Theorem

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Recall Example

Orthogonality Principle:

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Pythagorean Theorem

Alternative Definitions of Projection

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Another Solution: Use Orthog Principle

Example

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Orthonormal Basis of a Subspace

Basis Not Unique

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Orthonormal Set

Expansion using Orthonormal Basis


A signal s(t) in a signal space can be represented as a linear combination of ON set {1, 2, N}

s (t ) = sii (t )
i =1

where, si is the projection of the s (t ) onto the i (t ) i.e. si =< s (t ), i (t ) >

Unit vector has a unit length


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Using ON Basis to Project

Yet Another Solution

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Quiz

Quiz-1

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