The Journal of Theological Studies, NS, Vol

61, Pt 2, October 2010

JOEL MARCUS Duke Divinity School, Durham, North Carolina

Abstract Recent discussion of the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs has been mired in a debate about whether the work is Jewish or Christian. But the nineteenth-century consensus was nearer the mark: the work is both Jewish and Christian, i.e. it comes from a Jewish Christian milieu. This study first adduces general considerations in favour of this hypothesis, then mounts a specific argument based on the similarities between the Testaments and the Didascalia Apostolorum. The two documents come from a similar time and place (Syria in the late second to early third century), but are on opposite sides: the Didascalia is arguing against the sort of Torah-observant Jewish Christianity that the Testaments advocate.



The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs is one of the most puzzling documents in the Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. It is known primarily through Greek manuscripts, none of which is older than the tenth century, but there is also an ancient Armenian version, preserved in manuscripts from the thirteenth century on, the value of which for reconstructing the original text (if we can speak of such) is disputed. 1 The earliest external attestation of the
1 The term 'original text' is problematic because of the possibility—recog­ nized even by Marinus de Jonge, who has strenuously insisted on treating the work as a Christian document—that it may reuse and adapt Jewish source materials, see Robert A. Kugler, The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs (Guides to Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha, Sheffield Sheffield Academic Press, 2001), ρ 36 On the relation of the Testaments to Hebrew and Aramaic sources, including the Aramaic Levi-document found at Qumran and the Hebrew Testament of Naphtah, see Η W Hollander and M de Jonge, The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs A Commentary (SVTP 8,

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work is by Origen {Homilies on Joshua 15 6), who refers to a passage t h a t ascribes individual sins to individual d e m o n s (T Reub 2 1-3 8) T h i s establishes the beginning of the t h i r d century CE as the t e r m i n u s ad quern for composition of a book with some relation to the existent texts Estimates for the actual date of composition vary widely, H o w a r d Clark Kee estimates the m i d d l e of the second c e n t u r y BCE, whereas M de Jonge and H W H o l l a n d e r posit t h e late second or early t h i r d century CE As for the place of composition, some have connected the work with Egypt because of its interest in Joseph, b u t this is a relatively weak link (there is a m u c h greater concentration on J u d a h and Levi) O t h e r s , n o t i n g parallels with the Q u m r a n scrolls or assumed mistranslations from Semitic languages, have posited a Palestinian origin and a H e b r e w or Aramaic original Still others, w h o argue for a Greek original (the majority opinion), think a provenance in Syria, near Palestine, could help explain the Q u m r a n parallels while at t h e same time accounting for t h e use of G r e e k and 'the knowledge of Palestinian place-names b u t the lack of their accuracy as to their location' Another, and stronger, reason for linking the work with Syria is the allusion in Τ Levi 8 4-5 to a baptismal order that is distinctively Syrian anointing with oil, washing with water (= baptism), and a meal of bread and wine ( = e u c h a n s t ) T h i s passage, like m a n y others in the book,
Leiden Brill, 1985), pp 17-29 Unless otherwise noted, all translations of Testaments passages are from this work, alterations are noted with 'alt' Greek texts are from M de Jonge, The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs A Critical Edition of the Greek Text (PVTG 1 2, Leiden E J Brill, 1978) On the Armenian manuscripts, see Michael Stone, 'New Evidence for the Armenian Version of the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs', RB 84 (I977)> PP 9 4 - I ° 7 The Armenian version lacks some of the telltale Christian passages, and so has been embraced by those who think that the original Testaments were Jewish and that the Christian elements are later in­ terpolations, for a rebuttal see M de Jonge, The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs A Study of their Text, Composition and Origin (Van Gorcum's Theologische Bibhotheek, 25, Assen Van Gorcum & Comp N V , 1953, repr 1975), pp 23-34, and cf Hollander and de Jonge, Testaments, pp 11-12 2 See de Jonge, Testaments, ρ i2i and Hollander and de Jonge, Testaments, pp 10-17 Howard Clark Kee, 'Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs', in The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, ed James H Charlesworth (Garden City Doubleday, 1983), vol 1, pp 777-8, de Jonge, Testaments, pp 121-5, Hollander and de Jonge, Testaments, pp 16-17, 82-5 4 Kee, 'Testaments', pp 775-8 5 This contrasts with the usual order elsewhere, which is baptism followed by laying-on of hands, see Τ W Manson, 'Miscellanea Apocalyptica III Test XII Patr Levi νιιί, jfTS, OS 48 (1947), pp 69-71, Georg Kretschmar, 'Die Bedeutung der Liturgiegeschichte fur die Frage nach der Kontinuität des



emphasizes priestly theology, which was frequently connected with baptism in Syria. 6 Syria, then, seems to be the likeliest candidate for the document's place of origin. The range of opinions on the date of composition, however, is troubling. This variation reflects a more fundamental division within the critical scholarship, which for more than a hundred years has been dominated by the question of whether the Testaments were originally Jewish or Christian. Those who see the work as a Jewish document with subsequent Christian additions tend to favour an early, pre-Christian date, whereas those who view it as Christian from its inception tend to date it to the late second century or early third century because of parallels between the Christian elements and the thought of Irenaeus, Hippolytus, and Tertullian. 7 Also relevant is the Christology of the work, which is not internally consistent, containing both 'high' and 'low' elements, and thus fits a date of around 200 CE, when Christology had already developed in many different directions but 'the dogmatic controversy about the nature of Christ, and the attempts to create a well-defined Christological terminology, had only just started'. Although the question of whether the Testaments are Jewish or Christian currently dominates discussion of the document, at an earlier stage of research some scholars avoided this dichotomy. In fact, as H. Dixon Slingerland shows in his valuable history of research, the consensus that emerged in the first great period of Testaments scholarship, 1810-83, w a s m a t the work was both
Judenchristentums in nachapostohscher Zeit', in Aspects du JudéoChrisnanisme Colloque de Strasbourg 23—25 avril 1964 (Paris· Presses Universitaires de France, 1965), pp 121—5; Arthur Voobus, The Didascalia Apostolorum in Syriac (CSCO 175-6, 179-80, Louvain: Secrétariat du CorpusSCO, 1979), pp 156-7, n. 9 6 See Sebastian Brock, 'The Syrian Baptismal Rites', in Luis Maldonado and David Power (eds.), Structures of Initiation in Crisis (New York* Seabury Press, 1979), ρ 99 7 See de Jonge, Testaments, pp 121-5 Ibid , pp 125—6. On the 'low' side, see the reference to Christ as a man renewing the law in the power of the Most High in Τ Lev 16:3 and to him as a human walking among humans in Τ Jud. 24.1-6 On the 'high' side, see 'God and man' in Τ Sim. 7 2 , 'God in the form of a man' in Τ Zeb 9:8, and 'God appeared in the flesh' in Τ Benj. 108 According to Τ Levi 4 1, more­ over, when Jesus died, 'Hades [was] despoiled at the suffering of the Most High' (του αδου σκυλευομένου έπί τω πάθ€ΐ του υψίστου) On the inconsistency of the Christology of the Testaments, see further Torleif Elgvin, 'Jewish Christian Editing of the Old Testament Pseudepigrapha', in Oskar Skarsaune and Reidar Hvalvik (eds.), Jewish Believers in Jesus The Early Centuries (Peabody, MA Hendrickson Publishers, 2007), pp 287-8

Testaments Shngerland's monograph. that posing the authorship question as a choice between 'Jewish' and 'Christian' is overly simplistic—but only in the sense that 'the Testaments are an important witness to the continuity in ethical thought between Hellenistic-Jewish and Early Christian circles' (de Jonge. ρ 14 For a more detailed explication of Geiger's views in the context of his overall thought. so that Christian authorship is once again considered a live option As a rule. 'Ein Interpolator interpretiert Zu der christlichen Bearbeitung der Testamente der zwölf Patriarchen'. Testaments. Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament as Part of Christian Literature (SVTP 18. The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs'. Marinus de Jonge. to conclude that 'because the theology of the author does not show particular Jewish influence. ρ 167.TESTAMENTS OF THE TWELVE PATRIARCHS 599 Jewish and Christian. for instance. The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs A Critical History of Research (SBLMS 21. ρ 84 'It may be difficult to imagine how a Christian may have collected so much variegated Jewish material. however. see Susannah Heschel. cf M de Jonge. ι e that it was a Jewish Christian writing This consensus subsequently crumbled under the growing weight of scholarly opinion in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries that the Christian elements were interpolations into a Jewish original More recently. NS 29 [1978]. whose influence has continued to grow over the years. who read their "Old Testament" and lived alongside Jews' Jacob Jervell. moreover. ed Walther Eltester (Berlin Verlag Alfred Topelmann. see Kugler. pp 31-8 Here are three examples M de Jonge. pp 110-11. NovT 4 (i960). Abraham Geiger and the Jewish Jesus (Chicago and London University of Chicago Press. Testaments. Missoula. is not always consistent on) this question He is aware of the nineteenth-century scholarship positing Jewish Christian authorship (see e g de Jonge. pp 273-5) . 'Christian Influence in the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs'. ρ 83 the audience of the Testaments consisted of 'early Christian readers. 'Review of H Dixon Slingerland. 1969). Leiden and Boston Brill. is not far off the mark in ascribing to de Jonge the opinion that the Testaments were composed by a Gentile Christian De Jonge. ρ 54. Jacob and Moses ' M de Jonge. Justin's Dialogue with Trypho or Hippolytus' Commentary on the Blessings of Isaac. de Jonge tacitly assumes Christian authorship to mean composition by a Gentile Christian One nineteenth-century scholar who accepted this consensus was Abraham Geiger. JTS. NedTT 39 [1985]. M T Scholars Press. which was pub­ lished over 30 years ago. and M de Jonge. Pseudepigrapha. Pseudepigrapha. describes the early work of de Jonge. therefore. pp 174-7 10 See Slingerland. 1977). the problem is not very important' He sometimes recognizes. however. 'The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs Christian and Jewish A Hundred Years after Friedrich Schnapp'. ρ 141. and in an early work (de Jonge. 2003). 1998). in Studien zu den Testamenten der Zwölf Patriarchen Drei Aufsatze. η 64) he acknowledges the possibility that the author of the Testaments may have been a converted Jew He goes on. however. however. but on the scholar who considers a passage Jewish ' Hollander and de Jonge. ρ 187 'The burden of proof does not fall on him who assumes that a certain passage is Christian. ρ ioo). this view has itself been subjected to a withering assault by the towering exegete of the Testaments in the past generation. see H Dixon Slingerland. but similar questions arise in the case of. Testaments.

pp 35-41 Against the interpolation theory. Jewish and Christian Self-Definition. 'Die Kirche aus Juden und Heiden Forschungsprobleme der ersten christlichen Jahrhunderte'. pp 88-90. I do not think Stewart-Sykes's reconstruction will prove compelling to most 12 . I will solidify t h e case for Jewish C h r i s t i a n a u t h o r s h i p by m e a n s of an original a r g u m e n t t h a t shows t h e links between t h e Testaments a n d an early Christian d o c u m e n t t h a t definitely reflects Jewish Christianity. 1 e t h e Mosaic T o r a h m its fullness. pp 34-5. b o t h as influence a n d antagonist t h e Didascalia Apostolorum T h e latter is a Christian p s e u d e p i g r a p h o n usually dated to t h e t h i r d c e n t u r y CE a n d p r e s e n t i n g itself as a c h u r c h o r d e r compiled More recent advocates of this position have included J Τ Mihk. pp 54-7. b u t also t h a t they strove to observe what the a u t h o r calls ' t h e entire law of t h e L o r d ' (T Jud 26 1). however. 1959). which sides with James Carleton Paget in favouring a 'praxis-centred' definition of the phenomenon Ahstair Stewart-Sykes. pp 49-55.600 JOEL MARCUS I n this essay. 1. in Ε Ρ Sanders (ed ). including circumcision. m a n y of which. however. in M Mitchell and F Young (eds ).or early t h i r d . I h o p e to show t h a t t h e earlier consensus was right t h e Testaments are a p r o d u c t of late second. see below. and Georg Kretschmar. η 2θ 13 For a working definition of 'Jewish Christianity'.c e n t u r y Jewish Christianity By this I m e a n n o t only t h a t the Christians to w h o m the Testaments were addressed were probably of e t h n i c Jewish extraction. is slightly unnuanced in ascribing to M de Jonge the opinion that the Testaments are 'eine chris­ tliche und dann natürlich judenchristhche Komposition' (p 31) cf the previous note Elgvin. 1981). Turnhout Brepols. 291-2. b u t some of which are new T h e n . 2006). 'Christian and Jewish Self-Definition in Light of the Christian Additions to the Apocryphal Writings'. sees the second-century editor of the Testaments ('the interpolator') as a Jewish Christian operating on a non-Christian Jewish Grundschrift. similarly James H Charlesworth. I will briefly p r e s e n t some general a r g u m e n t s for t h e Jewish C h r i s t i a n n a t u r e of t h e Testaments. food laws. a n d o t h e r p u r i t y regulations I will lay ou t this thesis in two u n e q u a l p a r t s First. The Cambridge History of Christianity. see Joel Marcus. London SCM. pp 31-6 Kretschmar. opts for a later date in the first quarter of the fourth century for various reasons. following Jervell. however. 'Interpolator'.c e n t u r y ones). vol 2 Aspects of Judaism in the Greco-Roman Period (Philadelphia Fortress Press. The Didascalia Apostolorum An English Version with Introduction and Annotation (Studia Traditionis Theologiae Explorations in Early and Medieval Theology. 2009). as acknowledged in t h e footnotes. Ten Years of Discovery in the Wilderness of Judaea (SBT. 1990). 'Jewish Christian Editing'. pp 287. 'Jewish Christianity'. for t h e bulk of t h e article. Juden und Christen in der Antike (Kampen Kok. including his complicated reconstruction of putative sources on the basis of perceived contradictions While the Didascalia is probably a composite text. in J van Amersfoort and J van Oort (eds ). have already been m a d e by previous scholars (mostly n i n e t e e n t h . vol 1 Origins to Constantine (Cambridge Cambridge University Press.

in Encyclopedic Dictionary of the Syriac Heritage. they are listed by chapter. which paraphrases it freely A more accurate translation was made into Latin. vol 6. the scholars Stewart-Sykes also links the polemic of the Didascalia against Jewish Christians with specific fourth-century events such as the attempt to detect Jewish Christians in Jerusalem during the reign of Constantine by making suspects eat pork and the legislation of the Council of Laodicea against Christians observing the Sabbath He concludes that 'law-observance is par­ ticularly an issue in the fourth century' (ibid . ed George Kiraz (Piscataway. pp 96-9 The sort of fourth-century inquisitorial atmosphere that Stewart-Sykes conjures up. forthcoming) Unless otherwise noted. 'Thomas. is misleading. Syriac page number + line numbers/English page number + line numbers. J Κ Elliott. Maria Doerfler. pp 23*-68 # . Patristic Evidence for Jewish-Christian Sects (NovTSup 36. pp 49-55. pp 52-3) This.TESTAMENTS OF THE TWELVE PATRIARCHS 601 by Jesus' original disciples just after the apostolic council of Acts 15 Only fragments of the Greek original survive. Image and Reality The Jews in the World of the Christians in the Second Century (Edinburgh Τ & Τ Clark. however. Didascalia Apostolorum. date. 'Jewish Christianity'. 1993). Judith Lieu. and the former even appear to have the upper hand (cf the end of this article) See R Hugh Connolly. although not always in a word-for-word manner The original work is usually located in Syria because of a reference in Epiphamus (Haer 70 10). Christian law-observance was also an issue of great concern in the second and third centuries See e g A F J Khjn and G J Reinink. the role of women in baptizing women. Didascalia Apostolorum The Syriac Version Translated and Accompanied by the Verona Latin Fragments (Oxford Clarendon Press. and Marcus. The Apocryphal New Testament A Collection of Apocryphal Christian Literature in an English Translation (Oxford and New York Oxford University Press. Didascalia. contrasts with the ambiguous situation presupposed by the Didascalia. probably in the latter part of the fourth century. which most scholars date somewhere between the mid-fourth and early sixth centuries This translation seems on the whole to be faithful to the original. cf Acts of Thomas 157 The latter is a Syriac work that is usually assigned to third-century Edessa. and provenance. where we find the order anointing followed by baptizing 17 Didasc 16 (172 19-174 3/156 8-158 1). NJ Gorgias Press. see Harold W Attndge. ρ 531. 'Didascalia'. 1996). Ρ 442 . pp 102-35. Leiden E J Brill. passim. in which Torah-observant and Torah-free Christians coexist. e g 'Didasc 24 (231 12-15/ 2147-10)' 16 See Didasc 16 (173 9-17/156 18-157 5). in ABD (1992). although portions of it formed the basis for the first six books of the fourth-century Apostolic Constitutions. ρ xvu For general introduction to matters of text. but it covers only about two-fifths of the book The main witness is the Syriac translation. 1929). 89-91. moreover. see the introduction in Connolly (pp xi-xci) as well as that in Voobus. Acts Of. traces of the Syrian baptismal rite described above. Stewart-Sykes. 1973). all Didascalia citations are from Voobus's edition.

ρ lxxxviii) On all of this. Testaments. pp 31-6 . 9:8-9. Τ Dan 6:6-7. 7:2. Τ Ash. Naph.g. pp lxxv-lxxvi The Syrian connection of the Gospel of Peter is attested by Eusebius {Ecclesiastical History 612). which seems unlikely. Sim.g. including the Armenian evi­ dence.g. including his b a p t i s m (e. Τ Levi 15:1-3. But it is also a Jewish d o c u m e n t .602 JOEL MARCUS use m a d e of the Gospel of Peter. such as G o d ' s destruction of the temple and scattering of Israel for its rejection of Jesus. the possibly early translation 19 into Syriac. 7:3) and to events in his life. 4:5. It would not be surprising. T h e r e are also allusions to other standard elements of early Christian theology. 18:9. Jud. they were probably composed at about the same time (late second to early third century). 16:3. pp lxxxvn-lxxxix See Shngerland. 9:5). Benj. T h e r e are n u m e r o u s thinly veiled references to Christ's n a t u r e as G o d and m a n (e. the writing patently comes from a Christian provenance. see de Jonge. A n d there is a c l e a r — a n d positive—allusion to Paul (T Benj. T. 1 Compare Didasc 21 (21423-215 5/199 16-22) with Gos Pet 1 1-2 (Pilate exonerated and Herod blamed for passing sentence on Jesus). and Didasc 21 (207 21-2/191 2-4) with Gos Pet 14 60 (apparent appearance of the risen Jesus to Levi).g.C h r i s t i a n d o c u m e n t . and assuming (as I will argue below) that the former is a Christian d o c u m e n t . Testaments. T. T. U n l e s s all of these are interpolations into a n o n . T. with the Testaments being p e r h a p s a bit earlier t h a n the Didascalia. Levi 4:4. then. 7:3). 9:3). T h u s the Testaments and the Didascalia b o t h come from Syria. T. Benj. 24:1-2. GENERAL A R G U M E N T S FOR T H E JEWISH CHRISTIAN PROVENANCE OF T H E TESTAMENTS T h e most i m p o r t a n t reason for asserting that the Testaments is a Christian writing is that that is what the d o c u m e n t .g. Didascalia. 16:4-5. Τ Levi 18:6-7J. Τ Zeb. see Connolly. and other e v i d e n c e . who mentions its use at Rhossus in the neighborhood of Antioch (see Connolly. see Connolly. taken as a whole. and the tendency of interpolation theorists to make arbitrary form-critical assumptions such as the different origin of histor­ ical and paraenetic sections on the one hand and predictions of the future on the other Proponents of interpolation also use literary seams to identify inter­ polations. appears to be. Didascalia. but these might result from the original compiler bringing together divergent sources rather than from the work of an interpolator For de Jonge's critique of textual arguments for interpolations. the con­ sistency of the work's style. Didascalia. T. T. 14:2. Ash. 11:2-5). and his extension of grace to the Gentiles (e. pp 104-5 f° r some of the weaknesses of the interpolation theory These include the lack of textual substantiation. and his resurrection from the realm of the dead (e. his suffering and death (e. if there were some overlap between t h e m .

and prejudices. Robert Sinker. cf Carol L Meyers and Eric M Meyers. 7:3 of an eschatological salvation of Israel along with the Gentiles (see also T. And this vision of an end-time conversion of the Jews is coupled with a typically Jewish hope for the return of the twelve tribes from captivity (see e. it sometimes leaves room for a continuing divine embrace of the Jews as well. the Star of Jacob. pp 56-61 On the Jewishness of the priestly messianism of the Testaments. Testaments. 28 8 LXX. T. pp 86-9. see already Sinker. pp 149-86 As Hollander and de Jonge. Testaments. 1993). 812. The work. 10 29-34. Ash. 'Jewish Christian Editing'. Bell. and clearly Jesus Christ is referred to He is connected with Judah or with Levi or with both tribes ' On the Levi and Judah passages as a reflection of the Jewish Christianity of the Testaments. as there is in the Dead Sea Scrolls 'Whenever a saviour figure occurs in L J [= Levi and Judah] passages. Zeb. ρ 288. there is only one. ρ 288 On the similarities with the dual messianism of Qumran. and the Shoot of God Most High. 9:9). which evinces a 'prophet Christology' dependent on Deut 18 15-19 . see August Kayser. Dan 5:9. an attitude strikingly similar to that found in the Qumran scrolls. emphasizes the glory of the descendants of Shem (71 Sim. In the passages in which it discusses the extension of grace to the Gentiles. pp 23-4 On the Levi and Judah passages. Deut 20 16-18. Indeed. both of which are standard elements in Jewish polemic. 'The Doctrine of the Two Messiahs in Sectarian Literature in the Time of the Second Commonwealth'. there is no 'double messi­ anism' in the Testaments. 'Die Testamente der XII Patriarchen'. and Τ Benj 9 2. 2 1 It exalts the tribes of Judah and Levi. 11:1). see de Jonge. 71 Benj. and Hollander and de Jonge. 1869). in which Christ is Israel's redeemer. Beitrage zu den theologischen Wissenschaften in Verbingdung mit der theologischen Gesellschaft zu Strassburg 3 (1851). in 16:5 of their end-time conversion to Christianity. 71 Jud. Testaments. see Jacob Liver. and in T. 'Jewish Christian Editing'. Zechanah 9—14 A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary (AB 25C.g. 9:2). The Testaments of the XII Patriarchs An Attempt to Estimate their Historic and Dogmatic Worth (Cambridge and London Deighton. J 9 27> 25 1-2 On the Canaanites in Jewish traditions. HTR 52 (1959). predilections. 9:7. Jub 7 1112. Other aspects of the work's Christology have a similarly Jewish flavour. 4:3.TESTAMENTS OF THE TWELVE PATRIARCHS 603 embodying typically Jewish themes. 71 Naph. most of the Testaments describe the 21 See e g Gen 926-7. Zech 14 21. a man without sin. 6:3-4. 71 Iss. New York Doubleday. ρ 19 23 See e g Elgvin. 6:5) and the wickedness of the Canaanites (71 Jud. see Elgvin. as Hollander and de Jonge note. for example. speaking in 71 Levi 15:4 of God's commitment to them for the sake of the patriarchs. especially the latter. the Sun of Righteousness. 71 Zeb. however. and expects a saviour figure from both. 23:5. pp 60-1 point out. and Co and Bell and Daldy. pp 489-92 On the exaltation of Shem and denigration of Canaan as a sign of the Jewish Christianity of the Testaments. Testaments. ρ i i 2 . moreover. who cites Τ Jud 24 1-4.

Levi 13:1-4). as in most ancient Jewish literature. 291 For Sinker. Ep. also close to Q u m r a n is the contrast between t h e law of t h e L o r d and t h e works of Behar (T. is the s t a n d a r d of righteousness (see e g . t h e law is linked with the cosmic order (T. 3:2). ρ i i . Grundriss. It frequently cites the law. cf Friedrich Nitzsch. cf. t h e work speaks of Jesus. b u t as t h e one w h o renews it (T. Dan 6:9. Tubingen Mohr Siebeck. cf. 'Kirche'. ρ 19. 2 8 See Hollander and de Jonge. this shows the Jewish Christianity of the author. 1974). the law in t h e Testaments. Clem.g. As generally in ancient J u d a i s m . Levi 16:3. T. Elgvm. A n d . Die Entstehung der altkatholischen Kirche Eine kirchen. 'Jewish Christian Editing'. Dan 6:10. Petri 2:3-5) a n d teaches it t h r o u g h his works (T. 53-6 See Albrecht Ritschl.und dogmengeschichtliche Monographie (Bonn Adolph Marens.3). Naph. Clem. exile. ρ 172. C D 8:1-2. pp 289-90 Jervell. in a typically Jewish Christian fashion. however. for Elgvin. Testaments. Levi 19:1. this is n o t t h e way in w h i c h t h e ancient c h u r c h typically spoke of t h e eschatological fate of the Jews: sin a n d exile.62. Sinker. Testaments. 'Interpolator'. 1. 'Jewish Christian Editing'. that of the interpolator 25 .g. T. 1857). it 26 speaks m o r e often of t h e law t h a n it does of f a i t h . M a t t . Grundriss der christlichen Dogmengeschichte Erster Theil Die patristiche Periode (Berlin Ernst Siefried Mittler und Sohn. 1870). pp 55-6. Testaments. Judaism and Hellenism Studies in their Encounter in Palestine during the Early Hellenistic Period (Philadelphia Fortress. 1996). i Q S 1:15-26. 5:17. and always in a positive way (for a typical e n c o m i u m . 4 Q F l o r 1-21. As Albrecht Ritschl p o i n t e d out m o r e t h a n 150 years ago. pp 50-61 28 On this last point. Tora und Leben Untersuchungen zur Hellsbedeutung der Tora in der frühen rabbinischen Literatur (TSAJ 55. indeed. as F r i e d r i c h N i t z s c h p o i n t e d out in 1870. n o t as t h e one w h o abrogates t h e law. b u t n o t 25 return. Testaments. have mostly to do with the salvation of the 'remnant' of the Jews. see Sinker. and r e t u r n . pp I 53~75> ar*d Friedrich Avemane. 21:7-9). pp 39-40. including the Q u m r a n scrolls (e. Shngerland. cf. Kretschmar. 1 e Jewish Christians. not of the people as a whole Nitzsch. ρ 17. ρ 32. Τ Gad 3:1). ρ n o . Ree. denies the communis opinio that the Gentile Christian church of the first few centuries was united in its belief that the Jews had been definitively rejected by God because of their rejection of Jesus The exceptions he cites in his η 8i.604 JOEL MARCUS history a n d fate of Israel as a p a t t e r n of sin. and this p a t t e r n implies t h a t the people's sin a n d G o d ' s c o n s e q u e n t p u n i s h m e n t will n o t be his last word for the nation he once led out of Egypt. pp 288. see e. Also characteristically Jewish is t h e d o c u m e n t ' s concentration on observance of the law of Moses. i Q S 9:1210:11 ). ρ n o See Martin Hengel. Moreover. yes. and Elgvin.

hints at Paul's different meaning. as H o w a r d Clark Kee and others have argued. ρ 780. who argues against Kee and for a Jewish concep­ tion of the law in the Testaments On the James passages. η 37 Already Sinker. G a l S · 1 ^ · ^ u t his use of the verb πληρούν. the moral order of the universe. 2:9-10 and 4:5. the temple was probably n o longer standing and sacrifice was a dead letter—as it was for the editors of the M i s h n a h . as opposed to the Testaments' φυλάσσειν. JBL 105 (1986). iv τ ω ' άγαπήσ€ίς τον πλησίον σου ώς σεαυτόν. pp 135-42 31 Hollander and de Jonge 'not meddling with the commandments of the Lord' I have drawn in this and the following paragraph on Dixon Shngerland. pp 82-3 Paul uses the similar expression 6 πάς νόμος. they twice relate νόμος to the Levitical regulations for sacrifice (e. cf Hollander and de Jonge. or Jewish covenantal identity? N o . Reub. 6:8. T. 1988). Jud. or general moral principles. 2:1—10). or the G o l d e n Rule. it appears to assume the validity of the kosher laws w h e n Asher says t h a t people w h o observe some of the c o m m a n d m e n t s b u t not others are like 29 So Kee. and says that this law is fulfilled in the command to love one's neighbour as oneself (ο γαρ πάς νόμος iv ivi λόγω πβπλήρωται. employs strong language c o m m a n d ­ ing observance of the totality of the law.o b s e r v a n t . T. πάντα 30 νόμον κυρίου). 26:1 the e p o n y m o u s patriarch of the Jewish people exhorts his children to 'observe the entire law of the L o r d ' (φυλάξατ€ οΰν. F o r example. But the Testaments seems to p r e s u p p o s e that other ritual provisions. are still in force. Obeying the Truth A Study of Paul's Ethics in Galatians (SNTW. T h e d o c u m e n t . Both of these exhortations fit into a T o r a h . Testaments. cf. Edinburgh Τ & Τ Clark. By the time the work assumed its present form. see Joel Marcus. 'The Nature of Nomos (Law) Within the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs'. 5:1 J u d a h ' s b r o t h e r Issachar links an exhortation to observe the law with the w a r n i n g that his offspring should not 'work a r o u n d the c o m m a n d m e n t s of the L o r d ' (μη π€ρίβργαζόμ€νοι ivToXàs κυρίου [my trans. CBQ 44 (1982). Testaments. pp 39-48.TESTAMENTS OF THE TWELVE PATRIARCHS 605 But what is the actual c o n t e n t of this law? Is it just. 'Testaments'. ρ 2Ó compares the attitude towards the law in the Testaments with that in James . unassociated with the temple. James 2:10. u n t e t h e r e d to legal requirements. also becomes obvious from the way in which they associate the t e r m with specific aspects of the Mosaic legislation. cf J. to be sure. or the Decalogue. for example. τέκνα μου. 4:11). Τ Levi 9:6-7). p u r i t y concerns. Ash. and in Τ Iss. T h a t the Testaments do not reduce νόμος to the natural law. for example. 'The Evil Inclination in the Epistle of James'.]. I n Τ Ash. w h o nevertheless gave detailed instructions con­ cerning its observance. Jewish Christian context (cf. it seems to be m o r e t h a n that. I n T.g. M G Barclay. ρ 617.

b u t in reality unclean'. Stanford University Press . but he said it to us his disciples from among the Jews (Didasc 26 [248 6-8/230 11-14]) 33 Charlotte Ehsheva Fonrobert. since the composer of the work appears to be a Christian of Jewish birth In two passages he identifies himself as such vOi\o jsai&i »^^curt' r¿*n\.u m ^»Λ . while the latter 'seem to be unclean. the former are 'half clean. for him. Menstrual Purity Rabbinic and Christian Reconstructions of Biblical Gender (Contraversions. because (a) the Didascalia in m a n y places seems to be arguing against a Jewish Christian position exactly like that outlined in the Testaments. which was given to Jews as a p u n i s h m e n t for the sin of the G o l d e n Calf and need not—indeed. b u t are altogether clean' Admittedly. while other people are like stags and hinds. must not—be observed by Christians M y hypothesis of a linkage between the two documents. that our Saviour did not say (this) to the Gentiles. will confirm it. and (b) despite its a n t i . the Didascalia contains strong trace elements of Jewish Christianity T h i s should not be surprising. the kosher laws are being used here as points of comparison with 'clean' and 'unclean' people. those who are of the [Jewish] people.606 JOEL MARCUS pigs and hares. that he might redeem us. may appear questionable F u r t h e r investigation. practically everything in the T o r a h except the Decalogue is part of 'the second legislation'.-Λσΐ But these things [Christ] endured for our sake. then."ÍCU λν*3 Now we know. ^ΛΛ ν Λ»r¿\ ^Λ ^fcvi^sw i . as we shall see presently. but also because it implies the necessity of observing the full Mosaic T o r a h T H E DIDASCALIA APOSTOLORUM T R A C E S OF J E W I S H C H R I S T I A N I T Y T h e author of the Didascalia is very far from agreeing with this conclusion. then. who are of the Gentiles (Didasc 19 [190 14-18/172 11-14. and you also. b u t the comparisons would not work if the laws were not considered to be literally valid T h e Testaments.T o r a h stance. alt]) »<Ocn ΛΛΚ' P¿. however. however. is Jewish Christian in nature not only because it incorporates Jewish and Christian themes and narrative traditions.

who are of the u people' and ' y ° . O n the Problem of Jewish Christianity'. including Syriac. b u t the contrast in the first passage between ' u s .23:10. 21 [217. η 45 Matthew is the implied author in Didasc 10 (118 17-19/112 17—19) and Peter in Didasc 23 (229 17-18/212 14) 35 Georg Strecker. G e o r g Strecker. 7 [90. But for him.5-7]. Wis. see George Foot Moore. he maintains a positive attitude towards the word 'law' (nes»cv»u. and t h e folk etymology t h a t derives t h e H e b r e w word ' H ' i n . 13 [150. see D. 10:13. C.10-12/94. .10-12]). as we have already hinted.3-5]. who are of the Gentiles' is m o r e easily inter­ preted as an autobiographical note.TESTAMENTS OF THE TWELVE PATRIARCHS 607 T o be sure. Mekilta. 1971 [ong 1927-30]).20-1]). . 3 [38.). of course.22-201. the a u t h o r describes A b r a h a m . 8 [98. Didascalia.15-17/ 86. and Jacob as having been without sin (Didasc.1021/200. 516 On earlier attestations of the idea of Abraham's sinlessness.106]). 2003). n. cf· fab. . T. ρ 24. 10:5. for example. as for most Jews. a loan word from the Greek νόμος)—although. Didasc. For example. pp 250-1 The folk etymology of 'Jew' from 'confession' also works in Aramaic. the a u t h o r ' s Jewishness is shown by the way in which. c f· m. pp 230-1 . he has his own exegesis of t h e word.12-13/ 35. but Syriac. pp 468. . has pointed to the dating of the destruction of the temple to the n i n t h of Av {Didasc. 21 notes the latter passage and sees it as evidence for composition by a Jewish Christian See Stewart-Sykes. is not the original language of the Didascalia. 3 6 A n d he uses mercantile m e t a p h o r s to speak of the relation between h u m a n beings and G o d in a way that is strikingly similar to a famous passage from the Mishnaic tractate Abot (see Didasc. Both liken G o d to a m e r c h a n t who gives credit to h u m a n beings b u t keeps a strict account of his loans. 284. M o r e importantly for our purposes. the Jewish self-identification could simply be p a r t of 34 the fictional frame of composition by Jesus' original disciples.8-10/201. in W Bauer (ed.2-3]). Abr. including 2000). Isaac. and whose final reckoning is unavoidable. T h i s conclusion coheres with the a u t h o r ' s apparent knowledge of specific Jewish traditions that go beyond the Bible. 21 [216. Prayer of M a n a s s e h 8. 1971). t h r o u g h o u t his work. 36 On the rabbimcally debated question of the patriarchs' sinlessness. vol 1.3]). = 'Jew' from the root Π"Ρ = ' t o confess' (Didasc. J J C l 3 [Lauterbach. Berlin and New York Walter de Gruyter.15-16/136. Testament of Abraham (CEJL. Judaism in the First Centuries of the Christian Era (New York Schocken. pp 167. Orthodoxy and Heresy in Earliest Christianity (Philadelphia: Fortress Press. 2. Allison.Abot 3 : i 6 [ i 7 ] ) . T h e r e are also overlaps with Jewish theology. the precise presentation of Sabbath customs (Didasc.

26 [242. and rebukes a n d c o m m a n d s us that we be u n d e r t h e l a w — i n d e e d . 248. 26 [ 2 4 8 . 26 [242. is 'a law for ever' QnK\ cuapcvsu. the righteous. he sometimes manifests an eirenic atti­ t u d e towards t h e Jews themselves. 26 [248. is not Quartodeciman in outlook. despite his s h a r p words against Christians w h o engage in Jewish practices.23. f o r e x a m p l e . -\cnao2aa O C 7 J r¿\a^ rúDceni àuuàx This usage of 'under the law' is quite different from that of Paul. CBQ 63 (2001). All of this is very close to the positive statements about νόμος. who usually uses the phrase in a negative way.15-249. Didasc. and C h r i s t ' s accordance with it.23/224. '"Under the Law" The Background of a Pauline Expression'.5-12.13]).13]) and eternal. in t h e Testaments'. 1 . 21 [207. 1 / 2 3 1 . Didascalia 15 [166. since the Quartodecimans observed Easter on 14 Nisan.23-25.rc' Γ£\Λ I J L ^ ^ » i k rú»cv=ni &V*JJ&\ ΚΌΟΙΛΛ .9]). 26 [242.λ ΜΙΑΛΟ aarc*>a r¿a>ccai Λ*. everyone w h o is n o t u n d e r t h e law is 38 iniquitous' {Didasc. 'a law for ever and a covenant for ever' (?Λ*ΛΛ ^ u a o 7ΛΛΛ rú»c\su.16-22/199. 'Whatever is not from faith is sin'. Didascalia. b u t renewed. Jesus did not abrogate t h e law {Didasc. H e enjoins a fast for the sake of the unbelieving Jews {Didasc. 1 4 15/10. As a m a t t e r of fact. 26 [242. [10022/979-10.19-231.20/191. moreover.8-15]) a n d refers to t h e m as b r o t h e r s a n d 7 God's commitment to the Lévites. a n d perfected it (ndb*x=*a vue*>o ÙM&Ì. alt]) »moiv. confirmed. 214. alt]) and 'a law for ever unto their generations' (^cn-vd ^aLAi rdaoccm. ' H e testifies a b o u t the law. and t h e a u t h o r r o u n d ­ ly asserts that C h r i s t s u p p o r t e d t h e law {Didasc.3 ) . see Joel Marcus. s p e a k of C h r i s t r e n e w i n g {άνακαινοποίθύντα/)Λχ%»ζη) the law. b o t h w o r k s . 2 3 2 4 9 .18-20/230.16-22/ 224.22-209. is i n d i s s o l u b l e (nfiàwe* r«d JL^œ cerceau. Didasc. ρ 192 η ) . for example. but it may reproduce the original positive sense of the term in the mouths of Paul's Jewish Christian opponents. T h i s l a w . sounds like an echo of Rom 14 23. are declared blessed b e c a u s e of t h e i r k e e p i n g of t h e law {Didasc. ] ) . 101 10/9720-21. 7 T h e gospel itself is a law (•^CUL^GK'I πώ»α»υ = ' t h e law of t h e gospel'.5/230.20/224. pp 72-83 The concluding clause. this word still defines righteousness and wickedness.608 JOEL MARCUS the a u t h o r of the Testaments. 1 [ 1 2 .11-12]). Didasc.19-20]) or fulfilled it ( « ^ * ' red»*'. m o r e o v e r . for example. but in a characteristically Jewish Christian way it replaces 'from faith' by 'under the law' This fast is to be synchronized with the beginning of the paschal celebration of the Jews and Jewish Christians on 14 Nisan (Didasc 21 [211 25-2124/196 18-23].4-192. Dtdasc 8 [100 3—4/96 7]).19-20/151. a l t . whatever day of the week that date fell on (see Connolly. a n d the Jewish lunar calendar is to be used in calculating its date (Dtdasc 21 [218 3-8/202 1-5]) Easter is to be celebrated on the first Sunday following The Didascalìa. A n o t h e r possible indication of t h e a u t h o r ' s Jewish back­ g r o u n d (and/or the influence of Jewish Christianity) is t h e fact that.6]).21-22/ 224. then.

rcí»=>a^ OJJCIX. however. T h e Testaments have a messianism that is centred on a royal son of Jacob. even if they do not believe in Jesus (e.23-4. 1995). a certain approach to Quartodecimanism.1 1 . Sin and exile will be followed by repentance and r e t u r n .20/210. cf Stewart-Sykes.25-7/196. even t h o u g h they hate you. 43 Contrast LXX and Rom 15 10 βνφράνθητς έ'θνη μ€τά τον λαού αυτού The Peshitta of Rom 15 10 follows the Greek. Indeed. deserves and receives p u n i s h m e n t . and this is another sign of Jewish influence.15-16/192.. you Gentiles.1 δ ­ ι 9]). 24 (234. 21 [210. especially their rejection of Jesus. whose status as G o d ' s chosen has not been annulled even by their present disbelief in G o d ' s Messiah. T h e s e include the following: Lévites Both the Testaments and the Didascalia p u t t r e m e n d o u s e m phasis on the Lévites. 21 [209. T h i s is a rare patristic approach to the dialectic of R o m a n s 9 .TESTAMENTS OF THE TWELVE PATRIARCHS 609 sisters: ^curc nfvm vnm»» πώ.1213]).30-211. c\=am=w ('Rejoice. Didascalia. ('Rejoice. e. 211. ρ 289. with the [not my] people'). b u t it does not annul G o d ' s covenant with his chosen people. 23 [227. cf. η 36 . Levi. Didasc. ^ custom ^iLnC ('those of the people w h o have believed'. you nations. O T H E R L I N K S BETWEEN T H E TESTAMENTS AND T H E DIDASCALIA T h e s e overlaps are not isolated instances. see S G Wilson. b u t part of a whole series of literary and thematic similarities between the two documents. 'Jewish Christian Editing'. Didasc. with him') On the similarity between the attitude towards Israel in Romans 9-11 and that in the Testaments. for h i m .g. the equation of 'the people' with the Jews is so fixed that in Didasc.g. the saviour figure is connected with b o t h of these There is.κ' n¿W ^ccA ^ια> «u^ ^rf ( ' I n d e e d . b u t the people. Didasc. 26 [241. But it is also strikingly similar to the attitude that we have observed in the Testaments: the Jews' sin.9-10/ 22 3·3])> while believing Jews are r&n±. Related Strangers Jews and Christians jo—1 jo CE (Minneapolis Fortress.12]. are not just any people. Judah. yet ought we to call t h e m b r o t h e r s and sisters'.1/217.20-235. cf Elgvin. pp 35. but the Peshitta of Deut 3243 is distinctive won**.3-4) the author omits the p e r s o n a l p r o n o u n f r o m h i s c i t a t i o n of D e u t 3 2 : 4 3 : p¿=*^ 71^ r±œn±. are still 'the people'. and a priestly son. where Paul refers to unbelieving Jews as άδβλφοί (9:3) and describes t h e m as enemies on account of the gospel b u t beloved on account of election (11:28). ρ 107. alt. then.1/195. T h e Jews. T h e Jews.

his work averts G o d ' s wrath from Israel (. orphans. the first fruits.s r¿. T. N e a r the beginning of Levi's Testament.8-9/ 92. deacons. T.). 6:8-9 his prayer saves his b r o t h ­ ers from perishing in a storm. and cause 'the L o r d to rejoice in his children' (7! Levi 18:1-14). 8 [97. so the Didascalia says that God's com­ mitment to the Lévites = bishops 'is a law for ever and an everlasting covenant before the Lord to you and to your seed after you' (v\ifcv= ^ v y ^ A o v ^ rd»l»> ^oin »cnoàurf y i K \ i r ^ n n o 7 Ì \ \ \ I rúaocv^u. that G o d will not smite t h e m utterly' ( 7 ! Levi 5:6).cA). and therefore is worthy of more glory than other h u m a n beings (Didasc. Reub. in the first of which he is told that he will stand near the L o r d . Levi's ministry is also eternal. the eschatological high priest of the Testaments. and declare his mysteries to h u m a n k i n d ( 7 ! Levi 2:10). his b r o t h e r s are c o m m a n d e d to listen to h i m t h r o u g h o u t their generations ( 7 ! Reub. The lineaments of this priestly figure are similar to those of the Levitical high priest in the Testaments. with the priestly image being predominant. Of the two. 6:12. see above. alt. be his minister. in the second of which he is shown a vision of 'the angel who intercedes for the race of Israel. who will bring sin to an end. however. and the promises m a d e to h i m apply to his seed for ever (see T. as the author says explicitly in Didasc. bind Beliar. as the Testaments emphasize God's eternal commit­ ment to Levi and his 'seed'.5): '[B]ut t h e Lévite and high priest is the bishop' (^añonare' . T h i s earthly activity re­ flects a heavenly e n d o w m e n t .19/100. though there are also differences. Levi's own ministry is inter­ cessory as well. 6:5-12 and Τ Jud. 603 and η 22 43 In this ^. i. 21:5.e. 21:1-4). p. the eschatological high priest. by extension. the bishop in the Didascalia bears the sins of the people. Levi 4:4. 8 [100. 9 (103. H e was specially chosen by G o d 'to draw near to h i m and to eat of his table. An atoning role is ascribed to his scion.22-3]).). Didasc. 8:3. 16-17). Naph. to be a high priest (T Jud. the 'Lévite and high priest' = bishop is contrasted with 'the priests and Lévites' = presbyters. the patriarch is granted two ascensions to heaven. ρ 779 This royal-and-pnestly messianism. the choice things of the children of Israel'. 6:8-10).9-10].22-3/97. Like Levi's descendant. to the bishop. Also like the high priest in the Testaments.610 JOEL MARCUS patriarchs. Levi is t h e superior figure (see e. Didasc. 'Testaments'. alt.g. for in T. and widows See also Didasc 8 (96 3-4/91 26-92 2) . T h i s use of 'seed' language 42 See Kee.moiurí' πώοα* .L^vn-ne' >*=> A^ »<Ί^ΟΛ ΚΌΟΙΛ r¿\o. Reub. 8 [99·4-5/94·2ΐ-95·2])· Moreover. is one of the similarities to the Qumran literature. T h e Didascalia transfers this exalted high priestly role to Christ and then.

O you sons and d a u g h t e r s ' («'àuso n¿aa oui)—language that is. G o d ' s eternal c o m m i t m e n t to Levi's 'seed' is a frequent t h e m e . the other way around (see Connolly. a n d indeed the whole section in Didasc 8 (98 17-102 11/949-9823) alludes to or quotes this entire chapter of Numbers Still.10]. 3 [34. JTS.19-35. NS 60 (2009).16-35. 'Review of Ahstair Stewart-Sykes.23). the reference to the euchanst in the Apostolic Church Order as 'the offering of the body and blood' is difficult to reconcile with Stewart-Sykes's early dating of that document On Stewart-Sykes's late dating of the Didascalia. half of t h e apostles begin their a d m o n i t i o n s with t h e t e r m 'my son' (Λ=). b u t t h e usage remains peculiar. and the author may have been influenced by the prominence of this language in the Testaments Stewart-Sykes.22-33. Moreover. Didascalia. so his decision to retain the 'seed' language appears to be a deliberate one. ρ 273. T h e similarity is m o s t striking in t h e m i d d l e section of Didasc. which reverses the usual scholarly opinion As Paul Bradshaw. see above. νη^«ιλ\Λ n^cusAs*). and here too there is evidence of a transfer from t h e Testaments to t h e Didascalia.14/32. Didascalia. The Apostolic Church Order'. 3 (31. the author shows a remarkable freedom in citing from Numbers. pp 263. As in the Testaments each of t h e twelve sons of Jacob exhorts his sons. so here each of t h e twelve apostles admonishes the m e m b e r s of t h e c h u r c h to follow in t h e way of G o d and avoid sin and schism. w h o collectively constitute the nucleus of t h e people of Israel. and it may suggest t h e i m p o r t a t i o n into the Didascalia of an image m o r e at h o m e in t h e Testaments. to remain t r u e to G o d ' s law and to be at peace with each other. of course. that of Philip (Didasc. 18*19.6-39. O n e apostolic exhortation in the Didascalia. 4 4 Address as 'Sons' Closely related to t h e 'seed' language in t h e two d o c u m e n t s is their c o m m o n use of an address of fathers to sons. as Connolly thinks. and t h e whole section starts with t h e p h r a s e 'Behold. echoes Num. as we have j u s t seen. ρ 31) This theory is based on Stewart-Sykes's early dating of the Apostolic Church Order (early third century) and his late dating of the Didascalia (early fourth century). however. 266-70 prints this section in an appendix because of his view that this and other material in the E recension of Didasc 3 is derived from the Apostolic Church Order rather than. who m i g h t the 'seed' of the bishops be? P e r h a p s future bishops. u b i q u i t o u s in the hortatory sections of the Testaments. points out. to be sure. Judah 13:1-6). as the notes in Voobus show. where. in that b o t h show a 'father' exhorting his 'son' to avoid lust because it blinds a m a n and 44 The Didascalia passage. which is entitled in some m a n u s c r i p t s ' T h e T e a c h i n g of t h e T w e l v e H o l y Apostles' 45 (rduJix. η 14 .TESTAMENTS OF THE TWELVE PATRIARCHS 611 in t h e Didascalia is odd. is particularly close to a passage in the Testaments (T.17/30.

and does not identify himself as an apostle. though he does greet his audience as 'sons and daughters' (11) Other evidence for Christians being considered sons of the apostles is later.Jud. T. (so) take care also of the canons spoken by the Spirit. and in this world shall you be blessed. ^ Ο Λ Α ^ η α > ο ^=α»ι&\ r¿\^m Γώ*οΐ3 >ΛΙ2»Γ^ r d i c u n s ΔΓ? ^Λσ> »^ocTii» ^otcm\fc\ »^ΛΪΛΛ rffc\cv^\2*\ '. bring to yourselves' sons 47 (v\ &\ΟΛ . Exposition of the Psalms 126 10. Λ ocn=30 ^^α^Λτίλχλχ r^icn τ<***Λ%-ιο *^o"C^fc\à\ ***-\ r ^ i . 18:1) and promised that. they will receive blessing in this life (cf. 9 we read a p r o p h e c y of the eschatological fate of the Jerusalem temple: it will be visited by 'an only-begotten See also Didasc 8 (98 19-20/94 13-14. T. and in that which is to come shall you be saved to the kingdom of our Lord and you shall have rest. 18. pleasing him by good works (Didasc 3 [51 20-5/43 12-17]) H e r e again. 18:1) and rest and a glorious resurrection in the world to come (cf. see e g Augustine. neither does the author of the Epistle of Barnabas. T. T. Judah 23:5. Zeb. Answer to Petihan 2 1 1 26. 10:6-8).A i v y K * . by them shall you be kept. the of your father. Sim. Τ Iss 5 ι. VN Λ3Κ* yl=i V O M I U O ) Cf Τ Levi 13 1. Τ Jos. A n d the chapter concludes with an exhortation that offers further parallels to the Testaments: .612 JOEL MARCUS leads to further transgressions. e. TX^N-igfrvapaQ r ^ n n w r f t i . 10:2-4. ^CIÄXOT^X »^ocnrîO ^^οΌ^λν ^ ο ^ Α λ \ λ \ \ · ^ . 25:1-4. as a reward.3ΛΟ |CIA1 ft^j-ÌT. T. T. Τ Asher 5 4 The author of 1 John addresses the members of his church as his 'chil­ dren' (τ€κνία and παίδια). 2 ι.i s n σΑ «^ΟΛ&ΧΛΧ Λ^ «^CVML^^^VO These things we have determined thus and set up for you as unto beloved and obedient sons. The Tearing of the Temple Veil and the Procession of the Spirit An even clearer case for influence emerges in the similar de­ scription the two d o c u m e n t s give of the events that follow Jesus' death. Judah 23:5. T. etc). alt) 'And your brothers. Commentary on Isaiah 65 2-3 . H o w significant are these particular parallels? It is unusual for the apostles to be regarded as fathers to the c h u r c h . 12. the tribe of Levi.-ΛσΛ ^»Λ i^. I n Τ Benj. Jerome. 6:7. T h e y are also exhorted to 'walk in' the c o m m a n d m e n t s they have been given (cf. not his 'sons' (υιοί. Benj. and a d a p ­ tation of the testamentary genre by the Didascalia provides a plausible explanation for this peculiarity.g. the Christians are addressed as 'sons'. 19 1-2. as therefore you shall keep them and walk in them. Jos.

vol 2. MA Hendrickson.&\ cn\-s\o r^àOcai rdlujAo As he then abandoned the people. και καταβήσεται το πνεύμα τον deov €πί τα βθνη. 'The Role of Scripture in the Gospel Passion Narratives'. &\JL=) ^so cvrzucm ^Jur^ στΛητ. then.9 ) .TESTAMENTS OF THE TWELVE PATRIARCHS 613 p r o p h e t ' . and the power of the word. The Death of Jesus in Early Christianity (Peabody.αα»Λχ. ρ 1067 On explicit scriptural citation as a sign of secondary expansion. so did he desert the temple. (leaving it) to them desolate And he rent the curtain. as a fire that is p o u r e d out' (και earai το άπλωμα του ναού σχιζόμενον. and restored it in his church (Voobus trans alt ) T h i s sounds like an elaborated form of the tradition in Testament of Benjamin note especially the explicit quotation of the Joel passage that is only alluded to in Τ Benj 9 4 See Joel Marcus. after which he will be rejected and lifted u p o n a tree (9 2-3) Following this. are the tearing of the curtain. see Joel Marcus. New Haven and London Yale University Press. he will enter the temple and there be humiliated. ocn ^ o rf&U£ax. who will also be 'the L o r d ' . 'the veil of the temple will be rent. the 'pouring out' of the Spirit. in J Τ Carroll and J Β Green (eds ). and the entire ministry from that people. and poured it upon those who believed from among the Gentiles.ο r^_i&\ ^ V · ' σηολ\τ<Ό r¿2*te*. as he said through Joel Ί will pour out of my spirit upon all flesh' [Joel 2 28] Indeed. and its transfer to the Gentiles All three elements are also present in Didasc 23 (227 2 0 228 4/210 12-211 5). which is part of a group of scriptural tes­ timonies about G o d ' s a b a n d o n m e n t of the Jews and m o v e m e n t to the Gentiles ^ari* jsifioo »=3\M ΛΛ ^ ο σ Α σϋΔΛπ*' ΓςΛ-\»σΔ Δ Γ « ' r^*gav\ cnn-ΊΤΛ JL&^CTS JL&_ . 2 0 0 0 . he took away the Holy Spirit. g 4) H e r e the Testaments are obviously retelling 49 the events described in M a r k 15 38-9 pars and making it clear that the tearing of the temple's curtain was a p u n i s h m e n t for the way in which Jesus was outraged in the same temple (cf Τ Levi 10 3) But the tearing of the curtain also has a positive effect it allows G o d ' s Spirit. ώς πυρ Ικχυνόμζνον. to move out into the Gentile world 'like a fire that is p o u r e d out' T h e crucial points in the passage. and took away from it the Holy Spirit. 1995). ρ 230 .α r e s e l o Γ^ΜΟΛΧ σαεη Α^α rd^a=a&. Mark A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary (AYB 27/27A. and the spirit of G o d will pass on to the Gentiles. which was previously confined in the temple.

It also does not connect this abandonment of the temple with the tear­ ing of its curtain. how distinctive are these parallels? de Jonge and Hollander note other passages from second. Ρ 436 Tertullian. Bas ter Haar Romeny.614 JOEL MARCUS Again. 1978). nor does the Testaments passage mention an angel. See Tryggve Kronholm. Louvain. 13:12t 15] says that. since the Jews rejected Christ. Against Marcton 4 42. New York and Mahwah. Motifs from Genesis ι—11 in the Genuine Hymns of Ephrem the Syrian with Particular Reference to the Influence of Jewish Exegetical Tradition (ConBOT 11. which just says that the angel tore his garment at Jesus' death Text from Des heiligen Ephraem des Syrers Hymnen de nativitate (ephiphania) ed Edmund Beck (CSCO 186/Scnptores Syn. who renders the first clause 'The Spirit in the temple longed to exalt him'. Homily on the Passion 98. Hymns on the Nativity 25:16: λ ν η ά α λνν^ AO5\^ÌO cn\s«gA ÀUJOJD r^\-\. 53 Ephrem combines the tearing of the veil with the exit of the Spirit. This mentions the Gentiles but does not say that the Spirit has been imparted to them. 5 1 but none of them has the combination of the rending of the veil. Ephrem the Syrian Hymns (CWS. pp 212-32. and when he was crucified it tore [the veil] and went out'). just that it no longer abides in the Jewish temple. p. The closest parallel to the Testaments and Didascalia pas­ sages comes in Ephrem. 204. 'Jewish Traditions in Synac Sources'. and its transfer to the Gentiles. 1989). Uppsala: Almqvist & Wiksell. Testaments. Hollander and de Jonge. ρ 132 Translation altered from Kathleen E McVey. Ps Cyprian (Novatian).ì r¿ucñ ('the Spirit in the temple longed for his [Christ's] entry. the Spirit no longer lingers in their temple. It is nevertheless interesting that the closest approach to our passages comes in a work by a fourth-century Syrian Christian who elsewhere seems to reflect a knowledge of Jewish and Jewish Christian exegetical traditions. Contrast Beck's translation. but none of these speaks of the pouring out of the Spirit or of its transfer to the Gentiles. JJS 30 (1979). pp 123-4. mistakenly taking CTJLÄA as derived from cdL» rather than AU. and their synagogues have become 'worn-out tanks' for the use of 'the dispersion of the Gentiles'. Testaments. 'Der Geist im Tempel eilte ihm freudig beim Eintritt entgegen'. Tertullian. Against the Jews 4. but the latter does not 'pour'. 1959). as formerly. 'Hypotheses on the Development of Judaism and . S Brock. 54 1 de fourth-century Christian documents with some similarities to the Testaments text. NJ· Paulist Press. Ad. cf Mehto. the pouring out of the Spirit. Secrétariat du CorpusSCO. nor does it go out to the Gentiles. lud. De Jonge also mentions passages that link the tearing of the veil with an angel tearing his garment as he aban­ dons the temple.

TESTAMENTS OF THE TWELVE PATRIARCHS Anthropology and Ethics 615 T h e r e are also several similarities between the Testaments and the Didascalia in t e r m s of anthropology and ethics. and fighting. Dan 2:1-4:7 is a long description of the de­ m o n i c power of anger. which leads to fornication (r^W**). which come from Beliar. pp. Both ascribe negative h u m a n emotions. rules over the soul that yields to this negative emotion (4:7). indeed. Some of t h e m could possibly be ascribed to the Christianity in Syria in the Period after 70 CE'. Simeon says that he was jealous of Joseph and set out to kill h i m 'because the prince of deceit sent the spirit of jealousy and blinded my m i n d ' (οτι ó άρχων της πλάνης άποστείλας το πνεύμα του ζήλου ετύφλωσε μου τον νουν).12-14/121. Sim. Didasc. Testament of Dan is almost entirely devoted to the neces­ sity of avoiding it. Testament of Reuben 2:1-3:8. anger is a cardinal sin in b o t h docu­ m e n t s . and Didasc. d e m o n i c anger is particularly dangerous in combination with d e m o n i c sexual sin. 11 (130. 3'·1). to psychological states. 2:6-7. 3 [34. is a feminine one. to d e m o n s . 'for anger is a masculine d e m o n ' (rfavsiM cn-àurf ndiivüi Λ ^ « ^ « ^ ) . mocking at h i m and enjoying themselves in his destruction (cm:i=>r¿=>.) Indeed. 3 (34. these vices become d e m o n s (rarest). 2004). myriad similarities between the Testaments and the Didascalia.14/32. T H E G R E A T D I V I D E : T H E L A W VERSUS T H E ' S E C O N D L E G I S L A T I O N ' T h e r e are. including sexual sin (πορνεία). leading a m a n to works of iniqiuity (r¿\c^n κ'Λϋι^). links 'seven spirits of deceit'. (Lust. for example. 24-5· . insatiate desire (άπληστεία). for example.Beliar. especially anger. Τ.21-3) warns that those who truly belong to G o d should never be angry with a n y o n e — a n idealistic d e m a n d with which the a u t h o r of the Testaments agrees totally.12-14/32. T h e Didascalia ascribes a similar blinding and destruc­ tive role to anger and evil enjoyment (r^Wa n^We^œo r^fcoi»») or lust (nffcv^i). T h e s e de­ ceive a young m a n and cause h i m to perish. which 'becomes a soul to the soul itself {αύτη τη ψυχή αυτός γίνεται ψυχή. in Matthew and the Didache: Two Documents from the Same Jewish-Christian Milieu? ed. In b o t h d o c u m e n t s . moreover. because he forgets the law of G o d . I n T.11-35.10]).19-20): anger and jealousy lead to murder.18-33. Huub van de Sandt (Assen and Minneapolis: Royal Van Gorcum and Fortress Press. Similarly. A parallel picture is painted in Didasc. we learn a few lines later. then.

are all part of the 'second legislation'.6-23]. For him. T h e a u t h o r of the Testaments.3-8. a curse imposed on Israel after they had c o m m i t t e d the sin of the G o l d e n Calf (see Didasc. 88-91 It is u n c l e a r h o w t h e a u t h o r w o u l d deal w i t h t h e observation t h a t S a b b a t h observance.4-23/ 15. 26 [241.12.14-225. b u t others are so close that adopting the hypothesis of influence of the Testaments on the Didascalia seems the wiser course. including circumci­ sion. T h e r e f o r e the a u t h o r exhorts his fellow Jewish converts to embrace their new identity as Christians by making a clean break with the unnecessary.r^&u^aio ^οΐΛηλ\λ\ r ¿ \ s Γ^·Λ» . 250.10-245. is only the Decalogue and the j u d g e m e n t s associated with it (Didasc..24/233. 26 [243. While b o t h advocate the standard Jewish Christian position that the law must be obeyed. he a p p a r e n t l y regards it as p a r t of ' t h e second legislation' (cf Didasc 26 [251 7/233 9]) . T h i s is also true of those cases in which a motif is appropriate in the Testaments b u t awkward in t h e Didascalia (e. ' s o n s ' a n d 'seed'). rather. kashrut. . and despite what I have called trace elements of Jewish Christianity in the Didascalia. e m b r a c e s t h e traditional Jewish and Jewish C h r i s t i a n view that the law is a unity that m u s t be adhered to in all its details. see M a r c e l S i m o n . 1 S m a n d a t e d in t h e D e c a l o g u e ( E x o d 2 0 8 . i n c l u d i n g t h e Didascalia. 1996). But the case for influence is also strengthened by passages in which the Didascalia seems to be reacting against the sort of Jewish Christianity represented by the Testaments.1 1 ) I n spite of this.g.rCÀ\à\:iM r u f f 55 O n this idea in patristic sources. b u r d e n s o m e observances of 'the second legislation' (Didasc. alt.9-15/ 223.]): *^ΟΛΛ ΛΪΒΚΊ S^n Γ^λΛΑΓ^Λη ΓώεΛΟΑα r f à u n o s a a ^ o rúaaona rd&^ai r¿cuia> i = ^ "ρΧΛ ΛΛ r¿ma .1-17/224.14]). they differ on the exact identity of this law.125]). p p .7-227. the ritual c o m m a n d s of the law. everything subsequent to this is a poisoned icing on the cake.28-251. 2 [18. w h i c h he o p p o s e s {Didasc 26 [251 11-24/233 12—25]). 26 [243.616 JOEL MARCUS similar background and provenance of the two works. as we have seen. there is also a great divide between the two d o c u m e n t s on the crucial question of the law. For.16/225. despite all their similarities. Sabbath observance. which is still valid for Christians. 5 5 T h e t r u e law. . and ritual baths. r e p r L i t t m a n L i b r a r y of Jewish Civilization. L o n d o n · Valentine M i t c h e l l & Co. T h e a u t h o r of t h e Didascalia could not disagree more. Verus Israel A Study of the Relations between Christians and Jews in the Roman Empire AD 135—425 (1964.

which distinguishes clean animals. baptisms. whereby the D e c a l o g u e is r e t a i n e d b u t t h e ' p r o h i b i t i o n s . ρ 2 i 2 .Ο'ΒΠρ ΟΠ"ΠΊ. 1904). 'keeping all of the prohibitions that are in the second legislation'(ooœ ^ ^ retook ^ ^ k*r^ π^αα»^ ^9 l^o. including pork. where the author first reminds his readers that some in their community. and climaxes in t h e exhortation 'You shall be holy. η \ S t e w a r t . appear still to believe that the law is a unity and that if some of it is binding. which may be eaten. übersetzt und erklart ( T U 25 [ N F I O ] 2. separations. N R S V ) T h e L a t i n a d d s et segregationes ('and separations') T h e desire to observe t h e M o s a i c law is called o n e of a n u m b e r of heresies (αα*α>ν<') in Didasc 23 (230 5-231 4/213 2-19) a n d Didasc 24 (231 9— 232 1/214 5-11) In Didasc 26 (254 25-255 12/237 19-238 10). in line with 'the prohibitions that are in the second legislation' 5 8 T h e crucial passage is Didasc 24. p p 2 5 4 . do not henceforth remain in your former behaviour.S y k e s suggests t h a t t h e r e a d i n g of t h e A family. for the Lord said to you. brothers and sisters. which may not. including pigs. and distinction of foods' are ignored Some of his hearers. cf Strecker. that the Testaments implicitly s u p p o r t the kosher laws It is hardly accidental that the principal 'heresy' that the Didascalia combats is one that insists u p o n observance of the Mosaic law. this is exactly the position advocated by the Testaments We have noted. from unclean ones. Didascalia.TESTAMENTS OF THE TWELVE PATRIARCHS 617 You. w h i c h Voobus translates as 'keeping (some­ t h i n g of) all t h e b o n d s w h i c h are in t h e second legislation' 5 . however. I make all things new ' (Isa 43 18) T h e p r o b l e m for the a u t h o r is that not all of his fellow converts from Judaism have realized that their new life in Christ entails this new and paradoxical view of the law. 231 12—15/214 7— i o . for I a m holy' (>3K Oil? ' 3 . for example. purifications. Π^ΛΟΧΟΠ*' ΛΛΟ ^». Leipzig J C Hinnchs.-v^A pú»oau ^uiruafcuce'ïrSicuort ΛΛ ^ao. Die syrische Didaskaha. ρ 232. s p n n k i n g s . however. alt ) T h e language here seems to deliberately echo that of Leviticus 11. cf Stewart-Sykes. including the kosher laws.5 a n d η 40 T h e text is t h u s e m e n d e d by H a n s Achelis a n d J o h a n n e s F l e m m i n g . heretics (r¿\7cux»ir<') are linked with people w h o desire to observe ' t h e second legislation'. rather. purifications 57 and spnnkings and baptisms and distinction of foods. are abstaining from various foods. all of it is As we have seen. in their attempt to observe 'holiness' (r^ox-io). 'Remember not the former things' and 'Behold. is a metathesis of t h e original p h r a s e T h e text p r i n t e d by Voobus is ^. Lev 11 44-45. that you should keep vain prohibitions. ' P r o b l e m ' . who have been converted from the people to believe in God our Saviour Jesus Christ.

14-17. SEXUALITY AND M E N S T R U A T I O N Even m o r e than the author of the Didascalia frets about Christians being attracted to circumcision. kashrut. maintain the Levitical position that 'holiness* requires abstention from pork and other unclean animals.said that one was b o u n d to withhold from pork only. JECS 9 (2001). '[t]he Didascalia reinscribes the conflict of the mid-first century into its own contemporary conflict Λ rúapccmat v y t f ι α ι ^ α ΛΟΔΓ£Ι r^cocam As Strecker. and Sabbath observance. insist on separation of the sexes in the time of the w o m e n ' s menses. b u t might eat those things which the law p r o n o u n c e s clean. especially those having to do with menstruation. T h e same combination of kashrut with circumcision is found in Didasc.).12-21). points out.2/213.618 JOEL MARCUS T h e Didascalia* s 'heretics'. then. specifically. the o p p o n e n t s in the Didascalia insist on observance of kashrut as well as circumcision. the passages that mention cir­ cumcision are important because they show that the 'heretics' are not just dabbling in certain Jewish customs. because that is what they find As Charlotte Ehsheva Fonrobert.): ' O t h e r s . b u t significantly adds to the N e w T e s t a m e n t source an allusion to food laws: '[C]ertain m e n had come down from Judaea to Antioch.. . T h o s e against w h o m he argues.' (Vööbus trans.. . and keep yourselves clean from [certain] foods (nfàO^cd») ^» ^oiur^ ^ηλχ^α).18-231. 'their practice of circumcision. and that he should be circumcised according to the law.. you cannot be saved. by adding a reference to kashrut to the Acts reference to circumcision. ρ 255 points out.' Like the author of the Testaments. and from the rest of all the other things. A n o t h e r reflection of the same issue emerges later in the chapter (233. pp 170-2. alt. 'Problem'. he worries about m e m b e r s of the messianic c o m m u nity desiring to observe the Levitical rules about sexual purity. 23 (230.3-14/215. alt. probably as a reflection of their Jewish background and/or the influence of T o r a h . 'The Didascalia Apostolorum: A Mishnah for the Disciples of Jesus'. and were teaching the brethren: If you do not circumcise and conduct yourselves according to the law of M o s e s . where the author retells the story of Acts 15:1. then.. provides tight bonds to Judaism and goes far beyond mere "Judaizing".' .o b s e r v a n t Jewish Christianity.

as well as for his careful reading and criticism of this article. ^•«r«' ^ r f ^A\rfì& rí'uflo r ¿ \ s o ki»r¿a±&a> cfk\¿ócu «^cuerna ^»¿r\cc*>&\ ^ t * ^ o r¿aa\^ ^ Q Q Κ'λχαλ^ ^ 9 ^SOL^S r¿JL»:io rdwoi . Fonrobert.TESTAMENTS 63 OF THE TWELVE PATRIARCHS 619 d e m a n d e d in the law. to keep the habits of nature and fluxes and intercourse. alt. For if you think.6/244. Menstrual Purity..15). first let them know t h a t . I would like to thank my colleague Lukas Van Rompay for this suggested emendation. pp.-\n àurf But if there are any who are scrupulous and desire. 26 (255. 179-85. so sure is he that these regulations are not part of the true law that he enjoins h u s b a n d s to cleave Cf. then you always without (any real) hindrance keep yourself from prayer and from the Scriptures and the eucharist. who lack the Spirit. O woman. But if the Holy Spirit is in you. T h e r e are some obscurities here. T h e crucial passage comes in Didasc. were included in these rituals. rú&cczu ^iàvisn v y r t ' ί\^*Λ ^a^Q ^»ñcmcan ^ΛΛΓ^ )h*r¿ ^*Xlrf Vax» Î J ^ J K ' rójoi ^ &v»r¿o*ia> »^ocnxÄi ^ n m ' a o rc^ni^Pf) >^&IB:ITC>:I ^ a c u ^»ΪΛχΐ*> ^τιΟΛΔ JL^.I cCkv^cA rf\ ητ-ia rt'^iturt' ort' . but the main line of thought is clear: the author is arguing against a group of women who see themselves as b o u n d by the Levitical purity rules to separate from the rest of the community during their menses.): r¿Mi±. For the author. are not part of the true law b u t only of the 'second legislation'. 26 (262. again. on the other hand.8-256. like the D e u t e r o n o m i c passages that curse those who die as Jesus did. 18:19).. . Indeed. according to the second legislation.6-239. . together with the second legislation they affirm the curse against our Saviour and condemn themselves vainly. Scripture study. . which.7. and celebration of the eucharist would be c o m p r o m i s e d if the menstruants.^ΜΓ^ r¿SL. for further observations on the Jewish Christian nature of the 'heresy'. you will depart empty handed and without hope.9/238. was imposed as a p u n i s h m e n t after the Israelites had committed the sin of the Golden Calf. that in the seven days of your flux you are void of the Holy Spirit. Didasc. the Levitical regulations about m e n s t r u a t i o n (Lev. if you die in those days. 'Didascalia Apostolorum\ 64 Cf. see Fonrobert. and not least for his corrections to my Syriac and the translations therefrom. T h e y do so on the principle that the community's prayers.

de Jonge. είδότες τάξιν εντολών αυτού. and if they are not done in their order. Testament of Naphtali 8:7-10 presents 'the c o m m a n d m e n t s of the law' as the standard for deciding when a m a n should and should not have sex with his wife.7nya€t υμάς. T h e interest of the Didascalia 'heretics' in Levitical segregation of m e n s t r u a n t s has a remarkable analogue in a passage from the Testaments whose significance has not previously been recognized. a connection that seems to point to an environment in which the Levitical purity rules are regarded as binding.rdÄ^Ä ^ooœiv redo) when the latter are menstruating (Didasc. 6 6 So also is it with the other commandments. understanding the order of his commandments and the laws of every activity. wise in God and prudent. alt ) See Κ Brockelmann. not to separate from t h e m (^ia»> voom^ r¿\). 6 5 O u r passage. Be. seems to be a polemic against h u s b a n d s who feel themselves b o u n d to separate from their wives and abstain from having sex with t h e m d u r i n g the time of their menses. 2:24 for a m a n leaving his parents and adhering to his wife. and can have a sexual connotation. Lexicon Synacum (Hildesheim. pp 446-7 This is the reading of manuscripts chj. a scribe may have eliminated μεγίστην out of bafflement as to why intercourse with one's wife at the wrong time should be considered the gravest of sins See R Η Charles. ρ 157. then. και μετά τέχνης πληρούνται. και θεσμούς παντού πράγματος.8/244. For there is a season (for a man) to have intercourse with his wife and a season for restraint therefrom for his prayer so there are two commandments. therefore. T h e passage in question reads: Και γαρ at ivroXal του νόμου διπλαί etat.620 JOEL MARCUS to their wives (^»cn\ ^ÄOA ^oocnix). so that the Lord will love you. they bring the greatest sin on human beings. ^m. so that the Hollander/de Jonge translation merely reads 'they bring sin' Charles. The Greek Verstons of the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs Edited from Nine Mss together with the Variants of the Armenian and Slavonic Versions and Some Hebrew Fragments (Oxford Clarendon Press. a n d n o t t o d e c l a r e t h e m unclean (^. which lacks μεγίστην. For the commandments of the law are twofold and they must be fulfilled through prudence. όπως ο κύριος aya. 1908). Katpòs1 γαρ συνουσίας γυναικός αυτού.. ρ 123 York 65 . de Jonge prefers the reading of Family I (manuscript b = Charles's recension β). (Hollander and de Jonge trans. 1995 [orig 1928]).15-17]). Critical Edition. which are part of de Jonge's Family II (Charles's recension a) As usual. 26 [262. how­ ever. Kat δυο εντολαί etat. το αυτό και επί των λοιπών εντολών Γίν€σθ€ οΰν σοφοί iv θεώ και φρόνιμοι. T h e verb translated 'cleave' here. και καιρός εγκράτειας εις προσευχην αυτού. Zurich. prefers the longer reading of chj I side with Charles.και et μη yeVtovrat iv τάξει αυτών. is the one used in the Peshitta of G e n . and New Georg Olms Verlag. άμαρτίαν μεγίστην παρειχον τοΐς άνθρώποις.

despite the lack of significant verbal overlap. Naphtali that those who disdain the patriarch's injunction to observe the c o m m a n d m e n t s about engaging in and refraining from marital sex are guilty of the gravest sin.). 7:1-7. the putative a u t h o r of Ecclesiastes. a τάξις. and this corresponds to the warning of T. which occurs at the end of a series of regulations about menstrual impurity. 8:9. Naph. with which the sexual activity of the righteous Hollander and de Jonge. 3:5. A reference to the Levitical legislation about m e n s t r u a t i o n is especially likely because Lev. including Lev. in which Paul counsels married couples to abstain from sex for a limited time only. is a very serious sin and hence hinders effective prayer. 7:6).TESTAMENTS OF THE TWELVE PATRIARCHS 621 Hollander and de Jonge take this as an echo of ι Cor. as a lawgiver. 7:1-7 nor Eccl. not of c o m m a n d ' (1 Cor. and Kee sees an allusion to Eccl. and Eccl. It is t h u s m u c h m o r e likely that T. T o disregard the Levitical regulations about menstration is t h u s to c o m m i t a mortal transgression. which says that there is a time for embracing and a time to refrain from the same. note c Kee suggests that the two commandments are loving God and loving the neighbour. implies that those w h o ignore the advice of the a u t h o r are c o m m i t t i n g a mortal sin. and he is not pictured as such in the one passage that the Testaments devotes to him. indeed. 9:1. T h e r e is a divine alternation of seasons. may well be the imperative to be fruitful and multiply in G e n . Kee. ρ 814. If this is right. 18:19: transgression of this portion of the T o r a h . Both interpretations are possible. 'Testaments'. to which the c o m m a n d m e n t to abstain from sex is opposed. 3:5 is very far from being presented as a commandment. N e i t h e r 1 Cor. T. Paul emphasizes that he is speaking 'by way of concession. 11 (on which see below. the second of the two biblical c o m m a n d m e n t s referred to in T. But the multiple references to 'the c o m m a n d m e n t s of the law' suggest that the passage is m o r e strongly echoing other Old T e s t a m e n t texts. Benj. It is equally h a r d to imagine a Jewish writer thinking of the profligate Solomon. Naph. ρ 319. but nothing in the context suggests this . 3:5. on the other h a n d . Testaments. 623-5). pp. 8:7-10 is echoing the Mosaic c o m m a n d m e n t s about m e n s t r u a l i m p u r i t y w h e n it stresses the i m p o r t a n c e of observing iv τάξει the c o m m a n d m e n t s about engaging in and abstaining from sex. It is difficult to see h i m as a lawgiver in this text. c o m m a n d s the Israelites to observe these strictures faithfully 'lest they die t h r o u g h their uncleanness' ( N J P S trans. 15:31. which forbids inter­ course d u r i n g a w o m a n ' s menses.

lest the community's prayers be hindered and the favour of God depart from its midst. Menstrual Purity. Fonrobert. pp 231-3 . A clear expression of the idea. 6 As noted earlier.70 We see. that the Didascalia 'heretics' would agree with another implication of T. 8:710: this rule is binding not only because God has commanded it in Scripture but also because it corresponds to the cyclic order of the universe he has created. Naph. His reasoning in this particular case seems to be that. in Laura Κ McClure (ed ). so you also. Oxford and Maiden. pp 174-85. 2002). reveahngly entitles two successive sections in her treatment of the author's female opponents 'We Practice Menstrual Separation Because the Indwelling of the Holy Spirit Corresponds to Our Cycles' and 'We Are in the Status of Impurity Because We Consider Scriptural Legislation to Be Valid For Us' This sort of dual emphasis seems to be generally characteristic of Syrian Jewish Christianity In the Pseudo-Clementines. MA Blackwell Publishers. 71 The counter-argument of the Didascalia. do not change the law of God in the disorderliness of your activités' (T.622 JOEL MARCUS must conform. the term is more prominent in Eccl 3 1-8 'Ήλιος και σελήνη και αστέρες ουκ άλλοιούσι αλλοιώσετε νόμον θεού εν αταξία -πράξεων υμών τά£ιι. Naph. and violation of this τάξις is sin. HOC A 10 [1937]. Ree 6 10 5-6 asserts that the neccessity for men to avoid menstruating women is taught not only by the law of God but also by nature (cf Horn 7 8 2 . Sexuality and Gender in the Classical World Readings and Sources (Interpreting Ancient History. indeed. 'Pliny's Brassiere'. appears a few chapters earlier in T. 11 28 1-4 and A Marmorstein. this sort of linkage of the cosmic order with the Mosaic Torah is frequently found in ancient Judaism. 'understanding the order of [God's] commandments and the laws of every activity' With regard to the Didascalia. not at the time of her impurity ' ) Admittedly. that the woman's menstruation should simply be ignored in choosing whether or not to have sex on a certain day. Naphtali: 'Sun and moon and stars do not change their order (τάξιν). 3:2). then. moreover. ρ 230) See A Richhn. a remarkable consistency between the Testaments and the Didascalia 'heretics': both regard as binding the Levitical law about abstinence from sex during the wife's menses. It is probable. and there is no doubt that the author is being deliberately provocative in advancing it. the Christian N o t e t h e use of καιρός in L e v 15 25 και γυνή εάν ρεη ρύσει αίματος ημέρας πλείους ουκ εν καιρώ της αφεορου αυτής ('If a woman has a discharge of blood for many days. αυτών οϋτως και ύμεΐς μη With regard to Τ Naph 8 7~ΙΟ> s e e t n e reference to doing the command­ ments 'in order' and according to their seasons. if the 'second legislation' demands something. 'Judaism and Christianity in the Middle of the Third Century'. is a radical one not only in a Jewish context but also in a Greco-Roman one.

even if it thereby flaunts societal n o r m s H e t h u m b s his nose at the 'second legislation' in a similarly provocative way w h e n he instructs his c o m m u n i t y to assemble and c o n d u c t c h u r c h services in cemeteries. και ποιών εύδοκίαν θελήματος αυτού. a light of knowledge. άκούων επί γης φωνήν αυτού. λέγων Αυτό? αναπληρώσει τα υστερήματα της φυλής σου « And there will arise from my [Benjamin's] seed in later times a beloved of the Lord. και διδούς τη συναγωγή τών εθνών και εως συντέλειας τών αΙώνων εσται εν συναγωγαΐς εθνών και εν τοις άρχουσιν αΰτώι^. saying He will supply the needs of your tribe (T Benj 11 2-5. and he will be inscribed in the holy books. and he will be a chosen one of God for ever And because of him Jacob my father instructed me.TESTAMENTS OF THE TWELVE PATRIARCHS 623 c o m m u n i t y m u s t violate it. where Paul identifies himself as a Benjaminite Hollander and de Jonge translate συναγωγή here as 'gathering'. hearing his voice upon earth and doing the pleasure of his will. there is one very positive reference to the Apostle to the Gentiles. both his work and his word. however. despite the strictures in the law against contact with the dead (Didasc 26 [261 8-262 5/243 17-244 14]. και το έργον και ο λόγος αυτού και έσται εκλεκτός θεού εως τού αιώνος και δι' αυτόν συνέτισε με Ιακώβ ό πατήρ μου.e m b r a c i n g Jewish Christian attitude that I have discerned in the Testaments O n e possible objection to my thesis about the Jewish Christian background of the Testaments. γνώσιν καινήν φωτίζων πάντα τα έθνη. φώς γνώσεως. Phil 3 6. cf N u m 19 11-13. which is its literal meaning. with a new knowledge enlightening the Gentiles. trampling upon Israel with salvation. and ravening from them like a wolf. και αρπάζων ως λύκος απ' αυτών. επεμβαίνων τώ Ισραήλ εν σωτηρία. 31 19) A POSSIBLE O B J E C T I O N T H E A T T I T U D E TOWARDS PAUL S u c h c o n t e m p t for the ritual prescriptions of the law is the polar opposite of the T o r a h . ως μουσικον μέλος εν στόματι πάντων και εν βίβλοις aytatç εσται αναγραφόμενος. and it comes in a climactic position near the end of the final testament Καί άναστήσεται εκ τον σπέρματος μου εν υστέρους καιροίς αγαπητός κυρίου. alt) Cf Rom H I . is the d o c u m e n t ' s positive attitude towards Paul As we have already noted. and giving to the synagogue/ gathering of the Gentiles And until the consummation of the ages he will be in the synagogues/gatherings of the Gentiles and among their rulers as a musical melody in the mouth of all. Hollander and de Jonge trans. but for second-century Christian readers the word could not but have the nuance of 'synagogue' as well 74 .

Despite the importance of the latter passage and its significant setting near the end of the book. αυτοί δέ els την π€ριτομήν ('so that we should go to the Gentiles. however. pp 20. Jewish Christian 'Nazarenes' have a positive view of Paul. so that the whole world saw the clear light of the gospel and was released from its imprisonment in idolatry. Jerusalem and Leiden Magnes Press and E J Brill. 7 7 Jerome. Testaments. Paul fulfils the divine plan by extending the redemptive message of Jesus to the 'synagogues of the Gentiles'. 26 It is also close to the spirit of the apostolic agreement in Gal 2 7-9. whereby James and the other Torah-observant 'pillars' of the Jerusalem church recognized the legitimacy of Paul's mission to the Gentiles Ινα ήμ€ΐς ei'ç τα έθνη. ρ 319 'The whole tone and colouring of the book however seem to show very plainly that the writer was a Jewish Christian. pp 173-4. trans from Ray A Pritz. ιΊΊ Cf J Β Lightfoot. As a matter of fact. but this See e g G Ludemann. repr Lynn. Testaments. The centre of his concentration remains Israel and its tragic but ultimately redemptive history with God and God's chosen high priest and Messiah. This is very close to the language of T. 1988). claims that the Torah-observant. MA Hendrickson. ρ i6 On the Jerome pas­ sage. who m their view 'was the last of all the apostles' and through whom 'the gospel of Christ shone to the most distant tribes and the way of the whole sea'. Benj. 11:2-5. Already in 1857. pp 11-15 77 Ritschl. and the opposite view would probably never have been entertained but for the pre-conceived theory that a believer of the Circumcision could not have writ­ ten so liberally of the Gentile Christians and so honorably of St Paul ' On Isaiah 9 1-4. see ibid . Sinker. Nazarene Jewish Christianity from the End of the New Testament Period until its Disappearance in the Fourth Century (StPB 37. the document's positive attitude towards Paul was a major argument of those nineteenth-century scholars who as­ serted that it must have been composed by a Gentile. Opposition to Paul in Jewish Christianity (Minneapolis Fortress. Entstehung. ρ 64 On the Testaments as an expression of Nazarene Jewish Christianity. they to the circumcision') . St Paul's Epistle to the Galatians With Introductions. 1989) See Slingerland. 1981). pp 172-4. see Ritschl. Albrecht Ritschl pointed out the fallacy of this argument: not all Torah-observant Jewish Christians were antiPauline. it is worth noting that the author of the Testaments goes for most of his work without referring to Paul and without mentioning the reaction of Gentiles to Jesus except as a contrast to the rejection of him by the Jews. Notes and Dissertations (1865. Entstehung.624 JOEL MARCUS We are so conditioned to regard Jewish Christians as antiPauline that this passage may seem like prima facie evidence that the Testaments are not Jewish Christian literature. for example.

T h e work echoes several Pauline epistles b u t never links t h e m with Paul's n a m e or biography. H e r e . Christ's advent has renewed the law without essentially altering it. since the Testaments seem to emerge from an author or group that feels supremely confident of the unshakeable link between G o d ' s revealed will in the T o r a h and the new revelation in Christ. T h e existence of such a self-confident. and G o d maintains his primal link with Israel. But t h e c o m p a r i s o n also illuminates t h e situation of t h e Didascalia. however. T h e Jewish people have c o n d e m n e d themselves to j u d g e m e n t by rejecting their eschatological high priest and Messiah. Didascalia. then. G o d ' s final word to them. T h e Testaments. pp 170-2. and have suffered terrible consequences for doing so. and (c) we sometimes find the Testaments advocating precisely the sorts of positions that the Didascalia opposes. its p r i m a r y focus remains 'the synagogues of the Jews'. b u t also w i t h o u t making h i m a centre of attention. T o r a h . see above. C o m p a r i s o n with the Didascalia strengthens the case that the Testaments is a Jewish Christian d o c u m e n t . see his Index Locorum on pp 271-4 Cf Fonrobert. too. since the latter also indirectly acknowledges Paul. there is overlap with the Didascalia. because (a) there seems to be some literary relation between the two texts. (b) the main 'heresy' against which the Didascalia battles is a version of Christianity that insists on observance of the whole Mosaic T o r a h .TESTAMENTS OF THE TWELVE PATRIARCHS 625 mission is not the centre of the Testaments' concern. Menstrual Purity. then. if only the Jewish Christians will keep bearing witness to the unity of Christ and the law by adhering fervently to both. ρ lxxii for a summary of the Pauline allusions. will be one of grace: very soon he will lead t h e m back from exile as they recognize their Torah-renewing high priest and Messiah. for comparison with the Gospels and the Old Testament. who notes the Didascalia's elision of Paul's role from its retelling of the apostolic council of Acts 15 (Didasc 24 [233 3-14/215 12-21]. demonstrate a firm hope that Israel will soon convert. ρ 6i8) Fonrobert links this elision with the author's desire to claim apostolic author­ ity for his own redacted account of the event . t u r n out to be mutually illuminating docu­ ments.o b s e r v a n t g r o u p of Jewish Christians goes a long way towards explaining the See Connolly. and these allusions to Pauline texts are dwarfed by the direct references and allusions to the Old T e s t a m e n t and the Gospels. CONCLUSION: T H E DIDASCALIA OF T H E AND T H E JEWISH CHRISTIANITY TESTAMENTS T h e Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs and the Didascalia Apostolorum.

'Problem'. 'Apparently a complete separation was not involved'. 26 [251. the Testaments and the Didascalia demonstrate the same basic hope: a r e t u r n of the Jews to G o d ' s law. 25 [38.12/223.. even addressing t h e m as 'beloved brethren* (^-»i-n» r¿»< Didasc.13-18/220. O n the one hand. As G e o r g Strecker puts it. Is this because the author knows that this T o r a h .12. Jewish institutions.o b s e r v a n t group as heretical. that the law is what it has always been. views this T o r a h . as we have just seen. the Didascalia vehemently criticizes the Testaments' interpretation by invoking the convoluted logic of the 'second legislation'.7-12]). and. T h e author of the Testaments. ρ 257) 82 . despite all their differences. T h e author. a c o m m u n a l act of repentance that will be accompanied or s u m m e d u p by the people's embrace of Jesus. that a schism would leave his Christian community decimated? O r is it because of his residual attachment to his own Jewish background? O r is it perhaps because of both? Probably the last hypothesis is closest to the truth. and at one point he advises the 'faithful* in his church to separate from heretics {Didasc. of course. 26 [241. appears serene in his conviction. pp 255-7 This is Strecker's interpretation. Cf Strecker.5]) a n d using every logical and scriptural argument in his repertoire to try to persuade t h e m of the folly of their ways. O n the other hand. as we have seen. T h e two documents. in line with the view expressed in the Testaments. cf· Didasc. and he is fulsome in his praise for the law (as he defines it). have different understandings of the law to which the Jews will return. and does not even seem to feel obliged to argue. the author of the Didascalia sees Israel as sinful b u t worth praying for because it is still the people of G o d . T h e contrast between the serenity of the Testaments and the fury of the Didascalia on this subject may say much about the relative strength of the parties behind the two documents.o b s e r v a n t group is too strong to break with. on the other hand.11/233. 8 1 But at many other points he appeals to the Torah-observers. the full Mosaic T o r a h . he thinks the Jewish Christian group is dominant in the Didascalìa community and that 'the notion that the "heretical" Jewish Christians were the ones who separated themselves from the church seems much less probable than that the church of the Didascalia itself was faced with the task of separating itself from the "heretics'" ('Problem'. In any case. he furiously and sometimes sarcastically combats the notion that Christians need to observe the whole Mosaic T o r a h — p r o b a b l y a testimony to the strength of the group that is advocating this position. ρ 252 Cf ibid. and Jewish Christians.626 JOEL MARCUS ambivalent attitude of the Didascalia towards Jews.

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