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We need to develop techniques to handle the rotational motion of solid bodies. For example, consider the common Yo-Yo running up and down its string as the spool winds and unwinds. Each particle of the Yo-Yo moves according to Newton's laws.

dpi Fi = , i = 1, 2,3, dt

, N. N = ?

Unfortunately, analyzing rotational problems on a particle-by-particle basis is an impossible task. One needs to introduce the rotational analog of the above equation. In the case of translational motion, one needed the concepts of force, linear momentum, and center of mass. For rotational motion the analogous concepts are torque, angular momentum, and moment of inertia. Leaving aside extended bodies for a time being, let us start with a particle. Since a particle has no size, its orientation in space is of no consequence, and one is only concerned with translational motion. In spite of this, particle motion is useful for introducing the concepts of angular momentum and torque.

The angular momentum L of a particle with linear momentum p and position vector r with respect to a given coordinate system is given by The unit of angular momentum is kg.m2/s in the SI system. The direction of angular momentum L is defined by the properties of the cross product of r and p . The vectors r and p determine a plane, plane of motion, and L is perpendicular to this plane as shown in the figure. There are various methods for visualizing and calculating angular momentum. We will demonstrate a general one. Consider motion is in the xy plane. Say, r = (x,y,0) and p = (px,py,0). The L is given by

Since motion is in the xy plane, L lies entirely along the z axis. For a general case, L has components along all three axes.

Origin at A:

Origin at B:

Mass M hangs by a massless rod of length l which rotates at constant angular frequency . The mass moves with steady speed in a circular path of constant radius r. Evaluate L about A and about B. and p = Mv = Mr r = rr About A:

= Mr 2 k LA = r p = Mr 2 r

Note that LA is constant, both in magnitude and direction.

About B:

LB = r ' p,

LB = r ' p = l sin 0

But unlike LA, the direction of LB is not constant. LB is perpendicular to both r' and p. As the bob swings around, LB sweeps out the shaded cone as shown. The z-component of LB is constant, but the horizontal component travels around the circle with the bob.

Torque

The torque due to force F which acts on a particle at position r is defined by

A "sense of rotation" can be associated using r and F. Assume in the sketch that all the vectors are in the xy plane. The torque on m1 due to F1 is along the positive z-axis (out of the paper) and the torque on m2 due to F2 is along the negative z-axis (into the paper).

1. Torque depends on the origin but force does not. 2. and F are always mutually perpendicular. 3. There can be a torque on a system with zero net force, and there can be force with zero net torque.

The problem is to find the torque on a body of mass M about origin A when the applied force is due to a uniform gravitational field g. We can regard the body as a collection of particles. The torque j on the jth particle is where ri is the position vector of the jth particle from origin A, and mj is its mass.

If the torque is zero, L = constant and the angular momentum is conserved. The change in angular momentum is zero,

L = L f Li = 0 or L f = Li

Thus when the total torque about a point is zero, the final angular momentum is equal to the initial angular momentum about the same point. Conservation angular momentum even for a single particle leads to important consequences.

Consider a particle moving under a central force, The torque on the particle about the origin is Hence, the angular momentum of the particle magnitude and direction. is constant both in

Kepler's Laws

Johannes Kepler, working with data painstakingly collected by Tycho Brahe without the aid of a telescope, developed three laws which described the motion of the planets across the sky. 1. The Law of Orbits: All planets move in elliptical orbits, with the sun at one focus. 2. The Law of Areas: A line that connects a planet to the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times. 3. The Law of Periods: The square of the period of any planet is proportional to the cube of the semimajor axis of its orbit. Kepler's laws were derived for orbits around the sun, but they apply to satellite orbits as well.

= 0, and

dLB = 0, LB = constant dt

There is no vertical acceleration,

Mass m is attached to a post of radius R by a string. Initially it is distance r from the center of the post and is moving tangentially with speed vo. In case (a) the string passes through a hole in the center of the post at the top. The string is gradually shortened by drawing it through the hole. In case (b) the string wraps around the outside of the post. What quantities are conserved in each case? Find the final speed of the mass when it hits the post for each case.

(a) Since

T dr 0

energy is not conserved. momentum is not conserved.

v0 r mv0 r = mv f R, So, v f = R

momentum is not conserved.

(b) The force is NOT central, hence angular momentum is NOT conserved.

T dr = T vdr = 0

Hence, 1 2 1 2 mv f = mv0 , so v f = v0 . 2 2

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