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MUSIC 101 Music Appreciation

Week 1: Materials of Music

Chapter 1 Melody: Musical Line


Key Points: Melody line or tune in music Each melody is unique in contour (how it moves up and down) and in range, or span of pitches Interval distance between any two pitches o A melody that moves in small, connected intervals is conjunct, while one that moves by leaps is disjunct. Phases unites that make up a melody Cadences phrases end in resting places Countermelody secondary melody

Melody is the element in music that appeals most directly to listener melody is a succession of single pitches that we perceive as a recognizable whole o each melody has its own distinct character based on its range, contour, and movement a melody goes up and down, wit hone pitch being higher and lower than another; its range is the distance between the lowest and highest notes. Contour of a melody is its overall shape as it turns upward, downward, or remains statis. Interval distance between any two pitches of a melody o conjunct - melodies that move principally by small intervals in a joined, connected manner o disjunct melodies that move in larger, disconnected intervals

The Structure of Melody


phrase unit of meaning within a larger structure phrase ends in a resting place, or cadence, which punctuates the music o cadence may be inconclusive, leaving the listener with the impression that more is to come o cadence may sound final, giving the listener the sense that the melody has reached the end. In order to maintain the listeners interest, a melody must be shaped carefully, either by the composer or by the performer Climax the high point in a melodic line, which usually represents a peak in intensity as well as in range Countermelody - relative importance of one melody over the other is clear

MUSIC 101 Music Appreciation

Week 1: Materials of Music

Chapter 2 Rhythm and Meter: Musical Time


Key Points: Rhythm what moves music forward in time. Meter, marked off in measures, organizes the beats (the basic units) in music Measures often begin with a strong downbeat Simple meters - duple, triple, and quadruple are the most common Compound meters subdivide each beat into three, rather than two, subbeats. Rhythmic complexities occur with upbeats, offbeats, syncopation, and polyrhythm. Additive meters are used in some world musics. Some music is nonmetric or has an obscured pulse.

Music is propelled by rhythm, the movement in music in time. Each individual note has a length, or duration Beat basic unit of rhythm it is a regular pulse that dives time into equal segments. Accented beats beats stronger than others Meters organizing patterns of rhythmic pulses marked in measures Measures contain a ficed number of beats and the first beat in a measure receives the strongest accent. o Marked off by measure lines Meters organize the flow of rhythm in music.

Metrical Patterns
Downbeat the first accented beat of each pattern which refers to the downward stroke of a conductors hand Duple meter alternates a strong downbeat with a weak beat (ONE-two) Triple meter three beats to a measure (ONE-two-three) Quadruple meter four beats to the measure with primary accent to the first beat and secondary accent to third beat; broader feeling Simple meters meters in which the beat has duble subdivisions Compound meters beat is divided into three o Ie. Sextuple meter six beats to a measure (ONE-two-three, FOURfive-six)

MUSIC 101 Music Appreciation

Week 1: Materials of Music

Composers devised a number of ways to keep the recurrent accent from being monotonous. o Syncopation deliberate upsetting of the normal pattern of accents. Accent is shifted to a weak beat/offbeat Used in music of all centuries (mainly Jazz) o Polyrhythm simultaneous use of rhythmic patterns that conflict with the underlying beat (many rhythms) Used in jazz and rock o Additive meter grouping of irregular numbers of beats that add up to a larger overall pattern. o Nonmetric pulse is veiled or weak with the music moving in a floating rhythm. Time is a crucial dimension in music. Binds together parts within the whole: the notes within the measure and the measure within the phrase.

MUSIC 101 Music Appreciation

Week 1: Materials of Music

Chapter 3 Harmony: Musical Space


Key Points: Harmony describes the vertical events in music, or how they sound together Chord is the simultaneous sounding of three or more pitches; chords are build from a particular scale, or sequence of pitches Triad most common chord in Western music which has three notes build on alternate pitches of a scale Most Western music is based on major or minor scales from which melody and harmony are derived. The tonic is the central tone around which a melody and its harmonies are build this principle of organization is called tonality. Dissonance is created by an unstable, or discordant, combination of tones. Consonance occurs with a resolution of dissonance, producing a stable or restful sound. Harmony is the simultaneous combination of sounds. o Determines the relationships of intervals and cords Interval distance between any two tones that can occur successively or simultaneously. Chord when 3 or more tones are sounded together o Describes the simultaneous sounding of notes to form chords and the progression from one chord to the next. Scale intervals from which chords and melodies are built are chosen from a particular collection of pitches arranged in ascending or descending order. o Do re mi fa sol la ti do o Octave interval of eight notes Triad combination of three tones; most common chord in Western music o Usually the 1st, 3rd, and 5th pitches of the scale and so forth.

The Organization of Harmony


Tonic - serves as a home base around which the others revolve and to which they ultimately gravitate. Tonality principle of organization around a central tone o Scale chosen as the basis of a piece determines the identity of the tonic and the tonality. Two different types of scales are the major and minor scales (Chapter 4)

MUSIC 101 Music Appreciation

Week 1: Materials of Music

Consonance and Dissonance


Tension is a perceived instability that results from dissonance, a combination of tones that sounds discordant, in need of resolution. o Dissonance introduces conflict into music in the same way that suspense creates tension in drama Dissonance resolves in consonance, a concordant, or agreeable, combination of musical tones that provides a sense of relation and fulfillment. o Dissonance can sound harsh; consonance sounding to ear Harmony is relatively simple, consisting of a single sustained tone, call a drone, against which melodic and rhythmic complexities unfold. Harmony imposes order on sound and organizes the pitches so that we perceive a unified idea.

MUSIC 101 Music Appreciation

Week 1: Materials of Music

Chapter 4 The Organization of Musical Sounds


Key Points: An octave is the interval spanning eight notes of the scale. In Western music, the octave is divided into two half steps , the smallest interval used; two half steps make a whole step. Chromatic scale - made up on these twelve half steps, while diatonic scale is built on patterns of several whole and half steps that form major and minor scales. Sharp (#) is a symbol that raises a tone by a half step and a flat (b) lowers a tone by a half step. Other scale types are used around the world, built on different numbers of pitches and sometimes using microtones, which are intervals smaller than half steps. Tonic cord built on the first scale tone, is the home base to which active chords (dominant and subdominant) need to resolve. Composers can shift the pitch level of an entire work (transposition) or change the center, or key, during a work (modulation).

Octave an interval spanning eight notes on a scale. o ie. Two tones that sound the same (C and C an octave higher) One important variable in the different languages of music around the world is the way the octave is divided. Western music divides it into twelve equal semitones (half steps); from these are built the major and minor scales.

The Formation of Major and Minor Scales


Chromatic scale twelve half steps that make up the octave constitute Black keys on a keyboard are named in relation to their white-key neighbors o ie. Between C and D are C sharp or D flat Sharp (#) raises a tone by a half step Flat (b) lowers a tone by a half step When we listen to a composition in the key of C major, we hear a piece built around the central tone C, using the harmonies formed from the C-major scale.

A. The Major Scale a. Created by a specific pattern of whole (W) and half (H) steps i. W-W-H-W-W-W-H

MUSIC 101 Music Appreciation

Week 1: Materials of Music

b. The major scale defines two poles of traditional harmony: the tonic (do), the point of ultimate rest; and the fifth note, the dominant (sol), which represents the active harmony. B. The Minor Scale a. It has a lowered, or flatted, third degree. i. W-H-W-W-H-W-W

Diatonic and Chromatic Scales


Music in a major or minor key focuses on the seven tones of the respective scale and is considered diatonic. o Both the melody and the harmony are firmly rooted in the key o Baroque and Classical eras is largely diatonic, centering on a key note and related harmonics. Chromatic twelve half-steps that span the octave. o Romantic-era composers explored the possibilities of chromaticism to charge their music with emotion

Other Scale Types


Pentatonic five-note, scale, used in some African, Asian, and Native American musics. Tritonic a three-note pattern found in music of some African cultures. Microtones produced by an inflection of a pitch, or making a brief microtonal dip or rise from the original pitch (commonly in Jazz) It is the musical system and the tones chosen in that system that determine the sound and character of each work, whether classical, popular, or traditional.

The Major-Minor System


Tonic (I) triad built on the first scale tone and serves as a point of rest (rest cord). Active chords seek to be completed or resolved in the rest chord. Dominant (V) fifth step forms the chief active chord which as a feeling of restlessness and seeks to resolve to the tonic. Subdominant (VI) triad built on 4th scale step (fa).

MUSIC 101 Music Appreciation

Week 1: Materials of Music

The Key as a Form-Building Element


The three main chords of a musical work tonic, dominant, and subdominant are the foundations over which melodies and harmonic progressions unfold. Modulation composers establish the home key, then change to a related key, perhaps the dominant o Create tensions because the dominant key is unstable compared to the tonic. o Tension requires resolution, which is provided by the return of the home key. The progression/movement from home key to the contrasting key and back outlines the basic musical pattern of statement-departure-return. o Home key provides unity; foreign key ensures variety and contrast. Transposition can begin on a different pitch and shift all the tones to a uniform distance to a different level. o Song can be sung in various keys by different voice ranges (soprano, alto, tenor, bass).

MUSIC 101 Music Appreciation

Week 1: Materials of Music

Chapter 5 Musical Texture


Key Points: Texture interweaving of the melodic lines with harmony in music. Monophony the simplest texture which is a single-voiced music without accompaniment. Heterophony multiple voices elaborating the same melody and the same time Polyphony describes a many-voiced texture based on counterpoint one line set against another Homophony when one melodic voice is prominent over the accompanying lines, or voices. Imitation when a melodic ideais presented in one voice, then restated in another is a common unifying technique in polyphony; canons and rounds are two types of strictly imitative works.

Types of Texture

Contrapuntal Devices

Musical Texture and the Listener

MUSIC 101 Music Appreciation

Week 1: Materials of Music

Chapter 6 Musical Form


Key Points:

Structure and Design in Music

Two-Part and Three-Part Form

The Building Blocks of Form