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I wish to express my deep sense of gratitude to Mr. Hardeep Singh, Human Resources Manager, United Breweries, Ludhiana. I would like to thank Mr. E. Jacob, Head Brewer, who had been a source of inspiration and for his timely guidance in the conduct of my project work. I would also like to thank Mr. Vanish, Chief Engineer, Brew Section for all his valuable assistance in the project work. Words are inadequate in offering my thanks to United Breweries, Ludhiana for giving me this opportunity to do my summer training with the esteemed organization. It truly was a great learning experience. Finally, yet importantly, I would like to express my heartfelt thanks to Dr. Abhijit Ganguli, Department of Biotechnology, Thapar University, Patiala for his help in the successful completion of this project.


I hereby declare that the project work entitled BEER MAKING PROCESS is an authentic record of my own work carried out at UNITED BREWERIES LIMITED, LUDHIANA as a requirement of six week training for the award of the degree of B.Tech. (Biotechnology), Thapar University, Patiala. This work has been done under the supervision and guidance of Mr. E. Jacob, Head Brewer during the training programme from 6 June 2010 to 16 July 2010.

Gautam Sood 700800015 B Tech. Biotechnology Thapar University Patiala

Topics 1. 2. 3. 4. ACKNOWLEDGMENT CERTIFICATE DECLARATION INTRODUCTION SIX WEEK TRAINING THE UNITED BREWERIES GROUP COMPANY PROFILE 2 3 4 5 5 5 5 8 8 10 14 16 18 22 26 32 34 37 38 39 43 44 46 47 47 48 51 53 54




The Six Week Industrial Training

The Six Week Industrial Training is a compulsory course which every student has to undergo during his summer vacations after the completion of 4th semester. The main aim of industrial training is to understand the working culture of the industry. The students should be able to co-relate the theoretical knowledge imparted to them in the classroom with the practical aspects of the industry. The students should understand the problems of the industry and try to find out their solutions. This will not only enhance their knowledge, but also help them in all-round development. In United Breweries Limited, Ludhiana I think, I tried to fulfil the aims and objectives of the six week industrial training to the best of my capabilities.

The United Breweries Group

Before discussing about the descriptive information of the process taking place in the industry, let me share some details of the industry. The United Breweries Group is a multi-faceted conglomerate with business interests in Beverage Alcohol International Trading Research & Development Aviation Pharmaceuticals Fertilizer Media

Brief History: The UB Group was founded by a Scottish gentleman Thomas Leishman in 1915. The company used to manufacture beer at that time. In August 1947, Vittal Mallya became the company's first Indian director. United Breweries came into limelight by manufacturing bulk beer for the British troops. Kingfisher, the Group's most visible and profitable brand, made its entry in the sixties. Thereafter, the Group moved into agro-based industries and medicines.

Vijay Mallya assumed the mantle of the group in 1983. In 1988, UB Group acquired the global Berger Paints Group with operating companies across four continents. The paints business was divested for significant value in 1996. UB Group is the third largest manufacturer of Spirits products in the world. In 2005, the Group entered aviation sector with the launch of Kingfisher Airlines Limited. Within a short time the airlines has captured an impressive market share and has established a niche identity for itself.

Company Profile

United Breweries Limited C -60, Phase - VI, Focal Point, Industrial Area, Ludhiana 141001. General Manager: Mr. Ajay Jairath

The plant was initially owned and run by the government and known by the name of Punjab Breweries Ltd. It became a sick unit and was taken over by the U.B. group. UBL, Ludhiana is

a kingfisher beer manufacturing plant. It makes upto 8 - 8.5 lakh beer cases per month during the peak season i.e. March to June. But during winter season, beer consumption reduces so

the manufacturing of beer cases reduces to 3 - 4 lakh cases per month. Only the glass bottles are manufactured here, no cans. The production rate per day is 3 - 4 lakh bottles. The Brewery mainly supplies beer to Punjab, Delhi, Haryana, Jammu and Kashmir and Chandigarh.

The brewery produces only two brands: Kingfisher Strong Kingfisher Light

Soon the company is going to launch new beer called Dark Kingfisher Red Beer, targeted for winter market. Kingfisher has 55% share of market in beer.

UBL, Ludhiana is a perfect example of modern industry. Every single process of beer making is computerized. A single person can operate the whole plant sitting in his office. The labour work has reduced to great extent. Due to introduction of new technology, it is able to fulfil its desired goal within time limits and with desired efficiency. Apart from earning profits, the company also devotes time to work for social cause. They understand the importance of Corporate Social Responsibility. They also carry out tree plantation programmes and environment cleanliness drives. They have their own water treatment plant and carbon dioxide recovery plant so that foul and impure water and carbon dioxide does not affect the environment and people living around.

Major Materials Used For Brewing Process


The basic ingredients of beer are Water Malt barley and rice Hops Yeast

Although the main ingredients of beer have remained constant, it is the precise recipe and timing of the brew that gives one a different taste from another. The production of beer is one of the most closely supervised and controlled manufacturing processes in our society. Other materials used at various stages of process are: Gypsum Whirlfloc Calcium chloride Glycol Promalt Sugar Termamyl

The major beer making process of United Breweries Limited, Ludhiana (Kingfisher) proceeds as follow: Malting Milling Rice Cooker Mashing Lautering Wort Boiling Whirlpool Wort Cooling Fermentation Lagering Filtration Packaging


Malted barley is supplied to this Kingfisher plant from Patiala.

Malt is a term that is used for cereal grains that undergoes the malting process. Different grains have different yields and flavours. Brewers may use a single or a combination of grains, depending on their requirements. Around the world, barley, wheat, rice, corn, maize, rye, oats and sorghum are used Malting is a process applied to cereal grains converting their insoluble starch to soluble starch, reducing complex proteins, generating nutrients for yeast development, and the development of enzymes. In more technical terms, the malting process stimulates the production of enzymes (alpha amylase and beta amylase) within the seed that soften its outer walls or husks and modifies its starches into a more soluble mass.

What Does a Brewer Really Want From Malt?

A good source of fermentable sugars the main purpose for the wort produced from malt is for yeast to ferment it to alcohol. A source of enzymes these are critical in the brew house to break down the larger macromolecules to nutrients that the yeast may utilize in fermentation. Macro- and micronutrients for fermentation many are already present in the malted barley and merely need dissolving in the brew house. No processing problems as we shall see, poorly manufactured malt may give the brewer many processing problems. Stable beer with good shelf-life as well as processing problems poor quality malt may also lead to a beer with negative properties such as haze and poor foam.

Why most often barley is used? Barley is particularly well suited to the brewing task because of following reasons: A barley seed has three outer protective layers - husk, pericarp and testa. This protects the seed through the stages of harvest, storage and malting. The honeycomb microscopic shape of the husk makes for a good natural filter bed that is used to separate the wort or brewing liquid from the mash. It has an insanely high starch yield, being 90 per cent carbohydrate 80-85% of which is the grains food cell, exactly what the brewer is after. When it has germinated or is green malt, it is extremely hardy and does not easily separate from its husk keeping it intact for the brewer. It will only gelatinise at relatively low temperatures and therefore is less likely to clog up brewing vessels. It has high diastatic power or enzyme content.

The three main steps of the malting process are: Steeping Germination Drying

Barley steeping The purpose of steeping is to evenly hydrate the endosperm mass and to allow uniform growth during germination. Steeping begins by mixing the barley kernels with water to raise the moisture level and activate the metabolic processes of the dormant kernel. The water is drained and the moist grains are turned several times during steeping to increase oxygen uptake by the respiring barley.

Steeping has two major functions Raise the moisture content from 12% in different steps to 40% to initiate germination. The increase of moisture over 30% starts germination.


Wash the grain and remove germination inhibitors as well as all floating material.

The water quality must be at least as high as drinking water quality. The water uptake is not evenly distributed over the whole kernel. The water uptake mainly depends on the steep water temperature and the duration of the wet periods. Higher steeping water temperatures and long wet periods increase the water level faster. Common steeping temperatures are about 12 18C. As the grain hydrates it swells to 1.4 times its original volume. By blowing air into the base of the steeping vessel it is possible to prevent packing and the barley is mixed. This also adds oxygen. The oxygen is needed by the kernels for respiration. A lack of oxygen may provoke carbon dioxide accumulation. Microbes may start growing. They compete with the grain for oxygen and reduce its percentage.

Barley Germination In the next step, the wet barley is germinated by maintaining it at a suitable temperature and humidity level until adequate modification has been achieved. The germination process creates a number of enzymes, notably alpha-amylase and beta-amylase, which will be used to convert the starch in the grain into sugar.

The objectives of germination are: Controlled breakdown of cell walls and matrix proteins. Produce optimal level of hydrolytic enzymes. Hydrolyze certain barley reserves e.g. protein to form free amino nitrogen (FAN).

Barley Germination


Malt Kilning If germination continued, a plant would grow, and all of the starches that the brewer hoped to use would be used by the plant. So, the maltster gauges the germination carefully and stops the process by drying where the malt is dried to remove enough moisture from each grain so that further growth is halted.

The objectives of kilning are: Terminate the modification process and the growth of the plant. Reduce moisture to levels suitable for grain storage. Conserve enzyme complexes developed during malting. Develop color and flavor (both taste and aroma) characteristics as required by the brewer.

The process can be managed by the temperature of fresh air and performance of the fan. The heating has to be performed carefully at the beginning. Common temperatures of the fresh air for pre drying of green malt start at around 65 C and end at around 80 C with full fan power. The green malt bed can be divided in three (upper, middle and lower) layers. The incoming hot air is able to absorb moisture from the green malt. At the beginning of the drying process the exhaust air above the bed is saturated and has a significantly lower temperature.

A 1 to 2-foot thick drying zone develops near the floor and slowly moves up through the bin. Grain below the zone comes to approximate equilibrium with drying air and is usually dry enough for safe storage. Grain at the top of the bin remains at its initial moisture content until the drying zone moves completely through the bin. You need to provide enough airflow (install a large enough fan) so that the top grain dries before it spoils.


The drying process starts at the lower layer and constantly develops through the bed. After 10 12 hrs, the temperature above the bed is rising and relative humidity of the exhaust air is decreasing. Higher temperatures also increase the colour. Enzymes are partly inactivated. Lower temperatures at higher moisture contents help to conserve enzymes. In UBL, Ludhiana the grains initially contains 43% moisture and after drying it becomes 5% approximately.

Moisture Determination Heating the grain sample to drive off moisture and weighing before and after heating, according to a standardized procedure, to find water loss is a direct method of moisture determination.

Moisture Shrink The removal of moisture from grain during drying causes a reduction in grain quantity referred to as moisture shrink. The moisture shrink can be calculated using the following equation. Moisture Shrink (%) = Initial Moisture Content - Final Moisture Content -------------------------------------------------------100 - Final Moisture Content x 100

Usually, malting is done at some other place, not in the industry. After malting, the barley grains (now called malt) are sent to brew house for further processing. In United Breweries Limited, Ludhiana the malt comes from Patiala. The first step of operation in the brew house is the milling or grinding of the malt between rollers. Foreign objects, such as stones or stray metal parts, can ruin a mill. Therefore they must be removed from the malt before milling. In a dry mill, such objects can also generate sparks, which pose an explosion danger. So before milling, we screen the grains two times through


shaking or vibration screens, to remove dust particles, small stones, stray metal parts and other rags. After screening, malt is sent to roller mill through bucket elevator.

The objectives of milling are to: Split the husk longitudinally, exposing and separating the endosperm, without tearing the hulls Crush the endosperm allowing complete wetting and therefore rapid extraction and enzymic digestion. Minimize the quantity of fine flour produced.

There are different designs of malt mills, to meet the requirements. The husks have to be removed but kept intact to serve later in the lautering process as a natural filter bed. If the grist is too coarse, the yield of extract will be too low. If it is to fine the filter will be clogged and the filtration process will become too slow. Here the right balance has to be found and mostly a blend of different fractions is used. The milling step liberates the kernel from the husk and breaks the kernel into smaller pieces, ultimately into flour. Milling of the malt is a necessary step to make the starch contained in the kernel accessible in the next processing step. On the one hand, grinding is of importance for extracting the inside of the malt or cereal grain as much as possible out of the endosperm to facilitate the following extraction and dilution steps. The milling process should be accomplished by grinding the husk as little as possible because the husk contains many undesirable components, such as resins that degrade beer quality. The product of the milling operation is called grist.

Six-roller mills Six-roller mills have three sets of rollers. The first roller crushes the whole kernel, and its output is divided three ways: flour immediately is sent out the mill, grits without a husk proceed to the last roller, and husk, possibly still containing parts of the seed, go to the second set of rollers. From the second roller flour is directly output, as are husks and any possible seed still in them, and the husk-free grits are channeled into the last roller.


After milling, sieve analysis of grist is done. For good lauter tun performance Briggs et al suggest that the grist should contain 15% husks, 23% coarse grits, 30% fine grits and 32% flour, while Kunze suggests that the grist should consist of 18% husk, 8% coarse grits, 56% fine grits and 18% flour. In fact, the optimum grist size distribution is dependent on a brewerys specific requirements for extract yield and throughput, the modification of the malt and the loading on the lauter tun. After milling, the grist is stored in grist chamber.

M ill settings Coarse Normal Fine

Roller Gap top 13.0 10.0 6.5

in mm middle 10.5 8.0 3.3

bottom 11.0 6.0 2.8

The ideal grist for wort filtration in a lauter tun would contain: No intact kernels The majority of husks split end to end with no endosperm attached The endosperm reduced to a uniform small particle size, called grits A minimum of fine flour.

Rice Cooker

There are several reasons to use non-malted crops in combination with barley malt. The enzymatic power of barley malt is great enough to not only saccharify the starch contained in barley, but also to saccharify the starch from non-malted cereals, but before these so-called


adjuncts can be added to the mashing they have to be cooked in a separate vessel in order to convert the mainly insoluble starch into a soluble gel. Sometimes Rice Cooker works under slight pressure at approximately 104C. This requires that the adjunct cooker is equipped with a pressure control valve. An adjunct cooker is not very different from a mash pan and has a steam heating coil and an agitator. The cooking process bursts open the starch granules. Sometimes even a vacuum is applied to support the bursting process. The enzymes can saccharify the starch only after the granules have been burst open. Non-malted cereals can constitute from 10-40% of mash composition. Rice Cooker is made of stainless steel. The agitator speed should be slow to deter the oxygen uptake. In United Breweries Limited, Ludhiana two types of rice are used. They are: 1. Rice Flakes 2. Broken Rice

Rice flakes are directly put into mash tun while broken rice is first gelatinized in Rice Cooker at 96 . We give break at 85 so that enzyme can act on rice. In Rice Cooker, broken rice is liquefied and converted into flakes as enzymes can act better on flakes during mashing. The process of conversion of broken rice to flaked rice is called gelatinization.

Ingredients we put in rice cooker

Broken Rice Water Gypsum Termamyl H

2450 kg 2000 litres 2 kg 500 ml

alternate and cheap source of starch to boil the broken rice to control the pH to avoid sticking of settling particles

Steam Consumption by Rice Cooker

The Rice Cooker is heated to the temperature of 96 with the help of steam. The steam is present in the internal jackets at bottom and the side wall of the vessel. The steam is at

temperature of 120


Heat supplied by steam : (Using steam tables and thermo-physical properties table)


* T

= (2450 + 2000) *4.91*(96 -45) = 11,14,324.5 KJ

Amount of steam used = heat supplied / latent heat

= 11,14,324.5 / 2329 = 478.45 kg

The mass transfer pump is designed to transfer Rice Cooker mash to mash kettle for further processing.


Till the time the adjunct cereal is being cooked in Rice Cooker, we do pre - mashing in Mash Kettle. During pre mashing, we add water and grist in Mash Kettle and mix them. Pre mashing is done at 45 . As the temperature reaches 45 , we add adjunct cereal i.e. rice. If we are using rice flakes, then they are directly put into Mash Kettle but if we are using broken rice, then it is supplied from Rice Cooker through a pipeline. Now the actual process of mashing takes place.

After the malt has been crushed in the milling process it is delivered to the mashing kettle and pumped into large vessels known as mash tuns. These vessels are surrounded by steam heating coils and are equipped with an internal agitator. Hot water is added to the ground malt. Throughout the mashing process, water facilitates the extraction of the starch from the grains and is the means of heat transfer driving the reactions.

Heat is applied to the mash tun and the mixture is slowly agitated to create a thick slurry known as mash. The natural enzymes present in the barley begin to break down the starches in the mash into simple sugars in a chemical process known as saccharification. Some brewers will supplement the barley enzymes with additional proprietary enzymes to enhance the saccharification process. These supplemental enzymes are added in a liquid form and are usually very expensive. Temperature, holding times and pH are closely monitored during this process to maximize the conversion of the starch into sugars.

Other ingredients we add in Mash Kettle are


5 kg

a. To decrease pH b. To help in grushing c. Helps in yeast settling d. Give stability to amylase a. To control pH. b. For palletfullness To control pH


1 kg

Lactic acid Promalt

2 litres 900 gm


Bio - chemical changes taking place during mashing:

Gelatinisation - starch granules swell with water and finally burst viscous/sticky solution which can be directly attacked by enzymes. Liquefication - rapid reduction of viscosity by -amylase attacking gelatinised amylase and amylopectin. Saccharification - -amylase continues random attacks and -amylase attacks new nonreducing ends to form maltose.

In UBL, Ludhiana we do Infusion Mashing. In the infusion process, the entire batch of mash is heated, with appropriate rests, to the final temperature. No part of the mash is removed for separate boiling. In this system mash conversion (the malt starch is converted to sugars) takes place in the same vessel as wort separation. As there are no heating stages it is not necessary to have an agitation in the mash tun. The iso-thermal infusion mash is the simplest way to make wort, however, since the technique lacks a protein rest, it is recommended that you use mostly well modified malts. The infusion mash is also refered to as the one-step mash, since the process requires only one step.

The temperature profile during mashing is different for both rice flakes and broken rice.

Rice flakes 45 64 71 76 (rice +grist) (35 min. rest) (30 min. rest)

Broken rice 96 64 71 76 (rice) + 45 (35 min. rest) (30 min. rest) (grist)

During 35 minutes rest at 64 enzyme - amylase act while during second rest of 30 minutes at 71 , enzyme - amylase act. - amylase is also called liquefying enzyme as it makes the grist in liquid form. At 76 these diastatic enzymes will get killed.


Steam consumption during mashing

(Using steam table and thermo-physical properties table of water) Total mass to be heated = 2440 kg ( rice) + 4135 kg (grist) + 11500 kg (water)

Temperature difference = 76 45

= 31

Heat capacity of grist and rice = 2.3 KJ/Kg Heat capacity of water = 4.2 KJ/Kg Total heat supplied = * * * * +

= 6575 *2.3*31 + 11500*4.2*31 =1966097.5 KJ Steam consumed = heat supplied / latent heat = 1966097.5 / 2354 = 835.215 kg

We do mashing for 70 minutes. After mashing is complete, we do iodine test to get information about conversion of starch to sugar. If we get

Yellowish brown colour means complete Saccharification


Violet colour means incomplete Saccharification



Grains (rice + grist) 6575 kg Water (0.05 * 6375=318.75) Soluble (0.75* 6375=4781.25 kg) Insolubles (0.20 * 6375 = 1275 kg)

Mass balance during Mashing

Mash (18,075 kg)

Water (318.75 + 11500 = 11818.75 kg) Soluble (4781.25 kg) Insolubles (1275 kg)

Therefore Water added (11500 kg)

When the mashing process is finished, the insoluble husks, grist, proteins, cellulose and still not converted starch have to be removed from the wort before further processing, to obtain a clear liquid. Lautering is the separation of the extracts won during mashing from the spent grain. The filtration can be carried out with lauter tun .

Design of lauter tun A lauter tun is a cylindrical vessel with a perforated false bottom. The false bottom can be opened and closed to flow. The false bottom in a lauter tun has thin slits to hold back the solids and allow liquids to pass through. The

solids, not the false bottom, form a filtration medium and hold back small solids, allowing the otherwise cloudy mash to run out of the lauter tun as a clear liquid. To prevent the filter from clogging, the Lauter Tun is equipped with a very complex raking machine (agitator). The raking machine has vertical, rotating blades, knifes and beams for different purposes, as to prevent the filter bed from becoming too dense, assisting in washing the filter bed with water and finally to push the solids out of the lauter tun. Cutting blades hang from these arms. The blade is usually wavy and has a plough-like foot. Each blade has its own path around the tun and often the whole rake assembly can be raised and lowered. Attached to each of these arms is a flap which can be raised and lowered for pushing the spend grains out of the tun. The brewer, or better yet an automated system, can raise and lower the rake arms depending on the turbidity (cloudiness) of the run-off, and the tightness of the grain bed, as measured by the pressure difference between the top and bottom of the grain bed.

Lautering has two stages First wort run-off: During which the extract is separated in an undiluted state from the spent grains Sparging: In which extract which remains with the grains is rinsed off with hot water.

This separation is actually two different problems. The liquor needs to be filtered from the particles Much of the sugar is still contained within the spent barley grains.

To solve both of these problems at once, the grains are used to form the structure of a deep bed filter. Before pumping into the lauter tun, the mash is vigorously stirred to distribute the solids homogeneously in the fluid. When the mash is pumped now into the lauter tun, the false bottom remains closed for about 30 minutes to allow the husks to form a filter bed. When the bottom is finally opened to flow, the agitator starts spinning slowly around, blades rotating. The liquid is slowly drawn through a perforated bottom in the vessel containing the mash and introduced back the top of the vessel. In this way, the small suspended particles in the liquor become trapped in the bed of grains. When the recycled liquor becomes clear, it is tapped from the bottom of the vessel and hot water is introduced slowly to the top. The fluid part of the mash passes slowly through the filter bed made of the husks and grist. The first filtrate is still too cloudy and has to be recycled through the lauter tun, but as soon as the liquid is clear enough, it is pumped into the wort kettle.

Still there is some sugar content present in spent grains, we can extract that sugar content through Sparging. We are transferring sugar from spent grains to clean hot water. The mass transfer works because the sugar concentration in the grains is higher than that in the hot water, so the sugar is extracted out of the grains. When all the liquid mash is pumped into the wort kettle the filter bed is washed with hot water to increase the yield (Sparging). The hot water is sprayed from nozzles, which are built into the raking machine. A system will introducing sparge water into the lauter tun. Most systems have a ring of spray heads that insure an even and gentle introduction of the sparge water. The watering system should not beat down on the grain bed and form a channel.

Sparging water conditions: Its pH should be between 6.4 6.7. Its temperature should be between 76

- 78 .

a. If temperature is less than 76

, no proper extraction of sugar takes place. or 80 , leaching of polyphenols take place. It gives

b. If temperature is more than 78 harshy flavour to wort.

Sparging is done three times

Sparging number

Amount of hot water Time for which it is Extract called used done No water used 6000 lts 6100 lts 1000 lts 50-55 mins 20-25 mins 20-25 mins 4-5 mins Sweet wort 2nd extract 3rd extract Last run

Before sparging 1st sparging 2nd sparging 3rd sparging

Eventually the separation is completed, resulting in a dilute solution of malt sugars (this is the same stuff as is concentrated and sold as malt extract in the supermarket) and the spent grains. Since the spent grains still contain a lot of carbohydrate and fibre, they have quite a high nutritional value and are sold as animal feed. Part of the task of the chemical engineer in

all the process industries is to operate the process in such a way as to minimise the generation of waste, both to help the environment and to improve the profitability of the operation.

The filtrated fluid obtained from the mashing and lautering process is called wort. It is an aqueous liquid that contains mainly fermentable sugars. The malt enzymes are still in an active state and there are proteins and other by-products. The next step of operation in the brew house is wort boiling.



Mash (18075 kg)

Wort (26,668.75 kg)

Soluble (4750 kg) Water (11,818.75 kg) Soluble (4781.25 kg) Insoluble (1275 kg) Water (21,918.75 kg)

Mass Balance In Lauter Tun

Spent Grain (3785 kg) Water (2500 kg)

Sparging (13,100 kg) Water

Insoluble (1260 kg) Soluble (25 kg)

Drain Water (1521.25 kg) Water (1500 kg) Soluble (6.25kg) Insoluble (15 kg)


Wort Boiling
Wort boiling is a complex process during which a wide range of chemical, physico-chemical, physical and biochemical reactions take place. It is the most energy intensive stage in the brewing process. From the lauter tun the filtrated wort is pumped into the wort kettle, made of stainless steel. Wort kettles are similar to mash pans but mostly without an agitator and a different heating system. There are several reasons why a good wort boil is important 1. Wort sterilization Boiling your wort provides enough heat to render the wort free from bacterial contamination. The wort bacteria are easily killed by heat. The low pH and the antibacterial action of certain hop constituents will ensure that the pathogenic and spore forming organisms that would otherwise.

2. Enzyme inactivation Most of the enzyme action ceases early during wort collection, either due to raising the mash temperature for mash-off or by sparging at a higher temperature in an infusion mash. Boiling ceases the remaining enzyme activity and fixes the carbohydrate composition of the wort, and hence the dextrin content of the final beer. Dextrins are complex carbohydrates. In the absence of enzyme activity to break them down into simpler sugars, brewers yeast cannot ferment.

3. Boilings effect on proteins and hot break Under the favorable conditions of wort boiling, proteins and other polypeptides present in the wort will combine with polyphenols or tannins. Protein-tannin complexes collide with other protein-tannin complexes and stick together until they achieve a certain mass and precipitate out of solution. Boiling also can destroy a proteins three-dimensional structure. Protein and tannins are the primary constituents of the hot break in the kettle. The hot break is the brown scum that forms on top of the wort, formed due to coagulation of proteins, formation of protein-polyphenol complexes, and reaction with hop compounds to create larger particles that will sediment out in the whirlpool at the end of the boil. These reactions occur at higher rates at higher temperatures and more agitation.


4. Solubilize and isomerize hops Although there are a great many reactions occurring during the kettle boil, the principle one of interest is the isomerization and subsequent solubilization of alpha acids. Isomerized alpha acids are the molecules responsible for the bitter flavor in beer. The chief component of alpha acids is the compound humulone. The isomerization of humulone to isohumulone is facilitated by the presence of magnesium ions. The extraction and isomerization are very inefficient, however, and as many as 70% of the alpha acids remain unconverted, and hence insoluble.

5. Volatalize aromas

Dimethyl sulphide (DMS), an off flavour component that forms during the boil from Smethylmethionine (SMM), is quite volatile at wort boiling temperatures. Given enough time, say 60 minutes of boiling, DMS should be formed and driven off enough to bring it below the detectable flavour threshold. During boiling we're basically distilling the DMS out, as it is more volatile than water. However, you must evaporate some water in order to do this. The amount of water needed to evaporate is dependent on the concentration of DMS that you need to get rid of. The more DMS in the wort, the more water you need to evaporate. There is a minimum amount of water that you need to get rid of certain concentration of DMS, regardless of what type of wort boiling system you are using.

6. Hop aroma

Hops also contain an essential oil component, which is responsible for the characteristic hop aromas. Each oil imparts its own smell, and hop aroma is made up from the combinations of many smells. The oils are soluble in hot wort and are very volatile. So, they are soon boiled away in the steam from the kettle. This is why many brewers add a charge of hops as late in the boil as possible to try to trap the aroma before it is evaporated away. Dry hopping is another technique designed to avoid losing volatile hop compounds.

7. Colour development Colour pick-up in the kettle is a combination of several factors. The caramelization of wort sugars darkens the wort as it boils. Loss of an H2O molecule from the complex sugar molecule forms a double bond inside the sugar molecule, which changes the way the sugar molecule absorbs light, thereby affecting the color.

8. Concentration of the wort In a large brewery, up to 10% of the kettle contents can be lost due to evaporation during a boil of normal duration. This increases the original gravity of the wort accordingly.

9. Good place for the addition of sugar Extra sugar is added here to increase the gravity of wort. In UBL, Ludhiana we add 700 kg of sugar. 10. pH Wort pH will fall from 5.65.8 at the start of boiling to around 5.25.4 at the end. This is primarily due to the precipitation of calcium phosphate. Calcium ions in brewing water reacts with phosphates from the malt to form calcium phospate and hydrogen ions, which lower wort pH. This demonstrates the importance of excess calcium ions in the wort after mashing. For this reason, it is sometimes a good idea to add gypsum to the kettle.

Wort boiling system (External Vertical Calandria) Wort kettles come in different shapes and with various heating systems. The aim is to gain ideal heat distribution and heat transfer with the different sizes of kettles and saving as much energy as possible. The kind of wort boiling has also an influence on the quality of the wort. In UBL, Ludhiana we use external heating system (vertical calandria) for wort boiling.

Process Operation and Control During filling of the kettle, wort is received at 70-75C and must be heated to boiling point. Wort is circulated through an external vertical calandria by pumping during the filling process such that the contents of the kettle are at boiling point at the end of fill and this can save overall batch time in the brewhouse. The temperature difference between the wort and the steam used for heating is controlled during the heat up phase and once at boiling point, pumping is discontinued and the thermosyphon drives itself. No pumping is required once the kettle is boiling, and the contents can be circulated at up to 10 times per hour, driven by the large difference in density between the liquid-vapour mix in the heater and the liquid in the kettle. During the boil, clean steam condenses on the

heating surface transferring its latent heat to the wort. This latent heat is required to evaporate the water and volatiles from the wort, and the amount of heat input required only needs to correspond with the latent heat of evaporation at the pressure of the wort, plus an allowance for heat loss from the kettle. The water vapour from the wort is at a lower pressure than the original steam, but it holds all the heat in the original steam less the sensible heat left behind in the condensate. With each successive brew the surfaces get fouled, resulting in a lower heat transfer coefficient and the mass flow of steam at constant pressure falls as the rate of condensation is reduced. To achieve the required evaporation rate, the temperature (and consequently pressure) of the steam must be raised, which is best achieved by installing a steam mass flow meter, the signal from which modulates a flow control valve.

NOTE: In case of external heating system no natural hops should be used but hop pellets or hop extracts because the hops leaves and solids can block the passage through the heat exchanger.

Heat Transfer and Temperature

Heat transfer is governed by Fourier's Law which is stated as Q = UA ( )

where Q is the rate of heat transfer, U is the overall heat transfer coefficient, A is the heating surface area is the steam temperature, and is the wort temperature. It follows that an increase in heating surface area requires a decrease in steam temperature to maintain the same heat input and achieve the same evaporation. With the very large surface area of a modern external wort heater the steam temperature can be reduced to 110C - 115C compared to 135C to 140C for an internal heater. This correlates with less heat damage to the wort. Evaporation Percent Evaporation is usually expressed as percentage of total volume of wort at the start of boil. It is difficult of measure accurately the volume of boiled wort due to its turbulence.

Evaporation percent = 100 - (post-boil volume x 100 pre- boil volume)


For example: Say you collect 267 hectolitres of wort and boil it down to 240 hectolitres. Evaporation percent = 100 - (24000 267), = 100 90 = 10% Most brewers target the evaporation percent between 8% - 10%.

Steam Consumption during wort boiling (Using steam table and thermo-physical properties table of water)

Enthalpy balance with negligible heat of dilution Total heat required for wort boiling = + to 100

= heat required to raise temperature from 78 = * *

= specific heat of wort = 4.19 ( almost same as water) = mass of wort = 26700 kg = temperature difference = 22

= 26700 * 4.19 * 22 = 2461206 KJ = heat required for evaporation of 10% of wort =m* m = mass of wort evaporated

latent heat of vapourization

= 2670 * 2257 = 6026190 KJ

Total heat supplied by steam = 2461206 + 6026190 = 8487396 KJ

Steam consumed = 8487396 / 2257 = 3760.476 kg

Steam economy = No. of kg vapourized / kg of steam fed = 2670 / 3760.476 = 0.71

Types of boiling that occur in calandria Three forms of heat transfer can take place inside the heating tubes: 1. Film Boiling 2. Forced Convection Boiling 3. Nucleate Boiling

Film boiling is not desirable, as a vapour film forms on the heating surface and prevents the heat transfer to the wort, causing rapid fouling. It can occur at fairly low temperature difference. Forced convection will take place when there is low temperature difference between wort and heater or when bubble formation is suppressed by application of backpressure. To achieve high rate of heat exchange, flow in tubes must be turbulent.

Nucleate boiling makes use of bubble formation to cause rapid turbulence. The presence of bubbles also helps in the removal of volatiles. Nucleate boiling (phase change) can be encouraged or suppressed by the pressure maintained.

The whirlpool kettle is used to separate undesirable substances from the hot wort. The particle size of these substances is only 30-80 m. These substances are collectively called hot trub and are present at a concentration of 40-80 grams per hectolitre of wort. A whirlpool is a hydrodynamic trub separator using centrifugal forces to sediment insoluble substances from the wort after boiling. Trub has a negative influence on fermentation and the taste of beer.

Flow and forces in a whirlpool The tangential injection causes the liquid to spin with about 10 rpm and form a vortex. As a combined result of centrifugal forces and friction on the wall, the trub accumulates in the bottom of the whirlpool in the shape of an inverted cone. After about 30 minutes the wort is pumped from the outlet to the wort cooler.


Settlement of Solids ( Stokes law)

Particles settle naturally under the influence of gravity, as described by Stokes Law. Stokes Law states that the rate of sedimentation of an idealised spherical particle is directly proportional to the difference in the density of the particle and the liquid medium, the acceleration due to gravity, and the square of the radius of the particle, and inversely proportional to the viscosity of the liquid. Thus if wort or beer is left for a sufficiently long time, it will clarify itself; this is the basis of the laggering process. Where, = rate of sedimentation of a spherical particle = density of the particle = density of the medium (wort or beer) = diameter of the sphere g = acceleration due to gravity = viscosity of the medium.

Stokes Law suggests two possible strategies for increasing the rate of clarification. The g term may effectively be increased by means of a centrifuge or the radius of the particle may be increased by the use of finings. Centrifuges are particularly effective at removing yeast, but generally less effective on the very small particles that finings (whirlfloc) are particularly good at removing. Since the speed of settlement is proportional to the square of the radius a

modest increase in particle size can yield a profound decrease in settlement time. This therefore, makes increasing particle size by flocculation, a very attractive method of decreasing settlement times. Coagulation is not a simple process and depends upon the nature of the particulates and the liquid.

Wort Cooling

The hot wort must be cooled because temperatures above 40 C kill the yeast during fermentation. The cooling process is carried out in closed systems, mainly plate heat exchangers.

Design of Plate Heat Exchanger The plate heat exchanger (PHE) is a specialized design well suited to transferring heat between medium- and low-pressure liquids. Two plates form a cell with a flow of the cooling medium followed by two plates forming a cell with a flow of the hot medium. The plates have a profile guiding the flow from the inlet at one side on the top to the outlet at the other side at the lower end in a cell. Both media flow exactly in counter flow pattern. The hot medium becomes gradually cooler as the cold medium becomes gradually warmer. Stainless steel is a commonly used metal for the plates because of its ability to withstand high temperatures, its strength, and its corrosion resistance. The plates are often spaced by rubber sealing gaskets which are cemented into a section around the edge of the plates. The plates are pressed to form troughs at right angles to the direction of flow of the liquid which runs through the channels in the heat exchanger. These troughs are arranged so that they interlink with the other plates which forms the channel with gaps of 1.31.5 mm between the plates.


Heat transfer The plates produce an extremely large surface area, which allows for the fastest possible transfer. Making each chamber thin ensures that the majority of the volume of the liquid contacts the plate. The troughs also create and maintain a turbulent flow in the liquid to maximize heat transfer in the exchanger. A high degree of turbulence can be obtained at low flow rates and high heat transfer coefficient can then be achieved. The heat exchanger plates are thin (0.5mm) to allow optimal heat exchange. The surfaces of plates are embossed to cause turbulent flow and speed up heat transfer. The efficiency of plate heat exchanger is affected by fouling. If fouling increases, the heat transfer coefficient reduces, and higher flow of chilled water will be required to achieve the wort outlet temperature. In UBL, Ludhiana we use single stage cooling process, in which hot wort at 100 is to be cooled to temperature of 15 by bringing it in contact with chilled water at 4 . The temperature of outlet hot water reaches about 80 . The wort temperature at the cooler end is measured by the resistance bulb thermometer and adjustments are sent to chill water throttle valve to achieve the required wort temperature.

Advantages of plate heat exchanger Compactness- The units in a plate heat exchanger occupy less floor space and floor loading by having a large surface area that is formed from a small volume. This in turn produces a high overall heat transfer coefficient due to the heat transfer associated with the narrow passages and corrugated surfaces. Flexibility- Changes can be made to heat exchanger performance by utilizing a wide range of fluids and conditions that can be modified to adapt to the various design specifications. These specifications can be matched with different plate corrugations Low Fabrication Costs- Welded plates are relatively more expensive than pressed plates. Plate heat exchangers are made from pressed plates, which allow greater resistance to corrosion and chemical reactions. Ease of Cleaning- The heat exchanger can be easily dismantled for inspection and cleaning and the plates are also easily replaceable as they can be removed and replaced individually. Temperature Control- The plate heat exchanger can operate with relatively small temperature differences. This is an advantage when high temperatures must be avoided. Local overheating and possibility of stagnant zones can also be reduced by the form of the flow passage.


Calculations related to plate heat exchanger A plate heat exchanger is used to cool wort from 100C to 15C. The wort passes through it at a flow rate of 360 hl/hr. Cooling water at 8C flows counter-current into the plate heat exchanger at a flow rate of 405 hl/hr and its outlet temperature is 80C.If each plate has an area of 0.6 . Density of wort = 1080 kg/ Density of water = 1000 kg Specific heat of wort = 4.0 kJ/(kg K) Specific heat of water = 4.2 kJ/(kg K)

Heat transfer coefficient = 3000 W/

Using heat balance Heat lost by wort = heat gained by water * * = * *

Heat lost by wort

= 360 kg/hr * 4 KJ/(kg K) * 85C = 122400 KJ/hr = 34 KW

Heat gained by water = 405 kg/hr * 4.2KJ/(kg K) * 75C = 122472 KJ/hr = 34 KW

Calculating LMTD


= (20 7) / (ln 2.86) = 12.37

Using Design Equation of plate heat exchanger Q=U*A* Total area of plates, A = 34000 / (3000 * 12.37) = 91.62

Total number of plates used =

Total area of plates ------------------------Area of one plate = 91.62 / 0.6 = 153 plates

So for the above cooling operation we need 153 plates.

Aeration is the process by which air is circulated through, mixed with or dissolved in the wort. In its broadest sense, aeration is the process by which the area of contact between wort and air is increased by mechanical devices. In venturi pipes there is a substantial increase in flow velocity where the pipe is narrowed. The wort, which runs through the aeration nozzle, creates a slight vacuum which draws air into the unit. Air is introduce through a jet nozzle & is through mixed by eddy current in the wort in the turbulent flow. The lower the temperature, the greater is the solubility. The air is directly injected into the wort that turbulently flows through a pipe. The basic purpose of aeration is the improvement of the physical and chemical characteristics of wort. Primarily, this improvement involves the reduction of objectionable tastes and odours, but some additional benefits of aeration, as a preliminary step to other purification processes have also been noted.

The term fermentation refers in general to those processes that are caused by microorganisms that degrade nitrogen free substances. These processes occur slowly and are characterised by the formation of gases and the liberation of heat. The names of the different fermentations are derived from either the final product or the microorganism that caused the fermentation. In a brewery, only alcoholic fermentations are of interest. Here, a variety of fermentable sugars are degraded by yeast into ethyl alcohol (ethanol) and carbon dioxide according to the following formula:


2 C2H5OH

2 CO2

230 kJ



Carbon dioxide


Yeast pitching Strain Used- Saccharomyces uvarum, Saccharomyces cerevesiae Yeasts are single celled organisms (fungi). Yeasts are mono-cellular microorganisms that are common and widespread in nature, which reproduce by budding or fission. The viscous yeast suspension is added directly into the aerated wort. The yeast can be dosed with suitable pumps into the wort supply line of the fermenter, or blended with the wort in so-called pitching vessels. The addition of yeast is called "pitching" in the brewer's language. It is very important to intensively aerate the yeast before dosing. If this is not done, a delay in fermentation is inevitable. The fermentation process is initiated by the addition of 0.5 0.7 l of a heavy yeast slurry per hectoliter of wort, corresponding to 15 20 million yeast cells per millilitre of cold and aerated wort. After the addition of yeast, the wort is called young beer or simply beer. The single yeast cells must quickly come in contact with the nutrients of the wort. Consequently, the yeast is injected continuously into the flow of the cold wort.

Fermentation process +6 > 6 O+ 6


OH + 2

Fermentation process is divided into 3 phases Lag phase Log phase Stationary phase

Lag phase The lag phase is the time during which the yeast become acclimatized to the wort and prepare to reproduce and consume massive amounts of sugar. In this phase, oxygen is extremely important. Oxygen is used by yeast for synthesis of sterols and unsaturated fatty acids that are necessary growth factors. Without oxygen, these lipids cant be bio synthesized and growth will be very limited.


Log phase The log phase is a time of exponential growth of the yeast culture. The preparation of the yeast made during the lag phase allows rapid multiplication of cells and consumption of sugar. Yeast reproduce asexually by budding; the adult cell forms a daughter cell that is an exact genetic copy itself. The yeast turns one molecule of glucose into two molecules each of ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide.

Stationary phase The stationary phase is the last stage where the yeast population reaches maximum density and the remaining sugars are consumed. As the available sugar decreases, the yeast begin to prepare for a period where there is a lack of food. It is here where fermentation comes to a halt and yeast begins to dormant. When the yeast have consumed all of the sugar, flocculation begins. The rest allows time for the yeast to convert or reduce some less desirable compounds, especially diacetyl, to more acceptable or desirable compounds.

Changes during Fermentation

Changes in the Composition of Nitrogen Compounds

Yeast converts nitrogen compounds from wort to synthesize its own cellular substances. The free amino nitrogen (FAN) content is reduced from 200 250 to 100 120 mg/l. pH Drop

The pH decreases from 5.4 5.6 in wort to a value of 4.3 4.6 and then remains constant. Lower pH values, for instance below 4.2, must be avoided because they impair an acidic beer taste. Precipitation of Bitter Substances and Polyphenols

The non - isomerized - acids are captured from ascending bubbles and carried ahead to the foam. The loss of bitter substances ranges from 25 to 40% during fermentation.


Content is enriched in fermenting beer. The solubility of in beer depends on temperature and pressure. Most of the produced during fermentation is, however, recovered.

Undesired side reaction Diacetyl which can give a butterscotch flavour but needs to be managed closely to avoid a rancid flavour.

Degree of fermentation The degree of fermentation of wort is determined by : (% initial extract - % final extract) x 100 % Fermentation = ---------------------------------------------------% initial extract The dominant practice is to ferment all fermentable extract. One should note that not all extract formed during the mashing step in the brewing process consists of fermentable sugars, also a certain amount of non-fermentable sugars are formed. The following example illustrates this point: Initialextract:2.2% Final extract: 2.0% (12.2 - 2.0) x 100 % Fermentation = 12.2 = 83.61

The degree of fermentation relates to the taste of a beer.


Dissipation of heat and heat transfer

The dissipation of the heat from the fermenter follows the principle of heat transfer. Most of the heat transfers occur through conduction and will follow the direction of the heat gradient. The heat transfer depends on the size of the fermenter. Small fermenters have smaller volume and therefore a high surface area to volume ratio. This makes heat the fermenter very fast and efficient. Under this situation the fermenter will Cooling jackets is good heat exchanger. As the fermentation reaction is exothermic reaction, a lot of heat is produced. We must cool the fermentation vessel by means of cooling jackets. This type of cooling jackets is commonly used in the case of indirect evaporation. The cooling is done by glycol. The glycol is fed in from below and passes out at the top.

Mass Transfer in Fermentation Film theory The two film theory is a useful model for mass transfer between phase. Mass transfer of solute from one phase to another involves transport from bulk of one phase to the interface, and then from the interface to the bulk of the second phase. This theory is based on idea that a mass transfer boundary layer forms whenever there is contact between two phases. Mass transfer through the film is by molecular diffusion and is the major resistance.

Oxygen transfer from gas bubble to cell

Eight steps involved Transfer from the interior of the bubble to the gas-liquid interface Movement across the gas-liquid interface Diffusion through the relatively stagnant liquid film surrounding Transport through the bulk liquid Diffusion through the relatively stagnant liquid film surrounding Movement across the liquid-cell interface If the cells are in floc, clump or solid particle, diffusion through the solid of individual cell. Transport through the cytoplasm to the site of reaction.

After the hard work of primary fermentation, beer needs to rest. At this stage the brewer is looking to mature the beers flavour, reduce the rougher alcohols, stabilise it and minimise any dissolved oxygen. It may also be clarified. During maturation, the temperature of the green beer is lowered to force the precipitation of the yeast. To separate yeast from green beer by this cooling and decanting process takes about 12 to 15 hours. The green beer is transferred to maturation tanks where it is tored at a temperature of -1 . The yeast is pumped to storage tanks for use in the next batch. Generally, yeast is used about five times. If the yeast is infected, it is washed with acid before it is used in the next batch.Yeast that is no longer suitable for fermentation is sold to other industries such as the pharmaceutical or animal feed industries.After this primary fermentation, the wort is called "green beer". Green beer has a rough flavour and before it is ready for consumption it has to undergo maturation or ripening process that is known as "lagering". We add three chemicals after fermentation for protein settlement. They are Biofien Profex KMS

This process will improve the quality of the beer and eliminate undesired fermentation byproducts as diacetyl, aldehydes and sulphur containing substances by biochemical processes. In UBL, Ludhiana both fermentation and maturation takes place in one tank in off season. This tank is called CCFV i.e. cylindro-conical fermentation vessel. During season time, maturation takes place in another vessel.

Cleaning in Place
C.I.P means cleaning in place. This technique is used to clean fermentation vessels. Its procedure is: Rinsing with hot water for 10 minutes Hot caustic circulation for 30 minutes Cold water circulation for 10 minutes Superoxide circulation for 30 minutes


When caustic is used for cleaning, it is necessary to ensure that the C from the tank because otherwise as a result of reaction 2NaOH + C > C + or NaOH + C > NaHC (insoluble sodium hydrogen carbonate)

has been removed


Upon completion of the maturation process, the beer is filtered. The purpose of the filtration is to improve the stability of the beer and to give it brightness and clarity. Filtration does not only improve the appearance of the beer. Several different substances must be removed from the beer including yeast, precipitated proteins, hop resins and sometimes beer spoiling microorganisms. All these substances can cause turbidity and a ropy effect like a veil. The turbidity forming substances have distinctly different particle sizes and have different filtering characteristics.

One should differentiate between gross dispersions and colloids. Gross dispersions have a particle size > 0.1 m and can be seen with the naked eye. Examples are yeast and coagulated proteins. The particle size of colloids is between 0.001 and 0.1 m. Colloids are best observed with refracted light by sending a beam of light through the fluid.

The filtration steps fulfil two roles To remove suspended materials from the green beer (the real filtration) To unhinge potential turbidity formers (stabilization).

Metal Candle Filter

Metal candle filters have stainless steel housings. Their shape is cylindrical and they are mounted in a vertical position. Filter candles have a diameter of 20 35 mm and are of various lengths up to a maximum of 2.5 m. A filter surface area of up to 180 can be achieved in the pressure vessel by a parallel arrangement of candles. Internally, they contain

many filter elements that are made from a fine wire mesh. The pore size of the mesh is 70 m. The purpose of this pore size is to retain the filter aid, the diatomaceous earth. The suspension is made by mixing beer with Kieselguhr.

The candles have permeable materials on their surface and are traversed through from outside to inside. The filtrate is drained off through the inside of the

candle. The fluid passes through a very porous filter material. Particles that are to big are retained in the filter media. In this process, also adsorption plays an important role. The problem here is that as the particle retention increases, the volume flow of clean beer decreases. Particles are retained in these channels by adsorption. Kieselguhr suspension is pumped directly into the beer line. As the Kieselguhr suspension enters the filter, it forms a filter bed on the stainless steel mesh. Closed loop circulation is established until the filtrate runs clear. The turbidity causing substances are retained on the Kieselguhr filter bed.


Beer Stabilization The removal of turbidity - forming materials from beer is carried out by adsorptive during kieselguhr filtration. Two major groups of substances count as turbidity formers: 1. Proteins 2. Tannins Proteins are removed by adsorption using colloidal silica. This is done by adding silica to the kieselguhr dosage. Tannins are nearly exclusively removed by adsorption using polyvinlylpyrrolidon (PVPP). PVPP is added to the kieselguhr.

Carbonation refers to the dissolving of carbon dioxide in an aqueous solution. Carbon dioxide used here comes from brewery itself. The carbon dioxide released during fermentation is used here, after purification.

Principle of Carbonation Carbonation is based on the principle of Henrys Law. Henrys Law has two parts. Part one states that as pressure increases, solubility of gases in liquids increases. Part two states that as temperature increases, solubility of gasses in liquids decreases. More pressure means more gas can be dissolved in a liquid. Decreasing pressure causes that gas to come out of the liquid. Colder liquids hold more gas than warmer liquids. As a liquid warms up, the gas starts to come out of solution. The classic example of Henrys Law is the bottle of your carbonated beer. Before the bottle is opened, the contents of the bottle are under pressure. Because of this pressure, the carbon dioxide is soluble in the liquid portion of the beverage. When you open the cap, you release the pressure and the carbon dioxide becomes less soluble. Because the carbon dioxide is less soluble, it cant remain dissolved and comes out of solution in the form of bubbles. The amount of carbon dioxide that dissolves is a function of time, with the rate decreasing exponentially as equilibrium is approached. Carbon dioxide levels are stated as volumes of gas at standard temperature and pressure per volume of beer. Fixing the temperature and pressure at appropriate settings will bring about the desired carbon dioxide concentration.


Bright Beer Tank

The filtered beer, after carbonation is stored in the so-called bright beer tanks. These tanks are also referred to as pressure tanks. Bright beer tanks are normally vertically installed cylindrical tanks or cylindrical, conical tanks. These tanks are usually constructed from stainless steel. Inorganic soil accumulates in the form of predominantly mineral beer stone. Sometimes it can be observed after three filling and emptying cycles. Filtered beer should not be stored for extended periods in these tanks to avoid a variety of problems that could have a negative influence on the quality of the beer.


Bottle washing Bottle washing is an integral part of a beverage manufacturing process. Bottle washing seems to be a simple and easy task to accomplish; however, in actual practice it is not. Bottle washing has evolved into a highly automated process that requires a thorough understanding of many technical considerations. The purpose of bottle washing is to remove all soils from

the inside and outside surfaces of the bottles. More specifically, this includes removing product residues and adhesive, dust, dirt, rust rings (from metal caps), moulds, insect eggs and larvae, and other soils that may be present. A major function of the bottle washing operation is to remove all labels and exterior soils to prepare the bottle for re-labelling. The bottles must exit the bottle washer in a clean, preferably sparkling, and sanitary condition. They must be free of all pathogenic and spoilage organisms.


Bottle Inspection After leaving the bottle washer the bottles have to be checked whether they are in a proper state to be filled and distributed to the consumer. Checking has not only to verify the hygienic state of the bottle (no residues) but also the physical state. Certain damages may leave the bottle unfit for filling or may represent a risk to filling equipment. Even when a bottle can be properly filled, it has to be verified that the bottle cannot be a source of harm to a consumer.

Bottle Filling Bottle filling machines are always built as revolving machines with upto 200 filling valves. The bottles are transported to the filler on a conveyor belt, than separated to a predetermined spacing by a separating device, and positioned on a lifting platform under the filling elements by using a star-wheel-loading-device.

During rotation of the filler the bottles pass through several stages Pressing against the filling elements Evacuation and counter-pressurization filling Filling level adjustment Pressure release Lowering from the filling elements

Crowning After filling, the bottles have to be closed as soon as possible. Therefore, the closing machine is built into the same unit as the filler and they are equipped with a common drive to ensure synchronous operation. The indented part of the crown cork is pushed over and bent inwards over the lip at the bottle mouth, thus sealing the bottle. A crown cork, as delivered by its manufacturer, has an outer diameter (d2) of 32.1 mm (including the 21 claws) and a height (h) of 6.0 mm. The internal diameter (d 1) is with 26.75 mm as wide as the outer diameter of the bottle mouth. Closing elements move also up and down to be fitted onto the bottles.


Labelling During the first rotation, the rotating gluing or label intake elements (2) are coated with adhesive supplied by an adhesive applicator (3). Then they pass the label magazine (1). Due to the tack provided by the gluecovered surface of the intake device, a label is picked up. In this process step, it is essential that the labels easily separate from the stack in the magazine to avoid that two or more labels are taken at the same time. In the second rotation, the labels covered with glue on the reverse side are taken by gripper (4) and pressed with the printed side pointing inwards against a sponge. In a third rotation, the labels are rolled with their adhesive-coated side against the bottle and the gripper releases the label. The labelled bottles are then moved passing brushes and rubber rollers to attach the labels firmly to the bottle.

Bottle pasteurization

To guarantee a long shelf life the beer, it has to contain as little beer spoiling microorganisms as possible. The most reliable method for achieving this objective is the pasteurisation of the filled bottle in a tunnel pasteuriser, because this process covers also the high risk of contamination in the filling process. In a tunnel pasteuriser, the bottles pass on special conveyor chains with a grid structure to permit a high water passage through a long tunnel The tunnel is divided in a number of zones with a vigorous water spray of gradually increasing temperature. On passing through the tunnel the temperature of the bottles and their content is gradually increased by the water


sprays, until the desired pasteurisation temperature is reached and maintained for a while. On their further way towards the end of the tunnel the bottles pass then through zones with

gradually decreasing spray temperatures, thus cooling the bottles down until they have reached ambient temperature upon leaving the spray-tunnel.

Efficient heat exchange depends on a vigorous water circulation over the bottles. Therefore, the water is pumped through large pipes. Instead of spraying jets, there are large rectangular openings on the underside of the pipes. Close to the openings, special deflectors produce highly turbulent currents to produce a large contact area between the passing bottles and the pasteuriser water. The water is collected in large vessels under the spraying sections and, after filtration through a screen, sprayed again over the bottles.

Conveyor Belt The conveyor moving forwards exerts a force on the bottle causing a forward momentum depending on the force exerted, the weight of the bottle and the friction between the bottom of the bottle and the conveyor. The higher the friction, the higher the force exerted on the bottle. Holding the bottle in place requires a counter force equivalent to the forward momentum.

Packaging After labelling, the beer bottles are sent for packing with the help of conveyor belt. Six bottles are put in each box mechanically. After this, the box is sealed and stored, which is later on transported.


Ancillary Operations of brewery

Boiler Plant Cooling Plant Recovery Plant Waste Water Treatment Plant

Boiler Plant (source of steam)

Boiler is the main steam source in the brewery. In UBL, Ludhiana Rice Husk Boiler is used for the production of steam. Here,instead of using any fossile fuels , rice husk is used. Rice husk is cheap fuel and easilyavailable. It produces less pollution. Firstly, we heat sand with the help of coal upto temperature of 800 . The heated sand is fluidized with the help of air and is brought in contact with rice husk. The burning rice husk heats the water pipeline and converts water into steam, which can be used for various purposes in brew house. The combustion of rice husk leads very high burnt particles. To avoid emission of burnt particles to the atmosphere, the cyclone separator is used.


Cooling Plant
Ammonia is the primary refrigent used in the brewery and glycol is used as secondary refrigent used. Propylene Glycol is a food grade antifreeze. The glycol, mixed with city water, enables us to operate our chiller systems in the 25-27 breweries require. temperature range that

A Carbon dioxide recovery plant consist 1. Foam separator 2. Carbon dioxide gas container 3. Gas scrubber, carbon dioxide is freed from water soluble impurities 4. Compressor, suck in the gas & compress it in two stages to liquefying pressure of 18 to 22 bar. 5. Cooler 6. Dryer, moisture still contained in the carbon dioxide is removed. 7. Carbon filter, undesirable aroma compounds still present are absorbed. 8. In the Carbon dioxide liquefaction unit the compressed carbon dioxide condenses at the low temperatures produced by a cooling plant.

9. The liquid is then stored in a carbon dioxide storage tank from which it can be removed again for immediate use in the brewery.

Water treatment Plant

The quality and quantity of brewery effluent can fluctuate significantly as it depends on various different processes that take place within the brewery. Organic components in brewery effluent (expressed as COD) are generally easily biodegradable as these mainly consist of sugars, soluble starch, ethanol, volatile fatty acids,etc. This is illustrated by the relatively high BOD/COD ratio of 0.6-0.7. The brewery solids mainly consist of spent grains, kieselguhr, waste yeast and hot trub. Brewery effluent pH levels are mostly determined by the amount and type of chemicals used at the CIP units (e.g. caustic soda, phosphoric acid, nitric acid etc). The waste water released after the manufacturing process is treated at the Effluent Treatment Plant which is located within the plant. The treatment process takes 6-7 days on an average and the treated water is utilized for cleaning purposes. Among biological treatment

systems one can distinguish between anaerobic and aerobic processes. Anaerobic treatment is characterized by biological conversion of organic compounds (COD) into biogas (mainly methane 70-85 vol% and carbon dioxide 15-30 vol% with traces of hydrogen sulphide). During aerobic treatment (air) oxygen is supplied to oxidize the COD into carbon dioxide and water. Both biological processes produce new biological biomass (bio solids)


Books Handbook of Brewing - F.G. Priest and Graham G. Stewort Handbook of Brewing -William A. Hardwick