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Sirish Kamarajugadda S1579822 6/27/13 Project 1 Harvesting a Renewable Resource Suppose that the population y of a certain species of sh (e.g.

, tuna or halibut) in a given area of the ocean is described by the logistic equation ( )

If the population is subjected to harvesting at a rate H(y, t) members per unit time, then the harvested population is modeled by the differential equation ( ) (1)

Although it is desirable to utilize the sh as a food source, it is intuitively clear that if too many sh are caught, then the sh population may be reduced below a useful level and possibly even driven to extinction. The following problems explore some of the questions involved in formulating a rational strategy for managing the shery. Problems 1. Constant Effort Harvesting. At a given level of effort, it is reasonable to assume that the rate at which sh are caught depends on the population y: the more sh there are, the easier it is to catch them. Thus we assume that the rate at which sh are caught is given by H(y, t)= Ey, where E is a positive constant, with units of 1/time, that measures the total effort made to harvest the given species of sh. With this choice for H(y, t), Eq. (1) becomes ( ) (i)

This equation is known as the Schaefer model after the biologist M. B. Schaefer, who applied it to sh populations. (a) Show that if E < r, then there are two equilibrium points, y1=0 and y2=K(1E/r) > 0. ( ) ( ( ( ) ( ) ) )

Sirish Kamarajugadda S1579822 6/27/13 (b) Show that y = y1 is unstable and y = y2 is asymptotically stable. Stability of y1 ( ( ) ) -use an arbitrary small value, x, for y -solve for equation using x as a small positive number -for arbitrarily small positive value of x; r-E > 0 From this equation we can see that the solutions near 0 move away from our y1 value of 0. This means that y1= 0 is an unstable critical point. Stability of y2 F(y) > 0 ( ) -since f(y) for y2 is a quadratic equation, f(y) changes signs at all roots, therefore: ( ) -this shows that for f(y) < 0 we have a change of sign making y2 a stable solution

(c) A sustainable yield Y of the shery is a rate at which sh can be caught indenitely. It is the product of the effort E and the asymptotically stable population y2. Find Y as a function of the effort E. The graph of this function is known as the yieldeffort curve. Sustainable yield implies that at a specific rate fish can continue to be caught without effecting the overall population. Therefore we look to our asymptotically stable solution of, , and by multiplying, y2 x E, we get, ( ) , which is the quadratic equation of our Yield-Effort Curve. Yield-Effort Curve

Sirish Kamarajugadda S1579822 6/27/13 (d) Determine E so as to maximize Y and thereby nd the maximum sustainable yield Ym. From analyzing the graph it is easy to see that in order to maximize the value of y and find Ym, we need to take a look at the effort axis and see that at the values of 0 and r, we have a yield of 0. Since this is a quadratic graph the maximum yield can be found at the midpoint between 0 and r which in this case is

2. Constant Yield Harvesting. In this problem, we assume that sh are caught at a constant rate h independent of the size of the sh population, that is, the harvesting rate H(y, t)= h. Then y satises ( ) (ii)

The assumption of a constant catch rate h may be reasonable when y is large but becomes less so when y is small. (a) If h < rK/4, show that Eq. (ii) has two equilibrium points y1 and y2 with y1 < y2; determine these points. ( ) -Our first step is to set our equation equal to 0 -Next we expand our the equation

( )

-Here we see our equation needs to be factored to find a solution

-Once factored we see our 2 equilibrium solutions

When the value positive.

is entered into the equation to replace the value of h we see that the then our value under the radical stays

value under the radical becomes 0. However if h <

Sirish Kamarajugadda S1579822 6/27/13 (b) Show that y1 is unstable and y2 is asymptotically stable. In order to determine the stability of these critical points we have calculated we need to take a look at the original function and find out how the solutions react as the values approach these critical points. ( )

As it can be seen from the graph, Y2 the values tend away from y1 which means that it is asymptotically unstable which the values tend towards y2 which shows that it is asymptotically stable.

(c) From a plot of f(y) versus y, show that if the initial population y0 > y1, then y y2 as t, but if y0 < y1, then y decreases as t increases. Note that y= 0 is not an equilibrium point, so if y0 < y1, then extinction will be reached in a nite time. The solution to this part can be shown by the f(y) vs. y graph or by the t vs. y graph used in the previous part. As it can be seen from the various solution curves in the T vs. Y graph, if y0 was greater than y1 we could follow any of the lines greater than y1 which are increasing and are asymptotic to the y2 solution as t approaches infinity. However, since we know that y1 is an unstable solution and not semi-stable, we know that if y0 was less than y1 the curves would tend away from the y1 solution and would diverge resulting in extinction.

(d) If h > rK/4, show that y decreases to zero as t increases regardless of the value of y0. As it was discussed in part a, if solved out we get that k = 0. If quickly approach 0 because imaginary solutions. we get a 0 under the radical sign, and when , we see that as t increases, our answer will under the radical will be larger than r2 resulting in

Sirish Kamarajugadda S1579822 6/27/13 (e) If h = rK/4, show that there is a single equilibrium point y = K/2 and that this point is semistable (see Problem 7, Section 2.4). Thus the maximum sustainable yield is hm = rK/4, corresponding to the equilibrium value y=K/2. Observe that hm has the same value as Ym in Problem 1(d). The shery is considered to be overexploited if y is reduced to a level below K/2. Here we will take y1 and show that when h = rK/4, our equilibrium value will equal K/2: