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abandon accord adversity affluent aggravate alleviate amenable anguish apathetic arrogant astonish atrocious augment avoid awkward baffle banal barren berate betray bias bitter blend bliss bluff bold bonus bother brief brilliant brisk budget candid caricature casual category cease chaotic cherish circumvent commemorate compensate competent

discard agree difficulty plentiful annoy lighten agreeable distress dispirited disdainful confound appalling add ignore graceless confuse common desolate criticize deceive inclination acrid combine happiness boast daring award annoy concise clever fast allot honest cartoon informal classification desist disordered esteem avoid celebrate balance able

vacate grant misfortune rich infuriate mitigate favorable sorrow lifeless imperious overwhelm detestable enlarge shun inept deceive plain sterile disapprove fool predisposition sour mix joy feign fearless gift irritate short intelligent swift plan truthful imitation natural division stop messy love go around honor recompense capable

conceive confirmation contradict contribution courteous craving credulous damp dare decay decent dense designate detain disclose dogma durable dwindle eager eccentric elaborate emanate embezzle eminent encourage endure essential essential estimate evaluate exhaust exhilarated explicit fastidious federation feeble fervor feud filth flatter fleet frivolous frugal furious generous

design acknowledgement deny donation polite desire confident moist challenge decline honorable filled name hold announce belief constant abate earnest abnormal embellish arise purloin distinguished foster last cultured basic guess appraise deplete cheerful definite exacting alliance helpless intensity argument dirt compliment nimble inconsequential prudent angry benevolent

plan proof oppose grant well-mannered longing trustful wet defy rot pure packed select keep reveal view lasting diminish keen idiosyncratic enhance radiate steal prominent induce persist learned necessary predict judge empty zestful specific particular band infirm passion dispute squalor praise swift trivial saving outraged unselfish

genuine glare gloomy goad grasp greed guarantee guile gullible habitual handicap harass harmless harsh hasty haughty humiliate hygiene hypocrisy ideal idle ignorant illogical illustrious imitate immense impartial impatient implicate importune inadvertent indifferent isolate jargon jovial judge justification juvenile keen label labor lead lean leave

actual gleam cheerless provoke grab avarice assure cunning credulous accustomed disability annoy innocuous hard abrupt arrogant humble cleanliness duplicity goal lazy stupid incongruent eminent copy huge candid anxious accuse beg accidental apathetic detach argot genial estimate excuse adolescent clever brand toil direct slim abandon

real glisten dim badger hold longing pledge deceit unsuspicious regular disadvantage disturb inoffensive coarse hurried pretentious shame sanitation falseness perfection unoccupied unintelligent rambling famous reflect mammoth impersonal eager insinuate solicit unintentional disinterested quarantine slang merry referee reason immature observant classify work proceed thin desert

liberal liberal limitation lucid lucky mad manage manipulate marginal match maze meditate memorial mention merge narrow nature necessary negate negligent negotiate nice noble novice nuisance obedient objection obligatory observe obvious offend offer omen omit opportune pacify pain paramount partisan passive pause permeate perpetuate perplex persecute

copious lenient boundary clear auspicious furious administer control borderline agree complexity ponder commemoration allude blend confined aspect mandatory contradict careless bargain affable aristocratic beginner annoyance faithful disapproval compulsory notice conspicuous anger bid premonition exclude advantageous appease ache chief biased inactive break diffuse endure astonish afflict

unrestrained open-minded constraint understandable fortunate irate control shape limited correspond labyrinth think monument refer to fuse restricted character requisite refute remiss deal benign distinguished nonprofessional offense loyal protest required watch definite irritate proposal sign remove auspicious placate discomfort leading dogmatic lethargic cease disseminate preserve baffle harass

radiate radical range rank realize recalcitrant receptacle reconcile regret reliable sanction scope section settle shallow shrewd significant slight spontaneous spread stabilize tame tangle temper tendency term thrift tough transfer tumult turbulent vain valid variety verify

effuse basic anger arrange accomplish obstinate container atone deplore dependable approval aim division adjust superficial careful distinctive delicate impromptu announce balance domesticate intertwine mood inclination cycle conservation aggressive convey agitation disordered boastful authorized assortment authenticate

emanate fundamental furor classify fulfill stubborn repository conciliate grieve trustworthy permit extent portion compromise trivial calculating important slender unplanned broadcast steady subdue twist nature trend duration prudence unyielding exchange commotion violent inflated legitimate diversify substantiate

absence accept accurate advantage alive always ancient answer approval approached abundant admit advance artificial arrival ascend attack attractive attention asleep ally agree bad

presence refuse inaccurate disadvantage dead never modern question, query disapproval receded, departed scarce deny retreat, retire natural departure descend defense repulsive inattention awake enemy disagree good

backward bend beautiful beginning below bent big blunt better best blame bless bitter borrow bravery build bold bright broad clear careful calm capable captivity

forward, onward straighten ugly ending above straight small, little sharp worse worst praise curse sweet lend cowardice destroy, demolish timid, meek dull narrow vague, cloudy rush, careless troubled incapable freedom, liberty

cellar cheap close clever cold combine clockwise correct conceal come common comfort courage cruel courteous cunning dainty danger dark deep decrease definite demand despair

attic dear, expensive distant stupid hot separate anti-clockwise incorrect reveal go rare discomfort cowardice kind discourteous, rude simple clumsy safety light shallow increase indefinite supply hope

disappear disease discourage dismal doctor dry dull dusk early easy ebb East economise encourage entrance employer empty excited end expand expensive export exterior external

appear health encourage cheerful patient wet clear, bright dawn late difficult flow West waste discourage exit employee full calm beginning contract inexpensive, cheap import interior internal

fail false feeble foolish fast few famous forelegs fat find first freedom fold frequent forget found fresh friend fortunate frank full generous gentle gather

succeed true sturdy, strong, powerful wise slow many unknown hind legs thin lose last captivity unfold seldom remember lost stale enemy unfortunate secretive empty mean rough distribute

glad gloomy giant granted great guardian guest guilty happy hard harmful hasten hate healthy here heavy height hero hill horizontal hinder honest humble hunger

sorry cheerful dwarf, pygmy refused minute, small, little ward host innocent sad, miserable soft harmless dawdle love unhealthy, ill, diseased there light depth coward valley vertical aid, help dishonest proud thirst

imitation immense imprison include increase inhabited inferior inside intelligent inhale interior interesting internal intentional join junior justice king knowledge laugh lawful lazy land landlord

genuine tiny, minute free exclude decrease uninhabited superior outside unintelligent, stupid exhale exterior, outside uninteresting, dull external accidental separate senior injustice subject ignorance cry unlawful industrious, energetic sea tenant

large last lawyer lecturer lender lengthen left less light like likely leader little lofty long loud loss low loyal mad magnetize master mature maximum

little, small first client student borrower shorten right more dark, heavy dislike, unlike unlikely follower large, much, big lowly short soft find, win high disloyal sane demagnetize servant immature minimum

me merry minority miser misunderstand narrow near neat new night noisy North obedient odd offer open optimist out parent past patient peace permanent please

you mirthless, sad majority spendthrift understand wide far, distant untidy old day quiet South disobedient even refuse shut pessimist in child present impatient war temporary displease

plentiful poetry possible poverty powerful polite private prudent pretty pure qualified rapid regularly rich right rigid rough satisfactory security scatter serious second-hand sense shopkeeper

scarce prose impossible wealth feeble, weak impolite, rude public imprudent unsightly, ugly impure unqualified slow irregularly poor wrong, left pliable, soft smooth unsatisfactory insecurity collect trivial new nonsense customer

singular simple slim solid sober speaker sour sorrow sow stand straight strong success sunny take tall tame teacher thick tight top transparent truth up

plural complicated thick, stout liquid drunk listener sweet joy reap lie crooked weak failure cloudy give short wild pupil thin slack, loose bottom opaque untruth, lie down

vacant valuable victory virtue visible voluntary vowel wax wisdom within

occupied valueless defeat vice invisible compulsory consonant wane folly without Follow this link for homonyms

Elements of Sentence Construction

Subjects and Predicates

Parts of speech have specific tasks to perform when they are put together in a sentence. A noun or pronoun functions as the sentence subject when it is paired with a verb functioning as the sentence predicate. Every sentence has a subject and predicate. A subject can be a noun or pronoun that is partnered with an action verb. Example:

Sometimes a verb will express being or existence instead of action. Example:

Sometimes we use sentences in which a subject is not actually stated, but is, nevertheless, understood in the meaning. Example:

A sentence like this gives an order or a request to someone.

Because we use such statements when we are talking directly to someone, we omit the word you. It is understood in the sentence. Therefore, in statements like this one, we say the subject is you (understood). This kind of sentence is an imperative sentence.

A predicate is a verb that expresses the subject's action or state of being. Example:

Sometimes the predicate will be composed of two or three verbs that fit together the main verb preceded by one or more auxiliary (helping) verbs.

IMPORTANT NOTE: To be a predicate, a verb that ends in -ing must ALWAYS have a helping verb with it. An -ing verb WITHOUT a helping verb cannot be a predicate in a sentence.

A subject and predicate may not always appear together or in the normal order, as the following examples show:

A phrase is a group of related words that 1. does not express a complete thought 2. does not have a subject and predicate pair One type of phrase is a prepositional phrase.

Another kind of phrase is a verbal phrase. Examples:

Even though these phrases contain nouns (pronouns) and/or verb forms, none of the nouns/pronouns/verbs are subjects or predicates. None of them work as a partnership. Also, these phrases do NOT express complete thoughts.

Words and phrases can be put together to make clauses.

A clause is a group of related words that contain a subject and predicate. Note the difference between phrases and clauses in the following examples:

Only one of the clauses is a sentence. Clause #1 gives a thought or an idea that is COMPLETE, that can stand by itself, independent of other words. However, clause #2 gives an INCOMPLETE thought or idea, one that cannot stand by itself, one that needs some more words to make it whole. The word after changes the meaning, making the thought incomplete. After reading this clause, we are left hanging.

These two clauses illustrate the two kinds of clauses: independent clauses and dependent clauses An independent clause is a group of words that contains a subject, a predicate, and a complete thought. A dependent clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a predicate, but does NOT express a complete thought.

Compounding Sentence Elements

Words, phrases, and clauses may be joined to one another inside a sentence with a conjunction. The coordinating conjunctions and, but, or, and nor may join subjects, predicates, adjectives, adverbs, prepositional phrases or dependent clauses within a sentence. This process is called "compounding." The following examples show the process of compounding



When entire independent clauses (simple sentences) are joined this way, they become compound sentences.

Avoiding Fragments
A complete sentence needs only two elements: a subject - predicate unit AND a complete thought

In other words, a simple sentence is actually the SAME thing as an independent clause. Dependent clauses or phrases are called fragments because they are missing one or more parts needed to make a sentence. Therefore, they are only pieces or fragments of complete sentences. Look at these examples:

Avoiding Comma Splices and Fused Sentences

Sometimes two independent clauses (simple sentences) can be joined to form another kind of sentence: the compound sentence. Two major errors can occur when constructing compound sentences. Error #1: The Comma Splice Writers make this error when they try to separate the two independent clauses in a compound sentence with a comma alone. A comma is not a strong enough punctuation mark to separate the two independent clauses by itself; thus, using it causes the clauses to be spliced together. Example of a comma splice:

This sentence can be repaired in three ways: 1. by adding an appropriate coordinating conjunction

2. by changing the comma to a semicolon

3. by changing the punctuation and adding an appropriate conjunctive adverb

Error #2: The Fused Sentence Writers make this error by joining two independent clauses into a compound sentence without using any punctuation between them. No punctuation between the two independent clauses causes them to "fuse" into an INCORRECT compound sentence. Example of a fused sentence:

This sentence is also repaired in three ways: 1. by adding a comma and an appropriate coordinating conjunction

2. by placing a semicolon between the two clauses

3. by adding the needed punctuation and an appropriate conjunctive adverb

Another way to repair a comma splice or fused sentence is to make each independent clause into a simple sentence.

Kinds of Sentences and Their Punctuation

A sentence may be one of four kinds, depending upon the number and type(s) of clauses it contains. Review: An independent clause contains a subject, a verb, and a complete thought.

A dependent clause contains a subject and a verb, but no complete thought.

1. A SIMPLE SENTENCE has one independent clause.

Punctuation note: NO commas separate compound elements (subject, verb, direct object, indirect object, subjective complement, etc.) in a simple sentence.

2. A COMPOUND SENTENCE has two independent clauses joined by A. a coordinating conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so), B. a conjunctive adverb (e.g. however, therefore), or C. a semicolon alone.

Punctuation patterns (to match A, B, and C above): A. Independent clause, B. Independent clause; C. Independent clause; coordinating conjunction independent clause.

conjunctive adverb, independent clause. independent clause.

3. A COMPLEX SENTENCE has one dependent clause (headed by a subordinating conjunction or a relative pronoun ) joined to an independent clause.

Punctuation patterns (to match A, B, C and D above): A. Dependent clause, independent clause B. Independent clause dependent clause C. Independent, D. Independent nonessential dependent clause, essential dependent clause clause.


4. A COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCE has two independent clauses joined to one or more dependent clauses.

Punctuation patterns: Follow the rules given above for compound and complex sentences. A compound-complex sentence is merely a combination of the two.

CONNECTORS--COMPOUND AND COMPLEX SENTENCES Two independent clauses may be joined by 1. Coordinating conjunctions (FANBOYS) 2. Conjunctive adverbs Ic; therefore, Ic, ic. and ic

A dependent (subordinate) clause may be introduced by

1. Subordinating conjunctions (ADVERB CLAUSE) 2. Relative pronouns (ADJECTIVE CLAUSE) I, dc c.

Dc, ic. dc, c.

or or

Ic dc. I

3. Relative pronoun, subordinating conjunctions, or adverbs (NOUN CLAUSE)