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8/22/2013

What is organic chemistry?


The study of carbon-containing compounds

WELCOME TO THE WORLD OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY!!!


-Inorganic
- Organic

why is it so important?
Think about how organic compounds affect our daily life:

***Our food carbohydrates, proteins, triglycerides


PROTEIN

***Our medicines

O C OH
(CH3CO2)O H2SO4

O C OH

OH

OCOCH3

***Our clothes natural and synthetic fibers

***Oils, perfumes, paints, plastics, detergents, etc.

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Organic Compounds
More than 5,000,000 known organic compounds compared to only about 200,000 to 300,000 known inorganic compounds. General properties are different from inorganic compounds (ionic salts etc.)

Organic compounds Covalent bonding Low melting points Mainly insoluble in water Mainly soluble in organic solvents (e.g., gasoline) Almost all burn Slower reactions

Inorganic compounds Ionic bonding High melting points Mainly soluble in water Mainly insoluble in organic solvents Very few burn Very fast reactions

Covalent bonding
A covalent bond involves sharing of a pair of electrons between two atoms Each atom contributes one electron for sharing The shared electrons are localised between the two atomic nuclei

Covalent bonding
Example H + H H

H can be represented as HH

Why carbon?
A carbon atom forms four bonds Carbon atoms form stable bonds with other carbon atoms (i.e., the CC covalent bond is strong) Can form chains and even networks. Examples: diamond and graphite

Why carbon?

Diamond

Graphite

Examples: and graphite Adiamond carbon atom forms four bonds

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Why carbon?
Carbon atoms also form stable bonds with other atoms (i.e., CH, CO, CN, CCl etc. bonds are strong). Many combinations and arrangements are possible

EXAMPLES OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

Hydrocarbons (CnHm)
Extracted from crude oil Separated according to size for various purposes Source of energy, plastics, solvents, raw materials, etc.

Ethanol C2H5OH

H H H C C O H H H

Chlorofluorocarbons(CFCs)

Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid)


O C OH
(CH3CO2)O H2SO4

F Cl C Cl Cl

O C OH

CFCl3

OH

OCOCH3

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What are organic molecules? Main structure: carbon backbone Each carbon must have 4 covalent bonds (i.e., share an electron with a neighbouring atom) building blocks attached to each other by covalent bonds Functional groups with specific properties

Examples of functional groups Ester Alkene C=C Alcohol OH Halogen groups Cl, Br Amine NH2 Carboxylic acid COOH Amide CONH etc.

Esters

Esters
Synthesised when a carboxylic acid and an alcohol react
O R C O H R O H

H O H

H H

H C C O C H

Methylacetate

O R C O R H2O

Esters

Responsible for many flavours and fragrances. Generally sweet and pleasant smells.

Esters: Other applications Aspirin, an analgesic (painkiller) Ethyl acetate, a solvent Polyesters ---Clothing ---Used to make synthetic arteries for heart surgery ---Bio-absorbable staples for surgery

Structure
CH3COOCH2CH2CH(CH3)2 CH3COO(CH2)7CH3 CH2(CH2)2COOCH2CH3 CH3(CH2)2COOCH3 HCOOCH2CH(CH3)2

Flavour Banana Orange Pineapple Apple Raspberry