You are on page 1of 15

CivIVDemographicsAgeofConquest Credits Firstandforemost,thisisamodofamod.Istartedthisasaprojectforaclassstudying empiresatDickinsonCollege.Theclasswillread"TheConquestofAmerica"byTzvetan Todorov.Themod"AgeofDiscovery"foundhere, http://civilization4.filefront.com/file/Age_of_Discovery_14921792_v112_EGE_Edition73169,gave meatremendousheadstart.

ThismodwillbepresentedataconferenceatDickinsoncollegeongamesineducation.Itwas designedbyToddBryantforProfessorEdWebb.Dr.Webbisconsideringhavinghisstudents createorplaymodsaspartofhiscoursetitled"Empire"asapointofdiscussionregardingthe natureofempire,anditseffectsonthecolonizer,thecolonized,andthepostcolonial. I'vefocusedongivinganaccuraterepresentationoftherelativepopulationandtechnologiesin EuropeandAmericaatthetime.ThesizeofcitiesintheAztecEmpireascomparedto Europeancapitalsisnothingshortofastounding.Thenumberofmilitaryunitsineachcivisin proportiontotheirpopulationwithsomeexceptions.Forexample,Tlaxcalaisforcedtodedicate amuchhigherproportiontofendofftheAztecs.I'vealsoaddedcivilizationstoLatinAmericato giveamoreaccuraterepresentation.I'venotedthespecificchangestothecivilizationsandmy sourcesbelow,includingstartingtechnologiesandcivics.I'veonlymadeveryminorchangesin thetechtreetoallowtheAztecsaccesstothecorrectcivicsdespitethefacttheyhadnotyet reachedthetechnologyspecifiedbythecivgame(mercantilismandbanking) I'mnotmuchofanartist,soyou'llhavetoforgivemeifsomefamiliarleaderslookmoreAsian thanNativeAmerican,butwhatniceartworkthereisfortheNativeAmericanscomesthethis compilationoftheartworkfoundhere: http://forums.civfanatics.com/downloads.php?do=file&id=7370

Installation

Thismodwascreatedandtestedonpatch1.61.Ifyourequirethepatchpleasedownloadit from:http://www.2kgames.com/civ4/home.htm 1.DownloadandunziptheAgeofConquestzipfiletoatemporarydirectoryonyourcomputer. 2.Copythe"AgeofConquest"foldercompletewithallitscontentsto:..\SidMeiersCivilization 4\Mods\

MapChanges RemovedSaxony(HolyRomanEmpire)andreplacedOttomanempirewithHafsidsand a"barbarianstate"(Mamluks)inCairo.I'drathernothaveanempirecutoffbythemapandgive theimpressiontheyweremuchweakerthantheywereduringtheperiod. Netherlandsaren'tindependentfromSpainin1492,butsinceIcan'tfigureouthowto codearevoltintoCiv,I'mgoingtoleavethemasanempirestartingin1492. There'snowheelordomesticatedanimalsinMesoamerica.Howevercitieswere definitely"connected"andtherewasfarmorefreshwaterthenthannow(MexicoCitywasa lake),soconnectedcitiesbyrivers. NodomesticatedanimalsfromCivinMesoamerica(theyhaddomesticatedthedog,the Aztecswereawedbythehorse) Citynamesandpopulationnumbersarelargelycorrect.Azteccitieswereover4xlarger thanEuropeancities,andtheoverallpopulationoftheempirewaslargerbyasimilarratiowhen comparedtotheEuropeanpowersaswell.Seespecificnotationsbelow,thoughthegeneral layoutofthesecitiesisfudged. TheAztecswerebehindincertainareas,particularlyinmilitarytechnologies,thoughthey werefarfrombeinginthestoneage.Incultureandcivics,theywereverycomparabletothe Europeanpowers.Again,seespecificnotesbelow.InterestingtonoteCorteswouldn'thave stoodachancewereitnotfortwofactorsthatIcouldnotcodeintoCivIV,diseaseandtheAztec beliefinfate. AddedtheTlaxcalaEmpire(underheavyduressfromthefromtheAztecs),Tarascan Empire(Aztecrivalstothenorthandwest),andbrokeupthenowdeterioratingMayanEmpire. TheMayanEmpireisaseriesofcitystatesin1492withtworivalcitystatesbeingthemost powerful,theQuicheMayainUtitlanandtheCakchiquelMayainIximche. TheIroquoisarefarbehindtheotherNativeAmericanempires.Theirlargest"city"is800 aroundtheyear1500.(citationbelow)ByCivrules,theywouldn'tbeabletopaymaintenance forthe"cities".Tomakeitplayable,theystartoffwithalargeamountofgold.Thisisnot historicallyaccurate. I'vescatteredbarbariancitiesaroundNorthAmericawiththenamesofNativeAmerican tribesandhaveaddedvillages.Iwanttoatleastgivethesensethatthecontinentwasinhabited. IfanyonewouldliketodosomeresearchonNativeAmericantribes,itwouldbenicetoaddthem ascivs.

Aztecs Inthe1500slotsoffreshwater,usedtobeahugelakewhereMexicoCityistoday.Didn'tuse wheel,thoughcitieswouldallmeetCivIVdefinitionof"connected",waterconnectsempire.Not includingmetalandrelatedmilitarytechnologies,theAztecswereonparwiththeEuropeansin "technology".Citiesweremuchmorepopulous.Thecapitalwas4timeslargerthananycityin Spain.Theempire'spopulationof2025millionwas4xgreaterthanSpainaswell.

"TheAztecsofCentralMexico:AnImperialSociety"byFrancesF.Berdan Fishpg.9 Templespg.9 Tenochitlanpopulation150200,000pg.22 Gold,Silver,andGemspg.26 Potterypg.29 Merchants,Guilds,andMarketspg.33 NoCurrencypg36,43 Hadslavery,pg.42 SocietybestdescribedasCasteSystem,pg.45 Governmentstrictcontrolofeconomy,importsandexports,Mercantilism46 Hereditaryrule,pg.100 Montezumaisadiety,headofchurch,Theocracy,pg.100 Polytheism,pg121 Calendar,pg.135 OtherSources Technology: Irrigation"1491"byMann,pg322 Aqueducts Paperhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amatl Philosophy?http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aztec_philosophy Math Musichttp://library.thinkquest.org/27981/musdan.html Metalworking"NorthAmerica"editedbyBruceG.Trigger,WilcombE.Washburn 348349(nomentionofiron,butneedthemforJaguars) TripleAlliance("NorthAmerica"editedbyBruceG.Trigger,WilcombE.Washburnpg533) populationboom,1,200,000riseLateAztecinthevalleyofthethreemajorstates.Other citystatesindependentoroffertributeCHPA2,1533.Encircled,lowintensitywarfare Tenochitlan Texcoco Tlacopan Totalpopulationalmost25millionPonting,Clive.TheChangingFaceofDeathinAGreen HistoryoftheWorld.St. MartinsPress,NYC,1991,pp.224239 IndependentStatestotheEast"NorthAmerica"editedbyBruceG.Trigger,WilcombE. Washburn513 CholulalargeurbancenteronscalewithTenochitlanCHPA2,1512

Huejotzingo Tlaxcala Tliliuhquitepec Zacatlan Tototepec Metztitlan

EuropeUnlessotherwisenoted,Europeaninfotakenfromtheencyclopedias"Europe: EncyclopediaoftheEarlyModernWorld" by1500therewasaPrintingPressineverymajorcity,xxix 4citiesover80,000xxxi(historianJandeVries,"EuropeanUrbanization"Table3.6and"The FirstModernEconomy",providespopulationdataforEurope) 47Universitiesin1500,prominentinParisLondonBologna,98 Manymoreby1600inFranceandNorthernItaly,99 Thoughtempting,can'treallygiveanycivsRepresentation,theoryjustbeginningthoughaspects inpracticepg45vol2 Thoughhadnations,ideaofnationalismnotuntil1800 EnglandandNetherlandshadadvantageinagriculture1600's,reasondebated,vol12526 KingHenryVIIIdissolvedtheEnglishmonastariesin1530,pg218vol1 Military,fromentrywithsamename gunpowderunitsontheway startoffCrossbowmen,Longbow,andPikes littleornoexperience Spain6.8Mil,JandeVries,EuropeanUrbanization(civcitytotalabout230,000) MostlyCasteSystem,454 Noblesetc,soVassalage454 HereditaryRule(Monarchy),455 Mercantilism,455 Theocracy,455KingheadoftheSupremeCounciloftheInquisition,jurisdictionoverall Christians Castilemostpopulouskingdomwitharound6,000,000subjects,otherstotal1,400,000 Toledo,50 walls largestcitynewCastile 1528,30,000people tradecenter sheep

Barcelona 25000,1500,pg223 Valencia 570001510 http://www.grec.net/cgibin/dificil.pgm?USUARI=&SESSIO=&PGMORI=E&NDCHEC=0048319 Seville UniversityofSevillecompletedlate1400s 40,000guestimate,ifdoubleto100from15341565 Mlaga Granada Bureaucraticcenter,courts,pg85 Cartagena Cortesarmy5001000

Portugal(majortraderofspicefromOrienttoEngland,LowCountries,andFrance)Indies 1.0Mil,JandeVries,EuropeanUrbanization FromPortugalentry Monarchy NotTheocracy Feudalism IntimidatedNoblemenandweakenedtheirpower Lookslikethey'vealmostachievedcentralizationof"Bureaucracy",butnotquite"Historia GeneraldeEspanha"TomoVpg16 (MakeMercantilismandOrganizedReligion) GiveSpicesandlotsofgoldtomimicspicetradeadvantage MakeAnnoyedwithSpain,recentwar Stillresentmentagainstthe"Moors"Arabs PortugueseAfricabyRonaldH.Chicote Alsohadgoldandivorypg4 GetridofNationalismandConstitutionLiberalismEconomics Heshouldn'tseeTarascanorMontezuma

England 2.6Mil,JandeVries,EuropeanUrbanization GivetwouniversityforCambridgeandOxford GiveLondontheOxfordUniversity

LargestarmyfieldedinWaroftheRoseswas10,000.Compareto100,000thatthatTarascans couldfield."GreatBritain,aReferenceGuidefromtheRenaissancetothePresent",pg12 StillputtingdownrebellionsinYorketcthrough1490's population1500about3.1million,xxx Dublin(revolt) York Norwich London population50,000xxxi Rye Bristol Plymouth Irelandsourceofeducationthemonastaries,don'tputuniversities"MedievalIreland:an Encycolpedia"pg150 Didn'treallycontrolmostofsouthernIreland.1541HenryVIIIdeclareKingofIrelandaswell, revoltsforperiodfollowing,"HistoricalDictionaryoftheElizabethanWorld"pg164 France(muchofareainsouthcentralFranceandtothewestofParis,outsideofFrenchcrown control1492) 16.4Mil,JandeVries,EuropeanUrbanization(littlemorethandoubleSpain,sototalcivcitypop should=about500,000 degreeofRepresentationlocally,xxxv stillabsolutemonarch,xxxvi Paris250,000mid1500's(woulddoublebyFrenchRevolution)ParisEntry

Cherbourg LeHavre Nantes LaRochelle Bordeaux Narbonne Marseilles Source"France:AReferenceGuidefromtheRenaissancetothePresent" CulturelaggingbehindItalianstates,butwillcatchup10 RecentlyconqueredsouthernstatesandexpelledEnglishfromthenorth,exception Calais1558

ItalianCities(Franceclaimsthem,1492)guardedbySwiss AllofItaly10.5Mil,JandeVries,EuropeanUrbanization degreeofRepresentation,xxxv smallercitystatesweremoretrulyrepresentative,unlikeFrancexxxvi

Genoa earlyModernGenoesestateestablished1528,butwecanfudgeandkeepitasis controlledCorsica althoughprominentItalianuniversitywasinBologna,I'mgoingtoputUni+andOxfordin GenoaasrepofNorthernItalianstates CovetedbySpainandFrance Navalpower Economiccenter,lender by1500pop=85,000"AConciseEncyclopediaoftheItalianRenaissance",pg150 1528Doriaestablishedaconstitution,"AConciseEncyclopediaoftheItalian Renaissance",pg151 GoodrelationswithHolland,"AConciseEncyclopediaoftheItalianRenaissance",pg151 TensewithFrance,"AConciseEncyclopediaoftheItalianRenaissance",pg151152 Corsicahadamajorbank,foughtforpowerwithbarons,,"AConciseEncyclopediaof theItalianRenaissance",pg100

CairoandtheMamluks(MamlukSultanate) Mamlukscontrolled"Egypt"(TheOttomanCenturies,TheRiseandFalloftheTurkish EmpirebyLordKinross)until1517 PrettysurethiscoveredgoodpartofnorthAfricasincewerealliedwiththeOttomans until1517andcontrolleditin1450http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mamluk LookslikeonlynotmuchfartherwestofCairo,HafsidscontrolledTunisandConstantine http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hafsids Cairoinbadshapeandindecline,hadwheat,tradepositionruinedoncePortugalsailed aroundAfricahttp://www.touregypt.net/hburgima.htm Noreliablemethodofseccession,morelikewarlords MakeaBarbarianstate

HafsidsTunisandConstantine,morepowerfulthantheMamlukSultanate.Seemprefererable forCiv

Tunispeakedat100,000http://www.planetware.com/tunisia/tunistuntct.htm Tunishadaflourishinguniversity http://www.tunisiancommunity.org/content/view/122/254/

HistoryofNorthAfricabyCharlesAndreJulien 1492wasledbysonofAbuYahyaZakariya,strongbutdiedofplague,hissuccessor alsonamedAbu(pg151)So"GovernorAbuoftheHafsids"? Monarchy154Tunisclearcapital ArmymatchedwellwithEuropethoughnoheavyarmament,hadmenatarms,weak navy155 Feudaltypesystem,serfvassalage155 Hadfishandwheatforexport157158 TradewithnorthernItaly158 NogreatscientistsormathematiciansinHafsidera,wasreligiousculture159

Fromhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hafsids Ifweusethelogicthe"Barbarian"inCivIVreallyonlymeansasingleindependentcity(wecan givethemwhatevertechandbuildingswewant),shouldprobablymakecitiescontrolledby "Moors"and"Mayans"barbarian.Citieswerelargelyindependentinbothcases. UndertheHafsids,piracyagainstChristianshippinggrewstrongerinthe14thcentury, particularlyunderAbdalAzizII(13941434).Theprofitswereusedforagreatbuilding programmeandforthesupportofartandculture.Howeverpiracyalsoprovokedretaliationfrom AragonandVenice,whichseveraltimesattackedTunisiancoastalcities.UnderUtman (14351488)theHafsidsreachedtheirlastzenith,asthecaravantradethroughtheSaharaand withEgyptwasdeveloped,aswellasseatradewithVeniceandAragon.TheBedouinsandthe citiesoftheempirebecamelargelyindependent,sothattheHafsidscontrolledonlyTunisand Constantine.

Netherlands

pop=1milabout1500,deVriespg50 (about40,000civcitypopulation)

Togetpoprationcorrect,addAntwerp

EventhoughwouldbeunderSpanishcontrolin1492,I'mgoingtokeepthemforgameplay. Can'tsetupCivIVtosetupconditionsforrevoltandcreationofanewcivmidgame.They wouldn'thavehadaconstitution,though,sohavetoremove.

OldestuniversityinNetherlandsrightnowwasfoundedin1575.I'mgoingtoassumethere weren'tanymajoruniversitiestherein1492thatweredestroyed http://home.wanadoo.nl/ricks.place/university.html

Makesuredoesn'thavecivilservice

Scotland

pop=.8mill favoredFrancepolitically(Scotlandentry) poor,agriculturaleconomy

Africa

Namesof"barbarian"citiestakenfromweakercivilizationsatthetimeinAfrica,describedby Africaentryof"Europe,14501780"

Maya Mayancitiesusuallywalled"NorthAmerica"editedbyBruceG.Trigger,WilcombE. Washburnpg244 TwoprincipleMayangroupsinLatePostClassic,QuicheandCakchiquelMaya,"North

America"editedbyBruceG.Trigger,WilcombE.Washburnpg.489atwarpg491 Quiche UtitlanQuicherulerQuicab Cakchiqueltothesoutheast QuichecontrolledfromheadwatersofRioChixoytoupperMotagua,thenexpandedwestinto highlandsandsouthtothepacific,mapsomewhathelpful"NorthAmerica"editedbyBruceG. Trigger,WilcombE.Washburn450 TechnologyTheMaya,byCoe Agriculture BronzeWorking(axemen) Pottery,Granaries Cashcropcacao Cotton Chocolatebeanlikecurrencyforregionalmarkets Deer Fishing Saltwasabigdeal Gems(jade) Fewroads GoodtraderelationswiththeMaya,makethem"Pleased"fromMontezuma142 HereditaryRule144 Vassalage146hadserfs,alsobreakupofMayadescribedasfeudalstates Decentralizationnosignsofbankingorcurrency CasteSystem146 OrganizedReligion153 Polytheism Calendar154 Mathematics157 Monotheism,kindof152 Primarilybowandarrow Writing148

TarascanEmpire couldmusteranarmyof100,000andusedmetal http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tarascan_state likelynowriting http://faculty.smu.edu/rkemper/anth_3311/anth_3311_adkins_tarascan_paper.htm

mostlybowandarrow+lances TarascanandAztecshadBronzeWorking http://isites.harvard.edu/fs/docs/icb.topic224149.files/Smith_1997.pdf(pg82) Tzintzuntzanpop30,000"NorthAmerica"editedbyBruceG.Trigger,WilcombE. Washburnpg327 Thiswholesectionbelow, http://faculty.smu.edu/rkemper/anth_3311/anth_3311_adkins_tarascan_paper.htm ************** GorensteinsworkatAcmbaro,ontheeasternfrontieroftheTarascanempire(and,therefore, thewesternedgeoftheAztecempire),providesoneofthebestsummariestodateofhowthe Tarascandefensesystemwasplannedandadministered(Gorenstein1985).Shenotesthatit appearstheTarascanswereveryselectiveabouttheconqueststheymadeonthefrontier,with aneyetoholdingandmaintainingstrategicpointsintherecognitionthattheAztecwereand wouldcontinuetobeaformidableenemy,bothmilitarilyandpolitically(108).Shesurveyedfour neighboringsettlementsalongwithAcmbaro,anddiscoveredthattheywerestrategically superior.Allwereonhills,whichallowedthemawidefieldofvisionandevenpermittedthemto takesurpriseoffensiveactioniftheneedarose.Thesitesweresufficientlyneartooneanotherto beabletocoordinatestrategyandtactics,throughasystemofbonfiresandsmokesignals,or bymeansofmessengersandscouts.Allthesettlementsofthefrontierzonecouldhavebeen informedofaneventordirectivewithinaweekandpossiblywithindaysdependingonthe positionofthefrontiersettlementdisseminatingandreceivingtheinformation(15). Alongwiththisimpressiveinternalcommunicationnetwork,theTarascansalsomaintaineda cadreofspiesinordertotrytoascertainexternalinformationespeciallyalongthevolatile easternborder(Pollard1993:105106).Theymayalsohavebeenlongdistancemerchantsas well(Adams1991:329)aswillbeseenbelow,intheTarascanspolity,tradebetweenempires and/orconductedoverlongdistanceswastheprovinceofpaidemployeesoftheking.Therefore, sincetheywerealreadyemployedbythegovernment,itwouldbeasmallmattertoaddspyingto theirjobdescriptions. ThemilitaryandthefrontierregionswerefirmlyintegratedintotheTarascaneconomicand politicalsystems.Thesewillbedescribedingreaterdetailbelow,butsufficeittosayforthe momentthatthetributereceivedfromallovertheempirehelpedtosupportitsstandingarmy anddefenses.Infact,groupssuchastheOtomiandChichimecatAcmbarowereexemptfrom payingproducttributetotheheartlanditwasrecognizedthattheirmilitaryservicewastheir tribute.Gorensteincomments: Mercantilism

TherelationshipbetweentheTarascancoreandperipherywasnotmerelyaneconomiconein whichtheresourcesoftheperipherywereextractedtotheaccumulativebenefitofthecore.It wasalso,andprobablyprimarily,apoliticaloneinwhichtheeconomicperipherybecamea politicalfrontiertobesupportedwhennecessarybythecoresaccumulatedsurplus.The Tarascangovernment,inthisregardaswellasothers,recognizedpoliticalinterestsabove economicones(Gorenstein1985:104,emphasisinoriginal).

TheTarascanshadbeencorrectinassumingthattheywouldneedtodefendthemselves againsttheAztec.Bothempireswereundergoingexpansionduringthe15thcentury,anditwas inevitablethattheywouldconfrontoneanothersoonerorlater.DuringthereignoftheAztecking Axayacatl(14691481),theAztecarmiestriedonseveraloccasionstoconquertheTarascans, andwererepelledeachtime,oftenwithgreatlossoflife(Coe1994:171).Eveninthedecades immediatelyprecedingtheConquest,theAztecsstillmountedoccasionalattacksagainstthe Tarascanseasternfrontierandweresenthomeindefeat(Warren1985:xi).Gorensteinand PollarddiscussthedifferencesbetweenTarascanandAztecmilitaryorganization,withsome intriguingimplicationsaboutwhytheTarascanswereinevitablyabletoholdtheirownagainstthe armiesofalargerandmorepowerfulempire: AmongtheTarascanstherewereprofessionalsoldierswhowereoccupiedfulltimewiththe militaryandwereconsideredmembersofgovernmentThemilitaryasanarmofthe governmentwasemployedtocarryoutthedirectivesoftheadministration,whichwastoextend administrationandtherebyBasinpoliticalcontrolintotheterritory.

Tributeconsistedofbothgoodsandservices,andwascollectedonaregularschedule.The entiresystemwasunderthecontroloftheroyalfamily,anditwastheirresponsibilitytooversee thereceiving,storage,anddistributionofallthatwasreceived.

Theocracy Tzintzuntzanwasthemajorreligiouscenter,aswellasbeingthepoliticalandeconomiccenter oftheempire.(IcanfindnoevidencetosupporttheclaimmadebyCabreraV.andPerez Gonzlez[1991:2728]that,whileTzintzuntzanfunctionedasthepoliticalcapital,thereligious capitalwasatZacapuandthemilitarycapitalatPtzcuaro.)HerethekingorCazonci(alternately spelledKasons,Caoni,ortheNahuatlCaltzontzin)functionedasarepresentativeof Curicaueriwhoseprincipaldutiesweretoconquerlandinthegodsname,andtoensurethatthe perpetualfiresinthetempleswerekeptsuppliedwithwood(Warren1985:11).Here,human sacrificesingreatnumberweremade,withtheusualvictimsbeingprisonersofwar.These werebelievedtobetakingonthepersonalityofCuritacaheri,themessengertothegods,and werethereforevenerated.Givenalmostenoughstrongdrinktoknockthemout,theyweretaken

tothestoneofsacrifice,andtheirheartscutoutandofferedtothesun(Warren1985:1415). Hereditaryrule/CasteSystemAssuggestedbythedebateoversuccessiontotherole ofCazonci,kinshipwasextremelyimportanttotheTarascans.Socialclasswasessentially determinedatbirth,withonlyminimalmovementbetweenclasses.GorensteinandPollardhave discernedthreehereditarysocialclasses,basedoninformationintheRelacindeMichoacn andonexcavationsmadeatTzintzuntzan: ************* Moresupportforclasssystem http://www.jstor.org/view/00027316/ap010175/01a00040/6?frame=noframe&userID=40093d90 @dickinson.edu/01c0a8346900501d0bda2&dpi=3&config=jstor Xaratangareligiouscenter http://www.jstor.org/view/00027316/ap010175/01a00040/6?frame=noframe&userID=40093d90 @dickinson.edu/01c0a8346900501d0bda2&dpi=3&config=jstor Patzcuaro25000 http://www.jstor.org/view/00027316/ap010175/01a00040/10?frame=noframe&userID=40093d90 @dickinson.edu/01c0a8346900501d0bda2&dpi=3&config=jstor HadCalendar http://www.jstor.org/view/00027316/ap010033/01a00030/0 ******* SourceTheConquestofMichoacanbyJ.BenedictWarren Goodmap,firstpage Patzcuaro,otherimportantcitypg.5 capital2530,000pg.6 abundanceoffish,lakes8 Monarchtitle"Cazonci"9 HereditaryRule,Monarch10 Officewasreligious,theorcracy,10 warlikenation,bowandarrowsymbol,hatedMexicans/Aztecs11 Guilds,hereditarycivilbureaucracy12 Polytheism,Priesthood,Temples16 Markets19 Coppertools,23 ******* Nocitywalls Fewroads Bronzeworking Metallurgy"NorthAmerica"editedbyBruceG.Trigger,WilcombE.Washburn326 Irrigation"NorthAmerica"editedbyBruceG.Trigger,WilcombE.Washburn327

IroquoisTheIroquoisbySnow Garoga,population820in1525(pg53)ThiswasthedominantMohawkcommunity, secondquarterof16thcentury Untilriseoftheleague,after1525,mostagreed,anyoneoutsidecommunitywasenemy (pg.57)(civdefinitionforbarbarian) basicagriculture,crudetools,nometal,pg68 nowheatetc,extensiveversusintensiveagriculture,corn70

Tlaxcala SourceTlaxcalain16thCenturybyCharlesGibson Fourprincipaltownspg.8 ConsideredpopulousbyCortes12 Detailsofsocialandpoliticalprocesseslargelyunknown,thoughdidhaveanobleclass withvassals11 WarlikesocietysurroundedbythehostileAztecs14 Bowandarrow,darts,stones,andlancesasweapons15 Nogold,silver,orpreciousstones15 Ican'tfindmuchelse,willassumegenerallylessadvancedthanAztecs,focusedon militarydefense. Team0=Elizabeth Team1=Louis Team2=Isabella Team3=Frederick Team4=LeaderGenoa Team5=KingJao(Portugal) Team6=SultanSuleyman Team7=William(netherlands) Team8=QuicheMayaCapac Team9=Montezuma Team10=Victoria(Scotland) Team11=ChiefHiawatha Team12=Maxixcatzin(Tlaxcala) Team13=LeaderTarascan Team14=CakchiquelMaya 6=150,000(Paris) 5=90,000

4=48,0005cities 3=21,0005cities Tenochitlanx=1,y=18* TownoutsideTenochitlanx=2,y=17* Texcocox=1,y=22 Tlacopanx=3,y=16* Tlaxcala=5,18* Tlaxcalax=5,y=18