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OBJECTIVE: To study of heat transfer in Shell and Tube Exchanger.

AIM: To calculate overall heat transfer coefficient for Shell and Tube Exchanger.

INTRODUCTION: Heat exchanger is device in which heat is transferred from one fluid to another. The necessity for doing this arises in a multitude of industrial applications. Common examples of heat exchangers are the radiator of a car, the condenser at the back of a domestic refrigerator and the steam boiler of a thermal power plant. Heat Exchangers are classified in three categories: 1) Transfer Type. 2) Storage Type. 3) Direct Contact Type.

DESCRIPTION: The apparatus consists of Parallel Flow/Counter Flow heat exchangers. The hot fluid is hot water, which is attained from an insulating water bath using a magnetic drive pump and it flow through the inner tube while the cold water flowing through the annuals. For flow measurement Rotameters are provided at inlet of cold water and outlet of hot water line. The Hot water bath is of recycled type with Digital Temperature Controller 0 to 1000C.

UTILITIES REQUERED: Water supply 20lit/min (approx.) Drain. Electricity Supply; 1 Phase, 220 V AC, and 4 kW. Floor area of 1.5m x 0.75 m

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE: STARTING PROCEDURE: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Clean the apparatus and make water bath free from dust. Close all the drain valves provided. Fill water bath with clean water and ensure that no foreign particles are there. Connect cold water supply to the inlet of cold water Rotameter Line. Connect outlet of Cold water from Shell to Drain. Ensure that all on/off switches given on the panel are at OFF position.

7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

Now switch on the main power supply (220 V AC, 50 Hz). Switch on heater by operating Rotary Switch given on the panel. Set Temperature of the water bath with the help of Digital Temperature Controller. Open flow control valve and By-pass valve for Hot water supply. Switch on Magnetic Pump for hot water supply. Adjust Hot water flow rate with the help of flow control valve and Rotameter. Record the temperatures of Hot and Cold water inlet & outlet when steady state is achieved.

SHUTDOWN PROCEDURE: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. When experiment is over, Switch off heater first. Switch of Magnetic pump for hot water supply. Switch off power supply to panel. stop cold water supply with the help of flow control valve. Stop hot water supply with the help of flow control valve. Drain cold and hot water from the shell with the help of given drain valves. Drain water bath with the help of Drain valve.

SPECIFICATION: 1. Shell. Material Inner dia. Length = = = S.S. 208 mm 500mm

25% cut baffles at 100mm distance 4 Nos. 2. Tube Material OD Length of tubes Nos. of tubes 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Temperature controller Temperature sensors Temperature indicator Electric heater Flow measurement = = = = = = = = = = S.S. 16mm 500mm 24 Digital 0-1000C RTD PT-100 type ( 4nos.) Digital 0 to 2000C with multi-channel switch. 230 V AC 2kW (2 nos.) Rotameter (2 nos.) Material: SS insulated with ceramic wool and MS outer shell fitted with heating elements.

8. Water bath powder coated

9. Pump temperature 850C)

FHP magnetic drive pump (max.operating

FORMULAE: 1. 2. 3. Qh Qc Uo = mh Cph ( Thi - Tho ) W = mc Cpc ( Tco - Tci ) W =

Qavg Ao Tm
Ti To inTi / To


LMTD = ( Tm ) =

OBSERVATION & CALCULATION: S. No. HOT WATER SIDE FLOW RATE mh Kg/hr 1. 2. 3. 4. PRECAUTIONS & MAINTENANCE INSTRUCTIONS: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Never switch on main power supply before ensuring that all the on / off switches given on the panel are at off position. Never switch on Heaters before filling water bath with clean water. It may damage heaters. Never run the pump at low voltage i.e. less than 180 Volts. Never fully close the Delivery and By-pass line Valves simultaneously. Always keep apparatus free from dust. To prevent clogging of moving parts, run pump at least once in a fortnight. Frequently Grease / Oil the rotating parts, once in three months. Always use clean water. If apparatus will not be in use for more than one month, drain the apparatus completely and fill pump with cutting oil. Thi oC ThooC COLD WATER SIDE FLOW RATE mh Kg/hr Tci oC TcooC

TROUBLESHOOTING: 1. If electric panel is not showing the input on the mains light. Check the fuse and also check the main supply. 2. If D.T.I. displays 1 on the screen check the computer socket if loose tight it. 3. If temperature of any sensor is not displays in D.T.I. check the connection and rectify that.

4. Voltmeter showing the voltage given to heater but ampere meter does not. Tight the heater socket & switch if ok it means heater burned.