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EHV Transmission Line Capacity Enhancement through Increase in Surge Impedance Loading Level

R.N. Nayak, Senior Member, IEEE, Y K Sehgal, and Subir Sen


The transmission capacity of a particular line is limited by its thermal capacity. However, in case of long EHVAC line efficiency of transmission capacity is below its thermal limit and restricted by angular and voltage stability limits which restricts line loadability upto its Surge Impedance Loading (SIL) level. SIL level of a typical uncompensated 400kV line is in the range of 550-625 MW depending upon number of subconductors, bundle conductor configuration, tower structure etc., whereas thermal limit is of the order of 800-900 MW (Quadruple conductor with 16 mm dia). Therefore, to ensure optimal utilization of existing transmission infrastructure through enhancement of transmission capacity, series compensation on long EHV lines is being applied. However, series compensation, being an additional series element with a line, requires extra maintenance. Further outage of this series element affects network reliability. Research is being carried out towards other possibilities for enhancement of transmission capacity towards thermal limit, thereby improving transmission efficiency through increasing the SIL level. In this paper, a mathematical model of increasing the SIL limit of a typical line is presented. Sensitivity of SIL on various configuration of sub-conductor in a bundle, bundle spacing, tower structure, spacing of phase conductors etc. is studied and discussed. Issues that require attention for application of High Surge Impedance Loading Line (HSIL) are also deliberated. II.
TRANSMISSION LINE CAPACITY

Abstract- The quantum of power that a given EHVAC transmission line can safely carry depends on various limits. These limits can be categorized into two types viz. thermal and Stability/SIL limits. In case of long lines the capacity is limited by its SIL level only which is much below its thermal capacity due to large inductance. Decrease in line inductance and surge impedance shall increase the SIL and transmission capacity. This paper presents a mathematical model of increasing the SIL level towards thermal limit. Sensitivity of SIL on various configuration of sub-conductors in a bundle, bundle spacing, tower structure, spacing of phase conductors etc. is analyzed and presented. Various issues that need attention for application of High Surge Impedance Loading (HSIL) Line are also deliberated. Index Terms- Delta Tower, Expanded Bundle, High Surge Impedance Loading line, Mutual Inductance, Non-symmetrical disposition, Self Inductance

I. INTRODUCTION NCREASING demand of electric power and addition of new generation capacity to meet the demand, necessitate enhancement of large transmission capacity between generation and bulk consumption points. This can be achieved either by development of new transmission corridor or by enhancing the power transfer intensity of existing transmission assets. In India, major energy resources like coal and hydro potential are confined to a few pockets and located far-off distance from the load centers. In addition, to achieve economies of scale in the cost of delivered power, it was found that transportation of power from these pit-head generating stations to the distant load centers is always cheaper option than transportation of fuel near to load centers. This calls for development of transmission network by establishment of large number of long distance transmission lines and interconnection of different regional grids. While developing such type of network, various aspects like Rightof-Way and other environmental problems, reduction of transmission cost etc. need to be considered. To take care of these aspects, power system planners are imparting great emphasis towards enhancement of transmission capacity of the existing assets to the extent feasible through application of emerging technologies.
R.N.Nayak, Y.K.Sehgal and Subir Sen are with Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd, Sector-29, Gurgaon(Haryana), India (Ph: 0124-2571815; Fax: 0124-2571802; E-mail: nayak@powergridindia.com

Power transmission capacity of an EHV AC transmission line is broadly categorized into two types viz. thermal and Surge Impedance Loading (SIL) capacity as shown at Fig. 1.
1.2

Thermal Limit

P/Pmax(p.u.)

0.8

Stability Limit
0.4

0 80 180 280 380 480

Line Length(km)

Fig. 1. Thermal & Stability limit Vs Line length.

0-7803-9525-5/06/$20.00 2006 IEEE

Thermal capacity is the ultimate capacity of a line, corresponding to its capability to withstand the heat generated due to line loss. It depends on the type of conductor, maximum permissible conductor temperature, ambient condition and other environmental factors. However, traditional line design limits power transfer distance and/or capacity because of large inductive reactance of the transmission line which results into large angular separation and voltage drop between two adjacent nodes which may lead to instability in the system. This restricts power transfer capacity of a long line to its SIL level. Stability limit depends on voltage class, line length and network configuration. Based on the line length, EHV lines are categorized into three types; short (<100km), medium (100-200km) and long (>200km). In case of short line, power transfer capacity is limited by its thermal limit. However, for medium and long EHV lines, power transfer capacity is restricted by the system stability i.e., its SIL limit. Therefore, to ensure optimal utilization and efficient use of transmission infrastructure, the option of enhancement of transmission capacity by increasing the SIL level is explored.

B. Surge Impedance A typical transmission line represented by a PI equivalent model is shown at Fig. 3.
L

I V

C/2

C/2

Fig. 3. PI model of a transmission line.

Mathematically, Surge Impedance of a lineis expressed as Reactive Power Produced = Reactive Power consumed i.e., (1) V 2 ZC = I 2Z L Eq.(1) can be rewritten as

V I
Where, V I L C Z : : : : :

L C

(2)

III.

HIGH SURGE IMPEDANCE LOADING LINR (HSIL)

A. Surge Impedance Loading (SIL) Surge Impedance Loading (SIL) is the MW loading of EHV transmission line at which natural reactive power balance occurs. Reactive power is produced by the line depending on its capacitance and voltage level and consumed in the line to support the magnetic field. The magnetic field strength is dependent on the magnitude of the current flow in the line and the lines natural inductive reactance. The amount of reactive power (MVAR) consumed by a transmission line is a function of current flow (line loading) and inductive reactance. MVAR generation/consumption by transmission line as a function of line loading is shown at Fig. 2.
800 Capacitive-MVAR-Inductive 600 400 200 0 -200 -400 0 200 400

Terminal voltage Line current Line inductance Line capacitance Surge Impedance

Using Eq.(2) SIL can be expressed as V2 V2 (3) SIL Z L C From Eq. (2) and (3) it is seen that Surge Impedance of a line is directly proportional to its inductance and inversely proportional to its capacitance. Therefore to increase Surge Impedance loading level, line inductance is to be reduced and/or capacitance is to be increased. IV.
TECHNIQUES TO REDUCE SURGE IMPEDANCE

The inductance of a line is expressed as

Lp
Where, Ls Lm SIL- 623 MW
600 MW 800 1000 1200

Ls  Lm

(4)

: Self Inductance : Mutual Inductance

From Eq.(4) it is seen that the inductance can be reduced by reducing the self inductance and/or by increasing the mutual inductance i.e. Lp = or Lp = and/or Lp = Ls - Lm Ls - Lm Ls - Lm

Fig. 2. Reactive power consumption/production Vs Line Loading.

Balance of both consumption and production of reactive power by a line at particular loading level results into flat voltage profile along the line and keeps the angular and voltage stability within limits.

Self inductance can be reduced by increasing number of sub-conductors in a bundle and/or increasing spacing of subconductors. Further, non-symmetrical disposition of subconductors reduces the self inductance. These arrangements also provide a dual benefit in terms of increased capacitance. Mutual inductance can be increased by reducing phase-tophase separation. However, from view point of system security, minimum electrical clearance requirement places limit on the degree of phase compaction. In this paper, effect of non-symmetrical disposition of sub-conductors in a bundle, modification of tower configuration etc on surge impedance and SIL level has been studied. V.
CASE STUDY

non-symmetrical bundle configuration in comparison to a conventional line,as seen from Table IB. Accordingly, in the subsequent studies only non-symmetrical disposition of bundle is considered.
TABLE IA SIL VS BUNDLE CONFIGURATION-SYMMETRICAL Reactance Bundle Suscep SIL(MW) (Ohm/km) spacing (m) (P Mho/km) Self Mutual 0.45 0.510 0.233 4.18 623 0.7 0.490 0.233 4.53 672 1.0 0.473 0.233 4.86 721 TABLE IB SIL VS BUNDLE CONFIGURATION-NON-SYMMETRICAL Bundle Suscep SIL(MW) Reactance spacing (m) (Ohm/km) (P Mho/km) Self Mutual 0.3,0.3,0.3 0.483 0.234 4.65 693 0.5,0.5,0.5 0.471 0.234 4.93 731 0.7,0.7,0.7 0.461 0.234 5.14 762

A sample 400 kV Quadruple bundle conductor line is considered for evaluating the transmission line parameters and determination of its SIL level. Different arrangement of bundle conductors and their spacing, horizontal and compact (delta) tower configuration are considered for sensitivity analysis. EMTDC/PSCAD package has been used to perform studies. The results of the studies are as under: A. Horizontal Tower Configuration A typical 400 kV Quadruple conductor line with horizontal tower configuration considered for study is shown at Fig. 4.
11 m 9m

2) Impact of Phase-to-Phase Spacing : Variation of mutual inductance with phase-phase spacing is examined considering two different types of non-symmetrical disposition of expanded bundle configuration namely 0.3 m and 0.5 m spacing between the sub-conductors. Results of the studies are given in Table II and III respectively.
TABLE II SIL VS PHASE-PHASE SPACING-BUNDLE SPACING:0.3M Reactance (Ohm/km) Ph-Ph Susceptance SIL Spacing(m) (MW) Self Mutual (P Mho/km) 11 0.4836 0.234 4.65 693 10 0.4832 0.240 4.75 708 9 0.4828 0.246 4.86 724 8 0.4824 0.253 5.00 748 TABLE III SIL VS PHASE-PHASE SPACING-BUNDLE SPACING:0.5M Reactance (Ohm/km) Ph-Ph Susceptance SIL Spacing(m) (MW) Self Mutual (P Mho/km) 11 0.4709 0.234 4.92 731 10 0.4706 0.239 5.03 748 9 0.4701 0.246 5.16 769 8 0.4696 0.253 5.32 792

d
21.8 m Non-symmetrical (Expanded) Symmetrical

d- Intra-Bundle Spacing Conductor Dia- 4x16 mm Conductor Sag-12.9 m Max ground wire Sag-11.61 m Ground Clearance-8.9 m

Fig. 4. Horizontal Tower Configuration.

1) Impact of Bundle Configuration / Spacing: Two types of bundle configurations are studiedSymmetrical and non-symmetrical with different bundle spacing assuming the phase-phase distance as 11 m. The self and mutual inductance (reactance) as well as capacitance (susceptance) is calculated. Based on this, the Surge impedance and SIL of the line are estimated. Results of the studies are given in Table I. From Table IA it is seen that SIL for a 400kV conventional line with 0.45 m symmetrical intra-bundle spacing is about 623 MW (surge impedance: 256), which increases by about 16% (surge impedance decreases by about 13%) with 1.0 m bundle spacing. However, with expanded and nonsymmetrical bundle configuration SIL increases by about 22%(surge impedance decreases by about 18%) having 0.7 m

Increase of Surge impedance loading with decrease of phase-phase spacing and expanded bundle configuration is depicted at Fig. 5.
800

0.5m bundle spacing


760

SIL(MW)

720 680 640 600 11 10 9 8

0.3m bundle spacing

Phase-Phase Spacing(m)

Fig. 5. SIL Vs phase-phase spacing.

It is observed that decrease in phase-phase spacing from 11 m to 8 m results in decrease in surge impedance by about 8% and increase of SIL by about 8%. B. Delta Tower Configuration A typical 400 kV Quadruple conductor line with Delta tower configuration considered for study is shown at Fig. 6.

for phase compaction while meeting the design criteria with out application of additional equipment in the line. VI.
BENEFITS OF HSIL LINES

D2 D1
21.8 m Conductor Dia- 4x16 mm Conductor Sag-12.9 m Max ground wire Sag-11.61 m Ground Clearance-8.9 m

HSIL lines having expanded bundle geometry optimizes the electric field at the surface of all sub-conductors which reduces the inductance. Therefore, they offer advantages like enhanced Power transfer capacity, improved stability limit, better voltage regulation and reduced transmission losses etc. Additionally, these new type of lines provide significant benefits in comparison with conventional lines due to optimal utilization of Right-of-way, inter-phase dimensions, reduced environmental impact and optimization of transmission cost. Such lines also reduce corona loss significantly which in turn helps in reducing audible noise and radio interference. As no additional equipment are connected in series with the line, maintenance is less and availability of line shall be high. VII.
OTHER ISSUES

Fig. 6. Delta Tower Configuration.

1) Impact of Phase-to-Phase Spacing: Impact of phase spacing in delta tower configuration with two different types of non-symmetrical disposition of expanded bundle configuration namely 0.3 m and 0.5 m spacing between the sub-conductors on SIL level is studied. Results are presented in Table IV and V respectively.
TABLE IV SIL VS PHASE-PHASE SPACING-BUNDLE SPACING:0.3M Ph-Ph Spacing Reactance (Ohm/km) Susceptance SIL (m) (MW) (P Mho/km) D1 12 12 12 10 8 D2 12 11 10 8 8 Self 0.4860 0.4864 0.4868 0.4873 0.4871 Mutual 0.241 0.244 0.247 0.260 0.267

HSIL lines generate more capacitive MVAR as compared to conventional line. This necessitates reactive power management studies. Further following issues also need to be addressed before implementing a HSIL line x x Electrical Fields Special types of hardware and accessories to take care of expanded non-symmetrical bundle configuration VIII.
CONCLUSION

4.698 4.738 4.785 5.019 5.167

699 708 714 751 777

TABLE V SIL VS PHASE-PHASE SPACING-BUNDLE SPACING:0.5M Ph-Ph Spacing Reactance (Ohm/km) Susceptance SIL (m) (MW) (P Mho/km) D1 D2 Self Mutual 12 12 0.4734 0.241 4.967 741 12 11 0.4738 0.244 5.013 748 12 10 0.4741 0.247 5.065 755 10 8 0.4746 0.26 5.329 800 8 8 0.4745 0.267 5.497 825

It is observed that with the decrease in phase-phase separation from 12 m to 8 m decreases surge impedance by about 10% and increases SIL level of the line by 11%. Studies reveal that 33% increase in SIL level i.e from 623 MW (conventional 400 kV Quadruple conductor -16mm dia) to 825 MW (HSIL line), which is nearer to its thermal capacity, is achieved with expanded and non-symmetrical disposition of bundles along with suitable tower configuration

Development of generation projects at the energy resource points and transfer of large quantum of power to the distantly located load centres, necessitate establishment of large transmission network. Various issues like Right-of-Way, optimal transmission cost, implementation time etc. need to be considered. To take care of these aspects, emphasis is to be given towards enhancement of transmission capacity. In case of long EHVAC line the transmission capacity is limited to its SIL level to maintain stability. A technique to increase the SIL level close to thermal limit through modified tower configuration and expanded non-symmetrical disposition of sub-conductors in a bundle is studied. Expanded bundle configuration (Quadruple conductors with 0.5 m spacing) increases the SIL level by 22%.Further, phase compaction in a delta tower configuration increases SIL level by about 33% i.e. 825 MW as compared to conventional line. The HSIL line offers other benefits like improved voltage regulation, stability, optimal utilization of Right-of-way, reduced corona loss etc. However, some of the issues like reactive power management, electric field intensity, hardware and accessories need to be investigated before its application. IX.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Authors are thankful to the management of POWERGRID for granting permission to present the paper. Views expressed here are of the authors only.