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trade with Asia throughout the different periods of ancient Egyptian history from prehistoric times onward. As a strategic highway, the North Sinai played an important role in Egypt’s history and particularly during the Second Intermediate Period and New Kingdom. Archaeological research in North Sinai has proved that it was always a vital border area that witnessed many political and military conflicts. Many archaeological and textual studies concentrating on the “Ways of Horus” have been carried out for the purpose of identification of the stations and fortresses along the ancient highway between Egypt and Palestine and in an attempt to reconstruct the military organization of Ancient Egypt in North Sinai. The first archaeological research in the eastern Delta and along the Mediterranean coast of North Sinai was conducted by Jean Clédat between 1904 and 1914. His excavations provided valuable archaeological data on the history of the area, but mainly from the Graeco-Roman and Byzantine periods; no archaeological remains earlier than the Roman period were revealed. 1 In 1920, Alan Gardiner studied the main sources on the “Ways of Horus” during the New Kingdom; his study has remained the main reference on that subject for decades. 2 The shortcoming of this study, however, is that the identification of the fortresses and their location - and consequently the alignment of the ancient route - were not based on any archaeological evidence. Rather, Gardiner based his identification solely on the interpretation of
J. Clédat, “Notes sur l’isthme de Suez”, RT 39 (1909), 113-20; J. Clédat, “Notes sur l’isthme de Suez”, ASAE 10 (1910), 209-37; J. Clédat, “Fouilles à Qasr Cheit”, ASAE 12 (1912), 145-68; J. Clédat, “Le temple de Zeus Cassios à Péluse”, ASAE 13 (1914), 79-85; J. Clédat, “Fouilles à Cheikh Zouède”, ASAE 15 (1915), 15-48; J. Clédat, “Nécropole de Kantarah, Fouilles de mai 1914”, RT 38 (1916), 21-31; J. Clédat, “Fouilles à Khirbet el-Flousiyeh”, ASAE 16 (1916), 6-32. 2 A.H. Gardiner, “The ancient military road between Egypt and Palestine”, JEA 6 (1920), 99-116. 1
sometimes ambiguous ancient sources. Fortunately, a considerable amount of archaeological research has since been undertaken in North Sinai, to rectify the one-sided view taken by Gardiner. For ten years (1972-1982), the mission of the Ben Gourion University surveyed the region and discovered many new sites dating to the New Kingdom, Saite and Byzantine periods. 3 The survey was conducted in northern Sinai between Wadi el-Arish and the Suez canal. One hundred and fifty New Kingdom sites were discovered between Tell el-Kantarah and Raphia, a few of which lay on the coast. Ten main clusters of sites along the North Sinai contained a central site (a fortress or station). In 1979, the archaeological missions of the Egyptian Antiquities Organization (now the Supreme Council of Antiquities or “SCA”) undertook many projects to investigate North Sinai. From 1980 to present, SCA excavations have been conducted at many sites, such as Tell el-Kantarah, Katya, Kasrawit, Tell el-Luli and Pelusium. In 1984, the excavation at Tell Haboua I (“Haboua I”) was commenced; this was followed shortly thereafter by the start of operations at Tell Abu Seifa and Tell Haboua II (“Haboua II”) under the author’s direction as part of the “Ways of Horus Project”. Another project, the “Salvage Project of North Sinai”, was mounted concurrently under the direction of the Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities. The goal of the Ways of Horus Project was clarifying the identification of the different stations on the ancient military road and reconstructing the military organization in North Sinai. The first stage of the Ways of Horus Project concentrated on the identification of “Tharu”, the first station and starting point on the Ways of Horus, as well as the capital of the 14 th nome of Lower Egypt. The project first focused on the excavation of two sites: Haboua I and Tell Abu-Seifa. This work was followed, in the summer of 1998, by the excavation of Haboua II. A pre-excavation
E.D. Oren, “Le Nord-sinaï”, LMB 24 (1982) 12-13; E.D. Oren, The “Ways of Horus in North Sinai” in A.F. Rainey, Egypt, Israel, Sinai (Tel Aviv, 1987), 69-119. 2
survey was conducted and various samples were analyzed and recorded. The results of all such research in North Sinai have been documented in the archives of the SCA. As part of this project, all of the references from the ancient inscriptions on the Ways of Horus and each of the stations along the highway were collected and reviewed, in an attempt to correlate them with the fieldwork. This study seeks to present the results of this textual review to provide a comprehensive overview of our current knowledge of the Ways of Horus, in general, as well as each of the individual stations thereon. However, the author must stress that this study simply constitutes a progress report on the considerable work done to date, and that further full-scale excavations are recommended to continue to flesh out our conception of the Ways of Horus and the ancient Egyptian military organization in North Sinai throughout ancient history.
an Egyptian community -. 192829). since the Old Kingdom. The prosperity of these towns owed to the exchange of goods with the coastal towns in Syria and with the nomes of Upper Egypt. the Palermo Stone refers to the return of a fleet of 40 ships laden with wood destined for the shipbuilding yards and for the construction of the royal palace. Redford 1992.was located in the Goubel port to the north of modern Beirut. 22. THE WAYS OF HORUS Since prehistoric times. 6 Montet 1928-29. 246-50 (Arabic). The dynamic development which occurred in the Delta during the prehistoric period resulted in the creation of many important settlements. D. 272. Montet. 1940). Quatre campagnes de fouilles à Gebeil (Paris. Specifically. 4 . Hassan. 1992). and Israel in Ancient times (Cairo. 271. first king of the 4th Dynasty. the Palermo Stone mentions the existence of relationships between Egypt and Asia in the reign of king Snefru. S. Canaan. Moreover. most probably wood brought from Lebanon by king Snefru. For example. 73. Byblos et l’Égypte.foreseen of an Egyptian temple -. Redford.I. Cedar was also used in the construction of the royal ship discovered in 1954 to the south of the pyramid of King Khufu. Misr al-Qadimah. In the remains of the temple. some 4 P. 1 (Cairo. ancient Egyptians made contact with the coast of Syria. particularly along the branches of the Nile close to the Mediterranean Sea. 5 Evidence of contact continues in the Old Kingdom. 5 Montet 1928-29. 4 For example. cedar was found. Excavations in Byblos have revealed prehistoric artifacts similar to those found in the Nile Valley. 22.B. Egypt. some of the artifacts from the cemetery at Byblos are comparable to those found in Egypt dating from the predynastic to the post-Narmer early-dynastic period. Some objects bearing the name of the king Khasekhemwy were also found in this cemetery. in the Dashur pyramids. There is abundant evidence for such contact between Egypt and Syria during this period.6 In addition.
1995). especially in the preparation of the goods for shipment to Egypt.G. 9 T. Ward.T. pl.” Levant 18 (1986). Das Grabdenkmal des Königs Sahure. I. 20-23. JNES 1 (1942). “The earliest history of wine and its importance in ancient Egypt” in The Origins and Ancient History of Wine (Luxembourg. carried on both by sea and across land. Notwithstanding that Egypt had diverse and high quality wines9. Beit-Arieh. P. Sethe. 268. 11 Thus. “The Early Relations of Egypt With Asia”. Nicholson and I. H. From the beginning of the 5 th Dynasty to the first half of the 6 th Dynasty there are scenes depicting the punishment of Bedouin who had attacked the 7 W. The Egyptian community played an important role in strengthening the trade relationships between the two countries. W. 3-9. t. Ben-Tor. A.C. 25-28. 5. Lichtheim. “New Evidence on the Relations Between Canaan and Egypt during the Proto-Dynastic Period”.: Studies in Egyptian Foreign Relation during the First Intermediate Period (Beirut. I (Berkeley.C. Ancient Egyptian literature.in ancient times known as Naga8 . Borchardt. 205. K. Shaw. textual and artistic references support this relationship and hint at tensions with foreigners along the eastern frontier. t. M. 1971). Olive oil and wine. 13.A. XI. 1. and Israel in Ancient times. 5 . fig. 174-213. In addition to archaeological evidence. 8 Montet. 1900). Canaan. 1976). 8..objects dating to the 2nd and 4th Dynasties and later were found. there is varied evidence of trade contact between Egypt and Syria. the vines of Palestine were extolled in the inscription of Weni. 123. were also common imports to Egypt. “New Light on the Relation Between Egypt and Southern Palestine During the Early Bronze Age” BASOR 281 (1991). 13. Prag. 10 K. I. IEJ 34 (1984). “Byblos and Egypt in the Fourth Millennium B.M.Zeller 1981) t. 59-74. Egypt and the Mediterranean World 2200-1900 B. 49-50.H. The Royal Tombs of the First Dynasty. Byblos et l’Égypte. Ancient Egyptian Materials and Technology (Cambridge. 11 L. Urk I. 1-2 (O. Redford. 20. 2000). James. XII. Egypt. The goods consisted primarily of different kinds of woods -. Kantor. 577-602.7 From the Lebanese mountains close to Goubel . produced in Palestine. (London. fig. 469.F Petrie. 2.10 Reference is made to olive oil being loaded onto the ships of King Sahure. Quatre campagnes de fouilles à Gebeil .cedar and pine -which were so necessary in Egypt for shipbuilding and other construction.came also the aromatic woods and gum significant to funerary offerings and religious ceremonies.
123. Egypt’s fertility did not escape the notice of neighbouring people. possible foreign migration following the caravan routes exerted pressure on Egypt’s frontier and created a security risk.caravan routes. Rather. 1986). Urk I. 5.12 Reference is also made to such events in the account of Weni’s campaign dating to the 6th Dynasty.prompted the Egyptian government to establish a high road guarded by fortresses and provided with supply stations and water reservoirs. Thus. The association between this frontier and the mouths of the Nile was critical to the Egyptian defensive system. “Shekelesh or Shasu ?”. 5-13. 167-72. chief recruiting officer and overseer of public works under Amenhotep III. it is likely that considerations other than trade -.such as concern for the security of Egypt’s eastern borders -. W. “Shekelesh or Shasu ?”. Ward. The Pharaoh Smites his Enemies: A Comparative Study (Munich. Indeed. 14 For a discussion on these. Wente.5.S. the eastern border of Egypt was its most threatened. Hall. Les Bédouins Shôsou des documents égyptiens (Leiden.A.A. it was open to attack by an enemy either by crossing the desert or striking along the Mediterranean coastal strip. son of Habu. the desert was inhabited by nomadic tribes -referred to as Shasu in the ancient Egyptian records 14 -. Giveon. “Shasu” in The Anchor Bible Dictionary. 1992). see R. Amenhotep. Vol. defensive measures had to be taken by the rulers of Egypt. JNES 22 (1963). specified that organization of the frontier control in the Delta was his principal 12 13 E. the Sinai desert did not have the kind of natural barriers which could easily protect the eastern frontier of Egypt. Ward “The Shasu ‘Bedouin’: Notes on a Recent Publication” JESHO 15 (1972). The eastern frontier was based on the Tanite and Pelusiac mouths of the Nile. 6 .who coveted the land of the Delta for its fertility and mellow pastures. Freeman (ed.A. G. in order to secure the trade caravans and the eastern frontier against the infiltration of foreigners. Wainwright. Moreover. by D. For these reasons. both of which provided access higher up to the principal arm of the Nile. To the east.N. 20.13 Thus. 35-60. JEA 50 (1964). W. E.) (New York. Lichtheim 1976. 1165-67. 4046. 1971). Hence.F.
the kings implemented a new policy. 583 in the Cairo Museum.15 Clearly. After the catastrophe of the Hyksos. Both sides (of the Delta) were guarded to watch over the movements of the Bedouin. Robichon et A. the kings of the early 18th Dynasty realized that the defensive system built during the Old and Middle Kingdoms was incapable of securing the eastern frontier of Egypt. son of Habu. strengthening the defensive elements of the Ways of Horus. Varille.” The Ways of Horus was a high road secured by a network of fortresses and provided with water reservoirs. L. 1821: 10f. As a result. Le Temple du scribe royal Amenhotep fils de Hapou (Cairo. (Berlin. 1930).was known in ancient Egyptian records as the “Ways of Horus. 1936). the military and commercial traffic between Egypt and Asia flowed.task after recruiting. as well as supply and custom stations that were established along the route between the Eastern Delta and South Palestine. From a statue of Amenhotep. I was at the same time the actual leader at sea. 32f.one of the most important and ancient roads -. the Mediterranean coastal strip extending between el-Kantarah and the Gaza strip was the most important link between Egypt and southern Palestine from the prehistoric period onward. Once organized. the Ways of Horus became a vital artery for military transports through the northern Sinai. This coastal road along the eastern frontier -. we learn that: I stationed troops at the head of the road in order to keep foreigners within their places. found at Karnak. Urk IV. Borchardt. Statuen und Statuetten von Königen und Privatleuten. while at the same time dispatching military campaigns to preempt and destroy Asiatic forces on their own territory. C. It was the vital artery through which. as well as units of the king’s navy. 134. the mouths of the Nile were closed by my troops. 7 . Helck. 15 This statue is No.
Montet. Kruchten. Seti I. 1981). By means of this same road. 18 Tharu was a strategically important point at which the lagoons south-east of Lake Menzaleh and south of the ancient Pelusiac branch of the Nile left a narrow tongue of land to the north of Lake Ballah. 1er partie (Paris. 86. as Tharu. Per-ramesse. Lacau and H. one day’s distance up river from Tharu. 16 J. Greeks. Ramesses I. 1957). Through this road the military campaigns were dispatched to Asia during the period of Ahmose. Romans and Arabs were able to enter and conquer Egypt. This tongue of land must have been crossed by a bridge and consequently it is known as Gisr el-Kanatir. 235-36 . the Assyrians. 1956). 16. In the New Kingdom. Thus. The appointment of the later king. or el-Kantarah. Géographie de l’Égypte ancienne.M. The Life and Time of Ramesses II king of Egypt (Warminster. The significance of the Ways of Horus cannot be underestimated. Ramesses III and Sheshonq I. Persians. K. Thutmose III. 1982). Le Décret d’Horemheb (Brussels. Chevrier. Kitchen.The strategic importance of the eastern delta and subsequently the Ways of Horus increased vastly in the New Kingdom. whose capital is given in the list of nomes in the shrine of Senwosret I at Karnak. in the Delta. Ramesses II. 18 P. this is indicated by the situation of the Ramesside capital. Une Chapelle de Sésostris Ier à Karnak (Cairo. officials of the highest rank served as commanders of the fortress of Tharu and overseers of the mouth of the Nile.A. it was in all likelihood second only to the Nile in its function as a highway. 187-89. 28. 47-48. 8 . Pharaoh Triumphant . #nt-i3bt17 (the “first East”). 17 P. In particular. The eastern frontier region constituted the 14 th nome of Lower Egypt. as “chief of the coasts and the garrison commander in Tharu” during the reign of Horemheb 16 clearly shows that Tharu was a very significant post. the Egyptian Ways of Horus facilitated the passage of countless military expeditions and trade caravans between the Nile Delta and Asia.
meaning “the bridge”. From this strategic point, the Ways of Horus, started and led to Gaza.19 The road to Palestine began at Memphis, the ancient capital of Egypt, passed by Heliopolis, Wadi Tumilat and Facus and then veered eastward to Tharu. From Tharu, the road passed to Jeffar, south of Lake Serbonis, then to el-Arish and Raphia; this portion of the road from el-Arish to Raphia had great significance in Roman times. The Ways of Horus appears in various texts. Several references in the ancient Egyptian literature of the Old and Middle Kingdoms mention a defence system along the frontier in the east. The story of Sinuhe from the 12 th Dynasty provided important geographical details of the North Sinai, especially that of the Ways of Horus. The story recounts Sinuhe’s flight from Egypt and his years abroad prior to his return to his home country. Sinuhe’s flight began from Dahshur, 20 south of Memphis after which he crossed the Nile in a boat, arriving at the Red Mountain and then the eastern border, particularly the Walls of the Ruler, Inbw @Q3. His attempts to avoid guards on duty while within the borders of Egypt are clearly mentioned.21 The author believes that the Walls of the Ruler -- or Inbw @Q3 - is nothing other than the fortress of Tharu. Recent excavations revealed a fortress with thick massive walls and watchtowers at Haboua I (Tharu). Similarly, other stations on the Ways of Horus are mentioned in the texts. The next chapter will provide an overview of the existing references to the Ways of Horus in the ancient Egyptian textual sources.
Gardiner “The ancient military road between Egypt and Palestine”, JEA 6 (1920), 103-04. H. Goedicke, “The Route of Sinuhe’s Flight”, JEA 43 (1957), 77-85. 21 A.H. Gardiner, Notes On the Story of Sinuhe (Paris, 1916), 169. 9
THE WAYS OF HORUS IN ANCIENT EGYPTIAN RECORDS
The Ways of Horus is mentioned in many ancient Egyptian sources. The references contain much important information regarding the strategic, economic, and political role the Ways of Horus played in ancient Egyptian history. The references come from various types of texts: papyri, sarcophagi, statues, royal war inscriptions, private titles, etc. Although some texts -- including primarily the royal war inscriptions -- might tend towards exaggeration, the author believes the portions relating to the Ways of Horus to be reliable and accurate. One of the main reasons for the author’s belief is that the references to the Ways of Horus are incidental to the main purpose of the text and would not have been a likely target for exaggeration or self-aggrandizing editing. The remainder of this chapter will provide a discussion of the references to the Ways of Horus in the ancient Egyptian records. 1. (a) Old Kingdom Sarcophagus from the tomb of the “overseer of the desert”, @kni-$nmw at Giza (5th Dynasty)
A limestone sarcophagus (2.7 x 1.2 x 1m) was found near the western wall of the burial chamber of the tomb of @kni@nmw. On the eastern side of the sarcophagus is a horizontal row of hieroglyphic inscriptions reading: 22
S. Hassan, Excavation at Giza, vol. VII: The Mastabas of the Seventh Season and their Descriptions, (Cairo, 1953) 49-52, figs. 40, 42, pl. 28; PM III, I (1979), 238. 10
The district chief of the desert, overseer of the desert, overseer of the hunters, director of the Mitr, king’s acquaintance, overseer of the Way of Horus, greatest of the ten of Upper Egypt, captain of the crew, overseer of the army, judge and nome administrator, chamberlain, staff of the people, Iwn-Knm.wt, priest, overseer of the Great Court, director of all the scribes, @kni-$nmw. One of the titles which the owner of the tomb had, and which concerns us here is that of “the overseer of the Way of Horus”, the earliest mention of the road in the ancient Egyptian sources. 2. (a) First Intermediate Period The instructions addressed to king Merikare (10th Dynasty)
The text is preserved in a fragmentary papyrus consisting of 3 fragments: Papyrus Leningrad 1116 A (second half of the 18 th Dynasty), Papyrus Moscow 4658 and Papyrus Carlsberg 6 (late 18th Dynasty).23 The inscriptions contain the instructions of the father, King Khety III, to his son and successor Merikare. The part of the inscriptions that concerns us deals with the eastern Delta and the Asiatics, the hereditary enemy of Egypt:
Lichtheim 1976, 103; F.J. Quack, Studien zür lehre für Merikare (Wiesbaden, 1992), 52, 182-83; Ward 1971, 22-40 especially 29. 11
10. the geography of the flight of Sinuhe is correct as far as traceable. (a) Middle Kingdom The story of Sinuhe (12th Dynasty) In the story of Sinuhe.Behold.B. 77-85.27 24 Qarck 1992. Ancient Near Texts Relating to the Old Testament (Princeton. 12 . 21.. as Sinuhe spent many years in Palestine until he was permitted to return to Egypt by Senwosret I in old age. the commander there. 26 The Ways of Horus is mentioned in his journey back to Egypt: I halted at the Ways of Horus. H. Prichard 1955.24 3. J. 25 Gardiner 1916. the royal courtier fled from Egypt in a moment of panic after he overheard that the old King Amenemhat had died unexpectedly. 1955). 26 During the flight of Sinuhe. sent a message to the palace to let it be known. 103. who was in charge of the frontier patrol. 25 In my opinion. 90 and 174.. filled with people of the best of the entire land. The horror of this moment and his experience away from the court are described in great detail. Pritchard... equipped with cities. Lichtheim 1976. 416. From the boundaries of Hebenu to the Way of Horus.. I. I drove in my (. so as to repel their attacks.) mooring post in the region (?) that I made (?) on the east. 27 Gardiner 1916. E 88-89. Goedicke. JEA 43 (1957). This description is an indication of the topography of the marshy area (P3-Twfy) in the vicinity of Tharu. Sinuhe hid in the bushes in fear that the guards on duty would apprehend him. “The Route of Sinuhe’s Flight”.
who accompanied me to the Ways of Horus. Temple of the King of Upper and Lower Egypt. 28 29 Gardiner 1916.His majesty caused an efficient overseer of field workers of the palace to come. 7582. JSSEA 12 (1982).dE. R. which is in the town of Senwosret on the Way of Horus. H. “A new Royal inscription of the XII Dynasty”. 2. 32 (1980). it probably formed a part of an inscribed temple wall rather than a stela. Kheperkare. ships were loaded behind him with presents of the royal bounty for the Asiatics.5m) was found in the Ramesside temple of Ptah at Memphis.28 (b) Stela of Memphis (12th Dynasty)29 A pink granite block (2 x 2. 3. 1-48. especially 12. Altenmüller and A. Moussa. 91 and 174. The inscription gives the chronological sequence of events at the court of Amenemhat II. 13 . and cults. 21. Posener. pl. Prichard 1955. lexicography. S. “Die Inschrift Amenemhets II. G. M. geography. aus dem Ptah-tempel von Memphis”. 7-8. Farag. SAK 18 (1991). The inscription is very important to the determination of the history of the 12 th Dynasty and to the study of Egyptian economy. “Une inscription Memphite de la XII e Dynastie”. including the expeditions sent abroad either for military or mining purposes.
saying: I have come from Pe. IV. but also that it comprised a well-organized social structure. servants at work. as well as the determinative of a city. (a) New Kingdom Inscription on the wall of Hathor chapel at Deir el-Bahari (18 th Dynasty) A religious text is found on the wall of the chapel of Hathor at Deir el-Bahari.9. the existence of a temple of Senwosret I on the “Way of Horus” can be inferred. 1895-1908). 87-94. 4. I have travelled through the marshes. the vizier in the latter part of the reign of Thutmose III and the beginning of the reign of Amenhotep II. The temple of Deir el-Bahari. wine-making and the presentation of various products to the 30 E. IV (London. Scenes occupy the western part of the hall showing sporting activities. (b) Inscription from the tomb of Rekhmire (18th Dynasty) Many references to the Ways of Horus occur in the inscriptions in the tomb at of Rekhmire at Thebes (Theban tomb 100).The orthography used here is not familiar: the sign is omitted. Urk.30 where a bovine goddess Hathor addresses Hatshepsut. I have marched through Dep. and the lands of the Ways of Horus. Naville. 14 . confirming that it was not just a road. From the text. and a phonetic complement ( ) is used. 237: 7.
In addition.. lotus buds. fulfilling all dreams. [of] the Delta together with the contribution [of the Roads of Horus]. vegetables. lotus flowers. herbs. fruits. and ibex . 42. de G. herbs. and born of the house mistress Bet.. gazelle. The Tomb of Rekh-mi-Re at Thebes (New York. Davis 1944. longhorns and shorthorns. . long-horned and short-horned oxen. XLV.and all manner of good things. [birds]. 31 32 N. XLIV. The text over him reading:31 Bringing forward the contribution of desert game . for the ka of Rekh-mi-Re. another fragmentary inscription exists in the tomb.oryx. Neferweben. delighting in the sight of a successful yield and receiving the contribution [of the Roads of Horus] . (as) offerings of the Ways of Horus. fish and birds without end. meals (hnkt). Davis. lotus flowers.. for which de Garis Davies provides the following translation:32 Rekh-mi-Re begotten of the wab priest of [Amun]. fish. 1944). wine and fruit. pl.large seated figure of Rekhmire on the northern wall. and. 15 ..
547:4. Edwards. 4-5. pl. Djehuty-hay.35 33 Urk. there is a scene of his garden’s produce with a text mentioning the “Way of Horus”:33 Beholding the meadows and traversing the marshes and making arrangements at the Ways of Horus by the Mayor of the Southern city. It is mentioned on Senufer’s statue. had the title: “Overseer of the storehouse at the Ways of Horus”. found in Thebes (Theban Tomb 99) and now in the British Museum. 55.S.E. V. 153 35 W. Redford 1992. Ward. 1421:9-11. Egyptian inscriptions from the British Museum and other sources (London. Hieroglyphic Texts from Egyptian Stelae and other Sources in the British Museum. Part VIII (London. 56. 34 Urk. IV. Senufer. the justified. Overseer of the Seal (18 th Dynasty)34 Senufer’s father. Mayor of Thebes (18 th Dynasty) On the tomb of Senufer at Thebes (Theban Tomb 96). IV. 1939). 1837). S.(c) Inscription from the tomb of Senufer. 41. Sharpe 1837. Sharpe. 1982). I. 16 . Overseer of the storehouse at the Ways of Horus. (d) Inscription on a statue of Senufer. Index of Egyptian Administrative And Religious Titles of The Middle Kingdom (Beirut.
80-82. true of voice. pl.(e) Tomb of Puyemre at Thebes (18th Dynasty)36 On the west wall of the tomb of Puyemre at Thebes (Theban Tomb 39). another scene represents the loading of wine jars. 106). IV. Bleiberg. Receiving the tribute37 of the products of the northern lands and of the Ways of Horus. pls. above the jars is written:38 36 N. chief lector priest. XXXII. 38 de Garis Davies 1918. 108-9. The Tomb of Puyemre at Thebes (New York. Urk. [second] priest [of Amun]. 37 For Ssp inw. royal chancellor. there is a representation of the reception of tribute from Retenu and the registration of tribute for the Ways of Horus. by the prince and mayor. together with the gifts of the Southern and Northern Oasis. The Offical Gift in Ancient Egypt (Oklahoma. de Garis. see E. Puyemre. sole companion rich in love. 17 . 523. which (my) lord had assigned to the temple of Amun. 1918). XXXI. XIII. XL. In the same tomb.
a triumphal return to Egypt and the presentation of prisoners to Amun. I. the Ways of Horus. Kitchen. A. Gaballa. (g) The Asiatic campaign of Seti I. 5.J. (Fig. Murnane. the scenes show military action in the field. the Upper Mansion. 1979). 42 G. Amongst other things. Rxty. [%xt] +at.A.Wine of the vineyards of the Ways of Horus. 43 Kitchen 1979.A.J. K. Narrative in Egyptian Art (Mainz am Rhein. 6.. 19-20.A. the Lower Mansion. Ramesside Inscriptions. JARCE 16 (1979). 1976). “The Northern Wars of Seti I: An Integrative Study”. Avaris (Tell Dabca). 2) The lower left hand register represents the conquest of the Shasu and the overtaking of “the Canaan”. Caminos. 99-116. 41 Gardiner 1920. I (Oxford.. The text is named “Pleasures of fishing and fowling” by A. W. Ibid. Literary Fragments in the Hieratic Script (Oxford. Spalings. Historical and Biographical. (f) Papyrus fragments in Pushkin Museum in Moscow (18 th Dynasty) In a fragmentary papyrus in Pushkin Museum in Moscow 39 "Ways of Horus" is mentioned among other locations in the Delta region. 1956). The Road to 18 . H. 29-47. Karnak (19th Dynasty)41 The main textual sources relating to the Ways of Horus are a series of reliefs executed on the exterior north wall of the great Hypostyle Hall in the temple of Amun at Karnak from the time of Seti I. 6-24. 100-02. 8:8-9. Gardiner40 due to its main subject matter. The opening statement in the Karnak reliefs is:43 39 40 R. The scenes and their hieroglyphic captions record the campaigns to Asia of Seti I waged in his early regnal years. pl. 42 the submission of foreign chieftains.
The triumphal return of Seti I to Egypt is shown near the first station. from the fortress of Tharu to Pa-Canaan.Year 1 of the king of Upper and Lower Egypt.” The reliefs show the details of Seti I’s campaign from east to west in three related scenes. K. with a detailed registration of all the stations of the road. 1985). The destruction made by the mighty arm of pharaoh. l.“it is the might of father Amun who had decreed for you valour and victory over every foreign country. 7. Kitchen. 55. the fortress of Tharu. Ramesside Inscriptions: Translation. In the centre of the reliefs stands the enlarged figure of Seti I in his chariot dragging two lines of captives and marching along a road marked at intervals by fortresses and fortified water wells. amongst the fallen enemies of the Shasu.. Pritchrd 1955. His majesty seized upon them like a terrifying lion. 1993). 253-55 especially 254. turning them into corpses throughout their valleys. 19 .h. Kadesh (Chicago. Any who slip through his fingers tell of his power to (far)-distant foreign countries .A. the Ways of Horus. Men-maat-Re.p. I (Oxford. One of the most interesting aspects of these Karnak reliefs is that they represent the road between Egypt and Palestine. wallowing in their blood as if (they) had never existed.
identified by name. One of the depicted Egyptian-style fortresses straddles a bridge over the water-way. 106. The bridge fortress is named: p3 xtm n *Arw. The other one. 20 . “the dividing canal” or “the canal”. 1954). 107. 1911). 4-34. Caminos. Letters from Ancient Egypt (Atlanta. but cf. 8 in R. Late Egyptian Miscellanies (London. guarding the road. 45 (h) Papyrus Anastasi I (19th Dynasty)46 Papyrus Anastasi I. It mentions the Ways of Horus. Wente. 44 which was reachable by boat from the fortress “Tharu”. into another body of water which has a barren shore and contains marine species. E.F. Gardiner 1911. “the fortress of Tharu”. Egyptian Hieratic Texts (Leipzig. note 3. 29. 98-110. characterizing a fresh-water environment. This body of water represents the salt water of the Mediterranean. 266 46 Gardiner. is named: t3 ct p3 m3i. especially 109. 44 45 Gardiner 1920.103. “the dwelling of the lion”. The accompanying text refers to it as &A dnit. and lists the stations in North Sinai and the major fortified cities in Southern Palestine. while a smaller one guards the road to the east. Anastasi V 24. whose water is infested with crocodiles and its banks lined by reeds and swamps. The reeds continue to the border of the reliefs. 1990). is a sort of “topographic record” written in satiric language. The campaign is shown about to enter Egypt across a waterway or a canal. from the reign of Ramesses II.
h. 49 Quack 1992. O that I might recall to you Husayin.p. Orthography From the texts. you don not know its position. Maspero 1883. but you have not answered me in any way nor have you rendered a report to me. You have not set foot in it at all. where is Raphia ? What is its wall like ? How many leagues march is to Gaza. 22 . Let me describe to you the manner of Aynn. who knows how to use your hands.h.h. 5. l. Whereabouts is its fortress? Come now to the region of Edjo of Sese. Come. you elite scribe and Maher-warrior. I have described to you the hill countries of the northern reaches of the land of Canaan. into its stronghold of Usermare. l. we see that the orthography of the Ways of Horus was as follows: 5th Dynasty47 and 6th Dynasty48 10th Dynasty49 12th Dynasty50 12th Dynasty51 47 48 Hassan 1953. and [to] Seba-El and Ibesqeb.O Good Sir. I begin for you with the Dwelling of Sese. 24.p. 52. Head toward the fortress of the Ways of Horus. 42. You have not eaten fish from [its pool?] nor bathed in it.10. 49-52. a leader of Naarin-troops at the head of the soldiery. you have never seen them since your birth. and [I] will describe many things to you.p. 51 Farag 1980. 75-82. 182-83. 50 Gardiner 1916. O Maher.. fig. l. Nekhes and Hebret.
It appears that defensive measures along the Ways of Horus were taken as early as the first half of the 5 th Dynasty. 4-34. from the annals of Thutmose III we know that in his first campaign to Asia he marched from the border fortress of Tharu to Gaza -. From the description of the flight of Sinuhe56 we realize how effective the defensive system must have been. 237: 7-9. Commentary The historical sources concerning the Ways of Horus in North Sinai indicate that an extremely well-organized system of fortresses was established by the kings of Egypt to secure the major artery of communication with the Asiatic provinces while also guarding the eastern frontier. as is indicated by the title “overseer of the Ways of Horus” found on the limestone sarcphagus from the tomb of the overseer of the desert @kni-#nmw at Giza. 109.18th Dynasty52 18th Dynasty53 18th Dynasty54 19th Dynasty55 6. 55 Gardiner 1911. Urk. 23 . Wente 1990.about 52 53 56 Urk. 1421: 9-11. Similarly. 80-82. XIII. Moreover. Pl. IV. the instructions addressed to king Merikare of the 10th Dynasty mentioned the defence of the eastern frontier along the Ways of Horus. 91-92. Gardiner 1916. de Garis Davies 1918. IV. 54 Davies 1918.
58 The expeditions of Thutmose III paved the way for the establishment of Imperial Egypt. “The Egyptian Empire in Palestine”. 1575-1087 B.M.in a record time of ten days.C. 1978).J. 59 B. Mariette. “Notice de quelques fragments de l’inscription de Karnak. 18-21. The reliefs show these fortresses and wells to be of varying sizes and diverse locations. over which military expeditions were dispatched and commerce flowed. 645-67. R. Consequently the identification of these stations 57 M. Kemp. BASOR 241 (1981). Urk. IV.A.D. Thutmose III undertook seventeen campaigns into Asia. 21. in P. and the subsequent campaigns of Seti I and Ramesses II strengthened the Egyptian empire.O. Faulkner. The kings of the early 18 th Dynasty conducted military campaigns into Palestine to recapture the reverence of Egypt and to regain its presence in the Asian provinces. Eleven fortresses and nine wells or water reservoirs lining the Ways of Horus are depicted between the horses’ feet and the wheels of Seti I’s chariot. contenant les annales du Règne de Toutmes III”. 57 This feat testifies to the efficiency of the organization of the “Ways of Horus”. 58 J. North Sinai became very important as the major land bridge between Egypt and Asia. “The Battle of Megiddo”. 284-97. JEA 28 (1942). Garnsey. The Imperialism in the Ancient World (Cambridge. 24 . This route was secured by the network of fortresses and provided with water-ways and supply-stations. Rev Arch II (1860). Some of the stations took the names or epithets of Seti I and Ramesses II.59 Consequently. With the expulsion of the Hyksos and the accession of ambitious. strong kings to the throne of Egypt a new chapter in the history of Egypt began.250 km away -. The Karnak reliefs of Seti I provide a geographical record of the first campaign of Seti I into Asia and depicted the route along the Mediterranean coast of north Sinai from el-Kantarah to Raphia. during the New Kingdom.)”. 2-15. 7-57. Weinstein. “Imperialism and Empire in New Kingdom Egypt (c. extending the Egyptian sphere of influence as far as the Euphrates.
The third station is named: p3 mktr at c n Mn-m3 R . and 60 61 Ibid. “The Overseer of the Way of Horus” H3ty-c n *3rw. In Payrus Anastasi V. The lion in the Karnak reliefs naturally refers to the pharaoh Seti I. as we know from the following titles: imy-r W3t-@r . High officials were placed in charge of the Ways of Horus and the fortresses along the road. In Seti I’s reliefs. “the castle of Men-maat-Re”. “Buto of Seti Merenptah”. beloved of Amun”. and recurs in papyrus Anastasi I61 as the “tract of Buto of Sese”. “the dwelling of the lion”. the latter being the nickname of Ramesses II. Sese being an epithet of Ramesses II. while the seventh station is a fortress called: w3Dyt n Sti Mry-n-PtH. “the dwelling of Ramesses (II). except for Gaza and Raphia at the Palestinian end of the Ways of Horus. “The Mayor of Tharu”. The eighth station is a fortress called : p3 bxn c c n Mn-m3 t-R . “the Migdol of Men-maat-Re (Seti I)”. “the dwelling of Sese”. In Papyrus Anastasi I this fortress or town is represented by: tA at n Ssi. the fortress of the second station is again named: tA at pA mAi. Caminos 1954.with any specific site is very difficult. 25 . 38-39. The Ways of Horus was overseen by the Egyptian military organization. which replaces the official name of Seti I.60 the name takes the form of: tA at n Rac-mssw-mry Imn.
III (New York. travelling officials and officers leaving the country:64 Year 3.Hry pDt n *3rw. Prichard 1955. The following chapters will focus on a review of each of the stations on the Ways of Horus. Ancient Records of Egypt. 1964). 91-92. Schulman. “Troop captain of Tharu”.p.H. dating from the 3rd year of the reign of Merenptah.. as seen in the ancient sources and the archaeological evidence. to investigate in the fortress which is in Tharu. 53-56 Gardiner 1916. J.63 A fragment of a diary kept by a frontier official in Tharu. l. 258. from the earliest times. Title and Organization in the New Kingdom (Berlin. 1906). which is on the highland.h. especially messengers. Breasted. contains the names and the business of all passersby on their way to Syria. and each entrant had to identify himself and to clarify the purpose of his entry.R. Military Rank.62 Every traveller was checked at the frontier posts. the ancient sources provide evidence of the network of fortresses and stations referred to as the Ways of Horus. day 17. Then he was compelled to wait until his entry had been approved. 270-71. arrival of the captain of the troops of the well of Merenptah. Thus. 62 63 64 A. In this manner. the home-coming Sinuhe was detained at Tharu until he was sent for and conducted to the residence of Senwosret I. first month of summer. 26 .
Teeter and J.mostly commonly written as or -. eds. both in the British Museum. in Gold of Praise: Studies on Ancient Egypt in Honor of Edward F. (Chicago. 1999). THE FIRST STATION: THARU Tharu -. Die Lehre des Cheti.A. Foster. Sohnes des Duauf (Glückstadt. THE STATIONS OF THE WAYS OF HORUS IN ANCIENT EGYPTIAN RECORDS A. 1. 121-29. B.IV. J. 93-96. 184-85. while conducting him to the residence in order to place him in school. “Some Comments on Khety’s Instruction For Little Pepi on his Way to School (Satire on The Trades)”. The father instructed his son in the duties and rewards of the scribal career. E. Wente . L. The text is preserved entirely in Papyrus Sallier II and partially in Papyrus Anastasi VII. (a) Middle Kingdom The Satire of the Trades (12th Dynasty) The Satire of the Trades consisted of the instructions given by a father to his son. I. Larson. 1944).65 65 Lichtheim 1976. 27 .is mentioned in a number of sources dating to the Middle Kingdom and later. Hellmut.
The date of writing is included as “the fourth month of year 33 of king Auserre (Apophis)”. called Pepi. The Rhind Mathematical Papyrus (Liverpool. Peet. 1987). pl. a series of entries were written on the verso of the same papyrus by another scribe in the early 18 th Dynasty. G. 128. as he journeyed south (4.67 Subsequently. 129. Robins and C. XXI. Littérature et Politique dans l’Egypt de la XIIe Dynastie (Paris. The Rhind Mathematical Papyrus: an Egyptian Text (New York.(3.9) Beginning of the instruction made by the man of Tharu. for his son. 28 . 15th Dynasty) The Rhind Mathematical Papyrus consists of a series of mathematical problems written on the recto of the papyrus.E.1) to the residence. 6-7. (a) New Kingdom The Rhind Mathematical Papyrus (Year 33 of king Auserre ‘Apophis’. 10-11. and it is stated that the author included materials copied from the reign of king Ny-maat-Re (Amenemhat III). 1923). to place him in the school for scribes. Shute. 1956). 67 T. 2. 66 For the debate on *Art see: G. Redford 1992. 420. Posener. 122.66 whose name is Dua Khety.
Day 2. but no cartouche of the pharaoh. The scarab bears 11 lines of hieroglyphs on the sides between the legs. first month of Akhet. First month of Akhet. second month of Shomu. Aon (Heliopolis) was entered. Marucchi.Regnal year 11. A1395-1475 in the Vatican Museum (18th Dynasty) 68 A commemorative scarab records the construction by Amenhotep III of a lake in Tharu for Queen Tiy. it was heard that Tharu had been entered. no. the sky rained. vetr. the birthday of Seth. a roar was emitted by the majesty of this god. day 23. 29 . Guide du Musée Égyptien du Vatican (Rome. (b) Scarab of Amenhotep III. The width of the lake on this scarab is given as 600 cubits. Regnal year 11. this southern prince broke into Tharu. 1927). The text is as follows: 68 H. The birthday of Isis.
in her city of Tharu. The Annals contain more than 223 lines of entries. day 1. 645-67. smiter of the Asiatics. and others believed that the name T3rw was long misread and the correct reading should have been +ar-wH3. The text given here. Breasted 1906. its width. Pritchard 1955. under the majesty of Horus. especially 2. Nebty ruler. R. 31. JEA 38 (1942). when his majesty sailed thereon in the royal barge: “AtonGleams”. 70 While the Vatican Museum copy refers to measurements of 3600 cubits for the length and 600 cubits for the width. 600 cubits. Neb-maat-R c. 71 LD III. and form the longest and the most important historical inscriptions of ancient Egypt. is based on the copy provided by the Vatican Museum. the mighty bull. including the reference to Tharu and the measurements of the lake. Tiy. His majesty celebrated the feast of opening of the [lake]. 6. and the great king’s wife Tiy.6. great of strength. 391-443. Urk. given life. Amenhotep-heqa-waset. IV. day 16.O. third month of the Akhet. Golden Horus. 71 69 Breasted 1906. 29-35. others have given different measurements (see note above). Lichtheim 1976. may she live. king of Upper and Lower Egypt. Faulkner. who pacifies the two lands. 234-38. vol. 2-15. 30 . appearing in truth. who establishes laws. son of Re. in the third month of the Akhet. His majesty commanded to make a lake for the great king’s wife. “The Battle of Megiddo”.Year 11. (c) The Annals of Thutmose III (18th Dynasty) The Annals of Thutmose III occupy the interior walls of the enclosing corridor that surrounds the Holy of Holies of the great temple of Amun at Karnak.69 Its length is 3600 cubits 70. II.
Neby For the word nxt. IV. Galán. beginning with the first and the most important of them: Year 22. Mayor of Tharu. Stela #58. his majesty was in (passed) the fortress of Tharu on the first campaign of victory. vol. 1995). Victory and Border.73 (d) Rock–cut stela of Neby. 79-86. the Mayor of Tharu at Serabit el-Khadem (Thutmose IV.72 [(made) to drive out those who had attacked] the borders of Egypt. 73 Urk IV. A. Björkman. South Sinai. the Mayor of Tjaru in the reign of Tuthmosis IV”. “Neby. they record the military campaigns of Thutmose III to Asia. represents King Thutmose IV offering milk to Hathor. 20.M. JARCE 11 (1974). child of the Nursery. Terminology related to Egyptian Imperialism in the XVIII Dynasty (Hildesheim. pl. 31 72 .H.As a complete document of military achievements. 1634: 6-7. 1952). while the official Neby is following the king carrying a loaf of bread and a small bird. The Inscriptions of Sinai (London. fourth month of the Peret. 81. 647:10-15. Peet. vol. steward of the Harem of the royal wife. I. 74 Urk. day 25.E. Gardiner and T. late 18th Dynasty) A rock–cut stela with a corniced top. II. 34-51.74 The inscription above the official reads: The Royal Messenger in all foreign lands. see J. found in the mining area at Serabit el-Khadem. G.
264. 1916).75 now kept in Leiden Museum (Leiden V43). B. 6. Beschreibung der Aegyptischen Sammlung des Niederlandischen Reichsmuseums der Altertümer in Leiden. M. It 75 P.A. shows an image of Neby with his wife adoring Osiris. 1634: 13-15. no. (e) Stela of Neby. Lord of Abydos. Boeser. The Reign of Thutmose IV (Baltimore. vol. Neby. 1984). in the top register with the following inscription: Giving praise [to Osiris] and kissing the ground before Wennefer by the chief of police and troop captain of Tharu. 32 . his dearly beloved. no. Urk. The troop captain and mayor of Tharu. Fasc. “the troop captain of Tharu” and “the lady of the house. Egyptian Historical Records of the Later 18 th Dynasty. late 18th Dynasty) A limestone stela of the same Neby mentioned in the previous reference. The middle and lower registers are offering scenes representing Neby.A. Cumming. Neby. given life. His sister. B. the lady of the house. 319-20.The inscription below the king reads: Year 4 under the Majesty of the king of Upper and Lower Egypt. the Mayor of Tharu (Thumose IV. IV. Men-kheperu-Re. Tauswert” receiving offerings from “his son Haremhab”. 548. Tauswert. II (Warminster. 1991). 22 (Den Haag. Bryan.
Neby. 1635: 2-11. overseer of the fortress of the land of Wawat. foremost of westerners. the Mayor of Tharu. incense. cool water. Björkman 1974. and all good and pure things to the ka of the prince and mayor. an important man in his office and magnate in the palace. with a cover in the shape of a human face with unmarked features in Ronneby College. troop captain of Tharu. The main inscription of the stela reads:76 An offering that the king gives to Osiris. (also) to inhale the sweet breath of the north wind. IV. to drink of water at the river eddy. the great god and ruler of eternity that he may grant invocation offerings of bread and beer. oil. late 18th Dynasty) An alabaster canopic jar. Sweden (belonging to the same Neby of the previous two references) bears an inscription reading: 76 77 Urk. 33 . IV. (Thutmose IV. alabaster. overseer of the canal and mayor of Tharu. wine and milk.is noteworthy that this text reveals Neby to have been the overseer of both the northern and southern frontier.77 34cm high. clothing. (f) Canopic jar of Neby. overseer of the fortress. chief of police. 43-51. pl.
RdE 17 (1965). now kept in the British Museum (Stela 1843). 39 cm high and 24cm wide. 264-66. and named Amenmose. (g) Stela of Amenmose. Jeffery Spencer of the British Museum for his assistance.L.79 The top register shows king Thutmose IV offering to Amun-Re. late 18 th Dynasty) A round-topped stela of quartzite. It measures 47cm in height and has a cartouche with the name of Amenhotep II engraved on the right arm.To be recited: Isis. the lower register shows the deceased kneeling and before him a text of 5 columns that read: Giving adoration to Amun. 78 The stela is for an official who has the title “Mayor of Tharu”. (h) Block–statue fragment of Hatre. justified. Neby. de Cénival . the Overseer of Goldsmiths (Amenhotep II.25550) there is a block–statue of quartzite. The four sides of the statue are inscribed. 80 J. the Mayor of Tharu (Thutmose IV. kissing the ground before the lord of the gods by the great one of the She of the palace in Memphis. protect Imsety who is inside you. 18th Dynasty) In the Louvre Museum (E. 15-20. the head and parts of the base and foot are missing. 34 .25550 du musée du Louvre”. Amenmose. The inscription on its dorsal pillar yields a reference to Tharu and includes various titles for Hatre: 80 78 79 Thanks are due to Dr. “ Les textes de la statue E. The stela is also discussed in: Bryan 1991. the Mayor of Tharu. put your arms around what is inside you. the Mayor of Tharu.
justified. for the goddess Wadjet of Imet. M. 25. 1978). fig. XII. Leahy. 81 W. JNES 10 (1951). “The wine of Tharu” 82. Hope. 81 These 13 sealings came from amphorae and indicate an association with Tharu and environs. for Horus lord of heaven. no. for the chief of goldsmiths Hatre. 13 of which consist of cylindrical types. Hayes.B. 158. C. This sealing was found at site D.The offerings that [the king] gives to Atum. Excavations at Malkata and Birket Habu (Warminster. lord of Mesen. (i) Wine jar sealings related to Tharu from Malkata (Amenhotep III. 29-31.A. 15. 45.5. 35 .C. table 4. The details of these sealings are as follows: (i) A jar sealing from an amphora with a seal impression. 1978). the work of my arms reached Elephantine and Tharu to the north.XII. no. fig. in the monuments which his majesty made for Amun in this place. “Inscriptions from the Palace of Amenhotep III”. Malkata and the Birket Habu: Jar Sealings and Amphorae (Warminster. He says to those who are on earth. at Malkata. to the servants of this temple: I am a competent(?) artisan for Upper and Lower Egypt. 82 Leahy 1978. the palace and associated complex of Amenhotep III on the West Bank at Thebes. 18th Dynasty) Two hundred and forty-five inscribed jar sealings were discovered at Malkata.
5. residing in Lower Egypt”85. . fig. fig.87 This sealing was found at site K at Malkata. [Lord of Mesen (?)]”86. Gardiner. possibly Tharu which is often called p3 xtm n T3rw. Leahy 1978. 85 A. This sealing was found at site D at Malkata. This sealing was found at site K at Malkata. “wine of the fortress”. it is noteworthy that Tharu is also referred to simply as “the fortress” and is the only fortress known from the sources for the production of wine. “wine of the fortress”. XCV. JEA 5 (1918). no. This sealing was found at site D. 22. 199 86 Leahy 1978. 84 This sealing was found at site K at Malkata. Lord of Mesen. (vii) A jar sealing from an amphora with a seal impression. Mesen is believed to have been near or at Tharu. “Horus Lord of Mesen. (iii) A jar sealing from an amphora with a seal impression.(ii) A jar sealing from an amphora with a seal impression. fig. XCVII. “Horus. 23. 88 Bjökman 1974. no. 84 36 . “the fortress of Tharu”.H. 87 Although it is not possible to say with entire certainty that p3 Xtm refers to Tharu. 48-51. “The wine of Tharu”83. (vi) A jar sealing from an amphora with a seal impression. (v) A jar sealing from an amphora with a seal impression. “Horus. residing in Lower Egypt”. 16. XIII. no. (iv) A jar sealing from an amphora with a seal impression. 88 found at site K at Malkata. This sealing was 83 Leahy 1978. “The Delta Residence of the Ramessides”.B at Malkata.
found at site K at Malkata. “wine of the fortress”. 37 . This sealing was (xiii) A jar sealing from an amphora with a seal impression. found at site K at Malkata. 89 90 Ibid. “wine of the fortress”. found at site K at Malkata. found at site K at Malkata. “wine of the fortress” 91. This sealing was (xi) A jar sealing from an amphora with a seal impression. This (ix) A jar sealing from an amphora with a seal impression. 91 Ibid. “wine of the fortress” 90. This sealing was (xii) A jar sealing from an amphora with a seal impression. This sealing was (x) A jar sealing from an amphora with a seal impression. This sealing was (xiv) A jar sealing from an amphora with a seal impression.89 sealing was found at site K at Malkata. “wine of the fortress”.(viii) A jar sealing from an amphora with a double seal impression. “wine of the fortress”. Ibid. found at site K at Malkata.
“Year 36. no. 7. fig. (xvi) A jar sealing from an amphora with a seal impression.] 93 Min-nakht of the mansion of [pharaoh]”. no. 4. 5. no. “very good wine of Tharu”. 92 This sealing was found at site K at Malkata. 38 . fig. This sealing was found at site K at Malkata. 6. 51. “wine of Tharu of [. 52.. fig.94 found at site K at Malkata. fig. 94 Hayes 1951.. no. wine of Tharu. This sealing was (xvii) A jar sealing from an amphora with a seal impression. wine of Tharu. chief of vineyards”. 95 Hayes 1951. 6. 4. Hayes 1951. Banedjbu”. 92 93 Hayes 1951.“Year 28.95 This sealing was found at site K at Malkata. (xv) A jar sealing from an amphora with a seal impression.
7. Shabtis (London. Overseer of the Horses. “wine of Tharu. Petrie. no. 76. fig. Hayes 1951. 96 97 Hayes 1951.96 This sealing was found at site K at Malkata. Bayu”. 97 sealing was found at site K at Malkata. (j) This Shawabti of Menna. (xix) A jar sealing from an amphora with a seal impression: “wine of Tharu of the overseer of the fortress”. VIII. 75. for the praised one. child of the Nursery. no.(xviii) A jar sealing from an amphora with a seal impression. 1935). the commander of the troops of Tharu (18th Dynasty) The inscribed shawabti of Menna. Commander of the troops of Tharu. 98 W.M. fig. Menna. 49 39 . 7. one who is greatly trusted by the Lord of the two Lands. pl.F. 98 the commander of the troops of Tharu reads: Given as praise from the king.
101 The inscriptions contain a list of various 99 W. Hari. 86. K. Among the gods referred to in this document is Horus of Tharu. Ćerný. 1965). Horemheb et la reine Moutnedjemet ou la fin d’une dynastie (Geneva. JNES 5 (1946). 30. IV. 47-48.(k) Fragment of a taxation decree from the Aten Temple at Karnak (Akhenaten. J. 99 Enough of the text remains to indicate that it imposed a tax on temples and municipalities throughout Egypt to support the religious innovation of Akhenaten.M. W. two men-container of wine. 18th Dynasty) This largely unpublished fragmentary text was found in the Aten temple at Karnak and dates to the reign of Akhenaten. 22. Texts from the Amarna Period in Egypt (Atlanta. with neck and stopper missing. Kruchten. which were to be supplied by cultic establishments throughout Upper and Lower Egypt. (m) Decree of Horemheb at Karnak (18th Dynasty) A very large stela of dark sandstone (CG 34162) was found on the last wall of the temple of Karnak towards the south. 2. 8 text. sweet wine of the House-of-Aten [from] Tharu. pl. at the 10th pylon of Horemheb. 2146: 8-15. no. was found in the tomb of Tutankhamun mentioning the wine of Tharu 100 Year 5. no. 1981). R. 311-17. and two rectangular lengths of thick cloth. pl. Le Décret d’Horemheb (Bruxelles. This tax included one deben of silver. 1995). Hieratic Inscriptions from the Tomb of Tutcankhamun (Oxford. “The Edict of King Haremhab”. (l) Wine jar sealing from the tomb of Tutankhamun (18th Dynasty) A wine jar. 1. 40 100 . 261. no. Murnane.J. 2144: 10-17. II:8 101 Urk. 6. Pflüger. 8. 28. one men-container of incense.J. Chief vintner Penamun. 1964).
l.crimes. especially 25.and those who are supplying the harem. JESHO 20 (1977). Stela of year 400 (Ramesses II. he being sent to Tharu. he being sent to Tharu. on behalf of the two deputies [of the army] . [and there is anyone who interferes] (17) and he takes away the boat of any military man (or) of any (other) [per]son in any part of the country. 41 . the law shall be applied against him by cutting off his nose. 2-64.. “The Treatment of Criminals in Ancient Egypt”.p. (Now) if there i[s the man] who (wants to) deliver dues [for] the breweries (?) And abbatoirs (?) of pharaoh.. Lorton. 19th Dynasty) On this. a[nd he] .. (n) 102 (21)...h.102 It appears that Tharu functioned as a deportation place and possibly had either a penal settlement or labour camps where prisoners were placed. (22) the law [shall be applied] against him by cutting off his nose. see D.. some of which were punishable by severance of the nose of the culprit. and by deporting him to Tharu. as well as the offerings of all (kinds of) gods in that they deliver dues on behalf of the two deputies of the army.
11 (1865). the-great-of-strength: the son of Re. II. Ramsès II: La Véritable Histoire (Paris. 4th month of Shomu. “La stele de l’an 400”. Year 400. Kêmi 4 (1931). royal scribe. day 4. justified. may he exist forever and ever. 42 . The stela gives an interval of 400 years between his reign and that of the rule of the Hyksos. Kitchen 1979. of the king of Upper and Lower Egypt: Seth. Now there came the hereditary 103 A. city governor and vizier.D. The high officer has the title “overseer of the fortress of Tharu”: For your spirit. son of Nut! May you give a happy life time in following your will ( k3) for the spirit of the hereditary noble. 169-90. “La stele de l’an 400 retrouvée”. Seti. overseer of the horse. Montet. Mariette. C. O Seth. beloved of Re-Hr-akhti. overseer of desert lands. arch. Pritchard 1955. commander of the fortress of Tharu. 28788. P.A red granite stela103found in the ruins of Tanis and located in the Cairo Museum (No. Rev. 370-72. Noblecourt. 253. his beloved: The Ombite. 1996). 60539) has an inscription relating to an act of homage to the god Seth from a high officer named Seti in the reign of Ramesses II. 191-215.
Kuentz. Tiu. she-who-opens the two lands. city governor and vizier. Pramesse. Faulkner. fortress-commander of Tharu. fan-bearer on the right hand of the king. Seti. overseer of the fortress of Tharu. R. overseer of the desert. 255-58. royal scribe. Kitchen 1996. 3. he led his army overland through Palestine and south Syria up to Kadesh. 93-111. (o) Asiatic campaigns of Ramesses II (19th Dynasty) In his fifth year campaign to Kadesh. high priest of Wadjet. overseer of foreign countries. Son of the hereditary noble. Kitchen 1979. Ramesses II marched with his army from Egypt. Lichtheim 1976. 104 His inscription reads: 104 Ch. master of the horse. II. overseer of the horse. II. justified. troop captain. chief of the police. justified. 34. troop captain. chantress of Pre. 11-12. mayor of the city and vizier. Passing the fortress of Tharu. MDIAK 16 (1958).O. Pritchard 1955. after the preparation of the troops and chariots. II. 43 . conductor of the feast of the Ram-the-Lord-of-Mendes.prince. justified. MIFAO 55 (1928). 57. and born of the lady of the house. “The Battle of Kadesh”. La Bataille de Qadesh. royal scribe. and overseer of the priests of all the gods.
105 It was written by the scribe Pentaur to honor the victory of Ramesses II in his battle against the Asiatics. 150-58 especially 152. and the sherden of his majesty’s capturing. We read: 105 Kitchen 1979. his majesty had prepared his infantry. 13:1. (when) his majesty passed the fortress of Tharu. his chariotry. whom he had carried off by the victories of his arm. to whom the orders of combat had been given. day 9. The texts are written in two different manuscripts: hieroglyphic and hieratic.Now then. second month of Shomu. The hieroglyphic text has been found in three copies on temple walls at Luxor. Noblecourt 1996. equipped with all their weapons. (p) The “Poem of Pentaur” (Ramesses II. Karnak and Abydos. The Poem of Pentaur is a good reference to Tharu as a starting-point on the Ways of Horus. His majesty journeyed northward. 19th Dynasty) The Poem of Pentaur is one of the most important documents of the battle of Kadesh. He began to march on the good way in Year 5. his infantry and chariotry with him. 44 . II.
who provides for Tharu. p. 108 W. Spiegelberg. and (is) given life like Re forever. 282. He began the goodly way. to march. 1898). four ostraca were found in the Ramesseum by J. his infantry and his chariotry being with him. his majesty passed the fortress of Tharu [like] Montu when he goes forth.E. his majesty prepared his infantry and his chariotry. on which references to Tharu exist. XXIV. 108 The details of these ostraca are as follows: (i) Ostracon no. 781. on the ninth day. 13:1. Quibell. 163. the sherden of the captivity of his sword.. 189.Behold. II. now in Moscow. II. no. 19th Dynasty) A scarab dating to the reign of Ramesses II. 203 and 211 from the Ramesseum (19th Dynasty) In 1895-96. 106 Kitchen 1996. Ramesses (II) Mery-Amun. the second month of Shomu. His majesty proceeded northwards.106 (q) Golénischeff scarab (Ramesses II. (r) Hieratic ostraca nos. II. Year 5. XXV. 163.107 The inscription reads: Wser-maat-Re Setepenre. 45 107 . Kitchen 1979. Kitchen 1979. XXI. Hieratic Ostraca and Papyri (London.. bears an inscription referring to Tharu.they gave the plan of battle. 688.
. (iii) Ostracon no. in Tharu. 203 Tharu. storehouse Mahu.. (iv) Ostracon no.In the temple of Amun of Tharu. 189 . no. be healthy in the temple of Amun in Tharu..under the authority of Director of the .under the authority of Director of the storehouse. 17332 (19th Dynasty) 46 .. (s) Berlin stela of Huy. 211 Regnal year 7. (ii) Ostracon no.may he live. Panjem. prosperous. .. ka....
Ägypt . to Thoth. has never existed. Kitchen 1979. the troop captain of Tharu. 8. the overseer of the horses. 212. 79. the fanbearer on the right hand of the king. Habachi. the deputy of his majesty in the chariotry. to the Horuses pre-eminent in Wawat and to all the gods of Nubia. the one who comes from Khatti.has in the lower register an inscription consisting of five horizontal lines that read: (t) An offering that the king gives to Amun-re. lord of thethrones-of-the-two-lands. a person who can report where it (Khatti) is. the troop captain.. to the ka of the prince and the mayor. who brings its great one. that they may give the receiving of offerings coming forth before (them) at the beginning of every season which happens in their temple. pleased with Truth. the highest authority in Nubia. the viceroy. and no. 19th Dynasty) 109 L. Papyrus Anastasi III (Merenptah. Huy. III. the praised by the good god. “Four Objects Belonging to Viceroys of Kush and Officials Associated with Them”. 219ff. the royal scribe. II.17332. 47 . no. the royal messenger to every foreign land. Kush 9 (1961).insch.A round-topped stela of sandstone109 in the Berlin Museum 80cm high and 65cm wide .
3) (for) the prince of Tyre Ba caltermeg. l. 48 .5) which are in the hills. Caminos 1954. in order to debrief (matters) in the fortress which is at Tharu. Arrival effected by the captains of troops of the wells of Merenptahhotp-her-maat. viz. lieutenant-commander of chariotry.. Caminos 1954.p. . Another reference to Tharu in Papyrus Anastasi III is found in the extract from a journal of a border official: 111 (vs. and mentions Tharu in many parts of it. day 17. (vs. (vs. (for) the garrison-commander Khacy. 258. first charioteer of his majesty.4) Regnal-year 3. 108-09. Pritchard 1955. son of Djapero of Gaza. 20ff..6. to the princes of the Asiatics. 110 111 A.H. 331.6. Gardiner 1937. first month of Shomu.9) Fan-bearer on the right of the king.6. The first mention of Tharu occurs at the beginning of the papyrus in the epithets and titles of a scribe’s master: (1.6. (vs..6.1) Regnal-year 3. Late Egyptian Miscellanies (Brussels. 1937). king’s envoy to (1.2) what he took to Khor: 2 dispatches. 1 dispatch. Going up by the retainer Bacalry..Papyrus Anastasi III110 dates to the second half of the 19 th Dynasty. (vs.10) the princes of the foreign lands of Khor starting from Tharu to Iupa. 108-12. day 15.h. Gardiner. first month of Shomu. 1 dispatch..
Gardiner. 49 . 51-52. Caminos 1954. 19th Dynasty) Papyrus Anastasi V113 -. 265-66. 1937. Caminos 1954. wdfish of the šni-waters. gutted bultifish of Tharu. 1937.(u) Papyrus Anastasi IV (Ramesside) Papyrus Anastasi IV112 contains references to the conditions of garrison life in general.dating to the reign of Seti II -contains a reference to Tharu in one of its sections. šnc-fish of Mi-wēr. namely a mention of transporting three stelae by ship to be erected in a fortress beyond Tharu: 112 113 Gardiner. iw3-fish (15. From the section of Papyrus Anastasi IV called “command to make preparations for Pharaoh’s arrival” we find a reference to Tharu: (15. 198-99.6) many birds. (v) Papyrus Anastasi V (Seti II. bg-fish of the ptri-water.7) and bûri-fish of she. 69-70. Qni-birds of the papyrus-marshes.
. write to us about all that we are to do. 114 In this instruction the teacher compares the comforts of the scribal life to the suffering of soldiers: 114 Gardiner 1937. Let (25.. reach him yourselves.h.The lieutenant-commander of the army. bearing three stelae together with their ispw (24. Any. Nebmaat-renakht] for his apprentice. 168.p..5) pharaoh. the scribe Wenemdiamun”.3) topic: We set out from the place where the king is.British Museum 9994 (20th Dynasty) Papyrus Lansing appears to have been written as a student’s instruction piece and is entitled “(1. prosperity and health! In the favour of Amen-Re.. king of the gods.2) the butler of Pharaoh. day 23.p.p.2) our good lord in health. 107-08.” Thus spoke the king: Look.7) passed the fortress of Ramesses-mery-Amun. l. (24.8).h. P.1) your good lord. l..1) [Beginning of the Instruction in letter-writing made by the royal scribe and chief overseer of the cattle of Amun-Re.p.4) and their plinths. (w) Papyrus Lansing.p. Let him celebrate millions of jubilees (and may you be) in his favour daily. l. second month of (24. l.8) Shomu.h.6) to all that he says so that he may set them up in their place forever.h. Another (24. and the kas of the king of Upper and Lower Egypt Wser-maat-Re-setepenre. keep pharaoh. 51 . (24.h. Bakenamun. The king said to us: “Go after the butler of (24. II. <to> the king’s butler Maat-men: In life. I say to Pre-Harakhti. and the lieutenant-commander of the army (23. Caminos 1954. and we shall go to empty the ships at TheDwelling-of-Ramesses-mery-Amun. we (24.h. 401. king of Gods. in all possible haste with the stelae: reach him in all haste with them that you may listen (24. l. l.p.p. l... Lichtheim 1976.h.. which is at Tharu in regnal-year 33.
and the garrison-captain.7) 52 .5) the soldier. the standard-bearer.Come. (9..6) the lieutenant. and how many are his superiors: the general. the commander of fifty. They go in and out of the halls of the palace.p.h. the scribe. the officer who leads. let me tell you the woes of (9. the troop captain. (9. l.
116 Golénischeff 1902. (a) Third Intermediate Period The geographical list in the Golénischeff Papyrus (21st Dynasty) The geographical glossary in the Golénischeff Papyrus No. 105. 1115. pi-Rameses-mery-Amun. 3. 117 H. H. 1116B de l’Ermitage Impérial de St. Golénischeff”. 1913).p.(pr-s3y-t3).. There are no clothes. reprinted 1974). Busiris. Gauthier. l. Golénischeff. one is after him as a donkey. He is called up for Syria and may not rest. Balamûn (p3-gww). among which Tharu is mentioned. The weapons of war are assembled at the fortress of Tharu. When he receives the grain ration. no sandals. Dictionnaire géographique de l’ancienne Égypte (Leipzig.117 Tanis (+cnt). “Offener Brief an Herrn Professor G.saying: “Get labourers”. . V (Cairo. 661. M. it is not good for grinding. he is dead while yet alive. Golénischeff. his belly hurts. Tell Abu115 M. Pétersbourg. Les papyrus hiératique Nos.h. Steindorff von W. 53 . He is hungry. ZÄS XL (1902). Buto (pr-w3dyt). 105. 1116A. 151. 1106A in the Hermitage Museum in Leningrad 115 provides a list of many cities in the Delta. He toils until the Aten sets in his darkness of night. 1877-1880. Brugsch. having been released from duty. 1925). Sethroitic nome (šdhrw)116. Kom el-Hisn (pr-nbt-Imw). Dictionnaire des noms géographiques.. He is wakened at any hour. Pétersbourg (St. 105..
55-59.C. Lichtheim 1976. Caminos. 71-100.119 4. 200 deben. 54 . thesis. 2000). III. 200 deben. The inscriptions mention the donations given to Nitocris by different temples. 1. 120 G. 116-18 119 Ibid. IV.seifa (p3-twf).8m high and 1. Berlin 7 in the Berlin Museum (30th Dynasty) A sarcophagus in the Berlin Museum and dating to the 30 th Dynasty. Gunn. Breasted 1906.43m wide. was found at Karnak in 1897120.118 the fortress of Haboua I (p3 xhtm n T3rw). LeGrain. belonging to the mayor of Tharu. 103-06.A. 50 deben. “Un passage de la stèle de Naucratis”. That which is given to her from the temples: Sais: bread. M. especially 76. per-Manu: bread. “The Nitocris Adoption Stela” JEA 50 (1964). 26th Dynasty) A rose granite stela. 50 deben. (b) Sarcophagus of Nekht-nb-ef (Nektanebo). 16-19. B. Kom el-Hisn: bread. 957. ZÄS 35 (1897). Buto: bread.R. “Notes on the Naukratis Stela”. son of Pedi118 A. Kuentz. (a) Late Period The Adoption Stela of Nitocris (Psamtik I. “Deux stèles trouvées à Karnak en février 1897". 50 deben. R. the House of Tharu: bread. 50 deben. Memphis: bread. “Tharu: the Starting Point on the ‘Ways of Horus” (M. 86-89. University of Toronto. 200 deben. Al-Ayedi. BIFAO 28 (1929). JEA 29 (1943).A. Nektanebo. House of Hathor of the turquoise: bread.
Hor-cheb (??). Osiris. Die ostgrenze Ägyptens (Leipzig. Ranke. 29306 in the Cairo Museum (30th Dynasty) Sarcophagus no. 121 122 Ptolemaic Period Urk. band 1 (Glückstadt. Horus. Maspero. Brugsch 1877-1880. C. 1935). Küthmann. lord of Abydos. the scribe of the necropolis. a reference to Tharu occurs: The noble and mayor of Tharu and the governor of the foreigners of the nome of Khent-Iabet. the scribe of god’s book (??). The inscription contains a reference to Tharu: 122 Year 15. foremost of the west.5. lord of veneration. the great god. 43 G. no. 55 . 5. II. the wer-tehenne-priest (?) of the western Horus nome. living forever.Amun and Thekhabes. gyptischen Personennamen. the Xpr-priest (?) of the eastern Horus nome. 220-56. 24. 1914). 304. n0. 29306 was found at Sakkara and is now in the Cairo Museum. Sarcophages de l’époque Persane et Ptolémaïque (Cairo. lord of Tharu. 388. 121 Among the titles of Nektanebo. (c) Sarcophagus of Thay-her-Pata. the great god. 3rd month of Akhet under the majesty of the king of Upper and lower Egypt Nectanebo. was assigned in writing by the commanders of the fortress of Tharu. 1927). lord of Mesen. H. was found at Tanis.
1930). Faulkner. Statuen und statuetten von königen und privatleuten im Museum von Kairo. Cairo Museum (Ptolemaic period) R. 32-33.123 Its length is uncertain owing to numerous breaks. Teil III (Berlin. each containing 26-28 short lines of text. L. however the preserved papyrus comprises 34 columns. son of the priest Onnophris was found at Tanis and is now in the Cairo Museum. Montet. Cairo Museum (Ptolemaic period) A statue of black granite 1.23) Osiris in Tharu. (b) Statue of +d-@r. 1958). it bears the following epithet: Entering into the sanctuary of the lord of Tharu. P. von Borchardt .O. Tharu is mentioned within the centres of Osiris worship: (8. 687. (c) 123 124 Statue of Imy-r-ihw. 689 et 700 du Caire”. 689.13) All the gods and goddesses who are in Tharu. The papyrus provides a geographical list of Osiris cult-centres in Egypt. 5-7. 56 . No. no. Catalogue Général des Antiquités Égyptiennes du Musée du Caire 88.2m high. 132. giving ointment and perfuming the limbs of the noble ones in Khent-iabet. of the General DjedHor. and it is inscribed on the recto only. (10.(a) Papyrus British Musuem 10569 (Ptolemaic period) The Papyrus British Museum 10569 is a religious manuscript written in hieratic. Kemi 7 (1938). An Ancient Egyptian Book of Hours (Oxford. “Trois Gouverneurs de Tanis d’après les inscriptions des statues 687.124 Among the inscriptions. 12-13.
71. son of the priest and chief soldier. Amun-p3-Am. Ta-imHotep. did not receive enough silt. Erste Abteilung (Leipzig. 127-28 J. 1931). goodly spearman in Retribution-Town ( Db3). Chassinat. of the chief soldier. lord of the sky. falcon of great strength 125 G. E. goodly watcher in the two lands and river-banks. and the waters from the Uu of the Mendesian nome to Pehu…. 150. who protects the cities and safeguards the provinces. pl. When it reached the proximity / came near the [?] of Tharu. RT 15 (1916). Imy-r-iHw.125 It reads: “[the canal]. 75. it had fertilized the area and the lands which were before it.having irrigated each…” (d) Inscriptions from the temple of Edfu (Ptolemaic period) The temple of Edfu contains many references to Tharu. Le Temple d’Edfou (Cairo.126 From the myth of Horus we read: Utterance by Horus. which was not deep. lord of Mesen. in Sha-Sef. LXII. Düemichen. great god. Geographische inscriften. was found at Tanis in 1861. 1865). 57 126 . 98cm high. 31.A statue of black granite (with the head missing). and the lady of the house.. Daressy “Statues de Basse Époque du Musée de Gizèh”.
falcon of great strength. VI. guardian who guards Egypt (Kmt) from the desert countries (dšrwt). great god. wall of copper round about his Upper-Egyptian Mesen. lord of Upper and Lower Egypt. lord of Mesen. (Ed.pre-eminent in Pe and Mesen. lion pre-eminent in Tharu. lion pre-eminent in Tharu. 71) Utterance by Horus. VI. watcher over his LowerEgyptian Mesen. lord of the sky. 75) 58 . (Ed.
they have sailed to the east to Tharu. he dragged forth their kidneys. crowned with the triple crown. O Re. lord of the gods. 117. and he brought away 142 enemies. He slew them with his claws. Le temple de Philae (Paris. Lord of Mesen. Thoth said: “This town shall be called #nti3bt. 59 . Then he saw those enemies. and he made a meal out of them for his followers. they have sailed to the east in order to reach Iwn-mhw. (Ed. Bénédite. from this day”. some of them were fallen in the sea. (standing) on the backs of the enemies who yield him their kidneys”. and he hastened after them. VI. 127-28) (e) Inscriptions from the temple of Philae (Ptolemaic period) A reference to Tharu occurs in the geographical list in the temple of Philae. it shall be called Tharu from this day. and this god shall be called Horus of Behdet.” Then said Horus of Behdet: “All that you command shall come to pass.Re said to Horus of Behdet: “These enemies. their marshland. their blood lay on the heights. his arm being like flint. and they sailed to the east. for you are the lord of commands. Re said to Thoth: “Lo! Horus of Behdet is like a lion on his msn. And Horus of Behdet assumed the form of a lion with the face of a man. and some of them were fallen in the mountains. 1893). while he was on the mountains.” Then they boarded the barque of Re. and kidneys shall be brought from the marshes (?) of Tharu from this day.127 Tharu is mentioned as: 127 G.
160.as the capital of the 14th nome . Catalogue Général des Antiquités Égyptiennes du Musée du Caire. the house of Horus... Cauville.the territory of Tharu.. The majority of these texts relate to the fact that Tharu .22189.. 337 60 . pl. Stèles ptolémaiques et romaines. 89. the main deity associated with this nome: 128 A..128 The text is as follows: Horus. 129 S. 89cm high and 52cm wide. 1997). great god. Mit-Rahineh in 1901. Dendara: Les chapelles osiriennes (Cairo. LXIV. in the middle of the phoenix territory. (a) Roman Period Inscriptions from the temple of Dendara (Roman period) The inscriptions from the temple of Dendara contain many references to Tharu. 1905)...129 It is noteworthy that the word Tharu is written in different orthographies in the various Dendara inscriptions. 6. he brings to you the products of Tharu.. protect the two lands..(the king) brings you the Khent-iabet. 187-88.No.was sacred to Horus. Another reference to Tharu is depicted on the exterior naos of Philae temple: . 190. was found at Kom el-Qala’a. vol. pre-eminent in Tharu. lord of Mesen and Khepr. (f) StelaofPtolemyVIIPhilometor. Kamal. 288. 20 (Cairo.CairoMuseum(Ptolemaicperiod) A stela of limestone.
(152-54) [Words spoken by] Horus, lord of Mesen, the great god, lord of Tharu, the lion foremost of Khenty-iabet, [who repulses] Be (=Seth) from Baqet (=Egypt).
(30-32) The foremost (lit. “first”) secret image of the Ba of Horus, lord of Mesen and lord of Tharu has come before you, O Osiris; it defends (nd) Egypt, it protects (mk) (its) monuments130 and it throws Seth out of Baqet (=Egypt).
(11-14) Words spoken by Horus, lord of Mesen, the great god and lord of Tharu.131 “I have taken the harpoon to guard all the cattle. The bull of the North (=Seth) is cut up in his form of The One Whose Name is Hidden (=hippopotamus).”
(21-22) If you are in Tharu in Khenty-iabet, Djeba of the North holds your beauty/perfection. You are the scarab who originally came from the Thinite nome, and your son protects the (two) doors of Baqet (=Egypt).
Cauville 1997, 94 suggests “fortresses” as an alternate translation. Cauville 1997, 99 suggests “the Tanite nome” as an alternate translation. 61
(1-6) The raging(?) Ba[...] has come before you, O Osiris, lord of [...] [august phoenix] in Nedyt: “Take for yourself the mu-setef flood that originates in (the canal named) She-Hor (“Lake of Horus”). It brings you Khenty-iabet and the Region-of-Horus-in-the-midst-of-Benu, which brings the products (lit. “things”) of the soil of Tha[ru]. Your son hides them....” (b) Inscriptions on a sarcophagus from el-Kantarah (Roman period)
In 1911, Mohamed Effendi Shaban excavated a number of tombs at Tell Abu-Seifa. The excavations yielded three inscribed sarcophagi dating to the Roman period. 132 The large sarcophagus bears inscriptions accompanied with religious scenes and the name of a person called Padiamenemope with the titles “prince of Tharu”. The second sarcophagus - belonging to Henti who also bears the title “prince of Tharu” - provides us with evidence of Tharu during the Roman period:
From this inscription, mentioning Horus as “lord of Mesen, lord of Tharu”, it is again clear that Tharu was associated with the cult of
Horus-Behdet. The main shrine of this god was at Mesen, which - although
M.E. Shaban, “Fouilles executées près d’el Kantarah”, ASAE 12 (1912), 69-75 62
unidentified as yet - may have been a place, or perhaps a temple, somewhere in the vicinity of Tharu.
The name of Tharu was written in various orthographies in the ancient sources: 15th Dynasty133 18th Dynasty134 18th Dynasty135 18th Dynasty136 18th Dynasty137 18th Dynasty138 18th Dynasty139 18thDynasty140 and 19th Dynasty141 19th Dynasty142 19th Dynasty143
Peet 1923, 129, pl. XXI. Urk. IV, 645-67. 135 Marucchi, Guide du Musée Égyptien du Vatican (Vatican, 1927), 56-57, fig.17. 136 Gardiner, 1952, I, pl. XX; II, 81. 137 Boeser 1916, VI, no. 22. 138 Petrie 1935, pl. VIII, 49. 139 Černý 1965, 2 no. 8, 22 no. 8, text, pl. II-8. 140 Kruchten 1981, 29,16. 141 Kitchen 1979, II, 11-12. 142 Mariette 1865, 169-90; Montet 1931, 191-215. 143 Kitchen 1979, II, 781, no. 282. 63
Gardiner 1937. 148 Chassinat 1931. 401. 107-08. Insch. 108-09. 89. 151 Chassinat 1931. Kitchen 1979. 149 Chassinat 1931. 79. 154 Faulkner 1958. 150 Chassinat 1931. 212 and no. 96. 153 Chassinat 1931. 219ff. 333. 24. Ägypt. 334.17332. II. Caminos 1954. 75.. 105. 156 Cauville 1997. 5-7. 152 Chassinat 1931. 146 Gardiner 1937. 71.III. 155 Cauville 1997. 99.19th Dynasty144 19th Dynasty145 20th Dynasty146 21st Dynasty147 Ptolemaic period148 Ptolemaic period149 Ptolemaic period150 Ptolemaic period151 Ptolemaic period152 Ptolemaic period153 Ptolemaic period154 Roman period155 Roman period156 144 Habachi 1961.. no. 147 Golénischeff 1902.8. 64 145 . 31. Caminos 1954. 127-28. 12-13.
palace.161 8. the site that is -. Meaning of the Name “Tharu” Nothing has been written about the meaning of the city’s name. and the capital of the 14 th nome of Lower Egypt. it was also a fortified city on the edge of the cultivated land of the Eastern Delta. 160 Shaban 1912. 72-73. Shaban 1912.Roman period157 Roman period158 Roman period159 Roman period160 The determinatives used with the name “Tharu” also vary. Thus.the best candidate for Tharu. or the determinative (sandy hill-country over edge of green cultivation. administrative buildings. N 25”).“the fortress that is in Tharu”.as discussed below -. 116-18. Tharu is also written as follows: *3rw. Rather. p3 xtm n p3 From these different writings of the city’s name. Tharu may be written with the determinative of the city . it may be inferred that Tharu was not only a fortress on the ancient highway. “Tharu”. and temple at Tell Haboua I. Tharu appears to have contained all the main elements of architecture that characterize a major city and a capital. 161 Al-Ayedi 2000. 159 Shaban 1912. 65 . settlement. 69-75. The author proposes that its name reflects the 157 158 Cauville 1997. “Gardiner. storehouse complex.”the fortress of Tharu”.190. 69-75. or xtm nty m *3rw. This impression has been strengthened lately with the discovery of a large New Kingdom fortress.
economic. the same combination of signs of the verb t3r is found with the addition of the determinative meaning “entrenched camp”. The verb t3r means “to fasten” or “to keep safe”. and the role it played as the eastern gate of Egypt. 355.163 Thus. thus referring to the fortifications at Tharu. considering that the main role of Tharu was to protect the eastern border of Egypt against any attack or infiltration of the tribes from the neighbouring desert to the east of Egypt -.and consequently to keep the whole country safe -. The archaeological evidence uncovered to date and discussed below . including strategic.the orthography of Tharu conforms to the ancient Egyptians’ conception of the fortified city as reflected in the meaning “one who keeps safe”. where the military and commercial highway started and crossed North Sinai along the Mediterranean coast to Gaza. 66 . adding the determinative of the city at the end: 162 .also conforms to the meaning of the word “Tharu” proposed herein. Tharu had a greatly important strategic location on the eastern frontier of Egypt. Commentary The references discussed above indicate that Tharu was significant for many different reasons. In addition. (a) Strategic aspects As mentioned. 9.strategic importance of Tharu. and with the ending (w). On many occasions the name T3rw was written with the same orthography of the verb. it is my position that it should be translated as “the one who fastens” or “the one who keeps safe”. 162 163 WB V. as a participle. administrative and religious reasons. Faulkner 303.
166 Tharu was located at the point where the road traversed a narrow strip of land between Lake Menzaleh on the north-west and 164 165 Kitchen 1993. to Pa-Canaan. 10-15.Tharu was the first station on the Ways of Horus. which [(made) to drive out those who had attacked] the borders of Egypt. which indicate that the campaign was: Starting from the fortress of Tharu. 647. 4th month of Peret.as discussed in this chapter -. and the starting point of the Egyptian armies in their campaigns to Asia. This fact is confirmed by many texts -. 3. day 9. day 25. in the Annals of Thutmose III. we read: He began to march on the good way in the year 5. from the inscriptions of the Kadesh campaign of Ramesses II. 165 Also. 67 . II. (when) his majesty passed the fortress of Tharu. 8:5-10.including the reliefs of Seti I at Karnak. 2 nd month of the third season. I. Urk IV. 166 Kitchen 1996. we read: Year 22.164 Similarly.[his majesty passed the fortress of] Tharu on the first campaign of victory.
as mentioned above. XXI. the Berlin stela of Huy suggests that Tharu had chariotry for which Huy was the “overseer of the horses. Two canals ran through this strip of land. Furthermore. translated as the “fortress 167 168 Gardiner 1920. 1996). Recent Excavations at Tell el-Dabca (London. Undoubtedly. the capture of Avaris -. The siege of these two cities took place within a period of three months. 167 Now the city located in this same area is called el-Kantarah. It is noteworthy that Tharu is usually referred to as p3 xtm n *3rw.occurred after the conquest of Heliopolis and Tharu. 105. Peet 1923. pl.the capital of the Hyksos -. Avaris: The Capital of the Hyksos. Avaris has been identified as Tell el-Dabca169 and. and it was crossed by bridges. meaning the bridge. Recent excavations at Tharu revealed more than five horse burials at Haboua I.Lake Ballah on the south-east. the deputy of his majesty in the chariotry. thus. According to the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus. Tharu must have been located by the ancient Pelusiac Nile branch with access to Avaris. and that indicates the strategic importance of these two cities. the geographic location of Tharu provided an important strategic benefit. as mentioned in the map given in the “ Déscription de l’Égypte”. 129. Bietak. from where they originated. the captain of the troops of Tharu”. the most likely candidate for identification as the ancient Tharu. 1. the checkpoint at which travellers were admitted into Egypt after their identification had been reviewed. 169 M. travellers were detained at Tharu until permission to travel was granted. From Papyrus Lansing it can be inferred that Tharu was a military headquarters for the assembly of weapons and the preparation of arms in the Egyptian campaigns to Asia. The name of this region. During the liberation of Egypt. was Gisr el-Kanatir “the crossing of the bridges”. Clearly. Tharu was. 68 . Kamose undertook military actions against Tharu 168 to stop any supplies or aid the Hyksos might have received from the SyrioPalestinian side.
as a port and taxation-station. 170 171 Wente 1990. such as storehouses. in Papyrus Anastasi I. Taken as a group. this factor may suggest that the function of the xtm was to guard the road in question and to seal the entry to foreigners. such as the lagoons and Pelusiac Nile branch. the fortress of the Northern land (Brussels. Tharu’s economic importance was not limited to imported and exported goods. Examples of fortresses as xtm include the fortress of *kw at Wadi Tumilat (Anastasi VI). The author believes that the use of the word xtm in this context is significant. one can look to the other fortresses designated as xtm by the ancient Egyptians.is actually used. granaries etc. they share a location on a highway or vital trade route. perhaps referring to one of two things: (a) stamping or sealing travel documents or permissions or (b) sealing the items in the storehouses and granaries.. RT 22. The wine may have been particularly favoured by Amenhotep III and Akhenaten. 69 .171 (b) Economic aspects As is mentioned in the records discussed above. having yielded many storejars containing fishbones. Although there are many words for “fortress” in the Egyptian language.meaning “seal” or “storehouse” -. 170 There is another possibility is that the word xtm was chosen to refer to the sealing of the passage to Egypt at the mouth of the Ways of Horus. 107). the fortress of the land of Wawat (Leiden V43). as well as providing secure passage for caravans. 102. for example. The wine of Tharu was known as one of the finer vintages and was served to the kings of the New Kingdom. Tharu was also well-known for bulti-fish. judging by the the jar sealings excavated. Rather. Tharu was located on a commercial highway and had access to the Delta via Avaris. Recent excavations support the textual evidence for this. In addition.of Tharu”. Tharu played a great role in the trade between Egypt and Syria-Palestine. Tharu itself was an important production centre for wine and fish. as is mentioned. Tharu provided many facilities for merchants. coming from the various bodies of water located in the vicinity. and the fortress in the highland of Coptos (Anastasi VI). the word xtm -. In support of this notion.
For example. Horus was the protector of the eastern territories of Egypt. Textes relatifs au mythe d’Horus (Génève. particularly Tharu. “commander of the troops of Tharu”. (d) Religious aspects From the Myth of Horus we learn that Horus of Behdet was the main deity of the 14th nome of Lower Egypt. 1998). pl. “mayor of Tharu”. 70 . the troop captain of Tharu”. Tharu was under the administrative supervision of the state. 172 E. Blackman and H. The capital of this nome was in Tharu.W. Blackman . 1870). Tharu was a place of deportation for criminals. “commander of the fortress of Tharu”. The importance of a title linked to Tharu may be inferred from the fact that Ramesses I and his son Seti I held the title of “the commander of the fortress of Tharu”. A. one of the common sentences of the court was severance of the nose and deportation to Tharu. there is a reference to the many goods coming from the Ways of Horus. #nt-i3bt. As such. in the tombs of Puyemre and Rekhmire.172 The two main centres of Horus worship were Mesen of Upper Egypt (Edfu) and Mesen of Lower Egypt (Tharu (?)). It is possible that these prisoners were placed in penal settlements or labour camps at Tharu. XIII. “the deputy of his majesty in the chariotry. Priests and Men: Studies in the Religion of Pharaonic Egypt by Aylward M. Thus. XII. 263-64. As a regional capital.B. A.Many records reflect the wealth of Tharu and suggest that it was a source of many of the gifts to the temple of Amun. “The myth of Horus at Edfu” in Gods.M. In addition. meaning “the further east”. prior to assuming the kingship. Lloyd (ed) (London. Fairman. In the decree of Horemheb. 285. (c) Administrative aspects The eastern frontier of Egypt constituted the 14 th nome of Lower Egypt. Naville. as is shown from the various posts and titles of the officials of Tharu.
Although Horus was the main deity of the region. Clédat. Clédat. “Sarcophage d’el Qantarah”. It appears from the texts that since the time of Senwosret I. Re. Much scholarly debate has focused on the location of Tharu. the headquarters of the Egyptian army’s defensive strategy on the eastern frontier. 10. The identification of Tharu In the Karnak reliefs. 242-44. which terminated at Tharu. 47. as shown in the scholars’ debate set out here. 251. Daressy . BIFAO 18 (1921). the fortress of Tharu is depicted as a rectangular construction with an entrance through a large gate on the Egyptian side. where Horus took the form of a lion and killed many enemies. 8. 4km east of the present city of elKantarah. various temples and shrines to other gods also existed. “Note sur l’isthme de Suez”. Recent excavations -. Gardiner 1918.The legend of Isis and Osiris further illustrates the religious importance of Tharu and the surrounding area.75. The Edfu inscriptions mention that the last triumphal fight between Horus and Seth took place in the area of Tharu. J.discussed in subsequent chapters -. Tharu has been identified by a number of scholars as Tell Abu-Seifa. Kruchten 1981. In the author’s opinion. religious buildings were constructed in the area of the Ways of Horus. the name “Ways of Horus” came from the legend of Isis and Osiris. J. BIFAO 11 (1913).give a clear indication that the site and type of construction of ancient Tharu may be definitively identified with the remains found at modern Haboua I. 99-104. 71 . such as Amun. 69. “Note sur l’isthme de Suez”. G. Clédat 1914. 171-72.173 173 Shaban 1912. note 132. Hathor and Osiris. 19. to commemorate Horus’ vengeful pursuit of Seth. amongst others. BIFAO 16 (1919). The textual references and the strategic location of ancient Tharu have suggested several possible locations. Gardiner 1920. 29-38.
because they provide a more structured presentation of the texts than other authors. 72 . Clédat (“Notes sur l’isthme de Suez”. Griffith in W. In 1923. 117-22) and H.8m. 177 Griffith 1888. Ramesses II. 177 In 1908.1 x .Ll. Nebesheh (Am) and Defenneh (Taphanes) in Tanis II (London.3m high and placed on a rectangular base of 1. 1888). the Ramesside monument was first published by Prisse D’Avenne in his Monuments égyptiens. such as Kitchen. which Seti I had intended to dedicate in the temple of Horus in memory of his father. Clédat published the text on this pyramidion.M. 176-82). RT 31 (1908). the Ismailia Museum was able to acquire the second fragment as well. in 1847. while the other was owned by a resident of Port Said. 104. 4. 2249) investigated and published by Griffith. ASAE 23 (1923).176 the sides of which were straight and surmounted by a cornice with three lines of inscriptions. surmounted with a colossal falcon.(a) The Ramesside Pyramidion174 The identification of Tell Abu-Seifa as Tharu was based primarily on a Ramesside pyramidion (Ismailia Museum no. The main side of the pyramidion is the front southern side. completed the monument which was left unfinished at Seti’s death. following his survey of the area in 1886 and again in 1888. under the title “Monolithe d’Abou Seyfeh”. Gauthier (“Le Pyramidion No. 176 The latter fragment was subsequently found by Griffith at Tell Abu-Seifa. On the base were two horizontal lines of inscriptions. like a dutiful son. 175 Griffith described this monument as a “kind of truncated obelisk”. Petrie. This monument consisted of two fragments fitting together. which comprised two parts. It was 2. 175 F. featuring a scene of Seti I offering two vases to a hawk174 The inscriptions discussed in this part are based upon the publications of J. 96-108. Griffith determined that it may have served as “the pedestal of a colossal hawk made in a separate block” and that: the monument was a monolith figure of Horus as a hawk upon a pedestal. and joined in the dedication. One of the fragments was kept in the Ismailia Museum’s garden. 2249 du Jardin d’Ismaïlia”.F.
lord who performs the rituals. lord of Mesen. Golden Horus. powerful of strength. bringing life to the two lands.Men-maat-Re……Seti. whom he loves. rich in forces in all lands. I. lord of crowns. subduing the Nine Bows. In front of the god are the Horus lord of Mesen. lord of the two lands.mery-en-Ptah. Seti (I) Merenptah. 105:9-12. bodily Son of Re. Strong Bull. Below are five vertical columns of inscriptions:178 Horus-falcon. king of Upper and Lower Egypt.headed Horus carrying the words: scepter. the beloved of Horus. 178 Kitchen 1979. Nebty-Ruler. 73 .. Men-maat-Re. In front of the king it says: The good god. ….
Men-pehty-re. 74 . before this god. the great god. lord of Mesen. in excellent and eternal workmanship. I. the fashioning of his image in quartzite. king of Upper and Lower Egypt. “given life”. Now his majesty desired to perpetuate the name of his father. Ramesses (I). Wadjet. enduring and abiding eternally. Lord of Heaven. Lady of Amet Below. forever and ever. is the main text:179 179 Kitchen 1979. Strong Bull. The base of the front southern side has the following inscription: (Long) live: Horus-falcon. R[amesses] II. On the left-west side King Seti I is kneeling and being crowned by Horus and Wadjet. Son of Re. Wser-maat-Re Setep-en-Re. the king of Upper and Lower Egypt. 105-107. In front of the king are the words: Horus. beloved of Maat.He has made (this) as his monuments for his father Horus. Lord of Mesen.
bringing life to the two lands. Words spoken by Horus. like Re”. <for> the king of Upper and Lower Egypt. beloved of him. upon the Horus-throne. Words spoken by Re-Horakhti: “I grant to you all life and dominion from me. Golden Horus. lord of Heliopolis: “I grant to you all sustenance from me. all health from me. all flat lands and hill countries being united under your sandals”. rich in forces in all lands. upon the Horus-throne. strong Bull. in excellent and everlasting workmanship as does a son who performs benefactions and who searches out excellence. NebtyRuler. lord of Mesen. all offerings from me. given life like Re forever. and all joy from me. Son of Re. lord of the two lands. bodily son of Re. all health from me. Seti (I) Merenptah. lord of Mesen: “I grant to you a million jubilees and a myriad of peaceful years. He has made as his monuments for his father Horus. the beloved of Horus. Men-pehty-Re. lord who performs the rituals. formidable of arm. Words spoken by Atum. all provisions from me. powerful of strength. lord of the two lands. On the left-east side is a scene of Ramesses I with the Atef crown kneeling before a deity and behind the king the words: 75 . the fashioning of his image of quartzite. like Re”. lord of crowns. Men-maat-Re. Ramesses I.Horus-Falcon. lord of Mesen. subduing the Nine Bows. formidable of arm. lord of ceremony. king of Upper and Lower Egypt.
the beloved of Horus. Seti (I) Merenptah. Golden Horus. He has made as his monuments for his father. in excellent and everlasting workmanship as does a son who performs benefactions and who searches out 180 Ibid. lord of Mesen. lord of Mesen. powerful of strength. holding a palm branch in his right hand. Menpehtyre Behind Ramesses I stands a hawk-headed Horus. lord of the two lands. Horus. Below there are eight lines of inscriptions:180 Horus-Falcon. lord who performs the rituals. rich in forces in all lands. subduing the Nine Bows. 76 . formidable of arm. strong Bull. king of Upper and Lower Egypt. formidable of arm. Nebty-Ruler.The good god. Son of Re. Men-maat-Re. the fashioning of his image of quartzite. bringing life to the two lands.
He published his study in a doctoral dissertation entitled: Die ostgrenze Ägyptens. given life like Re forever. it is the author’s position that Tell Abu-Seifa ought to be excluded from consideration as ancient Tharu in favour of Haboua I. lord of the two lands. Die Ostgrenze Ägyptens (Leipzig. all provisions from me. 38-49. Words spoken by Horus. the excavations conducted by the SCA provide a new interpretation for the identification of Tharu. Haboua I. all health from me. Based largely on this pyramidion. 183 Al-Ayedi 2000. lord of Mesen: “I grant to you a million jubilees and a myriad of peaceful years. all flat lands and hill countries being united under your sandals. 1911).182 The idea has received wider acceptance. lord of ceremony. 77 .excellence. Gardiner 1920. bodily son of Re. where a New Kingdom temple was recently discovered. I suggest that this monument could have been removed from Haboua I in the vicinity of el-Kantarah. Based on this evidence. and all joy from me. Küthmann. The source of this pyramidion is unknown. and reaffirmed the identification of Tell Abu-Seifa as Tharu. lord of crowns. like Re”. and Haboua II. in 1911 Küthmann provided early identification of Tharu as Tell Abu-Seifa. Haboua I. discoveries at Tell Abu-Seifa. 183 In the 181 182 C. but according to our recent excavations at Tell Abu-Seifa. like Re”.181 In 1920 Alan Gardiner published his detailed study on the Ways of Horus. 104. <for> the king of Upper and Lower Egypt. Words spoken by Atum. all offerings from me. indeed. and Haboua II have yielded new archaeological evidence. Men-pehty-Re. However. and remained the prevailing theory for decades. Ramesses (I). Words spoken by Re-Horakhti: “I grant to you all life and dominion from me. upon the Horus-throne. lord of Heliopolis: “I grant to you all sustenance from me. beloved of him. 116-18.
78 .remaining chapters of this study the author will discuss recent excavations on the Ways of Horus. and will also consider in depth the interpretation of the new archaeological evidence.
38-39. 154. BIFAO 22 (1923). BIFAO 21 (1923). while the pond has no name. (a) New Kingdom The Karnak reliefs of Seti I (19th Dynasty) The reliefs of Karnak provide a topographical description of the area at the Egyptian terminal of the Ways of Horus. as the second station on the Ways of Horus. The other one. I. The records mentioning the Dwelling of the Lion are as follows: 1. 161. fringed by reeds and infested with crocodiles. Al-Ayedi 2000. while a smaller one guards the road to the east.B.3) (Ramesses II. 184 The scene depicts a waterway or a canal. was named t3 at p3 m3i. The latter fort was reachable by boat from the fortress of Tharu. 100-02. J. Gardiner 1918. One of the Egyptian-style fortresses straddles a bridge over the waterway. 28-30. one-storey fort. 591. 185 Gardiner 1911. located at the mouth of the desert tract. “the fortress of Tharu”. Gauthier 1925. vol. The reliefs represent it as a small. 22-25. 132-33.“Notes sur l’isthme de Suez”. in contrast to the sea with a barren shore and containing marine species. Below the fort was written the name t3 at p3 m3i. 19 th Dynasty) Among the contents of Papyrus Anastasi I 185 is a satirical letter from one scribe to another. The writer speaks to his friend 184 Brugsch 1877-1880. the “Dwelling of the Lion”. J. 79 . Gaballa 1976. 70. Kitchen 1979. Clédat.106. 6-8. The bridge fortress guarding the waterway and named: p3 xtm n *Aru. Clédat. guarding the road. THE SECOND STATION: THE “DWELLING OF THE LION” The “Dwelling of the Lion” is mentioned in a number of records sequentially after Tharu. Gardiner 1920. “Notes sur l’isthme de Suez”. I. almost square. (b) Papyrus Anastasi I (27. with groves and a small pond or pool nearby.
132.8) (Seti II.187 Come. Gardiner 1918. Turn your face toward the fortress of Ways of Horus. 645-46. Gauthier 1925. 19th Dynasty) A reference to the second station exists in a section of Papyrus Anastasi V188 entitled : “A letter concerning the transport and erection of three stelae” in a fortress beyond Tharu. reads: 186 187 Brugsch 1877-1880. This letter. ZÄS 41 (1904). 407. “Der Name Sesostris”. I will tell you of many things. I. You have not eaten fish from [its pool?] nor bathed in it. Sethe. I. 404-07.3) for you with the Dwelling of the Sese l. I will begin (27. probably the Dwelling of the Lion.h. The writer shows his experience of the road running across the north of Sinai and mentions the second station along the road as the “dwelling of Sese”. vol. 132-33. 754.p. Gardiner 1918. Gardiner 1920. 80 . 103. (c) Papyrus Anastasi V (24.186 Sese being a well-known abbreviation of the royal name Ramesses. 162. 188 Brugsch 1877-1880. 53-57. K. Gauthier 1925.about the knowledge required for the profession of a foreign envoy. addressed to a royal butler by two army officers. You have not set foot in it at all. 163.
189 since Tharu was always referred to in Egyptian sources as p3 xtm n T3rw or the “fortress of Tharu”. except in the Adoption Stela of Nitocris. 2. Since the early period of Egyptian history. Horus Behdet was the main deity of the 14 th nome #nt I3bt.h. second month of (24.8) shomu. The m3i or “lion” in the name t3 ct p3 m3i refers to the king. 263-64. In Tharu. “the dwelling of Sese”. where Horus took the form of a regal lion and destroyed his enemies. Blackman & Fairman 19. Commentary In the Karnak reliefs. pl. “Report on the 1993 and 1997 seasons at Tell Qdwa “. which could refer to a fortified town. 282-83. Redford. whose capital was in Tharu. 190 Naville 1870. Horus was worshipped in the form of the lion. 46. where Tharu is called t3 at n *3rw.p. day 23. we (24. the king had taken the Horus title. The word means “house” or “chamber”. in all likelihood Seti I.Look.7) passed the fortress of Ramesses meryAmun.190 In Papyrus Anastasi.B. the “Dwelling of the Lion”. the name of the place is given as t3 ct n Ssy. see D. It appears that this is identical with the “dwelling of Redford translated the word Ct as “store”. The association of the lion with the king had particular significance in this area. XII. the second station along the Ways of Horus is named t3 ct p3 m3i.h. l. The final battle between Horus and Seth was believed to have occurred at Tharu.p. wearing the Triple Crown upon his head. However. and we shall go to empty the ships at the Dwelling of Ramesses-mry-Amun. which is at Tharu in regnal year 33. l. JARCE 35 (1998). In this part of the Delta. 81 189 . the author prefers the translation “dwelling”.
5km to the east of Haboua I. as discussed further below. the Karnak reliefs represent the Dwelling of the Lion as a small. Furthermore. in fact.Ramesses-mery-Amun” mentioned in Papyrus Anastasi V. Ière série (Paris. 70. Chabas194 believed the Dwelling of the Lion was Pi-Ramesses itself. Mélange Égyptologique. Clédat 1923b. 192 Clédat proposed Ostracine (Tell el-Flousieh) at the eastern front of Lake Sirbonis. The identification of this second station of the Ways of Horus -. the site possessed a mooring place for ships and storage facilities for the unloaded goods. 191 192 Al-Ayedi 2000. the site of the Dwelling of the Lion. 135-40. 154. a recent satellite survey indicates that in ancient times a waterway lay between the two sites which have been identified as Tharu and the Dwelling of the Lion. The latter site is located 1. The identification of the Dwelling of the Lion As mentioned above. since Sese is a well-known epithet or abbreviation of the royal name Ramesses. While Gardiner suggested the station ought to be at Haboua I.191 Textual evidence. Although in modern times the area is dry.the Dwelling of the Lion -. 193 Clédat 1923a. Undoubtedly. Papyrus Anastasi V refers to the unloading of ships at the Dwelling of the Lion. Chabas. one-storey fortress of almost square dimensions. correspond to the textual references to the Dwelling of the Lion as a square fortress with a mooring place and central magazine area adjacent to a waterway. the author has uncovered strong evidence for the proposition that Haboua II is. 1924).has always been a subject of considerable scholarly debate. However. 194 M. suggests that the Dwelling of the Lion was famous for its fish and bathing facilities. All references allow one to infer that “the Dwelling of the Lion” was reachable by boat from Tharu. in modern terminology he actually means Haboua I.193 On the other hand. such as Papyrus Anastasi I. 3. Satellite images and archaeological evidence excavated by the author. since a new site named Haboua II was discovered by the Sinai Department of the Supreme Council of Antiquities in 1989. Haboua I and Haboua II. 82 . 167-69 and as discussed further below. Although Gardiner refers simply to “Haboua”.
(a) New Kingdom The Karnak reliefs of Seti I (19th Dynasty) The third station is depicted in the Karnak reliefs as a small. 64. 199 Kitchen 1993. 198 Gardiner substituted the sign . THE THIRD STATION: MIGDOL The third station on the highway to Palestine. The Vocalization of The Egyptian Syllabic Orthography (New Haven. 360. 83 . means “little stronghold” and as a result. Müller. Albright.F Rainey (ed. with which the author concurs (M. both inscriptions have now completely disappeared. III. Redford. 197 Kitchen 1993. W. 155. XI.F. 107-09. A.196 Below the fortress is written: The Migdol of Men-maat-Re. 10:1. Egypt. they have both been recorded in many publications. while M. 43-44. Canaan. 1893) 134 and Clédat 1923b.B. Redford believes that the word @thna is West Semitic. 10:2. see also. Israel. “Migdol” 195. 1993). Müller and J. 195 D. Clédat proposed the reading @tyn3. I. Kitchen 1993. 10:2. D.197 and under the fortress a pool is represented with the label: 198 The well [@thna] 199 Although. is referred to in the many records discussed below: 1. “An Egyptological perspective on the Exodus Narrative” in Egypt. t3. single-storey fortress. Sinai: Archaeological and Historical Relationships in the Biblical Period. 143. unfortunately.C. p3. In Arabic: حصين. 1934). I. for the sign . 154. I. Redford. 196 Breasted 1906. the reading @ty-n3 is more convincing than @py-n3.B. 1980). pl. Asien und Europa nach altägyptischen Denkmälern (Leipzig.) (Tel Aviv. Gardiner 1920. In addition. Israel (Cairo. or hathyn.
III. 19th Dynasty) 200 201 Gardiner 1911. 21. 19th Dynasty) In Papyrus Anastasi. Historical Records of Ramesses III (Chicago.201 On the northern wall of the second pylon in the temple of Medinet Habu202 we read: Migdol of Ramesses (III). Edgerton and J. Wilson. Gardiner 1920. Gardiner 1920. 29. the word “Migdol” is written in a different orthography. 202 W. (d) Papyrus Anastasi V (Seti II.A. it is probably identical to the Migdol mentioned in the Karnak reliefs. would that let me recount to you @tyn. 43 and note 21a. Kitchen 1979. 33. as discussed supra. 107. 84 . (b) Papyrus Anastasi I (Ramesses II.V. 1936). please. 110.E.200 the name given to the station is “@tyn3”. Come. identical to the name provided in the Karnak reliefs. the ruler of Heliopolis Although in this text. where is its fortress? (c) Lists of Ramesses III at Medinet Habu (20th Dynasty) The relief scenes of the northern war of Ramesses III.@ty-n3 is identical to the name given to the place in Papyrus Anastasi I. provide references to Migdol. in the 8th year campaign. Gauthier 1925. 38.
21 Gardiner 1937.2) reporting they passed the north fortification of the stronghold of Seti-Merenptah (l. 273.Papyrus Anastasi V203 dates to the reign of Seti II and contains references to Migdol in a section within the papyrus entitled “Enquiries with regard to two runaway slaves”: When I reached the fortress they told me: “The groom is come from the desert (20.204 A reference to Migdol occurs in the papyrus.p. 1908). Die demotischen Papyrus.h. col. 205 Spiegelberg 1908. 31169 (Ptolemaic period) A geographic list of cities in the Delta is given on recto. 3. Thus. Spiegelberg. W. we read: (i) Column 3. beloved like Seth. no. especially 169. 66-67.) (20. Sphinx 14 (1910). 20 Migdol205 (ii) 203 204 Column 3. “La liste géographique du papyrus no. which mentions 4 Migdols in the eastern Delta. Caminos 1954. 273. 20-23 of a demotic papyrus (no. 31169 du Caire”. 85 . no. G.3). Daressy. 254-55. nos. (a) Ptolemaic period The Demotic Papyrus No. vol. 31169) in the Cairo Museum. II (Strasbourg.” 2. 155-71.
Sphinx 14 (1910). 254-55. 169. 211 Gardiner 1937. Caminos 1954. 212 Spiegelberg. especially 169. Kitchen 1979 . G. Spiegelberg 1908. III. 22 Migdol Baatsephone207 (iv) Column 3. 43-44. Daressy. 86 . Gardiner 1920. 31169 du Caire”. 23 Migdol of the rearguard208 3. 155-71. 169. XI. 66-67. 273. 208 Daressy 1910.V.The Migdol of the dune206 (iii) Column 3. 206 207 Commentary Daressy 1910. pl. Die demotischen Papyrus. 209 Breasted 1906. 33. 169. 210 Gardiner 1920. no. Orthography The name of Migdol was written in various orthographies in the ancient sources: 19th Dynasty209 19th Dynasty210 19th Dynasty211 Ptolemaic period212 4. Gauthier 1925. II (Strasbourg. 1908). no. “La liste géographique du papyrus no. 21. 107-09. III. 110.
In Graeco-Roman documents Migdol is meqtol in Coptic. D. col. CRAIBL 9 (1989) 594-607. Brugsch. 215 Gardiner 1920. 25km to the north-east of el-Kantarah. “A journey to the Biblical sites in Lower Egypt”. south of Lake Timsah. Valbelle. 108. Quarterly Statement of the Palestine Exploration Fund (July 1880). “Recherches archéologiques récentes dans le Nord-Sinai”. Semitic Words in Egyptian Texts of the New Kingdom (Princeton. nos. D. 148. Griffith 1888. 457-59.The third station on the Ways of Horus is named p3 mktr n Mnm3c-rc or “the Migdol of Menmare”. The first Migdol is identified by Gardiner and Daressy as Tell el-Herr. 108. Daressy 1910. 169. The word mktr means “tower” or “fort”.216 Daressy identified the third Migdol as Cheikh Henidak near Ismailia and the fourth as Serapium. Gardiner 1920.214 The demotic papyrus no. The traditional view. 217 Ibid. 20-23) mentions four Migdols in the eastern Delta. The identification of Migdol The identification of the site of Migdol has provided a source of great debate to Egyptologists.215while the second is identified by Daressy as Gebel Maryam. 103. 213 214 Gardiner 1920. “the Migdol of Ramesses (III). 3. 87 . 216 Daressy 1910. 1994). Tell el-Herr”. 31169 in the Cairo Museum (recto. 218 On the other hand. BSFE 109 (1987) 24-38. no. the ruler of Heliopolis” in the reliefs of his war against the Sea-people. Gardiner. 169. coming into the Egyptian language in the 18th Dynasty. 360. Griffith. following Gardiner.213 that mktr is a Semitic loan-word. Hoch.217 5. Chester. 108. 223. “Entre l’Égypte et la Palestine. Valbelle. Greville and Valbelle believe that Migdol is the modern Tell el-Herr. J. There is no doubt that the first Migdol mentioned in the demotic papyrus is the same Migdol of Seti I and the Migdol of Ramesses III. near Ismailia. The first Migdol in the demotic papyrus is identical to the “Migdol” recorded by the Antonine Itinerary as lying 12 Roman miles between each of Pelusium and Sile. 410. 218 Greville Chester. Redford 1992. Naville and Ebers proposed that Migdol was at Serapeum.
based on current evidence. while Mallon placed Migdol at the modern Tell Abou-Hasa. The last occupation discovered at Tell el-Kedwa was the Persian period.30. As a result. 1921). perhaps in order to gain easier access to shifting lagoons or for other logistical reasons. Consequently. A. 221 E. it appears that Tell el-Herr may have been constructed as a replacement for Tell el-Kedwa. 7-44. 88 . Les Hébreux en Egypte (Rome. while the first occupation of Tell el-Herr occurred in the Persian period. 170. “Migdol: A New Fortress on the Edge of the Eastern Nile Delta”. BASOR 256 (1984). Tell el-Herr must be ruled out as the site of the Migdol mentioned already in the New Kingdom texts. 221 In the author’s view. Oren. more excavation is necessary to confirm the author’s position.approximately 30km north of Suez219. south of the Bitter Lakes and 25km north of Suez. at this point. There is. Oren nominated this site as the location of Migdol. 219 220 Naville 1888.220 Finally. only the identification of Migdol as Tell el-Kedwa is sustainable based on the archaeological evidence. based on his excavations at Tell elKedwa. However. no evidence whatsoever of remains predating the Persian period at Tell el-Herr. Mallon.
224 Ibid. 177-78. 1. 89 . 10:3. l. Gardiner 1920. 222 223 Commentary Brugsch 1877-1880. 19th Dynasty) In Papyrus Anastasi I225 we read: Come to the district of Buto of Sese.h. 225 Clédat 1923b. Clédat 1923a. into his stonghold of Wser-maat-Re.h. l. the well is named: The well tract of Aynn224 (b) Papyrus Anastasi I (Ramesses II. 155. Kitchen 1993.p.p.D. 69-70. 8. and [to] Sebair and Ibesqeb...222 Its name is written as: Buto of Seti-Merenptah223 Below the fortress there is a well and tree. (a) THE FOURTH STATION: “BUTO of SETI-MERENPTAH” New Kingdom The Karnak reliefs of Seti I (19th Dynasty) The Karnak reliefs represent the fourth station as a small one-storey fortress. 2. I. 592. 110. 1087 and 1211.
perhaps suggesting pools or ponds. only Late Period remains have been excavated. However. although no specific site was given. 228 However. while Clédat suggested the modern site of Bir el-Abd. all wells following in the reliefs have irregular forms. Gardiner 1920. The identification of Buto of Seti-Merenptah This station. Tell el-Luli was located on the ancient Nile branch and possessed an advanced hydro-management system of canals and reservoirs appropriate to a station on the Ways of Horus. Gardiner proposed Katiyeh as the fourth station. the excavations are in the preliminary stages and it is anticipated that further work will yield the expected New Kingdom remains. The well depicted under the fortress in the Karnak reliefs is the last well with a regular shape. to the north of Migdol. 3. 226 227 Brugsch 1877-1880. 228 Clédat 1923. was identified by Brusch. again it is noteworthy that the official name of Seti I was replaced with the nickname of Ramesses II. 227 Buto of Seti-Merenptah.226 On the other hand. However. 155. it appears that this site is the better candidate. the author disagrees with these suggestions. One factor arguing against the author’s interpretation is that. 90 . 177. 113. On the basis of satellite photos and recent excavations at Tell el-Luli to the northeast of Migdol. at present. Indeed.The name used for the fortress is similar in the Karnak reliefs and Papyrus Anastasi I.
. onestorey fortress. particularly in view of the fact that. the .229 The fortress’ name is written above the gate as follows: The castle of Men-maat-Re. Kitchen 1993. the “stronghold of Seti-Merenptah” appears to be a second name for the fortress. (b) Papyrus Anastasi I (Ramesses II. while the pool represented below the fortress remains unnamed. (a) THE FIFTH STATION: THE “CASTLE OF MEN-MAAT-RE” New Kingdom The Karnak reliefs of Seti I (19th Dynasty) The Karnak reliefs depict the fifth station as a small. (is) his protection230 and under the fortress we read: The stronghold of Seti-Merenptah231 Thus.E. 91 . 232 Ibid. 231 Ibid.. 1. 111. as seen below. Papyrus Anastasi I gives the same name as its equivalent. What seems strange here is that the fortress should have two names. I. 7:5. 19th Dynasty) Papyrus Anastasi232 gives the following name for this place: In-his-stronghold-(is)-Wser-maat-Re 229 230 Gardiner 1920.
47. I. 19th Dynasty) The stela of the mayor Hori was found at Abydos 234 and has yielded a reference to “the castle (bxn) of Men-maat-re. celebrator of the second jubilee..6) even as Atum. (5.233 The first reference is: (1. (c) Papyrus Anastasi II (Rmesses II. 19th Dynasty) Papyrus Anastasi II contains two references to the castle (bxn) of Men-maat-Re (Sese). The lower register depicts Hori adoring Anubis with the caption: 233 234 Gardiner 1937. except that -. the throne-platform of Ta-tjenen. l. 1151.the name Seti I has been revised to Ramesses II. luminary of your father Re.. 15. Brugsch 1877-1880. Caminos 1954.h. 50.5) O castle of Sese.as it to be expected -. 12.p. Kitchen 1979. has built himself a castle whose name is Great-of-Victories. His Majesty.. 349. amongst the titles held by Hori. Cairo Museum 34503 (Seti I. d. The second reference states: (5.This name is clearly similar to the second name of the fortress in the Karnak reliefs. May you appear in . Stela of the mayor Hori from Abydos. 92 .1) Beginning of the recital of the victories of Lord of Egypt. 37.
in your body. 93 . 1378 in Strasbourg (Seti I. when he sets. he has directed the [entire] enclave of gods. The main text accompanying the scene is as follows: 235 W. who rests upon the throne of Re. Osiris. and mayor of the castle of Ramesses (I). ZÄS 56 (1920). Star of the sky. who offers up truth to Atum.. Wennufer.]. the son of Nut. august Djed-pillar. I. your flesh of gold.4. presiding over Pi-Ptah-Henu.being] in jubilations for the spirit of the chief (?) of horned (livestock) of the temple of Men-maat-Re.. (e) Donation Stela of Ramesses I.. 3. [. The stela depicts Ramesses I giving offerings to Amun. O Ptah-Sokar. Kitchen 1979. in the Institute of Egyptology of Strasbourg235 bears an inscription referring to the fortress (bxn). 19th Dynasty) The Donation Stela of Ramesses I. king of the living. Hori. who crosses it by night [. glittering more than the gods. no.May you awake in peace. your bones of silver. Spiegelberg. happy in Abydos. no. 1378. to (become) the wearyhearted one at the western horizon.. 55-56. “Neue Schenkungsstelen über Landstifungen an Tempel”. you being awakened at the call of your Ennead of gods.
206.. Ramesses (I)... in order to prevent [. (f) Papyrus Anastasi III (Merenptah. 1st month of shomu. 94 . Gardiner 1937. son [of. 50 aroura.] Mut.Year 1.. 3 arourae for the foundation of Hatiay. given life forever and eternally.]. the troop-commander and superintendent of the fortress. 21 arourae for this foundation. and likewise. (On) this day. and I have (hereby) given arable land. son of Re. Men-pehty-Re. under the Majesty of Golden Horus. spoke as follows: I have (hereby) given arable land. king of Upper and Lower Egypt. for the sacred offerings of Amun-Re of the castle. 31. strong bull. Aia. flourishing of kingship. lord of crowns. day 10. 19th Dynasty) A reference to “the castle of Merenptah-hotep-her-maat” occurred in Papyrus Anastasi III236 within a text found in the extract from a journal of a border officer: 236 Brugsch 1877-1880.
155.238 but Gardiner did not provide any identification of this station.239 On the other hand. A Dictionary of Late Egyptian. Budge. son of Tharu. The identification of the Castle of Menmare Budge believed there were two bxn’s: one at Karnak and the other at Tanis. a retainer of the castle of Merenptah-hotep-her-maat . 1982). 238 E. 15.p. 2. 129. in this context. 95 . 239 Gardiner 1920. Lesko. It is noteworthy that the word nxt means “stronghold” or “country mansion”. The well represented under the fortress has an irregular form.237 However. Commentary The textual references make known various “castles” (bxn) combined with the names of the kings of the 19 th Dynasty. 31. III (Providence. Ancient Egyptian Onomastica. L. two castles referred to in the above-mentioned stelae of Hori and Ramesses I are the same as that of Seti I. l. However. II (London. Gardiner. 330. 241 Brugsch 1877-1880. 980. 237 A. (vs 5. the “Castle-whose-name-is-great-ofvictories” and in Papyrus Anastasi III.241 However. Kitchen 1979.H. believes that it is premature to definitively identify this station without the execution of large-scale excavation. nxt may have the sense of a fortified city. the “Castle of Merenptah-hotep-hermaat” may be identified as the castle of Seti I. In addition. II. The castles mentioned in Papyrus Anastasi II. 3. 240 Clédat 1923b. II (Oxford. W.H.h.A. some of these castles are identical to the castle of Seti I. indicating that the fortress may have been located by one of the lakes or ponds in the area. 1947). Clédat located this station at el-Breig240 and Brugsch proposed Ostracine (Tell el-Flousieh). the author.(vs 5.2) which is near Djarem. Egyptian Hieroglyphic Dictionary.1) Going by Nakhtamun. 111. 1920).
246 b) Sabair and Ibseqeb247 2. Kitchen 1993. 247 Ibid. 48. ib-skb. 29. 245 Gardiner 1911. Commentary The sixth station mentioned in the Karnak reliefs is referred to as the “town which his Majesty built a new”. Papyrus Anastasi I referred to the same place as “Sabair”. 242 243 Gardiner 1920. 109. coupling it with . 244 Ibid. I. the sixth station is represented as a one-story fortress. Redford suggests that Ib-s-q-b is a transcription of the name a. while the well or pond is called Ibseqeb. coupling it with a watersource called Ibseqeb. 19th Dynasty) Papyrus Anastasi I245 refers at this point to a place called s-b-ir. 1. which corresponds to the pond Ibseqeb in the Karnak reliefs. a caption reads: < > Town which <his> Majesty [built] a [new]. 111. “my father is protector” Redford 1998.243 Below the fortress. 7:6. 96 . (a) THE SIXTH STATION: THE “TOWN WHICH HIS MAJESTY BUILT A NEW” New Kingdom The Karnak reliefs of Seti I (19th Dynasty) In the reliefs of Karnak. 246 Wente renders these as Ibesgeb and Seb-el. a pond is depicted and named: The well Ib-s-Q-b244 Papyrus Anastasi I (Ramesses II. see Wente 1990.242 On the gate.F.
the latter being the same name as in the Karnak reliefs. It is noteworthy that a “Sabair” is mentioned in the geographic glossary in the Golénischeff Papyrus, as lying within the cities of the eastern Delta.248 3. The identification of Town which his Majesty built
Gardiner has not provided any suggestions for the identification of this site, while Clédat proposed Ratamah.249 However, the author believes that large-scale excavation is recommended for a definite identification of this station.
Golénischeff 1902, 105. Clédat 1923b, 156. 97
G. 1. (a)
THE SEVENTH STATION: THE FORTRESS AT THE “WELL of SETI-MERENPTAH” New Kingdom The Karnak reliefs of Seti I (19th Dynasty)
In the Karnak reliefs, this station is represented as a twostorey fortress.250 The name of the fortress appears to be missing, but a name is written between the fortress and the pool depicted below the fortress:
The well of Seti-Merenptah251 (b) Papyrus Anastasi I (Ramesses II, 19th Dynasty) Papyrus Anastasi I252 gives this station the name:
In the Karnak reliefs, the seventh station bears the name of the Well of Seti-Merenptah. However, there does not appear to be a separate name for the fortress itself. Moreover, in Papyrus Anastasi I, only one name is given, namely the word “Sabair”. Interestingly, this name is coupled with the well of the sixth station, Ibseqeb. 3. The identification of Well of Seti-Merenptah
Brugsch 1877-1880, 595; Gauthier 1925, IV, 202. Kitchen 1993, 7:9. 252 Gardiner 1911, 29. 253 Redford suggests that Sb-iAr has a semitic root ^u-ub- AN, “God has returned (or: Return, O God) Redford 1998, 48. 98
Clédat identified the station as el-Flousieh, 254 while Gardiner did not provide any identification for the site. However, the author believes that it is premature to definitively identify this station without the execution of large-scale excavation.
Clédat 1923b, 156. 99
In the Karnak reliefs.H. the word cyn. I. as mentioned above. Papyrus Anastasi gives this place the name cynn. named: The well Men-maat-Re great-of-victories256 The pool under the fortress is named: The sweet well. 257 Ibid. Commentary 2. means “spring” or “well”. At the same time. 1. while the water body underneath the fortress is referred to as “the sweet well”. عين. Clearly.257 (b) c Papyrus Anastasi I (Ramesses II. 112.255 the eighth station is depicted as a one-storey fortress. 139. the eighth station is again named after the well. Kitchen 1993. In Arabic. 255 256 Gardiner 1920. 8:1. 258 Gauthier 1925. I. (a) THE EIGHTH STATION: THE “WELL of MEN-MAAT-RE (is) GREATOF. 100 . 19th Dynasty) Papyrus Anastasi258 refers to this station as ynn.VICTORIES New Kingdom The Karnak reliefs of Seti I (19th Dynasty) In the Karnak reliefs. this fortress was located in an area rich in natural water sources.
Ibid. having battlements. It was surrounded by a wall like a mountain of quartzite. their bolts were of copper. with mountings. with 20 courses in the ground foundation. based on the results of recent 259 260 Peden 1994.260 From the text we learn that Ramesses III made a fortified well in a place called Ayn ( cyn). founded first by Seti I and rebuilt again by Ramesses III. 217. §406.8) were hewn of cedar. 262 while Gardiner did not discuss this issue. It is probably the same cyn mentioned in papyrus Anastasi I.261 3. 4. The identification of Well of Menmare (is) Great-of-Victories Clédat identified this station as el-Arish.In Papyrus Harris 25977.7) in the district of Ayn ( cyn). Clédat’s identification is probably correct. Its doorposts and doors (77. 261 Breasted 1906. 262 Clédat 1923b. In the author’s opinion. 6-8 we read: I made a very great well (77. 156. and a height of 30 cubits. 101 .
Stern (ed. E. 4. an administrative building was discovered near el-Arish dating to the New Kingdom. Oren. it is well known from observation of the topographical aspects of the area in the vicinity of el-Arish that in antiquity it contained many lagoons flowing from Lake Sirbonis (Bardawil). 263 E. “Northern Sinai” in The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land. vol. Furthermore.263 Indeed.excavations by Oren. 1386-94. 1994). 102 .) (Jerusalem.
heir of Re [in Hou]rbati (b) Papyrus Anastasi I (Ramesses II. 2. two-storey fortress built on a mound and on the towers the name of the fortress is written as follows: Town which his Majesty built newly at the well Hou[rba]ti 265 Under the fortress we read: The stronghold of Men-maat-Re . The increased emphasis on the water source in the name of the fortress is apparent in the names of the last few stations and appears to correspond to those stations having an irregular-shaped pond or well. Perhaps this trend signifies that the more eastern fortresses on the Ways of Horus were built to take advantage of well-known. identifiable 264 265 Gardiner 1920. . 1. this station is referred to as the “Town which his Majesty built newly at the well Hou[rba]ti”. 19th Dynasty) Papyrus Anastasi I 266 provides the name “Horbati” for the ninth station. Kitchen renders the text as 266 Gardiner 1911. I. 29. [ ] 103 . Clearly. 112. 8:2. the water source was well-established and frequented prior to the subsequent construction of the newly-built fortress. (a) THE NINTH STATION: THE “TOWN WHICH HIS MAJESTY BUILT NEWLY AT THE WELL HOURBATI” New Kingdom The Karnak reliefs of Seti I (19th Dynasty) The Karnak reliefs264 represent the ninth station as a square. Commentary It is interesting to note that in the Karnak reliefs.I. Kitchen 1993.
270 Oren 1987..270 Interestingly. Gardiner did not identify the station “Town which his Majesty built newly at the well Hourbati”. 267 Peden 1994. 269 In Arabic.probably indicating that the pond was surrounded by a wall. The word “Hourbati” is written on a circular pond. and a height of 30 cubits.waterholes on an established route. magazines and inscriptions of Seti I and Seti II.. this fortress also has a square plan which corresponds to the depiction in the Karnak reliefs. It is also noteworthy that a cartouche of Seti II was found at the excavations of Kharouba. The identification of the Town which his Majesty built newly at the well Hourbati Again. 269 Oren discovered a fortress dating to the New Kingdom with granaries. 268 The author agrees with this identification in light of the recent work done by Oren in this area. gives some suggestion of the type of fortifications that may have surrounded the water sources during the New Kingdom: . Its doorposts and doors (77.a wall like a mountain of gritstone. 104 268 .267 3. storehouses. 217. discussed above. with 20 [courses] in the ground foundation. Clédat 1923b. whereas the water sources at the earlier stations were founded at the time of the construction of the fortress.8) were hewn of cedar. 80-97. On the other hand. which is framed by double lines . 157. their bolts were of copper. This cartouche is discussed in the Chapter V: Texts Found at the Stations of the Ways of Horus. the name el-Kharou" "خروبهmeans “the ruins”. with mountings. having battlements. Clédat suggested that the ninth station was at Kharouba. The description given by Papyrus Harris II. which would qualify as a likely candidate for the ninth station.
275 The word xAs means “runnel” (Lesko. 271 the tenth station is presented as a small fortress. 112-13.273 (b) Papyrus Anastasi I (Ramesses II. Kitchen 1993. 273 Kitchen renders the name as “Nxs of the chief”. 7. 29. 109. 105 . Wente 1990. (a) THE TENTH STATION: THE “WELL OF MEN-MAAT-RE” New Kingdom The Karnak reliefs of Seti I (19th Dynasty) In the Karnak reliefs of Seti I. 8:4. 1.J. The name of the fortress is written between the fortress and the pool depicted below as: The well of Men-maat-Re272 while the name of the well is: The khasou of the chief. Kitchen 1993. 162). while Wente renders it as “Nekhes”. II. 19th Dynasty) Papyrus Anastasi I274 gives this place the name: The Khas275 271 272 Gardiner 1920. 274 Gardiner 1911.
Once again, this station is identified with its well in the Karnak reliefs. In addition, the well is named underneath the “khas” of the prince. In Papyrus Anastasi I, the name given to the station also refers to the well: “Khas”. It is noteworthy that this name corresponds to the name of the last place mentioned before Raphia in the Karnak reliefs. 3. The identification of the Well of Men-maat-Re
This station was again not identified by Gardiner; Clédat proposed the site of Sheikh Zuwaid, 276 although the excavations conducted by him at this site revealed only Roman remains. The author believes that further work is required before an accurate identification of this site may be made.
Clédat 1923b, 157. 106
K. 1. (a)
THE ELEVENTH STATION: THE TOWN OF RAPHIA New Kingdom The Karnak reliefs of Seti I (19th Dynasty)
The last station presented in the Karnak reliefs 277 was a twostorey fortress built on a mound named:278
The town of Raphia279 (b) The palimpset list of Palestinian cities at Karnak ( Seti I, 19th Dynasty)
Two lists occupy the lowest part of the great inscriptions of Seti I, looking to the north on either side of the door. 280 In these, Raphia is written: . (c) Papyrus Anastasi I (Ramesses II, 19th Dynasty) , R-pH, to the
Papyrus Anastasi I281 gives the name city of Raphia.
M. Müller, Egyptological Researches (Washington, 1906), I, Pl. LVII, 16, Pl. LVIII, 17; Gardiner 1920, 104, 113; Kitchen 1993 , I, 29:5. 278 The Toponym Raphia is reconstructed from Papyrus Anastasi I, and Gardiner identified it with fortress U at the end of the Egyptian terminal of the Ways of Horus see Gardiner 1920, 113. 279 Kitchen 1993, I, 8:5. 280 Müller 1906, I, 16, 43, Pls. LXVII and LVIII; Wente 1990, 109; Kitchen 1993, I, 8:5. 281 Gardiner 1911, 29, 38 and note 14. 107
You Maher-warrior, where is Raphia? What is its enclosure wall like? 2. (a) Late Period The list of Sheshonk I at Karnak (Sheshonq, 22nd Dynasty)
On the Bubastite gate in Karnak temple and in the first court to which it leads, Sheshonk I recorded his campaign in Palestine in the fifth year of Rehoboam of Judah (926 B.C.). 282 The reliefs are accompanied by a list of the towns and cities plundered by Sheshonk. Raphia is referred to as . 3. Orthography The orthography of the eleventh station is as follows: 19th Dynasty283 19th Dynasty284 19th Dynasty285 22nd Dynasty286 4. Commentary
In the Karnak reliefs, Raphia was represented as the last station on the Ways of Horus to the east of Egypt and the first terminal on the Palestinian side. Raphia was represented as a fortress built on a mound. The latest survey conducted by Ben Gurion University within the vicinity of Raphia showed the mound
Breasted 1906, IV, 354; LD III, 254c Müller 1906, I, Pl. LVII, 16, pl. LVIII, 17; Gardiner 1920, 104, 113; Kitchen 1979, I, 108. 284 Müller 1906, I, 43, pl. LXVII, 16, LVIII, 17. 285 Gardiner 1911, 29. 286 Breasted 1906, IV, 354; LD III, 254c 108
indicating that the artistic representation was accurate. may be identified with the last station of the Ways of Horus depicted on the Karnak reliefs. 109 . it retains the same name in modern times. Fig. 5.287 On the other hand. There is no doubt that the city of Raphia. Papyrus Anastasi I from the second half of the 19th Dynasty mentions Raphia in association with its walls. there is no doubt that Raphia consituted one of the fortresses along the Ways of Horus. by the Egyptian eastern border. The identification of Raphia Although Raphia is written with different orthography. 287 Oren 1987. 79. as shown above. As a result.of Raphia on the coast. 4.
as discussed below: 1. Many references to Gaza are found in the ancient Egyptian records. Lichtheim 1976. 288 LD III. 29. in power.as afar as the town of “Thatwhich-the-Ruler-seized”. 4th month of Peret. day 25. his [Majesty passed the fortress of] Tharu. 645. Urk. GAZA IN THE ANCIENT EGYPTIAN RECORDS Gaza is first mentioned in Egyptian texts during the reign of Thutmose III and subsequently appears as the southern headquarters for the Egyptian administration of South Palestine during the New Kingdom. 67. the day of the feast of the king’s coronation . IV. 1st month of the third Shomu. on the first campaign of victory. in valour. made [to drive out those who had attacked]the borders of Egypt. [in victory. (a) New Kingdom The Annals of Thutmose III at Karnak (18th Dynasty) The earliest known reference to Gaza come from the Annals of Thutmose III found on the walls of Karnak Temple 288 and dating to the end of Thutmose’s reign: Year 22. [of which the Syrian name is] Gaza. and in justification]. day 4. 110 . 31. I.L. Year 23.
] 13-21 Now what they too[k ha]d been i[n the charge of] the commissioners of the king. my lord.. W.] that they should acquire for[r themselves a]nything? They have piled up prop[erty of] the lands of the king in [their own] han[ds]. 388. b[ut they have killed him]. and you do not come to me. 18th Dynasty) Taanach Tablet no. nor do you send your brother.(b) Taanach Tablet no. der Manuelian.. and the (last) commissioner [was] a wi[se] man who was highly respected. note 29.] soldiers and [..129290 apparently contains a reconstructed reference to Gaza. 1992). (c) Amarna Letter EA. Batruna remai[ns to me]. you did not come to me. [. Amenhotep.. The mayors of the king . [my] lord: [I fall beneath the fee]t <of my lord> 7 times and 7 [times]. Thus (speaks) Amenhotep: may the storm god protect your life.L. He writes: To Talwisher. Who are they. has not been identified with certainty. 390 111 .. 1987). 6 (Amenhotep II.. All my cities belong to <t>hem. 4-12 May the king. including their murder of the previous commissioner of the area: [Rib]Add[is Say t]o the [ki]ng.. but may have been an Egyptian administrator posted in Gaza. 18th Dynasty) Amarna Letter EA. in addition to a discussion by Rib-Addis of Byblos of the dealings of the sons of cAbdi-Aširta. in the garrison there are none of your retainers. Further (even when) I was in the town of Gaza. Moran. The Amarna Letters (Baltimore. and they strive to ta[ke] it.further.. 209-11. Studies in the reign of Amenophis II (Hildesheim.129 (Amenhotep III and Akhenaten. the dogs [. On its 289 290 P... 6 is a clay tablet written in cuneiform and dating to as early as the third regnal year of Amenhotep II. 289 The writer of the tablet. [my] lord. inq<ui>re abo[ut the s]on[s] of cAbdi-Aširt[a f]or they d[o] as they please.
“Troops have indeed come out. to my lord. they have long[ed] to commit a great [crime]. Pewuru. They took Pewur[u and ki]lled him. W]hat will the troops do [for your servant]..being [ta]ken [Gubla (itself)] they will [t]ake. my lord’s.. as to the king.. There are no archers. 112 . then send ships to fetch me. May the king. my lord. m[y] lord. If [the king] is not going to list[en to his servant. They are [against me]. not say.. 26-34 greatly.” you spo[ke] lies: ka-ma-mi (?). then may he se]nd ships. If there are no archers. then they will be strong. And they are stronger than we are. and the lands be joined to the king. It is at pe[ace]”. If Gubla [is There are no taken. [. what will the archers do?” 34-54 L[ook]. 55-74 . They say. Accordingly. “Ta[ke (them)]. If there are no archers this year.. [They have committed] a cri[me. th[ey are str]ong... they have won [the lands] for the cApiru. Who are they. they do not come out. earlier kings guard[ed] Gubla. may the king hasten the sending of the archers so he may take them. [then] their aim will be to seize [Gubla].. they will [tak]e Gubla.. 75-89 the king of [. keeps telling the magnate of . along with (my) living god. unless archers come out within this year... and [they killed the commissioner of the king].and] the king of the Hittite countries. And now ... my lord. and you yourself must not abandon it. my lord. [Look]. they took the territo<ry> of S[umu]r for themselves. “Surely it cannot be seized.. “If w[e] seize Gubla.. 90-94 .. so that [the lands of the king belong] to the sons of cAbdi-Aširta. they have not taken them. they are intent on committing [a crime]. Truly. the dogs? If Biryawaza is afraid <o>f the king. Th]ey are against me. If the king. 94-98 Since there are n[o arc]hers. [ <Gaza>] and the magnate Kumidu.] . 22-25 . having written. he has not taken them. Since a tablet to the mayors is [not pro]duced. Rib-Hadda? Fo[r my ancesto]rs. servants (and) dogs.
as truly as the king lives. 332-33. In this letter. 7 times and 7 times. As for a mayor who does such a deed. To the scribe of the king. 18th Dynasty) Amarna Letter EA. 37-44 Accordingly. he has stationed it in his own house in Hazzatu (Gaza) and has sent 20 men to Egypt. Are we to act like Lab’ayu when he was giving the land of Šakmu to the Hapiru? 25-36 Milkilu has written to Tagi and the sons <of Llab’ayu>. 5-10 Milkilu does not break away from the sons of Lab’ayu and from the sons of Arsawa. Grant all their demands to the men of Qiltu. I f[all] at the feet of my lord. the k[ing]. (May the king call (this) to mind when he arrives. the mayor of Jerusalem. and let us isolate Jerusalem”. 113 . May the king. why does the king not <c>all him to account? 11-17 Such was the deed that Milkilu and Tagi did: they took Rubutu. 41-51 Send Ye<<eh>>enhamu that he may know about the land of the king. “Be the both of you a protection . my lord: Message of cAbdi-Heba. the mayor of Gezer. why is it <not> of concern to the king like Hazzatu (Gaza)? 18-24 Gintikirmil belongs to Tagi.) And so may the king send 50 men as a garrison to protect the land. several references are made to Gaza or Hazzatu and the need to protect the land with a garrison of 50 men : [Say t]o the king. Pu’uru.(d) Amarna Letter EA. and men of Gintu are the garrison in Bitsanu. my lord. [my lord]. the son of Miyare. if this land belongs to the king. with the sons of Lab’ayu and of Arsawa. and discusses the subversive association of Milkilu. as they desire the land of the king for themselves. [my lord: M]essage 291 Moran 1992. And now as for Jerusalem. his irpi-official. has left me and is in Hazzatu (Gaza). Addaya has taken the garrison that you sent in the charge of Haya. know (that) no garrison of the king is with me.289291 was written by cAbdi-Heba.289 (Amenhotep III and Akhenaten. The entire land of the king has desert[ted]. your servant.
my lord. inquire of Yanhamu.. my god. my lord. 9-16 Moreover. and I stood at the city gate of the king. 30-35 May the king. my lord. 7 times and 7 times. 338-39.296 (Amenhotep III and Akhenaten. I am indeed the loyal servant of the king. still I will not move from under the feet of my king. my lord. my lord march.and I looked that way. 8. my sun. utterly yours. on my neck. between Tharu and “Pa-Canaan”. I served the king. my lord. the dirt at your feet. and there was no light. When I was young he brought me into Egypt. who had spent some time in Egypt as a youth. 114 . 17-22 A brick: la-bi-tu may move from [un]der its partner. my lord. and there was light. [your] servant. my lord. I.296292 is a letter from a Yahtiru. his commissioner. I looked this way. referring to his loyal guarding of the city gate of Azzatu or Gaza: Say to the king. I fall at the feet of the king. I carry it. of the yoke: hu-ul-lu of the king. mylord. my god. 100-01. Then I looked towards the king. Kitchen 1979. (f) The Karnak reliefs of Seti I (19th Dynasty) During the first regnal year of Seti I. I m[arch] with them. my lord. my lord. I am your servant. your servant. Gardiner 1920.of cAbdi-Heba. a campaign was conducted against the Shasu who were terrorizing the Ways of Horus. (e) Amarna Letter EA. 23-29 S<ay the king. now that I have [p]la[ced] the . inquire of his commissioner whether I guard the city gate of Azzatu (Gaza) and the city gate of Yapu (Joppa). 18th Dynasty) Amarna Letter EA. 293 The latter is believed to refer to Gaza: 292 293 Moran 1992. and (whether) where the archers of the king.. Offer eloq[uent] words to the king: I am always. And indeed. my [Sun]: Message of Ya[h]tiru.
. 19th Dynasty) Papyrus Anastasi I294 mentions Gaza as one of several fortresses on the Ways of Horus: 294 Gardiner 1911.Year 1 of the King of Upper and Lower Egypt: Men-maatRe. wallowing in their blood. It is the might of father Amun who has decreed for you valour and victory over every foreign country. His majesty seized upon them like a terrifying lion. Any who slip through his fingers tell of his power in (far-) distant foreign countries. 29. The destruction made by the mighty arm of Pharaoh . 115 . 39. as if (they) had never existed.l. given life.h. (g) Papyrus Anastasi I (Ramesses II.made amongst the fallen enemies from Shasu beginning from the fortress of Tharu to Pa-Canaan.p. turning them into corpses throughout their valleys.
116 296 . 109. 127. where is Raphia? What is its enclosure wall like? How many miles march is it to Gaza?295 (h) Ostracon Michaelides 85 (19th Dynasty) Ostracon Michaelides296 consists of a communication from a garrison scribe. regarding the general state of affairs in the towns of Pharaoh as well as regarding the offering sent for the festival of Anath of Gaza: 295 Wente 1990.F. Wente. Wente 1990. 1962). 150.You Maher-warior. H. 93. Pl. Bakenamon. in Gaza to the standard-bearer of the garrison. Ostraka Michaelides (Wiesbaden. Goedicke and E. no. Ipuy.
The garrison scribe Ipuy [communicates to his lord. 73-77. which are situated in each district are prosperous [and that the servants] of Pharaoh.] for the goddess. Benedict.] the ship [captain] Kar [. IV. [while] my lord (Bakenamon) [continues to be] in his (Pharaoh’s) favour. l.p. prosperity and health! This is a missive [to inform my lord] that the towns of Pharaoh.h. and I received your(?) [.D.297 commemorating Merenptah’s victory over the Libyans. in life.. A further communication to my [lord: The offerings that you sent for the festival of Anath of Gaza have all [arrived]. 19th Dynasty) Stela 34025. l. the [. with every land cast down beneath his sandals.. l. 1997).] (i) “Israel Stela”. especially 77. calling upon [all the gods and] all the goddesses who are in the region of the land of Khor (Syro-Palestine) (to keep) Pharaoh.p...].... [healthy].. 12-19. A scout [. Kitchen 1979 . Egyptian Historical Inscriptions of the Nineteenth Dynasty (Jonsered. the standard-bearer of] the garrison Bakenamon. dates to Merenptah’s 5 th regnal year and was located in his mortuary temple on the west bank of Thebes: 297 Lichtheim 1976.p. l.. my lord.p.h. 117 ... G.h. who are in them are prospering and in health.h. See. Cairo 34025 (Merenptah. 173-87.
Israel is laid waste. Hatti is pacified. plundered is Pa-Canaan with every evil. they are pacified. everyone who was restless. (j) Papyrus Anastasi III (Merenptah. carried off is Ashkelon. the Son of Re: Merenptah Hotep-herMaat. 118 . including some originating in Gaza: 298 Gardiner 1937. his seed is not. he has been bound by the King of Upper and Lower Egypt: Baen-Re Meri-Amon. 31. Desolation is for Tehenu. Caminos 1954. given life like Re every day.The princes are prostrate. 19th Dynasty) The verso of Papyrus Anastasi III 298 constitutes a record made by an official at Tharu of the departure and arrival information of various individuals. 108. seized upon is Gezer. saying: “Mercy!” Not one raises his head among the Nine Bows. Hurru is becme a widow for Egypt! All lands together. Yanoam is made as that which does not exist.
6. of Gaza. first month of Shomu. BM 10053 (Ramesses IV.. 6. son of Aperdeger of ditto ( Gaza) .Year 3. 1 dispatch (vs. 1 despatch.7) Matjedet son of Shama-baal of ditto ( Gaza) (vs. Going up by the retainer Baal-ry. or Gaza. like the horizon of heaven which is in the sky.] (vs. IV.. 20 th Dynasty) Papyrus Harris I299 referes to the establishment of a temple for Amun. [. 6.1) I built for you a mysterious house in the land of Djahi. complete with cult image.. 1999). Coming by the retainer Thoth. son of Djapero. 202-03. by Ramesses III: 9. son of Tjakerema of Gaza. viz. Grandet. day 22. 232. at “the Canaan”.. day 15. first month of Shomu. (for) the garrisoncommander Khay. 6.6) Year 3. 119 .3) (for) the prince of Tyre Baaltermeg. [remainder of third entry omitted here] (k) Papyrus Harris I. (vs.8) and Setmose. (vs. Le Papyrus Harris I (Cairo. (named) “the 299 Breasted 1906. P. 6.2) what he took to Khor (Syria): 2 dispatches.
In the Annals of Tuthmose III. 2. bearing their tribute before it. the “G” representing cyn in Hebrew and ghayin in Arabic. Gaza would have been the first destination after emerging from the desert. it may be inferred that Gaza is the most south-westerly town of Palestine on the road to Egypt. Gardiner interpreted this as the city of Gaza. Merenptah and Ramesses III -Gaza is referred to as “Pa-Canaan”. 7:14-15). 44 note 9. 97-101. the fortress named PaCanaan is shown next to a town on a mound. and his interpretation was followed by others (Faulkner 1947.House-of-Ramesses-Ruler-of-Heliopolis-l. The name of the city is rendered in the Egyptian sources as Ga-Da-ti. Kitchen 1993. In 1920. 9. Tuthmose III. I fashioned the great cult image which rests in it. I.p. 57. I:8. (named) “Amon of Ramesses-Ruler-of-Heliopolis-l. Tuthmose IV and Akhenaten Gaza played an important role as the capital of the Egyptian Asiatic province “Southern Canaan”. 35-36. 301 The toponym pA Knan appears twice in the karnak reliefs (Kitchen 1993. Ramesses II. Commentary From the Egyptian records.in PaCanaan” as the vested property of thy name. Gaza is mentioned for the first time as “that which the ruler seized [of which the Syrian name is] Gaza”. the town is identified as Azzatu or Hazzah. the name in Arabic is “Ghazzah”. Spalinger 1979.h. 15). 40. it became an important provisioning point for the caravans. Murnane 1990. In later documents of the 19 th Dynasty -. Canaanite Toponyms in Ancient Egyptian Documents (Jerusalem. Albright believed the 300 Gaza was most frequently written as GadAti with g not k see: S. 104).p.301 In the Karnak reliefs of Seti I. according as it is divine. Ahituv. Giveon 1971.300 The tablets of Taanach and the Amarna Letters inform us that in the time of Amenhotep II.” The foreigners of Retenu come to it.dating to the time of Seti I.h. As such. indicated by the definite article PA (Gardiner 1920. 1984). 120 . Gardiner suggested identifying the town as Gaza. Thus. In the Amarna Letters.
Four cities were situated on the coast: Gaza and Joppa in the south and Ullasa and Sumur in the north. Their personal names are given: one is Semitic in origin. 58..h. 121 . there is a reference to four officials who reside in Gaza. in a section known as “Journal of a frontier official”. and in particular the Amarna Letters. Albright. . There is no doubt that these four officials belong to the administration of the garrison city of Gaza.302 It appears that this fortress of Gaza was an Egyptian stronghold on the highway between Egypt and Palestine and had been so since the time of the pharaohs of the early 18 th Dynasty. 1934). In all these places.. the Egyptians established a network of garrison cities to administer the territories under their power.name stressed the importance of the town for Canaan. The Vocalization of The Egyptian Syllabic Orthography (New Haven. two of them carry the title “guardsman”. In Papyrus Anastasi III. The Egyptian sources. bearing their tribute…” 302 W. we read: “I built for you (Amun) a mysterious house in the land of Djahi named: the house of Ramesses. while the others have Egyptian names. l. city state rulers were deposed and replaced by Egyptian officials who assumed administration of the city. as its capital. from the 3 rd year of Merenptah. the main task was the defence of the city. as inferred from Amarna Letter EA296. The foreigners of Retenu come to it.F. probably the first cities were established during the reign of Thutmose I. provide a basis for understanding the Egyptian administration of Syro-Palestinian territories.p. The vassal city state rulers of the Egyptian garrison cities fulfilled various roles. In Papyrus Harris from the time of Ramesses III. Thus. --ruler of Heliopolis--.
4. “Gaza” in The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land.) (Jerusalem. 21-25 (Hebrew). Dothan. Ovadiah has identified Gaza with Tell Harube or Tell Azza locted along the coastal plain about 9km from the Mediterranean sea. 122 . T.303 As a result. 105-37. 1994). Israel. ASAE 56 (1959). 305 T. 306 A. Vol. “The Cemetery Near Deir el-Balah and Burial in Anthropoid Sarchophagi in Eretz Israel”. Ovadiah. The importance of Gaza is also illustrated by the frequency with which it is mentioned in the ancient texts. Mohammad. Sinai: Archaeological and Historical Relationships in the Biblical Period. even the name of the modern city of Gaza remains very similar to the ancient name for this fortress town. as befitted the first Syrio-Palestinian town after marching the Ways of Horus. 121-35. amongst many other Egyptian social and administrative buildings. Rainey (ed. A. “The Administration of Syro-Palestine During The New Kingdom”. E. It is noteworthy that recent excavations under the direction of Dothan uncovered an Egyptian-style fortress south of Gaza at Deir el-Balah.We may suppose that this temple of Ramesses III was built in Gaza. the texts clearly show that the administrative and strategic importance of Gaza was significant. 464-67. 1987).304 3.305 However. The identification of Gaza In view of the existence of Gaza today.306 303 304 Redford 1992.F. Stern (ed. Indeed. the border town between Egypt and Syrio-Palestine. “The Impact of Egypt on Canaan during the 18th and the 19th Dynasties in the Light of the Excavations at Deir el-Balah” in Egypt. 206-7. there is no debate amongst scholars as to the identification of Gaza. Qadmoniot 17 (1972). M. Dothan.) (Tel Aviv.
312 307 308 Gardiner 1920. on the northern wall of the great Hypostyle Hall. “A Date for the Recently Discovered Eastern Canal of Egypt”.H. Scient. 171-77. THE DIVIDING CANAL (TA dnit) The Karnak reliefs of Seti I. pls. and I. Sneh et al. 314: Gardiner 1920. I. Amer. 6-24. T. Bourdon. Perath. 311 A. BASOR 226 (1977).310some of which are discussed below. 545.308 The canal was designated as &A dnit “the dividing canal” or “the canal” 309 Palaeographic evidence for a canal in this area is found in many ancient records. 99-116. On the basis of an examination of aerial photograph. Ancient sites et Port de Suez (Cairo. 1925). Kamal 1905. G. with a detailed representation of all the stations of the road. XI-XII. 307 The stations at the Egyptian terminal are associated with a waterway or a canal full of crocodiles and lined by reeds swamps. Cd’E 25 (1938). 309 Faulkner 1976. Posener. 271ff. 312 W. 31-38.M. Sneh. 311 The surveyor believed that the construction of this canal dated to the reign of Necho II of the 26th Dynasty. suggested traces of a 12 km stretch of a canal-like feature in the Isthmus of Suez between Lake Timsah and Lake Balah. 123 . Shea. “Evidence for an Ancient Egyptian Frontier Canal”. Kitchen 1979. Weissbrod. 310 Naville 1888. depict the Ways of Horus. 104. 63 (1975). “Le Canal du Nile à la Mer Rouge avant les Prolémées”. C. 18ff. Gardiner 1920.
which they suggested connected with the 8 km stretch lying 10 km to the north of Lake Ballah.318 The western and eastern lagoons which divide the two discovered fortresses at Haboua I (identified herein as Tharu) 319 -313 314 Ibid. where it was cut by the Pelusiac Nile branch. 1970). Die Prophezeiung des Nfr. particularly during the reign of Seti I.315 Few scholars316 believe that this canal could have been a part of defensive measures -. 116-18. 164-75. 544. 56. 315 Ibid 316 J.K.as part of the “Wall of the Ruler” defense system317-. University of Toronto. 317 Quack 1992. W. 1-2. and Sneh believes that the eastern canal would have been connected to the Red Sea.tj (Wiesbaden. 319 A.A further analysis of aerial survey data by Sneh and Weissbord in 1972 yielded a 7 km trace of an artificial canal 10 km to the north-east of Tell el-Kantarah. Shea 1977m 32-33. 124 . “Tharu: the Starting Point on the “Ways of Horus” (M. figs. 185.A. it has been suggested by Sneh that the 15 km found to the north of Lake Ballah was part of a canal between Lake Timsah and lake Ballah. Shea and Sneh have proposed a connection with the Wadi Tumilat canal that is known to have existed during the Saite and Persian Period. and that its depth extended to 2-3m. Al-Ayedi. According to the latest survey by the SCA and the excavations at both Haboua I and Haboua II.313 He suggested that this northern canal continued from the reign of Lake Ballah to the ancient coastline. Helck. Sneh estimated that the traces of this northern canal measured 70m in width at the top and 20m at the bottom. thesis. 318 Valbelle 1992. Hoffmeier. 1997). 2000). Israel in Egypt (Oxford. This system remained in use during the New Kingdom.taken to protect the eastern frontier of Egypt as early as the Middle Kingdom. the fortress of Haboua I lies 4-4.314 In addition.5 km to the north-west of the suggested “eastern’ canal. Sneh 1975.
the relationship and proximity of the forts and canal is important. 164-75. First. Based on surveys. most notably the French mission. CRIPEL 15 (1993). He finds support for such function in Biblical sources.321 More importantly.320 Holladay strongly disagrees with both Sneh et al. used during the New Kingdom as a defensive mechanism against the Israelites. However. Traunecker.and Haboua II (The Dwelling of the lion) at the southeast according to the latest survey and the discovery of a crocodile skeleton in the vicinity parallel the depiction of Seti I. 322 M. 1997). the over-use of aerial photography given the topographic nature of Sinai and the lack of geological studies. Certainly. “Reconnaissance Archéologique à la Pointe Orientale du Delta. Chartier-Raymond and C. Second. Verbal communication. Campagne 1992”. there is work to be done in determining the course of the entire canal. 320 321 J. there are a number of detractors of the notion of an ancient canal in this area. 45-70 especially 62. it would be premature to definitively identify this canal or its date without archaeological evidence. If the purpose of the canal was primarily defensive. if one supports the canal theory. Hoffmeier.K. there are a number of questions that remain to be answered. Israel in Egypt (Oxford.on the north-west side of the western and eastern lagoons -. More work using satellite imaging and on-the-ground geological surveys. Hoffmeier also supports the concept of the frontier canal. as well as its source. it should have had a branch running south from the southern end of Lake Timsah to the Bitter Lakes. while insisting equally strongly on the necessity for developing an adequate body of “ground truth” data.322 Critics of the theory focus on the poor methodology. and Hoffmeier overall reconstruction. and augering may prove determinative of this question. 125 . The author suggests that the eastern and western lagoons may have formed the Eastern Canal.
(b) Stela of cA-seh-re A round-topped limestone stela. 37-41. Hegazy. 29cm wide. “Un monument du roi aA-%H-ra Nhsy à Tell Haboua (Sinai Nord). (c) Fragment of a door jamb A fragment of a door jamb was found at Tell Haboua I bearing the remains of one vertical line of inscription. Nehsy.323 Son of Re. 3-5. 325 323 324 Ibid. 126 . M. (a) Tell Haboua I Stela of Nehsy A limestone stela. < given life? > eternally. arranged by provenance. 29-30cm wide) bears the name of Nehsy from the 14th Dynasty. Maksoud & A. round-topped (40cm high. TEXTS FOUND AT THE STATIONS OF THE WAYS OF HORUS The following texts have been found in various excavations at the stations of the Ways of Horus. Abd el-Maksoud.324 The good god cA-seh-re given life. 325 M. ASAE 69 (1983). for the sake of completeness these texts are given here. bears the name of cA-seh-re from the 14th Dynasty. “Villes oubliée du Sinai Nord”. 1.A. 43cm heigh. Archéologia 159 (1981).V. Although they do not specifically refer to the Ways of Horus or any of the individual stations and are miscellaneous in nature.
. 1989). treasurer of the king.. [every good].6m long and 19-20cm wide. overseer of the seal. Rd’E 37 (1986) 123-24. (d) Door jamb of Limestone A limestone door jamb... Quirke. 127 . Apr-Baal. 271. bears the following text.A. 1.326 Offerings that the king gives (to) Wadjet. 327 sole companion. Men-maat-Re (Seti I). “The regular titles of the Late Middle Kingdom”. lord of the two lands. Maksoud.. may she give offerings of food. lord of appearances. (a) Tell Haboua II Jar sealing of Thutmose III A jar sealing of Thutmose III on an amphora handle was discovered in the magazine complex excavated by the SCA in 1999. son of Re. [pure] thing on which the gods live.ruler of everyland. mistress of Imet (Nebeshah). beloved of Wadjet. Tell Heboua: Enquête archéologique sur la Deuxième Période Intermédiare et le Nouvel Empire à l’extrémité Orientale du Delta (Paris. The sealing impression reads: Men-khepe-Re (Thutmose III) 326 M. 2. and to the [ka] of the prince and mayor. the king of Upper and Lower Egypt. 327 S.
it is the author’s belief that both cartouches were preceded by the title nb tAwy and followed by the title nb xaw. [given] life. the good [god]. 328 This cornice is from unpublished material from the SCA excavations conducted by the author under the auspices of the Ways of Horus Project. (a) Tell el-Kharouba Cartouche of Seti II330 A cartouche of Seti II 331was found by the team of Oren excavating at Tell el-Kharouba. 91. It bears the names and titles of Seti I: Men-maat-[Re]. Mer[en]ptah. Seti Merenptah (c) Limestone block329 A limestone block bearing the cartouche of Seti I was found at Tell Haboua II during the survey made by the Franco-Egyptian team in 1989. 128 . The poor state of preservation of this particular piece would inevitably give rise to varying reconstructions. 329 Ibid. Men-maat-Re (Seti I) 3. [son] of Re. 330 Oren 1987. the lord of appearances. 331 Although Oren reconstructs the nbw sign at the end of each cartouche and the author has reproduced it as such here.(b) Fragment of a corniche328 A fragment of a limestone corniche was found in the magazine store area at Tell Haboua II excavated by the SCA in 1999.
The lord of the two lands. 129 . Seti Merenptah (Seti II). Wser-khepru-re Step-en-re The lord of appearances.
such as Papyrus Anastai I and III. The term xtm was always used for the frontier fortress *Arw. However. Some of these fortresses are very small and have corner towers. suggests that the dwelling of the lion was famous for its fish and 332 Fig. it is noteworthy that although there are many words for fortress in the Egyptian language. the word at means “storehouse” of “chamber”. the terminology also shows considerable variation. nxtw and dmi. The Karnak reliefs depict twenty stations. at. The reliefs mention eleven fortresses of varying sizes and plans.VI TERMINOLOGY OF FORTIFICATION RELATED TO THE WAYS OF HORUS The two main sources for the study of the Ways of Horus are Papyrus Anastasi I and Seti I’s reliefs at Karnak. mktr. In addition to the varied representation of fortresses from an artistic prospective. 1. This suggest that the use of xtm was deliberate. However. eleven of which are fortresses of varying sizes and plans. 130 . The inscriptions mention six specific terms: xtm. while others are shown as considerably larger and in some cases even two-story. which could refer to a fortified town or a resort for the king (being “the lion” in this name). probably referring to the fortress and may refer to the sealing of items in the storehouses and granaries or the sealing of the passage to Egypt at the mouth of the ways of Horus.332 The vocabulary associated with military architecture in ancient Egyptian language is also varied. Textual evidence. specific words were chosen for each of the fortresses of the Ways of Horus. it is preferable to render it as “dweling”. The term at is used only for the second fortress tA at pA mAi.
[ In the author’s opinion. The word nxtw “Stronghold” is used as a second name for the fifth and the ninth fortresses. and tenth station. Perhaps archaeological excavations will explain this inconsistency as based in artistic representation rather than fact. which might have heightened its attraction as a regal resort. the ninth. probably because they were built in a later period after the wells had been long established. one-story structure. which vary in size and shape in the Karnak reliefs.bathing facilities. The author suggests that these fortresses were probably named after the associated wells. The word “well” is used for three fortresses: the seventh. fortified towns. eighth. the use does not appear consistent. is always used for the third station. as one would expect in a stronghold. in view of the fact that the fifth station is shown as a small. and the eleventh. However. it appears that word dmi is associated with larger. In any event. two-storey fortresses. The word bxn “castle” is used for the fifth station bxn n Mn-mAat-ra. The term dmi is used to designate three of the fortresses: the sixth. As such these fortresses may have become strongly become associated with wells in the minds of the ancient 131 . The term Mktr “Migdol”. there are two possible explanations for this name: either the stations were first built during the time of Seti or they were rebuilt or renewed during his reign. two of which – the ninth and the eleventh – are large. “fortification” or “tower”. It is noteworthy that the ninth station is a large two-storey fortress. it may be that the fortresses are located on sites which – for geographical reasons – provide a richer and more reliable water source than other wells in the area. rather than fortresses per se. It is noteworthy that the later two fortresses are identified as towns “newly” built by his majesty. In the alternative. The remainder of the stations were named after their associated wells. meaning “stronghold”.
J. 107-130. 340 Hassan 1953. 335 W. (Beirut.A. Religious. 29. Index of Egyptian adminstrative and religious titles of the Middle Kingdom. 428 no. 2006). and Military Titles of the New Kingdom (Cairo. R. 49. 1. Quirke. Rd’E 37 (1986). 60. A.Egyptians and may have served as the primary water re-stocking locations. 336 Gardiner 1952. The titles will be broken down into royal titulary. 338 Gardiner 1952. 425 nos. 58. 31. Index of Egyptian Administrative. 8. 424.R. Ward. 49. military titles and religious titles. “Administrative Titles in Nubia in the Middle Kingdom:. 102. DISCUSSION OF TITLES RELATED TO THE WAYS OF HORUS In this chapter. I. 339 S. the various titles referred to in the abovementioned sources will be discussed. 46. 132 . 49-52. 337 Ward 1982. 1982). administrative titles. 9. Leprohon 1993. Hassan 1953. Gardiner 1952. Administrative Titles “Captain of the crew”333 “Overseer of the Way of Horus”334 “Prince and mayor”335 “Steward of the harem of the queen”336 “City governor and vizier”337 “Overseer of hunters”338 “Overseer of goldsmiths”339 “Overseer of the canal”340 333 334 Hassan 1953. “The Regular Titles of the Late Middle Kingdom”. Leprohon. JAOS 113 (1993). Al-Ayedi.
150. 343 Quirke 1986. 427 no. 351 See p. 48 above. 347 Ward 1982. 352 Ward 1982. 349 Gardiner 1952.“Overseer of the desert land”341 “Overseer of the desert”342 "Overseer of the storehouse343 at the Ways of Horus344 “A magnate in the palace”345 “Administrator”346 “District chief of the desert”347 “King’s envoy to the foreign land of Kharu” 348 “The royal messenger to everyforeign land”349 “Important in his office”350 “Great of Tharu”351 “Greatest of the ten of Upper Egypt”352 “The highest authority in Nubia”353 341 342 Gardiner 1952. 345 Moran 1992. 120. 36. Ward 1982. 133 . 231. 1635:2-11. 49. Al-Ayedi. 121. Titles of the New Kingdom. 81. 427 no. Leprohon 1993. 48. 64 above. 36. 350 Urk IV. 29. Ibid. Quirke 1986. 41. 120. 209. 348 Al-Ayedi. Leprohon 1993. Ward 1982. 49. 427 no. 78. 344 Leprohon 1993. Hassan 1953. 353 See p. 87. Titles of the New Kingdom. II. 346 Hassan 1953.
16. 61. 118. 1994). 364 Ward 1982. 56 above. P. 141. Quirke 1986. Thebes”355 “The mayor of Tharu”356 “Chief of vineyard “The governor of foreigners of Khent. 361 Gardiner 1952. 10. Chevereau 1994. Chevereau 1994. Titles of the New Kingdom. 13. 161. Leprohon 1993.“King’s acquaintance”354 “The mayor of the Southern city. 58. M. 357 See p. 500. 325. Chevereau 1994. 362 Ward 1982. 427 no. 166. 17.Iabet”357 [ “Director of all the scribes”358 “Royal chancellor”359 “Judge”360 < > “Viceroy”361 “Sole companion”362 “Royal scribe”363 “The fan-bearer on the right hand of the king”364 2. 123. Chevereau. 219. 134 . 360 Ward 1982. 145. 220. 100. Chevereau 1994. 356 Ibid. 358 Ward 1982. 513. Prosopographie des Cadres Militaires Egyptiens du Nouvel Empire (Antony. 14. 60. 88. 105. 231. 359 Hassan 1953. 53. 170. 20. 363 Ward 1982. 151. 404. Military Titles 354 355 Gardiner 1952. 161. 49. Leprohon 1993. Al-Ayedi. 60. see p. 425 no.
Al-Ayedi. 371 Chevereau 1994. Leprohon 1993. 305 and 369. 1994. 222. 431 no. 53. 84. 107. 373 Schulman 1964.“General”365 . 135 . Quirke 1986. Ward 1982. 368 Schulman 1964. 372 Chevereau. 46-47. 120. Chevereau. Titles of the New Kingdom. 370 Schulman 1964. 369 Ibid. 374 Schulman 1964. 45-46. 375 Gardiner 1952. 133. 84. 367 Ibid. 108. Al-Ayedi. 122. 85. 114. 1994. 29. 296. Titles of the New Kingdom. “Overseer of the fortress”366 “Overseer of the fortress of the land of Wawat”367 “Commander of the fortress of Tharu”368 “Overseer of the horses”369 “The lientenant-commander of the army”370 “The lieutenant-commander of the chariotry”371 “The lieutenant-commander of the chariotry of his majesty372 “Commander of the troops Tharu”373 “The commander of 50”374 “Chief of police”375 of 365 366 Habachi 1961.
Religious Titles “Iwn-Knm. 385 Ibid. 8116. 360. 5. 378 Ibid. 386 Ibid. 50-51. 1994. 325. Anastasi III. 380 Chevereau. 382 Ward 1982. Al-Ayedi. 178. 383 Al-Ayedi. 582. Titles of the New Kingdom.1. 8.maat 379 “Chief charioteer of his majesty”380 “The standard bearer”381 3. vs. lord of Mesen”384 “High priest of Seth”385 “Lector priest of Wadjet”386 376 377 Ibid. 31.wt Priest”382 “Chief priest of all gods”383 “High priest of Horus. 86. 379 Pap. 384 Ibid.“Garrison captain”376 “Commander of the troops and mayor of Tharu”377 “An officer”378 “Retainer of the castle of Merenptah hotep-her. 1994. see Gardiner 1937. Titles of the New Kingdom. 381 Chevereau. 136 .
"overseer of the canal").g.The titles listed above are all related to the sources regarding the Ways of Horus and. one of which was held by the mayor of Tharu. both from a strategic and economic perspective. also was "overseer of the Ways of Horus". "the royal messenger in all foreign lands"). and the troop-captain of Tharu. the prestige of the titles is perhaps most evident from the fact that this title was borne.along with the title of "commander of Tharu". “overseer of the desert” and “overseer of the desert lands”). "overseer of the storehouse at the Ways of Horus" and "director of the storehouse"). Another type of titles focuses on the provisioning aspect of the Ways of Horus (e. Indeed. The administrative titles also include a subgroup of titles relating to general government representatives. Huy. a title not found after the Old Kingdom. One official who bore a number of such titles. @kni$nmw. which the archaeological remains also indicate to have been an important function of the fortresses in the area. It is undeniable that this must have been a significant appointment. "extract from a journal of a border official". A third type of titles focuses on the supervisions of the waterways in the area (e. Neby. 137 . Turning first to the administrative titles. The discussion here will focus upon the administrative. suggests that the movements of envoys and other traveling officials beyond the border were carefully recorded.by Seti I and Ramesses II prior to assuming the kingship. as we have seen. “the district chief of the desert”.g. military and religious titles. One critical group of titles relates to supervision of the desert and surroundings (e.g. Papyrus Anastasi III.g. it can be noted that the titles give a good sense of the organization of certain important administrative areas. they relate to the various spheres of significance in this area. Amongst these are those titles dealing with envoys (e.
because it appears that there may have been a harem at Tharu. the chief god of the nome. "chief of the police". " royal scribe ". "overseer of goldsmiths". A number of administrative titles are borne by individuals who also carry military honours. Naturally. other gods and goddesses such as Amun and Wadjet are also found. "director of all scribes". "chief vintner" and "chief of vineyard". "overseer of the fortress of the land of Wawat" and "overseer of the fortress". as well as "commander of the troops of Tharu".The title "steward of the Harem of the royal wife" was held by Neby. Three individuals (Menna. The archaeological discoveries at Haboua I also support the presence of horses in the fortresses. However. the mayor of Tharu. The importance of the chariotry is apparent from the fact that it was supervised by the highest military officials. This is interesting. The latter two titles were found stamped on jar sealings and must have been particulary important in view of Tharu's reputation as a wine-producing region. A number of professions of special importance to the area are highlighted in the titles. Seti and Huy) bore titles relating to the supervision of the chariotry horses. which is the highest priestly title of the nome. Other titles relating to the palace include "magnate in the palace". Again. as well as "prince and mayor". "troop-captain of Tharu". "overseer of the canal" and "mayor of Tharu". 138 . including all of those just mentioned. These include "overseer of hunters". "an important man in his office". "king's acquaintance" and "the fan-bearer on the right hand of the king". worshipped at Mesen. Military titles include: "overseer of the army". Most noteworthy. is the title aHA wr. "mayor of Tharu" etc. in the time of Tuthmosis III. Horus. The religious titles associated with the region are not suprising in nature. features. The afore-mentioned Neby had many civilian and military titles. perhaps. this is not surprising for the religious structure in ancient Egypt.
the titles listed above provide some interesting glimpses into the positions held and the significance thereof on the Ways of Horus. In addition. administrative and religious perspective. 139 . the juxtaposition of certain titles on the monument of one individual can be equally revealing.In conclusion. from a military. suggesting important roles in various spheres of life in North Sinai at this time. as discussed.
commercial and military centre. However. particularly from the New Kingdom to the early Islamic period. that enabled the accurate delineation of the course of the Ways of Horus. over which military expeditions were dispatched and trade caravans flowed. CONCLUSION The beginning of the New Kingdom opened a new chapter in the history of Egypt. probably the main source for the study of the Ways of Horus. Haboua II 140 . the fortresses at the Egyptian and Palestinian terminal points of the Ways of Horus -.namely Haboua I. such as the space available on the walls after completion of the main tableaux or the desire to create a varied and interesting composition.in some cases even two-storey and much more complex in plan. As we have seen. These sites attest to the role of North Sinai as an industrial. rather than realistic observation of the fortresses. and supply and customs centres were established along the Ways of Horus in response to the requirements of the increasing traffic. Some scholars have taken the position that the representation of the fortresses was dictated by artistic considerations. while others are shown as considerably larger . This evidence demonstrates the wellorganized system of defence established to facilitate and secure the principal route of communication to Asia. Indeed. is the Seti I reliefs at Karnak. eleven of which were fortresses of varying sizes and plans. including fortresses. The body of research conducted in North Sinai includes many sites dating to various periods of Egyptian history. the size of the garrison stationed at the fortress.VIII. These reliefs provide evidence of twenty stations. the location of the fortress. and second. the coastal strip of North Sinai became the major land bridge between Egypt and Asia. particularly from el-Kantarah to el-Kharuba. roadstations and settlements. The surveys and excavations in North Sinai have revealed many New Kingdom sites. Accordingly. roadstations. a network of fortresses. This source has engendered much scholarly debate regarding its reliability. In this area. the author believes that such differences in the size of fortresses are determined by two major factors: first. Some of these fortresses are very small and have corner towers. In particular.
Haboua II.are larger than those fortresses interspersed between these two points (such. The term mktr. is used for the fifth station (bxn n Mn-mAat-Ra). For example.and Raphia -. This term was always used for the fortress of Tharu (p3 xtm n *3rw). The word bxn. It is interesting to note that in addition to the varied representations of fortresses in Egyptian art. Similarly. sgr. while also protecting the waterway. is always used for the third station on the Ways of Horus (mktr n Mn-mAat-Ra). nxtw. the sealing of items in the storehouses and granaries -. “stronghold” is used as a second name for the fifth ( nxtw n Mn-mAatRa) and ninth stations (nxtw n Mn-mAat-Re). was a sizeable fortress. “migdol”. the word xtm means “seal” or “storehouse”. located nearby to the east of Haboua I. The word dmi. Raphia was of considerable size. Haboua I and Haboua II functioned as a security-lock against all eastern threats to stability in ancient Egypt. but with the pr-determinative also means “fortress”. bxn. “castle”. meaning “stronghold”. It appears that these distinctions were intentional. Bir el-Abd and el-Kharuba). probably referring to the stamping or sealing of travel documents or permits. The fortresses of the Ways of Horus are referred to by many different terms. because it functioned as the starting point and a preparatory and supply station for the assembling troops. The fortress of Haboua I is the largest. the terminology also displayed considerable variation. the word nxt.specific words were chosen for specific fortresses. because their function was merely as a fortified roadstation for the accommodation of troops traveling along the road. mnnw and at -. “town” 141 . because it served the same security purpose in the vanguard at the Canaanite terminal. as for example. mnw.or the sealing of the passage to Egypt at the mouth of the Ways of Horus. because of its function as the actual first fortress on the desert road and as an administrative and supply station.including xtm. The author believes that the use of xtm was deliberate in this context. mktr. Although there are many words for fortress in the Egyptian language -. Together. Interestingly. On the other hand. “fortification” or “tower”. those fortresses interspersed along the Ways of Horus were smaller in size. Similarly.as mentioned for example in Papyrus Anastasi I -.
f m m3wt) and the ninth station (dmi kd.n Hm. the importance of certain fortresses is also apparent in other regards. It is noteworthy that the wells depicted in the Karnak reliefs vary in size and shape. all New Kingdom fortresses showed certain common elements. at the New Kingdom fortress of Haboua I. namely Haboua I. In addition to those terms identified above. The discovery of administrative complexes within the military framework provides a broader understanding of the gubernatorial role in North Sinai in the New Kingdom.n Hm. Bir el-Abd and el-Kharuba. magazines.or “field”.f m m3wt Xnm(t) @r-b3ti)387. the internal complexity and variety of structures attest to the important role of this site. Notwithstanding these differences. this is one of the factors leading the author to identify Haboua I as ancient Tharu. As noted. As discussed above. Another important factor is the location of Haboua II along the water opposite Haboua I. including the existence of administrative buildings. Archaeological work is required at these two sites to determine which is the correct explanation. various terms were used to designate the fortresses. In addition. the size of the fortresses varies. the administrative arm of the 387 In the author’s opinion. As discussed. There are two possible explanations for this name. only four fortresses dating to the New Kingdom have been discovered to date. Among the eleven fortresses represented in the Karnak reliefs. granaries. For example. the fortresses differ in their layout. as also illustrated in the Karnak reliefs. is used to designate two of the fortresses: the sixth station (dmi Qd. Indeed. 142 . the remainders were named after their associated wells. Haboua II. Archaeologically. the name @r-b3ti may refer to Hor-Ptah. in the author’s opinion: either the stations were first built during the time of Seti I or the stations were rebuilt during his reign. It is noteworthy that the latter two stations are identified as towns “newly” built by his majesty. This fortress has been identified herein as the Dwelling of the Lion.
C. The materials discovered at Kedwa suggest the 6 th century B. (forthcoming). Granaries in fortified cities were considered a strategic supply of grain rations. 389 The largest settlement from this period was Kedwa. The supply stations on the Ways of Horus played a great role in serving and supplying the military expeditions marching along the road.C. controlling such matters as commerce. as a direct result of the Persian invasion of Egypt. Oren 1993.along with many other remains at the New Kingdom fortresses would shed much light on the strategic importance of these sites and the military role they must have played during this period. 388 389 A. The Archaeology of North Sinai. it is possible that Tell el-Herr was constructed to replace the fortress of Kedwa following its destruction. since the last occupation of Kedwa dates to the late Saite period.388 Very few sites from the Saite period were investigated during the North Sinai survey conducted by Oren. 1 km north of Tell el-Herr.R. known from texts as early as the New Kingdom. while at Tell el-Herr nothing earlier than Persian remains have been found. Indeed. tax and dutycollection. provisioning of soldiers and other logistics associated with campaigning armies. as the occupation date. containing buildings and installations within its enclosure walls. This settlement was represented by a massive fortress. Further archaeological work is required to confirm this position. 143 . Al-Ayedi. the fortress was apparently destroyed by fire in 525 B. 1386-1396. However. Many scholars have identified Tell el-Herr as the site of Migdol. The importance of such stations is mentioned in the ancient sources and mirrored in the archaeological evidence. An in-depth study of the large quantity of silos and magazines discovered . the author believes that Kedwa is actually the best candidate for identification as Migdol.ancient Egyptian government appears to have been closely linked to the military.
such as Tell Abu-Seifa (the Roman “Sile”). fortresses and seasonal encampments to cemeteries. These new settlements were to form the nuclei of established centres well into the Hellenistic period. the following identifications are now proposed: 390 E.391 In the Graeco-Roman period. Tell Abu-Seifa is the site of the Roman city Sile.In the Persian period. CRIPEL 10 (1988). Valbelle. new settlements. the course of the road moved to the south of the original location. the author has provided new theories on the names and identifications of the various stations. The expedition of Ben Gurion University investigated some 200 sites from the Persian period between the Suez Canal and Gaza. These sites form an arc. ed.392 In conclusion. 392 Al-Ayedi 2000. only one fortress dating to the Persian period is known to remain on the Ways of Horus. excavations have shown that the identification of Tell AbuSeifa as Tharu is incorrect. Oren. “Les Trois Dernières Forteresses de Tell el-Herre”. Louis et Valbelle D. “Le Nord-Sinai â l’épouque Perse Perspective Archéologiques” in Le Sinai Durant L’antiquité et Le Moyen Age. this study has focused on the Ways of Horus from a textual perspective. Indeed. Tell el-Herr. ranging from settlements390. 144 . 4000 ans d’Histoire pour un desert . fortresses and fishing villages were founded on the coast. following the curve of the south-eastern bank of the ancient Pelusiac Nile branch. Tell el-Farama. As a result of this road. 1997).. However. Many new fortified cities were established for topographic and strategic reasons. 391 E. D. the course of the Ways of Horus was changed to follow the Mediterranean coastline more closely. This spit formed a possible road of access into Egypt and was therefore blocked by the various newly-constructed fortified settlements. Based on the textual and archaeological evidence. rather. (Paris. This fortress is located at Tell el-Herr. As discussed above. 116-18. 61-71. This arc was situated in the land between the northern and southern lagoons.
Karnak Reliefs PA xtm n *Arw Papyrus Anastasi I Modern Site PA xtm n WAt @r Ha bo ua I TA at pA mAi PA mktr n Mn-mAat-ra TA at pA n Ssy @Tyn Haboua II Ke dw a WADyt n Sti Mri-n-PtH WADyt Ssy Telle Lul i (?) bxn n Mn-mAat-ra dmi Qd n Hm.f nxn ib-s-Qb 145 ? ? .f mAwt PAy.
146 .n Hm.tA Xnmt Sti Mri-n-PtH tA Xnmt Mn-mAat-ra nxtw Arish (?) dmi Qd.f m mAwt s-b-iry aynn Bir el-Abd el- ? Hw-r-bA-ti el-Kharuba m tA Xnmt Hw-r-bA-ti nA xA sw n pA sr dmi n R-pH R-pH xAs Kharuba ? Raphia Although the analysis presented here represents the most current research according to the data available. large-scale excavations are recommended to expand and enrich our understanding of this most important of military features in ancient Egypt.
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