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MECHANICS OF FLUIDS

(Common to Mechanical Engineering and Metallurgy and Material Technology)

Time: 3 Hours Max. Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE questions

All questions carry equal marks

---

1.a) Give an example each where air can be treated as an incompressible fluid and

water has to be treated as compressible fluid. Explain.

b) The bulk modulus of water is 210 KN/cm2. What pressure is required to reduce

its volume by 2 %? Also prove that the increase in the mass density will be 2%

only.

u = 2xy3 – x-2-y

3

ϑ = xy2 – 2yx3

3

Indicate whether the given velocity components represent a case of possible flow

field or not.

b) Show and deduce the relation between stream and velocity potential functions.

b) A jet of water issues from 20 mm dia fire hose at the end of which a 5.0 mm

diameter nozzle is fixed. If pressure at inlet of the nozzle is 200 kN/m 2, determine

force exerted by nozzle on the flow.

b) Which type of drag predominates in the motion of following bodies.

(i) Blunt body (ii) Stream lined body (iii) Aerofoil

(iv) Small sphere moving in a highly viscous fluid with very low velocity.

c) Find the ratio of skin friction drag on the front two third and rear one third of a

flat plate kept in a uniform stream at zero incidence. Assume the boundary layer

to be turbulent over the entire plate.

b) Obtain an expression in differential form for continuity equation for one

dimensional compressible flow.

(Contd…2)

Code No: NR-220301 :: 2 :: Set No: 1

6.a) Sketch the Reynolds apparatus and explain how the laminar flow can be

demonstrated with the help of this apparatus.

b) A viscous liquid was flowing in laminar regime in a 6 cm diameter circular pipe. A

pitot tube at a radial distance of 2 cm from the axis indicated a velocity of 0.6

m/sec. Calculate the maximum velocity, the mean velocity and the discharge in the

pipe.

b) A siphon of diameter 20cm connects two reservoirs having a difference in

elevation of 20m. The length of the siphon is 500m and the summit is 3m above

the water level in the upper reservoir. The length of the pipe from upper reservoir

to the summit is 100m. Determine the discharge through the siphon and also

pressure at the summit by neglecting minor losses and taking coefficient of

friction as 0.005.

b) The maximum flow through a rectangular flume 1.8m wide and 1.2m deep is

1.65 m3/sec. It is proposed to install a suppressed sharp crested rectangular weir

across the flume to measure flow. Find the maximum height at which the weir

crest can be placed in order that water may not overflow the sides of the flume.

Assume Cd = 0.6

-*-*-*-

Code No: NR-220301 Set No:

MECHANICS OF FLUIDS

(Common to Mechanical Engineering and Metallurgy and Material Technology)

Time: 3 Hours Max. Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE questions

All questions carry equal marks

---

1.a) Prove that the total pressure exerted by a static liquid on an inclined plane is same

as the force exerted on a vertical plane surface as long as the depth of centre of

gravity of the surface is unaltered.

b) The opening in a dam is 3m wide and 2m high. A vertical sluice gate is used to

cover the opening. On the upstream of the gate, the liquid of specific gravity 1.5

lies upto a height of 2.0m above the top of the gate where as on the downstream

side, the water is available upto the top of the gate. Find the resultant force acting

on the gate and position of centre of pressure. Assume that the gate is hinged at

the bottom.

2.a) Define and distinguish between steady flow and uniform flow. Give two

examples of each flow.

b) Define stream line and derive the equation of a stream line.

3.a) Derive an expression for the difference of pressure between two points in a free

vortex flow.

b) An open circular cylinder of 15 cm diameter and 100 cm long contains water up

to a height of 70 cm. Find the speed at which the cylinder is to be rotated about its

axis so that the axial depth becomes zero.

4.a) Define the following terms for an air foil. (i) Camber(ii) Angle of attack

(iii) Profile centerline (iv) Aspect ratio

b) Calculate the diameter of a parachute to be used for dropping a body weighing

1000 N so that the maximum terminal velocity of dropping is 5 m/s. The drag

coefficient for parachute which may be treated as hemispheroid is 1.3 and the value

of the mass density of the air is 1.2 kg / m3.

c) How does the drag coefficient change with (i) surface roughness (ii) turbulence

level.

rate of flow of a gas. If the absolute pressure at the inlet and throat are equivalent

to 1010 mm and 910 mm of mercury Determine the volumetric flow rate of gas.

Assume flow is isentropic.

(Contd…2)

Code No: NR-220301 :: 2 :: Set No: 2

6.a) Derive Hazen-Poiseuille equation for laminar flow in the circular pipes.

b) Glycerin of viscosity 1.5 pascal-sec and mass density 1200 kg/m3 flows at a

velocity of 5 m/sec in a 10 cm diameter pipe. Check whether the flow is laminar

in pipe line. Find the boundary shear stress in the pipe.

7.a) Sketch and explain the hydraulic gradient and total energy line for an inclined

pipe and horizontal pipe discharging freely in atmosphere.

b) A siphon of diameter 20cm connects two reservoirs having a difference in

elevation of 15m. the total length of the siphon if 600m and the summit is 4m

above the water level in the upper reservoir. If the separation takes place at 2.8m

of water absolute, find the maximum length of siphon from upper reservoir to the

summit. Take f=0.004 and atmospheric pressure 10.3m of water.

specific gravity 0.85 for the purpose of flow measurement. The differential head

is to be indicated by a U-tube Manometer containing mercury (specific.

Gravity = 13.6). If the manometer reading is not to exceed 0.2m when the flow is

15Kg/sec, what should be the diameter of the orifice? Assume Cd = 0.62.

-*-*-*-

Code No: NR-220301 Set No:

MECHANICS OF FLUIDS

(Common to Mechanical Engineering and Metallurgy and Material Technology)

Time: 3 Hours Max. Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE questions

All questions carry equal marks

---

1.a) A plane surface inclined at an angle θ to the vertical is subjected to water pressure

on one side only. The cnetroid is at a depth of H metres below the water surface

and the radius of gyration about a horizontal axis, in the plane of the surface and

passing through the centroid, is K metres. Show that the depth of centre of

pressure is,

K 2 Cos 2θ

H+ metres.

H

b) A square opening 0.5 m X 0.5m in the vertical side of a tank is closed by a plate

0.5 m X 0.5m which can rotate about the horizontal axis of symmetry. Calculate

(i) the total water pressure on the plate (ii) the depth of centre of pressure and (iii)

the torque required to maintain the plate in equilibrium in the vertical position

when the head above the centre of the plate is 1 m.

2.a) Define equipotential line and a line of constant stream function, Show that these

lines intersect orthogonally.

b) Given that u = x2 – y2 and v = - 2xy. Check whether stream function exists. If

so determine the stream function and potential function for the flow.

3.a) Derive Euler’s equation of motion along a stream line. State assumptions made in

the derivation.

b) In an inclined pipe of uniform diameter 25 cm, a pressure of 50 kPa was observed

at section – 1 which was at elevation 10.0 m. At another section – 2 at elevation

12.0 m the pressure was 20 kPa and the velocity was 1.25 m/s. Determine the

direction of flow and the head loss between these two sections. The fluid in the

pipe is water.

4.a) Why is it necessary to control the growth of boundary layer on most of the

bodies? What methods are used for such a control?

b) A sphere has a projected area of 1 m2. Compare the drag force in water and in air

when travelling at a speed of 30 km/hr.

5. A normal shock wave occurs in air flowing at a Mach number of 1.5. The static

pressure and temperature of the air upstream of the shock waves are 100 KN/m2

and 300°K. Determine the Mach number, Pressure and down stream of shock

wave. Also estimate the shock Strength.

(Contd…2)

Code No: NR-220301 :: 2 :: Set No: 3

6.a) Derive an expression for mean velocity of flow for laminar flow through inclined

pipes.

b) Derive the necessary condition for mean velocity for the laminar flow between

parallel flat plates when both the plates are at rest.

7.a) Explain the concept of flow through a long pipe along with a neat sketch.

b) A main pipe divides into two parallel pipes which again forms one pipe. The

length and diameter for the first parallel pipe are 2000 m and 1.0 m respectively,

while the length and diameter of second parallel pipe are 2000 m and 0.8 m. Find

the rate of flow in each parallel pipe if total flow in the main is 3.0cumecs. The

coefficient of friction for each parallel pipe is same and equal to 0.006.

finding out the actual discharge from a given venturimeter.

-*-*-*-

Code No: NR-220301 Set No:

4

II-B.Tech. II-Semester Suppl. Examinations, April/May-2004

MECHANICS OF FLUIDS

(Common to Mechanical Engineering and Metallurgy and Material Technology)

Time: 3 Hours Max. Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE questions

All questions carry equal marks

---

1.a) The water face of a dam is in the form of a trapezium. The bottom width is a

meter and the top width at the water level is (a+b) meters. The face of the dam is

vertical and the depth of water is h meters. Show that (i) the resultant pressure on

wh 2

the dam is (3a+b)N (ii) that the depth of center of pressure is

6

4a + b

6a + 2b h meters.

The specific weight of water is w N/m3.

b) A circular gate in a vertical wall has a diameter of 4m. The water surface on the

upstream side is 8m above the top of the gate and on the downstream side 1m

above the top of the gate. Find the forces acting on the two sides of the gate and

the resultant force acting on the gate and its location.

2.a) A stream function is defined by: ψ = x3 – y3. Show that the flow cannot be a

potential flow.

b) Explain the characteristics of stream and velocity potential functions.

b) A conical pipe has diameter 0.40 m & 0.80 m at its two ends. The smaller end is

2 m above the larger end. For a flow of 0.30 m 3 / sec of water the pressure at the

lower end is 10 kPa. Assuming a head loss of 2 m and kinetic energy correction

factor α = 1.1 and 1.5 at the smaller and larger ends respectively, estimate the

pressure at the smaller end.

4.a) Describe with the help of neat sketch, the variation of drag coefficient for a

cylinder over a wide range of Reynolds number.

b) Oil with a free stream velocity of 3 m/s flows over a thin plate 1.25-m wide and 2

m long. Determine the boundary layer thickness and the shear stress at mid –

length and calculate the total, double-sided resistance of the plate. Take p = 860

kg/m3 and v= 10-3.

5.a) Prove that velocity of sound wave in a compressible fluid is given by C= √(k/ρ)

Where K and ρ are the bulk modulus and density of fluid respectively.

b) Define the following terms:

(i) Sonic flow (ii) Subsonic flow (iii) Supersonic flow.

(Contd…2)

Code No: NR-220301 :: 2 :: Set No: 4

6.a) Prove that the boundary shear stress is directly proportional to the pressure

gradient and the boundary spacing for the case of laminar flow between parallel

flat plates when both the plates are at rest.

b) What do you know about Couette flow? Derive the necessary equation.

7.a) Two reservoirs are connected by three pipes laid in parallel, their diameters are

d,2d, and 3d respectively and they are of the same length l, assuming f to be the

same for all pipes, determine the discharge through each of the larger pipes, if the

smallest pipe is discharging 1 cumec.

b) Three pipes of same length L, diameter D and friction factor f are connected in

parallel. Determine the diameter of the pipe of length L and friction factor f which

will carry the same discharge for the same head loss. Use the formula

hf=fLV2/2gD.

8. Explain orifice meter in detail with diagram. Also derive an expression for

finding out the actual discharge from a given orifice meter.

-*-*-*-

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