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Set No.1

II B.Tech. I Semester Regular Examinations, November -2005 MECHANICS OF FLUID (Aeronautical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks

1. (a) Explain the phenomena of capillarity and surface tension (b) A cylinder 0.25m in radius and 2 m in length rotates coaxially inside a ﬁxed cylinder of the same length and 0.30m radius. Olive oil of viscosity 5.0 Pas ﬁlls the space between the cylinders. A torque of 5.0 N- m is applied to the inner cylinder. After constant velocity is attained, calculate the velocity gradients at the inner walls, the resulting r.p.m. and the power dissipated by ﬂuid resistance ignoring end eﬀects. [8+8] 2. (a) State the continuity equation for a three dimensional ﬂow. How is it modiﬁed for 2 dimensional and 1 dimensional ﬂows. (b) A pipe line 60 cm in diameter bifurcates at a y-junction into two branches of 40 cm and 30 cm diameter. If the ratio of ﬂow in the main pipe 1.2m3 /s and the mean velocity of ﬂow in the 30 cm dia. Pipe is 7.5 m/s, determine the rate of ﬂow in the 40 cm pipe. [8+8] 3. (a) Derive Bernoulli’s equation for ﬂow along a stream line. (b) A pipe 200 m long slopes down at 1 in 100 and tapers from 800 mm diameter at the higher end to 400 mm diameter at the lower end and carries 100 lps of oil (S = 0.85). If the pressure gauge reading at the higher end reads 50 kN / m2 , determine, (i) Velocities at the two ends and (ii) pressure at the lower end. Neglect losses [8+8]. 4. (a) What is meant by smooth boundary and a rough boundary? (b) Describe brieﬂy the phenomenon of boundary layer separation. (c) At what wind speed must a 127 mm diameter sphere travel through water to have a drag of 5 N. [4+6+6] 5. (a) How are shocks formed? Give some practical examples. (b) During a normal shock in a constant area duct containing air, the initial conditions are P1 = 10N/m2 , T1 = 00 c; U = 1000 m/s Calculate (i) the corresponding trans shock condition and (ii) percentage change in density across the shock if R= 287 J/Kg 0k [8+8] 6. (a) Derive Hazen-poisehille equation for laminar ﬂow in circular pipes. (b) Explain in detail how the ﬂow is demonstrated using Reynolds experiment. [8+8] 1 of 2

Code No: RR212101

Set No.1

7. (a) Prove that the head lost due to friction is equal to one third of the total head at inlet for maximum power transmission through pipes. (b) The rate of ﬂow of water pumped into a pipe ABC, which is 200m long is 20lit/sec. The pipe is laid on an upward slope of 1 in 40. The length of the portion AB is 100m and its diameter is 10cm, while the length of the portion BC is also 100m but its diameter is 20cm. The change of diameter at B is sudden. The ﬂow is taking place from A to C where the pressure at A is 19.62N/cm2 and end C is connected to a tank. Find the pressure at C taking f=0.008. [8+8] 8. (a) An oriﬁce meter is to be ﬁtted into a horizontal pipe 20 cm dia, carrying oil of speciﬁc gravity 0.85 for the purpose of ﬂow measurement. The diﬀerential head is to be indicated by a U-tube Manometer containing mercury (speciﬁc. Gravity = 13.6). If the manometer reading is not to exceed 0.2m when the ﬂow is 15Kg/sec, what should be the diameter of the oriﬁce? Assume Cd = 0.62 (b) Write a detailed note on pressure gauges [8+8]

2 of 2

Code No: RR212101

Set No.2

II B.Tech. I Semester Regular Examinations, November -2005 MECHANICS OF FLUID (Aeronautical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks

1. (a) Explain the phenomena of capillarity and surface tension (b) A cylinder 0.25m in radius and 2 m in length rotates coaxially inside a ﬁxed cylinder of the same length and 0.30m radius. Olive oil of viscosity 5.0 Pas ﬁlls the space between the cylinders. A torque of 5.0 N- m is applied to the inner cylinder. After constant velocity is attained, calculate the velocity gradients at the inner walls, the resulting r.p.m. and the power dissipated by ﬂuid resistance ignoring end eﬀects. [8+8] 2. (a) Deﬁne and distinguish laminar and turbulent ﬂows. Give two real ﬂuid ﬂow examples of each. How are they distinguished in real ﬂuid ﬂow? (b) For steady, incompressible ﬂow, verify whether the following values of u and v are possible: i. i) u = 4 x y +y2 , v = 6xy + 3x ii. ii) u = 2 x2 +y2 , v =- 4xy and iii. iii) (x2−x 2 )! , v = (x2−y 2 )! +y +y 3. (a) What are the body forces considered in ﬂuid ﬂow problems? (b) A 15-cm diameter pipe is reduced to 7.5 cm diameter through a gradual contraction. The diﬀerence between the piezometric heads at the main and contracted section is 4 cm of mercury. By neglecting losses calculate the discharge of water. [8+8] 4. (a) Describe with the help of neat sketch, the variation of drag coeﬃcient for a cylinder over a wide range of Reynolds number. (b) Oil with a free stream velocity of 3 m/s ﬂows over a thin plate 1.25-m wide and 2 m long. Determine the boundary layer thickness and the shear stress at mid length and calculate the total, double-sided resistance of the plate. Take Density = 860 kg/m3 andv = 10−3 . [8+8] 5. (a) How are the disturbance in compressible ﬂuid propagates? (b) Air at a velocity of 1400 Km/hr has a pressure of 10KN/m2 (vacuum) and temperature of 50.160 C. Calculate local Mach number and stagnation pressure, density and temperature .Takeγ = 1.4andR = 281.43J/Kg 0K, barometric pressure = 101.325KN/m2 . [8+8] 6. (a) Prove that the boundary shear stress is directly proportional to the pressure gradient and the boundary spacing for the case of laminar ﬂow between parallel ﬂat plates when both the plates are at rest. 1 of 2

[8+8]

Code No: RR212101 (b) What do you know about Couette ﬂow? Explain.

Set No.2

[8+8]

7. (a) Sketch and explain the hydraulic gradient and total energy line for an inclined pipe and horizontal pipe discharging freely in atmosphere. (b) Write a note on power transmitter through popes. [8+8]

8. (a) An oriﬁce meter is to be ﬁtted into a horizontal pipe 20 cm dia, carrying oil of speciﬁc gravity 0.85 for the purpose of ﬂow measurement. The diﬀerential head is to be indicated by a U-tube Manometer containing mercury (speciﬁc. Gravity = 13.6). If the manometer reading is not to exceed 0.2m when the ﬂow is 15Kg/sec, what should be the diameter of the oriﬁce? Assume Cd = 0.62 (b) Write a detailed note on pressure gauges [8+8]

2 of 2

Code No: RR212101

Set No.3

II B.Tech. I Semester Regular Examinations, November -2005 MECHANICS OF FLUID (Aeronautical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks

1. (a) Give an example each where air can be treated as an incompressible ﬂuid and water has to be treated as compressible ﬂuid. Explain. (b) The bulk modulus of water is 210 KN/cm2 . What pressure is required to reduce its volume by 2%? Also prove that the increase in the mass density will be 2% only. [8+8] 2. (a) Deﬁne equipotential line and a line of constant stream function, Show that these lines intersect orthogonally. (b) Given that u = x2 y 2 and v = - 2xy. Check whether stream function exists. If so determine the stream function and potential function for the ﬂow. [8+8] 3. (a) Derive an expression for Bernoullis equations for ﬂow along a stream line. (b) A U - tube contains a liquid of relative density 1.25 to a height of 25 cm in both the columns. It is rotated about a symmetrical vertical axis which is 15 cm from both the limbs. Calculate the pressures at the bottom horizontal connecting points and mid point when the speed of rotation is 240 rpm.[8+8] 4. (a) Deﬁne the following terms for an air foil. (i) Camber tack (iii) Proﬁle centerline (iv) Aspect ratio (ii) Angle of at-

(b) Calculate the diameter of a parachute to be used for dropping a body weighing 1000 N so that the maximum terminal velocity of dropping is 5 m/s. The drag coeﬃcient for parachute which may be treated as hemispheroid is 1.3 and the value of the mass density of the air is 1.2 kg /m3 . (c) How does the drag coeﬃcient change with (i) surface roughness (ii) turbulence level [6+6+4] 5. (a) What is meant by co-eﬃcient of compressibility? (b) A diﬀuser of area ratio 2 :1 operates at the inlet condition P1 = 500KN/m2 , T1 = 500 K , M1 = 0.6, γ = 1.4 .Estimate the following at the exit (i) velocity (ii) pressure (iii) Temperature (iv) Mach number [6+10] 6. (a) Sketch the velocity distribution of laminar ﬂow in ideal and real ﬂuid ﬂow and explain it in detail. (b) A ﬂuid of viscosity 0.883 pascal-sec and speciﬁc gravity 1.26 is pumped along a horizontal pipe of 65 m long and 10 cm diameter at a ﬂow rate of 0.18m3 /sec. Determine the Reynolds Number and calculate the pressure loss in the pipe if the ﬂow is laminar. [8+8] 1 of 2

Code No: RR212101

Set No.3

[8+8]

7. (a) Sketch and explain the hydraulic gradient and total energy line for an inclined pipe and horizontal pipe discharging freely in atmosphere. (b) Write a note on power transmitter through popes.

8. (a) A pipe containing water at 172 kN/m2 pressure is connected by a diﬀerential gage to another pipe 1.5 m lower than the ﬁrst pipe and containing water at high pressure. If the diﬀerence in heights of the two mercury columns of the gage is equal to 75 mm, what is the pressure in the lower pipe? G of mercury = 13.6. (b) Obtain an expression for inclined manometer and explain its use. [8+8]

2 of 2

Code No: RR212101

Set No.4

1. (a) Give an example each where air can be treated as an incompressible ﬂuid and water has to be treated as compressible ﬂuid. Explain. (b) The bulk modulus of water is 210 KN/cm2 . What pressure is required to reduce its volume by 2%? Also prove that the increase in the mass density will be 2% only. [8+8] 2. (a) A stream function is deﬁned by ψ = X2 − Y 3 Show that the ﬂow cannot be a potential ﬂow. (b) Explain the characteristics of stream and velocity potential functions. [8+8] 3. (a) Derive Eulers equation of motion along a stream line. State assumptions made in the derivation. (b) In an inclined pipe of uniform diameter 25 cm, a pressure of 50 kPa was observed at section - 1 which was at elevation 10.0 m. At another section -2 at elevation 12.0 m the pressure was 20 kPa and the velocity was 1.25 m/s. Determine the direction of ﬂow and the head loss between these two sections. The ﬂuid in the pipe is water. [8+8] 4. (a) What forces inﬂuences the motion of (i) a ship (ii) a sub marine (iii)an aeroplane ﬂying at suspension speed. (b) Deﬁne and derive the expression for displacement thickness. (c) For laminar boundary layer on a ﬂat plate held parallel to a stream of uniform velocity, determine the location of the section where drag up to that section is twice the drag on remaining region. [4+8+4] 5. (a) What is the function of wind tunnel? (b) What is meant by stagnation point. Explain [8+8]

6. (a) Obtain an expression for the head loss in laminar ﬂow in a circular pipe. Also write down the equation for head loss due to laminar ﬂow between parallel plates and for ﬂow down an inclined plane. Give the Reynolds numbers up to which these equations are valid. (b) An oil of speciﬁc gravity 0.9 ﬂow at a rate of 0.2m3 /sec through a horizontal pipe of 7.5 cm diameter. The pressure drop is 400KN/m2 over 300m length of pipe. Find the viscosity of the oil. [8+8]

1 of 2

Code No: RR212101

Set No.4

[8+8]

7. (a) Sketch and explain the hydraulic gradient and total energy line for an inclined pipe and horizontal pipe discharging freely in atmosphere. (b) Write a note on power transmitter through popes.

8. (a) The rate of ﬂow of water in a 150mm diameter pipe is measured with a venturimeter with a 50mm dia. throat. When a mercury manometer is connected across the converging section reads 8mm, the ﬂow rate is 2.7 kg/s. What is the coeﬃcient of discharge at that ﬂow rate and what is permanent loss of head? Speciﬁc gravity of mercury = 13.6 (b) What is the device used for measuring ﬂuid pressure? Explain brieﬂy the principle of an inclined Manometer. [8+8]

2 of 2

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