Realizing an urgent need for a good introductory book on Islam, in
2002 we, the Muslim Students Organization of the City College of New
York, released our frst ever publication entitled “A Simple Message to
Mankind.” The success of this book eventually gave us enough initiative
to release our second publication “The Basics of Purifcation and Prayer
In Islam”, which was also received with great enthusiasm. Even after
supplies of both books fnished an over-whelming demand remained
thus making it necessary to release reprints of both books. After much
delay and procrastination we set out to revise “A Simple Message” to
fx any mistakes made earlier and to make any possible improvements.
After a few revisions we realized that there was much that needed to be
done and so instead of just a reprint we had to release a completely new
This new edition that you are holding contains new sections along with
a complete over-haul of the formatting and writing style. There are also
additional footnotes for the parts where we thought more clarity was
needed without breaking the fow of the text.
This booklet is an effort to say the truth about Islaam: to provide ac-
curate information, with suffcient proof from the Qur’aan, the Sunnah
(the sayings, actions and approvals of the Prophet Muhammad) and the
understanding of the frst three generations of righteous Muslims, the
only primary sources of Islaamic teachings. Hopefully the reader will
fnd this small booklet adequate enough to learn about: the similarities
and the differences between Islaam and other faiths, the Muslims’ rela-
tion with God and with their fellow man, and their life.
Our purpose is only to inform and educate. The right of acceptance
and judgment is left up to the reader. May Allaah bestow upon us all
His Guidance.
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All praise is due to Allaah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’Ala)
, we praise Him, and we
seek His Aid and His Forgiveness. We seek refuge in Allaah from the evils of our
own souls and the evils of our actions. Whomsoever Allaah guides, there is none
to misguide him, and whomsoever Allaah misguides there is none to guide. We
bear witness that there is none worthy of worship except Allaah, alone, without any
partners and we bear witness that Muhammad (Sal-Allaahu Alayhi Wa Sallam)
His Slave
and Messenger.
O you who believe! Fear Allaah as He should be feared, and
die not except in a state of Islaam with complete submission
to Allaah. (Soorah
Al-Imraan 3:102)
O mankind! Be dutiful to your Lord, Who created you from
a single person, and from him He created his wife, and from
both He created many men and women. And fear Allaah
through Whom you demand your mutual (rights), and (do
not cut the relationship of) the wombs (kinship). Surely, Al-
laah is Ever an All-Watcher over you. (Soorah An-Nisaa 4:1)
O you who believe! Keep your duty to Allaah and fear Him,
and speak the truth. He will direct you to do righteous good
deeds and will forgive you your sins. And whosoever obeys
Allah and His Messenger (Sal-Allaahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) has
indeed attained a great achievement. (Soorah Al-Ahzaab
1) We eliminate from our mind any imperfection for Him and He is Higher than anything we think
of Him.
2) May Allaah bestow upon him Prayers and Peace.
3)The word “Slave” must not be understood in any negative sense. Allaah is the Lord and Master
of all mankind, and it is incumbent upon all to obey Him. Indeed the term “Slave of Allaah” is the
greatest of titles for man and reduces all to equals instead of allowing him to call himself superior
to one another.
4) Soorah- A chapter of the Qur’aan, the word following it is the name and the numbers indicate
the number of the chapter and the relevant Verse(s).
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Verily, the most truthful of speech is the Book of Allaah and the best guidance is
the Guidance of Muhammad (Sal-Allaahu Alayhi Wa Sallam). And the worst of
matters are the things newly introduced into the religion, and every new thing is an
innovation (bid’ah), every innovation is misguidance and verily, every misguidance
is in the Hellfre.

To begin…
If a person were to look at the world we live in, he would fnd in it many groups and
nations upon different beliefs and cultures, all claiming to be upon the truth, yet
each distinct from the other. In this age of understanding and communication, it
has become important for us as Muslims, to be knowledgeable representatives of our
own faith and explain to others, about our beliefs and culture and the uniqueness
of our nation. Physically we are all human beings. We eat; sleep; talk and bleed just
like anyone else. What in reality makes us a world apart from others is the manner
of our obedience to Allaah in every facet of life.
We as Muslims, believe in Allaah as our Lord and Creator. Who is Allaah? Firstly,
let us clear up any misconception that may surround this. It is erroneous for people
to assert that “Allaah” is the God of the Muslim people. If there is only one God
it is ridiculous to claim that Muslims have a different God than others. Yet, the
name “Allaah” has a special status, as it is simply the Arabic way to refer to the
“One Absolute God”. It is also unique since, unlike in English, it does not ascribe to
God any gender or plurality. To accuse Muslims of worshipping a different God, is
like accusing a Spanish speaker of having a different God because he uses the word
“Dios” instead of “God”.
So the belief in Allaah is the central point of Islaam. This belief is actually com-
posed of certain pillars without which one’s belief in Allaah is incomplete and value-
less. They are essentially:
1. Belief in Allaah’s Existance (of course).
2. Affrmation that He is the Creator, Lord and Sustainer of all creation
3. Affrmation that He is the only One who has the right to be worshipped and none
else deserve any worship (Tawheed Al-Uloohiyyah).
5) The word “tawheed” means “oneness”, when mentioned singly, it encompasses all the branches
of tawheed mentioned herein.
4. Affrmation that He is the possessor of the Best names and Attributes and these
attributes must be believed in, as is without making fgurative interpretations, or as-
similations or distortions of their meanings (Tawheed Ul Asmaa Wa Sifaat).
These are the most essential and central beliefs of Islaam, to be a true Muslim, one
must totally submit to these principles with their heart, their speech and their limbs.
So in an attempt for clarity, let us further explore what these principles really mean
and how they are connected.
The Innate Belief in Allaah’s Existence
Muslims believe in the existence of One God, but that does not make us different
from any other nation. Every human being has an innate belief in the existence of
Allaah. Whether one affrms that with his lips or not is not an issue. When great
distress befalls a person, his heart makes him call out for Allaah and Him alone.
Even the most stubborn atheist calls out to Allaah if his parachute doesn’t open
while skydiving, and even the most rigorous polytheist forgets his multitude of gods
at such a time. All hope is put towards the One Allaah who created him, the One
he chose to neglect.
And when harm touches men, they cry sincerely only to their
Lord (Allaah), turning to Him in repentance, but when He gives
them a taste of His Mercy, behold! A party of them associate
partners in worship with their Lord. (Soorah Ar-Rum 30:33)
When harm touches man, he calls to Us (for help), then when
have (rescued him from that harm and) changed it into
a favor from Us, he says: “Only because of knowledge (that I
possess) I obtained it.” Nay, it is only a trial, but most of them
know not! (Soorah Az-Zumar 39:49)
So, as is evident from the above verses, with the sole exception of people who are
either self-deceiving or immature, all of mankind affrms the Oneness of their Lord
in relation to His existence. In Islaamic terminology this belief is known as Ta-
wheed-Ar-Ruboobiyyah, or the Affrmation of the Oneness of Allaah’s Lordship,
and every person affrms this whether knowingly or unknowingly. Thus, we con-
6) In many parts of the Qur’aan, Allaah refers to Himself in the plural. This is not in contradiction
to the concept of Oneness, since the reference to a plurality is to emphasize on ones majesty. This
is what in the English language is referred to as the royal “we”.
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clude that there are further criteria to determine somebody to be a Muslim other
than to affrm the existence of One Absolute God.
From the above verses we can also understand that Allaah is not fully appreciated
merely by the belief in His existence. A person of understanding will see that the
natural extension to this belief is that since his Lord and Creator is only One, then it
is obligatory for him to submit to His Will completely without any hesitation. This
is what differentiates the Muslim from the Non-Muslim.
Do they seek other than the religion of Allaah (Islaam),
while to Him submitted all creatures in the heavens and the
earth, willingly or unwillingly? And to Him shall they all be
returned. (Soorah Aali Imraan 3:83)
So it is this concept of absolute submission to the Will of Allaah that makes Mus-
lims unique in relation to other people and nations.
Total Submission to Allaah
A Muslim’s essence lies in his faith (emaan). This faith is defned as “belief in the
heart, its affrmation by the tongue, and the action on the limbs.” So in reality a
Muslim is a person who submits his mind, body and soul to the Will of Allaah, and
to none other, and it is the level of his submission that determines his quality as a
Muslim. Allaah’s Laws govern every single of his actions and feelings, and therefore
with the correct intention, every single of a Muslim’s actions can become acts of
worship. He keeps away from what Allaah has forbidden and is content with what
He has allowed. Upon realizing that Allaah alone has the right to be obeyed in every
facet of life that he affrms the second stage of submission, Tawheed-Al-Uloohiyyah
or the Affrmation of the Oneness of Allaah’s worship. Finally in completion of the
understanding of Tawheed, one must also affrm Allaahs Names and Attributes that
He had made known to us, in that we believe in all His Names as they should be
believed in and affrm all His attributes that He describes Himself without making
any assimilations nor distorting their meaning, nor by reinterpreting them. This is the
third catrgory of Tawheed called At-Tawheed ul Asmaa Wa Sifaat, i.e. Affrmation of
the Oneness of Allaah’s Named and Attributes. This third part is also the completion
of the knowledge of Allaah that He has allowed to us. To distort them is essentially
to accept a wrong belief regarding Allaah and His Uniqueness. These three categories
of Tawheed, once affrmed by a person, form the central part of one’s Islaam, from
which every other issue branches off. The strength of a person’s religion or lack thereof
is almost always due to his lack of the proper understanding of Tawheed.
Affrming the Oneness of Allaah in Worship
The whole creed
of Islaam can be concisely embodied in a few words known as the
“Testimony of faith” - “Laa ilaha illa Allaahu Muhammad ar-Rasool
Allaah” or “There is none worthy of Worship but Allaah, and Muhammad is His
Messenger”. In some places the above is often mistranslated to read, “There is no
God but Allaah”, but as explained earlier, although belief in Allaah’s existence is
mandatory, what Islaam stresses upon, is His Worship. Anyone who testifes to the
above with sincerity is a Muslim. To understand the concept of the Oneness of Wor-
ship, we have to take a closer look at these words.
In the frst part
of the “Testimony” we have both an affrmation and a negation and
both are necessary to realize the complete belief in the Oneness of Allaah. Firstly we
have a negation, i.e. “There is none worthy of worship (this is the negation part)…”
with this we are saying that we reject all things and beings that are worshipped and
obeyed. If one were to stop here and only take the negation part then he would be
an atheist, so it becomes necessary to proceed to the affrmation, “…but Allaah”. By
this we realize not only that we completely shun all deities and idols but that every
form of worship is only and exclusively for Allaah.
If we were to believe only in the affrmation and not the negation then we would be
inferring that we worship Allaah but do not reject other gods, i.e. worship is not ex-
clusively for Him (and this is known in Islaam as Shirk). The fnal part of the testi-
mony “and Muhammad is His Messenger”
serves as an instruction for who we are
to look to as the our guide for our lives, that the only way to realize this belief in the
correct way is to follow the example of the Prophet Muhammad (Sal-Allaahu Alayhi
7) Creed known as Aqeedah in Arabic, is the central belief system in Islaam, the backbone of the
religion on which everything else rests.
8) As a mentionable point, belief in “La ilaha illa Allaah” has 7 conditions; a) Knowledge(al-‘Ilm),
b) Certainty (al-Yaqeen), c) Sincerity (al-Ikhlaas) d) Truthfulness (as-Sidq) e)Love (al-Muhabbah)
f) Submission (Al-Inqiad) g) Acceptance (al-Qubool). For a better understanding of these points I
suggest the benefcial book by Shaikh Ubaid Al-Jaabiri “The Conditions of La ilaha illa Allaah.”
Available at
9) Belief in Muhammad (Sal-Allaahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) as a Messenger of Allaah also has its
conditions. They are, that a person,
a)affrms and attests to the truth of whatever he informed us of,
b) complies with what ever he had ordered us with
c) withholds himself from whatever he forbade and d)judges by the revealed laws (shariah) with
which he came with and is fully pleases with his judgment
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Wa Sallam). Under no circumstances whatsoever are Muslims allowed to worship
Muhammad or to ascribe to him any form of divine attributes, which would only
be a violation of the frst part of the “Testimony.”
Shirk and its categories
To understand the concept of Tawheed fully, it is essential to understand the op-
posite of it, i.e. Shirk. Shirk is to associate partners with Allaah though He alone has
the sole right to be worshipped, and it is mainly divided into three categories:
1. Major Shirk
2. Minor Shirk and
3. Hidden Shirk
Major Shirk
This type of Shirk, which is the most serious form, has four aspects:
a) Shirk-ad-du’aa, i.e. invoking, supplicating and praying to other than Allaah.
And when they embark on a ship, they invoke Allâh,
making their Faith pure for Him only, but when He
brings them safely to land, behold, they give a share of
their worship to others. (Soorah Al-Ankaboot 29:65)
b) Shirk-al-Niyyah wal-Iradah wal-Qasd, i.e. having the intention, or purpose or
determination to do acts of worship for other than Allaah.
Whosoever desires the life of the world and its glitter, to them
We shall pay in full (the wages of) their deeds therein, and
they will have no decrease therein They are those for whom
there is nothing in the Hereafter but Fire; and vain are the
deeds they did therein. And of no use is that which they used
to do. (Soorah Hood 11:15-16)
c) Shirk-At-Ta’ah, i.e. to render obedience to any authority against the Orders of Al-
laah, to consider the authority of others to be equal or greater than His.
10) Once when Allaah’s Messenger (Sal-Allaahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) was reciting this Verse, ‘Adi
bin Haatim (who was formerly a Christian) said, “O Messenger of Allaah! They do not worship
them (i.e. the rabbis and monks).” Allaah’s Messenger (Sal-Allaahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) said: “They
certainly do. They (the rabbis and monks) made the lawful things unlawful and made the unlawful
things as lawful, and they (the Jews and Christians) followed them; and by doing so they really
worshipped them.” (Ahmad, Tirmidhi)
They (Jews and Christians) took their rabbis and their
monks to be their lords besides Allaah, and (they also
took as their Lord) Messiah, son of Maryam (Mary),
while they (Jews and Christians) were commanded [in
the Tauraat (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel)] to worship
none but One Ilaah (God - Allaah) Laa ilaaha illa Huwa
(none has the right to be worshipped but He). Praise and
glory be to Him, (far above is He) from having the part-
ners they associate (with Him).” (Soorah At-Tawbah
d) Shirk-Al-Mahabbah, i.e. showing the love which is due to Allaah Alone to other
than Him.
And of mankind are some who take (for worship) others
besides Allaah as rivals (to Allaah). They love them as
they love Allaah. But those who believe love Allaah more
(than anything else). If only, those who do wrong could
see, when they will see the torment, that all power be-
longs to Allaah and that Allaah is Severe in Punishment.
(Soorah Al-Baqarah 2:165)
Minor Shirk
This is Ar-Riyaa’, i.e. doing acts of worship and righteous deeds simply for the pur-
pose of showing off, or to gain praise instead of making one’s worship solely for the
Pleasure of Allaah.
Surely, the hypocrites seek to deceive Allaah, but it is He
who deceives them. And when they stand up for prayer,
they stand without sincerity, (and only) to be seen of
men, but little do they hold Allaah in remembrance.
(Soorah An-Nisaa 4:142)
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Also an additional referrrence is available in the sayings of the Prophet.
“The thing that I fear most about you is that you fall into the minor shirk.” They (his com-
panions) asked, “Messenger of Allaah, what is the minor shirk?” he said “Ar-Riyaa’.”
Hidden Shirk
This is that a man becomes discontent with the condition Allaah has ordained for
him and he unconsciously laments and regrets his condition, aspiring to have more
in manner of worldly life.
So above we have listed the main ways a person commits Shirk with his Lord. Shirk
is not necessarily always open, and many a time even simple acts can be embodi-
ments of it. So, once we are able to identify any presence of Shirk within us, it be-
comes incumbent that we try to free ourselves from it. Fighting Shirk is a life long
struggle in an effort to ascertain that our worship is only for Allaah (Subhanahu
Wa Ta ’Ala).
The manifestations of Shirk in real life
To speak about a Muslim’s worship, we must again return to the many aspects of
Shirk that we spoke of; because now we will see and hopefully understand the way
a Muslim distances himself from Shirk.
Firstly, a Muslim invokes, supplicates, offers sacrifce and prays to none but Allaah
and directly to Him without the presence of any intercessors. The Muslim knows
that Allaah is the All-Hearing and All-Knowing and that He knows fully well the
need of His worshippers. The Muslim knows that Allaah is capable of doing all
things and that the millions of voices that cry out in different languages to Him do
not confuse Him nor do they distract Him from keeping His Command over every-
thing. Allaah is connected to His creation directly and there is no need for anyone
to come in between them to be either a translator or an intercessor. This is how a
Muslim distances himself from the Shirk-Ad-Du’aa.
In contrast we must look at the belief of the non-Muslims. In Hinduism and Ca-
tholicism, we have the manifestation of many gods and saints. They direct their
prayers to them in the belief that they will allow them to get closer to God. But
Allaah says otherwise:
Surely, the religion (i.e. the worship and the obedience)
is for Allaah only. And those who take Auliyaa (protec-
tors and helpers) besides Him (say): “We worship them
only that they may bring us near to Allaah.” Verily, Al-
laah will judge between them concerning that wherein
they differ. Truly, Allaah guides not him who is a liar,
and a disbeliever. (Soorah Az-Zumar 39:3)
So Allaah rejects their insincere argument with His Words, and in fact shows them to
be liars who are in reality degrading Allaah by making such claims.To think that by
worshipping or invoking others one would gain closeness to Allaah is the same to say
that Allaah is unable to hear them, or similarly incapable of providing for His slaves.
We also see other ways by which Shirk-ad-du’aa is committed by many who profess
to be monotheists. Among these are the ideas of Trinitarian Christians who believe
that Allaah is three and one at the same time. They profess to the Oneness of Al-
laah but when they pray, they pray to Eesa (Jesus) (Sal-Allaahu Alayhi Wa Sallam),
even though their frst Commandment forbids them from considering anyone other
than Allaah to be God. Not only that, but since no one is really able to explain this
concept of the Trinity, people just accept it out of blind faith, disregarding the con-
fusion that arises from such a belief. Surely, Allaah is not the author of confusion.
Allaah mentions those who consider Him to be part of this Trinitarian concept:
O people of the Scripture! Do not exceed the limits in
your religion, nor speak of Allaah anything but the truth.
The Messiah Eesa (Jesus), son of Maryam (Mary), was
(no more than) an Messenger of Allaah and His Word,
(“Be!” –and he was) which He bestowed on Maryam,
and a spirit created by Him; so believe in Allaah and
His Messengers. Say not: “Three (trinity)!” Cease! (It is)
better for you. For Allaah is (the only) One God, Glory be
to Him (Far Exalted is He) above having a son. To Him
belong all that is in the Heavens and all that is in the
earth. And Allaah is All Suffcient as a Disposer of af-
fairs. (Soorah An-Nisaa 4:171)
11) Ahmad and at-Tabarani
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Surely the ones who hide (the Truth) are those who say:
“Allaah is the third of the three (in an trinity).” But there
is no divinity but the One God. And if they cease not from
what they say, verily, a painful torment will befall on the
disbelievers among them. (Soorah Al-Maaidah 5:73)
Indeed we see even in the Biblical texts proof that Eesa (Jesus) (Sal-Allaahu Alayhi
Wa Sallam) himself prayed and invoked a God
. So how is it that the Christians
hold this belief? Indeed Eesa (Jesus) (Sal-Allaahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) will be called
out to be a witness against those who lied against him.
And (remember) when Allaah will say (on the Day of Resurrection): “O Eesa (Je-
sus), son of Maryam (Mary)! Did you say unto men: ‘Worship me and my mother
as two gods besides Allaah?’” He will say: “Glory be to You! It was not for me to say
what I had no right (to say). Had I said such a thing, You would have surely known
it. You know what is in my inner-self though I do not know what is in Yours; truly
You, only You, are the All knower of all that is hidden (and unseen).”
“Never did I say to them anything except what You did
command me to say: ‘Worship Allaah, my Lord and
your Lord.’ And I was a witness over them while I dwelt
amongst them, but when you took me up, You were a
Watcher over them; and You are a witness to all things.
(Soorah Al-Maadiah 5:116-117)
So, Jesus (Sal-Allaahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) himself will be a witness against those
who held the Trinitarian beliefs.
Also included in this is the concept of ascribing divinity or divine attributes to
Allaah’s creation. Such that among the Catholics we have people who are forgiven
for their sins by their own priests and the overall Christian belief that one is auto-
matically saved if they accept Eesa (Jesus) (Sal-Allaahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) as their
lord and savior (May Allaah protect Eesa from this horrible slander). So we fnd
among these people who commit great sins with the belief that if they “confess” or
are “baptized” or whatever rituals they may have, that they are saved from the tor-
ment of the Hell fre and shall not be called to account. But Allaah says:
On the Day when Allaah will resurrect them all together
and inform them of what they did. Allaah has kept Ac-
count of it, while they have forgotten it. And Allaah is
Witness over all things. (Soorah Al-Mujadilah 58:6)
The matter of seeking forgiveness and repentance to another other than Allaah is
also a part of Shirk Ad-Duaa’. Jews believe that the whole Jewish race will enter
Heaven and some will be only in Hell for a while to be purifed. Christians for the
most part believe that the sins of mankind are so great that Allaah is in need of a
perfect sacrifce to pay for them. So He sent His only “son” Jesus (Far exalted is he
from such slander), so that he may carry the burden of our sins. Hindus believe in
reincarnation, i.e. we are reborn in accordance to the deeds we do in a previous life.
Let us contrast this with the Islaamic concept.
Indeed Allaah describes Himself as the Most Merciful, and we as Muslims believe
this. No sin is too great for our Lord to forgive (with the sole exception of Shirk,
which denies His sole right to be worshipped
). Indeed a narration of the Prophet
is as such:
“Allaah, the Most High, said, ‘O son of Aadam! As long as you supplicate to Me, and
hope in Me, I will forgive you what you have done and I do not care. O son of Aadam!
If your sins were to reach the lofty regions of the sky, then you asked Me for forgiveness,
I would forgive you. O son of Aadam! If you were to come to Me with enough sins to fll
the earth, but you met Me, not associating anything with Me in worship - I would bring
you the like of it of forgiveness.

So a Muslim is ever hopeful in Allaah, for His Forgiveness. Verily, Allaah is not
incapable of forgiving any amount of sins committed by His slaves, as long as they
turn in sincere repentance to Him and are determined to leave that sin, and even
if they return to that sin, the doors of repentance
are still open and the slave may
keep asking Allaah for forgiveness. Indeed Allaah says in the Qur’aan:
13) We don’t want to give the impression that Shirk is absolutely unforgivable, such that once its
committed, then there’s no hope. A person is judged by what he or she dies upon. If they die with shirk
in their hearts then they are destined to punishment. If they repent from the shirk they committed
and turn to Allaah in true submission, then insha’Allaah, Allaah will accept their repentance and
forgive their misgivings.
14) Tirmidhi
15) The words “sincere repentance” are the key words here. There are some conditions for the
repentance of a believer to be accepted. Among them; the person must feel remorse and guilt
after doing the sin, the person must be sincere in his repentance, the person must intend and be
determined to leave the act completely, etc
12) There are too many places in the Bible where is clear as daylight that Jesus (Sal-Allaahu Alayhi
Wa Sallam) is not God and in fact himself worshipped Allaah. Here are a few references: Matthew
14:23, John 9:4, John 11:41-42, John 13:44-50, John 13:16, John 14:24, John 14:28, John 15:31.
Keep searching, there are tons more!
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Say, ‘O My servants who have transgressed greatly
against themselves through sins! Do not despair of the
Mercy of Allaah. Indeed Allaah forgives all sins to those
who repent. Indeed He is the Oft-Forgiving, the Most
Merciful. (Soorah az-Zumar 39:54)
Allaah tells us not to “despair in His Mercy” because He is telling us that no matter
how immense the sin, He is still able to forgive all if His servant sincerely turns to
Him. He is not in need of any intermediary or holy men for our repentance to be
acceptable; certainly He is All-Hearing and All-Seeing; The All-Knowing and The
Most Merciful, and The One Capable of Everything.
A Muslim is fully obedient to Allaah. He refrains from what He has made prohib-
ited (haraam) and contents himself with what has been made permissible (halaal).
He has to make sure that his earnings do not come from means which Allaah has
made prohibited, such as by the selling of forbidden objects or from interest (riba),
or that which is earned by deception and stealing. The limits that have been set
by Allaah are the limits of the Muslim and even technicalities are refrained from
in trying to bypass His Laws. By this principle, there is no obedience due to any
creation if it requires disobedience to the Creator. This is the Muslim’s negation of
And the contrast of this among the non-Muslims is the example of the Jews and
Christians, who are recipients of the Scripture. But they changes and played around
with the words in them such that they made the forbidden allowed and the al-
lowed, forbidden (this has already been alluded to in the section on the categories
of shirk).
We fnd also a strange policies among Catholics that their priests are forbidden from
marriage ties, even though marriage is something allowed and encouraged by Al-
laah, so essentially they are giving their loyalty to other than the Orders of Allaah.
Similarly the Jews are forbidden to engage in usury, but they distorted the meaning
such that they don’t engage in it among themselves, but allow it between them and

They (think to) deceive Allaah and those who believe,
while they only deceive themselves, and perceive (it)
not! (Soorah Al-Baqarah 2:9)
And argue not on behalf of those who deceive themselves.
Verily, Allaah does not like anyone who is a betrayer of
his trust, and indulges in crime. (Soorah An-Nisa 4:107)
And truly those who try to betray Allaah are the greatest of the Losers on the Day
of Judgment.
Al-Ibaadah (worship) and its principles
Just as Shirk has its branches and principles, worship (ibaadah) too has its principles.
The word ibaadah in Arabic is a very comprehensive term that embodies the knowl-
edge of everything that Allah loves and is pleased with, and then enacting them in
terms of belief, words and actions, be they apparent or hidden. As a result, our salaah
(ritual prayer); our zakaah (compulsory charity of a part of a person’s wealth to the
needy); fasting (Refraining from food, drink and sexual intimacy from dawn to sunset
in the month of Ramadhaan); hajj (Pilgrimage to the Holy city of Makkah and the
observances of the rites and rituals involved); being truthful in speech; commanding
the good; forbidding the evil; fulflling one’s trust; kindness towards ones parents;
maintaining relations with kin; fulflling ones pledges; being kind and dutiful to the
orphans, the poor, the traveler, the slave or an animal; du’aa (supplication); dhikr
(remembrance of Allaah); recitation of the Qur’aan; Jihaad
(struggling); these are
all types of worship.
Likewise is the case regarding loving Allaah and His Messenger (Sal-Allaahu Alayhi
Wa Sallam); reverence of Allaah; turning to Him in repentance; turning to Him
for help; being sincere in the religion for His sake only; being patient and content
regarding His Decree and Judgment; being grateful for His Favors; having absolute
trust in Him; hoping in His Mercy; fearing His Punishment and all its like are in-
cluded in the Islaamic concept of worship
16) Many non-Muslims and even many Muslims have deviated from the correct understanding of
Jihaad. Jihaad is to strive to implement the tenets of Islaam in ones life and in society in general.
The basic concept of Jihaad is that it should be a way to command the good and forbid the evil,
either by ones hand, or by speech or at least by feeling in the heart. Although armed struggle is a
part of Jihaad, it is a last resort, and there are huge restrictions on who may or may not be fought
against. Oppression and faith are two things that cannot co-exist in a believer. Terrorism, suicide
bombings, revolutions, etc. are all forms of oppression, regardless of how some people may attempt
to label them as forms of Jihaad. May Allaah destroy those who deceive the people by preaching
oppression as forms of Jihaad.
17) Ibn Taymiyyah, “Ibn Taymiyyah’s Essay on Servitude”: Translation of “Al-Uboodiyah” . Avail-
able at
Fage 1ë Fage 17
Hopefully the above has been a good enough example of how expansive “worship”
is in Islaam. But there are of course certain principles to be followed. Two principles
in fact:
1. That we worship none other but Allaah.
2. That we do not worship Him with anything except that which He has legislated
upon us to worship him with i.e. we worship him according to the way that He has
prescribed for us, and not with our own innovated ways.
We have already provided some clarifcation regarding the frst point, so let us take a
deeper look into the meaning of the second point. In order for us to worship Allaah,
we must know what are the ways that He considers to be worship. To know this it is
essential that we have to fnd out the sources for His Words and commands, and thus
we have to locate those Sources of revelation which are accurate and authentic.
Sources of Revelation
Sifting through the many religious books is not a minute matter. There are many
religious books in the world belonging to many religions. There is the Bible, and the
Torah and the Talmud and the Hindu texts and the Buddhist texts, the Commu-
nists Red Book
, the Nazi “Mein Kampf ”, Darwin’s “The Origin of Species” etc.
How do we determine, which is right? The method we will use is actually a simple
but defnite one.
Since we know that Allaah wants us to know his commands, revelation will not be
something mystical or hidden. If something is from Allaah He will undoubtfully
declare it to be His. Bearing this in mind we can immediately exclude the books
that are not claimed to be from Allaah. Only three religions on earth make this
claim, Judaism, Christianity and Islaam. Now we must use a second test. That of
authenticity. Which book has been preserved in its entirety from its claimed Author?
Neither the Torah nor the Bible has been preserved by the people claiming to be
their followers
. To date, their authenticity is debated among their own scholars. So
for a non-Jew or non-Christian, it is even easier to reject them as non-divine. In fact
20) This is something agreed upon by most Biblical scholars, most of them even put the time further
back up to 60-100 years. For further reference regarding this matter consult the Encyclopedia Bri-
tannica under “Bible”. We prefer to give it the beneft of the doubt and put down 40 years
what has occurred is that, not only were the original teachings not preserved, but
they have also been perverted or changed otherwise to give a different interpretation
or report than what was originally recorded.
Do you (faithful believers) covet that they will believe
in your religion in spite of the fact that a party of them
(Jewish rabbis) used to hear the Word of Allaah [the Tau-
raat (Torah)], then they used to change it knowingly af-
ter they understood it? (Soorah Al-Baqarah 2:75)
And regarding the Gospel that was revealed to Jesus (Sal-Allaahu Alayhi Wa Sal-
lam), then it doesn’t exist even in his own language (Aramaic), but what exists how-
ever, is the New Testament, which comprises of Greek texts that were written more
than 40 years after his ascension
Furthermore, even in the early days as well as now, people who used to write or
interpret the Torah and the Bible, used to change them to accommodate a person
(who committed a punishable crime, or cannot commit one because of laws forbid-
ding it) who paid them for that purpose. We are seeing some examples of this in
our times when we hear that although homosexuality has always been known as a
grievous crime according to Early Christianity and Judaism, certain new scholars
have changed the meanings of these verses so that they seem not to be attacking
homosexuality directly. Indeed, their fate will be dark on the Day of Torment.
And believe in what I have sent down (this Qur’aan), confrming that which is with
you, [the Tauraat and the Injeel ], and be not the frst to disbelieve therein, and buy
not with My Verses [the Tauraat and the Injeel] a small price (i.e. getting a small
gain by selling My Verses), and fear Me and Me Alone. (Soorah Al-Baqarah 2:41)
Then woe to those who write the Book with their own
hands and then say, “This is from Allaah,” to purchase
with it a little price! Woe to them for what their hands
have written and woe to them for that they earn thereby.
(Soorah Al-Baqarah 2:79)
18) We do not consider religions just to be that which adhere to divine laws. Any belief system is
itself a religion.
19) Muslims believe that the Taurat (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel), in their original form were true
revelations of Allaah to Moses and Jesus respectively, but due to the extent of changes the modern
day Torah and Bible have gone under they are no longer considered to be divine, and may in fact
only retain fractions of the original Revelation.
Fage 18 Fage 19
Now let us examine our third choice, the Qur’aan. For more than 1400 years this
Book has stood the test of time. Not one word or letter has changed. This preser-
vation of this book is so complete that even now, we have hundreds of thousands
of people who have all of it memorized by heart all over the world. Indeed Allaah
Himself has Promised to preserve this book from any corruption.
Verily We: It is We Who have sent down the Dhikr (i.e.
the Qur’aan) and surely, We will guard it (from corrup-
tion). (Soorah Al-Hijr 15:9)
Actually, of these three books, only the Qur’aan claims directly that it is a revelation
from Allaah.
O mankind! There has come to you a good advice from
your Lord (i.e. the Qur’aan, ordering all that is good and
forbidding all that is evil), and a healing for that (disease
of ignorance, doubt, hypocrisy and differences, etc.) in
your breasts, - a guidance and a mercy (explaining law-
ful and unlawful things, etc.) for the believers. (Soorah
Yunus 10:57)
Furthermore, Allaah issues a challenge to mankind in the Qur’aan to write some-
thing similar to it. And this challenge has stood to date and will stand until the Day
of Judgment.
Say: “If mankind and the jinns were together to produce
the like of this Qur’aan, they could not produce the like
thereof, even if they helped one another.” (Soorah Al-
Isra 17:88)
Or do they say: “He (Muhammad (Sal-Allaahu Alayhi Wa
Sallam)) has forged it?” Say: “Bring then a Soorah (chap-
ter) like unto it, and call upon whomsoever you can, be-
sides Allaah, if you are truthful!” (Soorah Yunus 10:38)
So the challenge issued has even been reduced without avail; and it might interest
a person to know that the smallest soorah in the Qur’aan is only three verses long.
Yet no one has been able to meet this challenge nor will they be able to till the Last
Do they not then consider the Qur’aan carefully? Had
it been from other than Allaah, they would surely have
found therein many contradictions. (Soorah An-Nisaa
So, as Allaah Himself states, even if man were to exhaust himself trying to fnd
contradictions in the Qur’aan he will only meet with failure So what does Allaah
say about the Qur’aan?
Verily, this Qur’aan guides to that which is most just
and right and gives glad tidings to the believers, who
work deeds of righteousness, that they shall have a great
reward (Paradise). (Soorah Al-Isra 17:9)
And We send down from the Qur’aan that which is a
healing and a mercy to those who believe (in Islaamic
Monotheism and act on it), and it increases the Zaali-
moon (polytheists and wrong-doers) nothing but loss.
(Soorah Al-Isra 17:82)
And indeed We have put forth every kind of example in
this Qur’aan, for mankind. But, man is ever more quar-
relsome than anything. (Soorah Al-Kahf 18:54)
Therefore, know that no one rejects the Qur’aan but he rejects Allaah’s Greatest
Blessing, His Guidance and His Wisdom. And to help us gain the proper under-
standing and implementation of His Commands, He has sent us a guide in the
person of Muhammad (Sal-Allaahu Alayhi Wa Sallam), His Last Prophet and Mes-
senger to mankind.
Truly, you (O Muhammad (Sal-Allaahu Alayhi Wa Sal-
lam)) are one of the Messengers, On a Straight Path (i.e.
on Allaah’s religion of Islaam). (Soorah Ya-Seen 36:3-4)
Indeed in the Messenger of Allaah (Muhammad (Sal-Al-
laahu Alayhi Wa Sallam)) you have a good Example to
follow for him who hopes in (the Meeting with) Allaah
and the Last Day and remembers Allaah much. (Soorah
Al-Ahzab 33:21)
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And when Our Clear Verses are recited unto them, those
who hope not for their meeting with Us, say: Bring us a
Qur’aan other than this, or change it. “Say (O Muham-
mad (Sal-Allaahu Alayhi Wa Sallam)): “It is not for me
to change it on my own accord; I only follow that which
is revealed unto me. Verily, I fear if I were to disobey my
Lord, the torment of the Great Day (the Day of Resurrec-
tion).” (Soorah Yunus 10:15)
Say (O Muhammad (Sal-Allaahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) to
mankind): “If you (really) love Allaah then follow me,
Allaah will love you and forgive you of your sins. And
Allaah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” (Soorah Aali
Imraan 3:31)
And whatsoever the Messenger (Muhammad (Sal-Allaa-
hu Alayhi Wa Sallam)) gives you, take it, and whatsoever
he forbids you, abstain (from it), and fear Allaah. Verily,
Allaah is Severe in punishment. (Soorah Al-Hashr 59:7)
So hopefully the above makes it more than clear the status of the Prophet (Sal-Al-
laahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) and the authority that he has in Islaam. So it goes without
saying that the sources of Allaah’s Revelation are two. The Qur’aan, which is His
Word, and the teachings of Muhammad (Sal-Allaahu Alayhi Wa Sallam), which are
the enactments and explanation of the Word, which are collectively known as the
Sunnah. We do not say that the Qur’aan preceeds the Sunnah, rather, we say they
complement each other, since they are both forms of revelation emanating from the
same Source.
Leaving Innovations (Bid’ah)
When we have the authentic revelation with us and are able to refer to them easily,
it is nonsensical to think that we are in need of further means of worship that we
actually conceive from our own intellects. As far as history has shown people wor-
ship their deities in many different ways, from simple supplication (du’aa) to such
grotesque forms as self-mutilation and human sacrifce. Consequently, the human
intellect is not capable of determining what is proper and what is not, in relation to
the Choices of Allaah. Surely, it is not religion if the end justifes the means used.
We must ensure that any form of worship that we perform, comply with His orders,
or else, no matter how sincere our intent, all will be lost and made useless. Allaah
has stated clearly in the Qur’aan:
21) Abu Dawood, Tirmidhee and An-Nasaa’ee
22) Bukhaari & Muslim
This day, I have perfected your religion for you, com-
pleted My Favor upon you, and have chosen for you Is-
laam as your religion. (Soorah Maaidah 5:3)
So that which is already perfect has no need of any additions or deletions. Rather
such changes will only cause dissention among people and cause them to forget real
parts of the religion while they hold on to their own innovations. Every innovation
that is introduces into the religion causes only to remove a sunnah. This is why in
Islaam every innovation is rejected and every innovator is fought against, as per the
saying of the Prophet (Sal-Allaahu Alayhi Wa Sallam):
“I warn you of the newly invented matters (in the religion),and every newly invented
matter is an innovation, and every innovation is misguidance, and every misguidance
is in the Hellfre”

Infact, the innovator is seen as a bigger source of harm to the religion than even the
unbelievers. Someone who innovates may imagine that he is doing something ben-
efcial when in fact he is merely diverting the people from the proper way of worship.
Innovation in the religion may arise for many reason from them being:
a) Ignoring the religion,
b) Obeying ones own desires,
c) Following popular opinions,
d) Imitating the non-Muslims;
but the most common reason is the inability to understand the Qur’aan and the
Sunnah, or having a total misunderstanding of them. So the only way to success-
fully battle innovations and to protect the religion from them, is to obtain the cor-
rect understanding regarding the religion. To do this we have to know the people
who are the carriers of this knowledge, we have to know the Scholars of Islaam, the
Looking Back for Guidance
Having confrmed the two main sources of revelation we have to further probe into
the methodology of understanding them. The Qur’aan was revealed to the Prophet
(Sal-Allaahu Alayhi Wa Sallam), who in turn related it to his companions, and they
to their students and so on and so forth. It is related in a Hadeeth of the Prophet
(Sal-Allaahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) that he said:
“The best of people is my generation, then those who come after them, then those who
come after them (i.e. the frst three generations of Muslims).”
Fage 22 Fage 23
So in keeping with the theme of the Hadeeth, we should understand that the ones
who understood the Qur’aan and the Sunnah best are the Prophet and his compan-
ions (The Sahabah) and then their students (the Tabieen) and then their students
(the Taabi-Tabieen). These three generations are known as the Salaf-us-Saalih or
the Pious Predecessors, and to attain a correct understanding of any issue Islaam,
it is obligatory to look into the way they understood that issue. To stray from their
methodology and blindly-following any other methodology is a surefre way to mis-
guidance, and every misguidance is in the hellfre.
Knowing the Carriers of Knowledge
Without a shadow of doubt, all of those people whom we described as the Salaf-
us-Saalih are dead. So does that mean that we have no more people in our days
and time from whom we can seek knowledge, and who can help us understand the
Qur’aan and Sunnah, and relate to us their wise understanding of these sources? Of
course we do.
The knowledge of the Salaf-us-Saalih has been passed on to their students, and they
on to theirs, so that even now, we have people who have gained their knowledge
through this chain. These people are known as the ulema (scholars).
Now becoming an alim (sing. of ulema), is not a simple task. It is not like one attains
a Ph.D and is recognized as a scholar. No person is given the authority to narrate
from his teacher until and unless the teacher himself verifes the thoroughness of
the student. An alim is one who follows only the guidance of the Salaf-us-Saalih in
interpreting and understanding the Qur’aan and the Sunnah, as well as adhering
strictly to the precepts and creed that they believed, both in his faith and action.
Throughout history we have had many thousands of scholars who helped to pass
on the knowledge of this religion in its authentic form to the masses and protecting
it from corruption from both ideas foreign to Islaam as well as innovations created
and seen as a part of Islaam.
So to seek knowledge, it is obligatory for those who are able, to stick to the major
scholars of his time, or if not, then taking from what one can from their writings
and narrations.
A brief list of major scholars of past and present are as such:
Abu Hanifah (150 AH
), Al-Awzai (157 AH), Ath-Thawri (161AH), Al Laith ibn
Saad (175 AH), Malik (179 AH), Abdullah ibn al-Mubarak (181 AH), Sufyan ibn
Uyainah (198 AH), Ash-Shaf’i (204 AH), Ishaq (238 AH), Ahmed bin Hanbal
(241 AH), Al-Bukhari (256 AH), Muslim (261 AH), Abu Dawood (275 AH) Ibn
Taymiyyah (728 AH), and his students: Adh-Dhahabi (748 AH), Ibn al-Qayyim
(751 AH), Ibn Katheer (774 AH), Muhammed bin ‘Abd al-Wahhab (1206 AH) and
many of his students.
And in our time: Abdul Aziz bin Baaz (1420 AH), Muhammed bin Saalih Uthai-
meen (1421 AH), Naasir-ud-Deen al-Albaani (1420 AH), Muqbil Al-Wadiee (1422
AH), Rabee Al-Madkhali, Saalih Fawzaan, Muhsin Abbaad and others of their
Note also, that due to the high stature of these major scholars, whomever they give
approval as being a scholar is also counted from among them. So it is incumbent
upon every Muslim to know who the major scholars are in his time, and to stick to
them as people of guidance
The Intention (An-Niyyah)
So far we have covered the principles of worship, the principles of Shirk, the concept
of innovation and from where we are to gain our knowledge of the religion. Having
hopefully, empowered ourselves with this knowledge we now have to understand
another issue without which a persons worship becomes invalid. To call this issue
“very important” would be an understatement, for it is the pillar of every action
and belief. This most invaluable thing is, the intention. Verily the Prophet (Sal-Al-
laahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) spoke of a man’s intention, in his very famous narration,
as such:
Verily, every action is by the intention behind it
23) Dates are the dates of death in the Islaamic calendar. Roughly 575 years should be added for
its C.E. equivalent.
24) In our day and time we even have ignorants calling themselves, and being called “scholars”,
the likes of Yusuf Qardawi, Sayid Qutb, Salman Al-Awdah, Hamza Yusuf, etc. So it is important
that we familiarize ourselves with the creed and belief of the Salaf-us-saalih, so that we may never,
insha’Allaah be misguided by the like of these “wolves in sheep’s clothing”.
25) Bukhaari
Fage 21 Fage 25
So this establishes a great principle that every action is determined by the intent be-
hind it. So apart from refraining from innovated means to worship Allaah a Muslim
must also be clear in the intention to perform the act purely for the sake of Pleasing
Loyalty (Al-Walaa) and Disassociation (Al-Baraa)
One principle that follows on from knowing the truth of Tawheed and the falsehood
of Shirk is that every Muslim must have love and loyalty towards other Believers
and similarly have hatred
for those who oppose and reject the message of Islaam.
This is the example the Prophets and the Messengers have set for us, as Ibraheem is
described in the Qur’aan.
There is for you and excellent example (to follow) in Ibra-
heem and those whith him, when they said to their peo-
ple, “We are free from you and of whatever you worship
besides Allaah. We have rejected you. And between us and
you is enmity and hatred forever unless you believe in Al-
laah, and Him alone. (Soorah Al-Mumtahinah 60:4)
Allaah also states further in the Qur’aan:

O you who believe! Take not My enemies and your en-
emies as Awliyaa (close friends, protectors). (Soorah Al-
Mumtahinah 60:1)
And as a further description of those who are the true believers:
You will not fnd any people that believe in Allaah and
the Last Day loving those who oppose Allaah and His
Messenger, even though they were their fathers, sons,
brothers or relatives.(Soorah Al-Mujaadilah 58:22)
Therefore what follows on from the above verses is that a Muslim loves the Prophets;
the righteous ones loved by Allaah; the sincere followers of the Prophets; the mar-
tyrs; the pious; - since they carry out that which Allaah loves and so he loves them
for Allaah and this is indeed the highest and most complete attainment of love.
Furthermore, he hates the disbelievers, the hypocrites and the people who strive to
introduce corruption into the religion, only because Allaah Himself has hated them.
From this concept hatred and rejection is to refrain from imitating the ways and
culture of the disbelievers, as in imitating them in their lingo, clothing
, because
imitation is simply an indication of love for them or their ways. Also Muslims are
forbidden to reside in their lands unless he has a valid reason justifed in the Shariah.
This disassociation also includes avoiding seeking the aid of the kuffaar, and placing
them in a position over Muslims or by helping them against other Muslims, and to
reject celebrating or greeting them on their holidays.
Indeed, when a person‘s heart loves or hates something, his limbs and tongue and
private parts act in accordance to that feeling, so what higher love is there than to
love and hate only, and only for the sake of Allaah? So whoever has managed to do
this, then Allaah is most suffcient for him and is the most excellent Protector.
Worship For Every Instance-Du’aa
Most people know that Muslims observe their ritual prayers, fve times a day. This
allows the Muslim to be in touch with his Lord throughout the day. Then there is
fasting, paying the zakaah (a part of a Muslims wealth given to the poor as a char-
ity), performing the hajj (the Pilgrimage to Makkah). Apart from these obligatory
acts of worship, Allaah has revealed to us voluntary acts that may allow us to cover
up the shortcomings in the obligatory acts and thereby gain a further closeness to
Him. One of these acts, which can keep a Muslim in constant touch with his Lord
is the du’aa.
The Prophet Muhammad (Sal-Allaahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) described the du’aa as
26) Hatred in Islaam is not to be understood as a blind form of rage. Allaah (Subhaanahu wa
Ta’aala) says:
{Allaah does not forbid you to be kind and just with those who have neither made war on your
religion nor driven you from your homes. Allaah loves those who are just and equitable}, [Soorah
al-Mumtahinah, 60:8].
Dealing with people unjustly is prohibited. Even with the rights of non-Muslims, it is not permitted
for us to deal with them unjustly and with oppression. As for the many forms of injustice going on
today in the form of killings, suicide-bombings, torture, etc. is not from the religion of Islaam but
merely ignorant people following either corrupt and deviant leaders and their ideologies, or fol-
lowing their own desires and emotions. Even though jihad may take the form of armed battle as a
last resort, it has its rules in which it is defnitely forbidden to be unjust and oppressive. Faith and
oppression can never reside in the heart of a believer. May Allaah protect His religion from the taint
and corruption of these individuals and groups.
27) A Muslim should not imitate the disbelieves to the extent that they cannot be distinguished from
one another. Also the Muslim must avoid dressing in ways that are particular to other religions or
have no purpose except symbolic, like ties, crosses, suits, etc.
Fage 2ë Fage 27
“Indeed du’aa is (the essence of) worship.”
So what is du’aa? Du’aa is to invoke and supplicate to ones Lord; it is similar to what
Christians call “prayer” except without the presence of Shirk.
Du’aa, in a way, is the greatest form of worship. It is a heartful plea of a believer
towards Allaah- the Hearer of all things, the Knower of all secrets. Through du’aa
a believer is admitting to his weakness and helplessness, and his absolute neediness
for the aid of Allaah. It is an implicit affrmation of every single Name and Attribute
of Allaah, for it affrms that Allaah is the Creator, the Sustainer, the Controller of
all Affairs, the Hearer, the Seer, the Merciful, the Great, the All-Powerful, the Ever-
Capable. The concept of du’aa requires complete submission to Allaah, and perfect
recognition of His right to be worshipped. It reminds man of his proper status of a
poor, created being, who has no control of any matter by himself, rather, he is the
one who is under Allaah’s Command. It is a confrmation and attestation from the
worshipper that he is in need of his Creator at every instance, and that Allaah is
independent of any need from him. He is in constant need of guidance from his
Lord, and this is indeed the most important of his needs, and the most noble of his
wants. His need for his Lord is more than his need for food, drink and air, since it
is He after all who provides all this and more.
Du’aa is indeed the essence of worship. This can be seen by imagining the condition
of one making du’aa- a worshipper repenting from his sins, humbled in front of his
Lord, in a state of fear, submitting himself to the Will of Allaah, earnestly desiring
Allaah’s rewards, raising his hands, turning to Allaah with the best of hopes upon
Him, exemplifying the statement of Allaah:
Verily, they used to hasten to do good deeds, and they
used to make du’aa to Us with hope and fear, and used to
humble themselves before Us. (Soorah Al-Anbiya 21:90)
The person makes du’aa, keeping in mind the promise that Allaah has given him,
hopeful of achieving that promise:
And your Lord has stated: Make du’aa to Me, I will (sure-
ly) respond to you. Verily, those who are too arrogant
to worship Me will entire the Fire of Hell, humiliated.
(Soorah Ghaafr 40:6)
In fact, du’aa is the heart of worship, and its foundation. It is the crux of ones rela-
tionship with Allaah, for it demonstrates, in clear and certain terms, the inherent
helplessness of man, and his continual, desperate need of the Most Merciful.
And how expansive is the du’aa! The Prophet (Sal-Allaahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) has
taught us a du’aa for almost every moment in our lives. There is a du’aa for the new-
born, a du’aa when something is lost, or when a person is in great distress; there is
du’aa for before and after eating, and even for putting on new clothes. Even before
one has intimate relations with his spouse there is a du’aa to be said. There are even
du’aa to be recited when a person enters and exits the toilet. So worship is something
that a Muslim can be embodied in throughout the whole of his day, for every mo-
ment he wishes.
Other Acts of Worship
Other aspects of belief that are embodied within the Muslim’s concept of worship
are: To believe that only Allaah grants us protection from harm and nothing harms
us except by His Permission. This is contrary to the belief of superstitious people,
who believe that certain objects are lucky and can protect a person from harm and
bring him good luck. Also the one who wears an amulet or talisman thinking that it
has the power to protect him from what ever it is meant to protect him from negates
this idea. A Muslim also does not take a vow except by other than Allaah, since a
vow too is an act of worship that becomes binding upon a believer. A Muslim seeks
refuge and help from none other than Allaah, because He is All Powerful, and Able
to do all things. A Muslim seeks forgiveness from none other than Allaah and asks
for his needs from none other than Allaah.
Furthermore, when a Muslim abstains from eating food forbidden by Allaah pure-
ly for the reason of obedience, that is worship. When a woman wears the Hijaab
(clothing covering the whole body), and she does it because this is the Command
of Allaah, not because she is forced or her culture makes her; that is worship. When
a Muslim refuses to shake the hand of a person of the opposite sex, it is not out of
rudeness that he or she does so, but because Allaah forbids it. When a person advises
and helps a fellow Muslim or another human being do something righteous and
helps keep him from wrong, because he knows that it is the Will of Allaah, that is
considered worship. Indeed any action done in accordance with the Command of
Allaah, only to seek His Pleasure and Reward is an act of worship.
28) Ahmad
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So in reality Islaam is a religion that is entirely embodied within worship. Even
when he works, the Muslim has to be mindful that his earnings do not come from
forbidden means. The Muslim is always mindful of his speech and guards his tongue
so as not to use vain and foul talk because he knows that Allaah Sees and Hears
everything he does.
So these are some of the ways the believers worship Allaah and it is a worship that
extends over every aspect of their life. The non-Muslim must not assume that this is
only Muhammad’s (Sal-Allaahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) Message to the Muslims. Apart
from the fact that Muhammad’s (Sal-Allaahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) Message was to
the whole of mankind, we also have to understand that this was the message of all
the prophets of Allaah (Alaihimus Salatu Wa Sallam) before him:
Surely, they have disbelieved who say: “Allaah is the
Messiah [Eesa (Jesus)], son of Maryam (Mary).” But the
Messiah [Eesa (Jesus)] said: “O Children of Israel! Wor-
ship Allaah, my Lord and your Lord.” Verily, whosoever
sets up partners in Worship with Allaah, then Allaah
has forbidden Paradise for him, and the Fire will be his
abode. And for the Zaalimoon (polytheists and wrong-
doers) there are no helpers. (Soorah Al-Maaidah 5:72)
Indeed, We sent Nooh (Noah) to his people and he said:
“O my people! Worship Allaah! You have no other Ilaah
(God) but Him. Certainly, I fear for you the torment of a
Great Day!” (Soorah Al-A’raaf 7:59)
Or were you witnesses when death approached Yaaqoob
(Jacob)? When he said unto his sons, “What will you wor-
ship after me?” They said, “We shall worship your Ilaah
(God - Allaah), the Ilaah (God) of your fathers, Ibraahim
(Abraham), Ismaa’il (Ishmael), Ishaaque (Isaac), One
Ilaah (God), and to Him we submit (in Islaam).” (Soorah
Al-Baqarah 2:133)
And (remember) Ibraahim (Abraham) when he said to
his people: “Worship Allaah (Alone), and fear Him, that
is better for you if you did but know. (Soorah Al-’Anka-
boot 29:16)
And with the coming of Muhammad (Sal-Allaahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) is the end of
the Revelation and the completion of Allaah’s Favor upon mankind. His Word in
the form of the Qur’aan is to be unchanged and is well guarded by Him, and it with
the example of the Prophet (Sal-Allaahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) will stand as a guide for
all of mankind, for whosoever wants to know it.
This day, I have perfected your religion for you, com-
pleted My Favor upon you, and have chosen for you Is-
laam as your religion. (Soorah Maaidah 5:3)
Think and Refect
What other religion is there that intertwines the act of worship with life as Islaam
does with its followers? As soon as one adopts Islaam as a way of life, all other social
problems, such as racism, alcoholism, abuse and disregard of human rights, elimi-
nate themselves. One can search in all the heavens and the earth but one will never
fnd a religion that takes a man as close to his Lord like Islaam, because this is the
religion that He had chosen for mankind and no other religion can claim this.
Truly, the religion with Allaah is Islaam. Those who
were given the Scripture (Jews and Christians) did not
differ except, out of mutual jealousy, after knowledge
had come to them. And whoever disbelieves in the Ayaat
(proofs, evidences, verses, signs, revelations, etc.) of Al-
laah, then surely, Allaah is Swift in calling to account.
(Soorah Aali Imraan 3:19)
And whoever seeks a religion other than Islaam, it will
never be accepted of him, and in the Hereafter he will be
one of the losers. (Soorah Aali Imraan 3:85)
So know this O people! The proof has been made clear and thus established against
you. Surely the one possessing understanding and wisdom and is of humble heart
will accept it and attain the Promise of Allaah. Enter Islaam and Allaah has prom-
ised to cleanse you of all your previous sins such that you would be like a newborn
child, without sin and with a clean account. Do not be doubtful of this, surely Al-
laah has said in the Qur’aan:
Fage 30 Fage 31
Will they not repent to Allaah and ask His Forgiveness?
For Allaah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. (Soorah Al-
Maa’idah 5:74)
But those who committed evil deeds and then repented afterwards and believed,
verily, your Lord after (all) that is indeed Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. (Soorah
Al-A’raaf 7:153)
But remember this. One of the conditions for our sins to be forgiven is that we
denounce all forms of Shirk and then work to please Allaah alone, by obeying His
commands and following the example that He has sent us i.e. the Prophet Muham-
mad (Sal-Allaahu Alayhi Wa Sallam). Surely Allaah spoke the truth when he said.
By Al-’Asr (the time). Verily! Man is in loss, except those
who believe (in Islaamic Monotheism) and do righteous
good deeds, and recommend one another to the truth,
and recommend one another to patience. (Soorah Al-
’Asr 103:3)
And for the above people Allaah has made a Great Promise.
Yes, but whoever submits his face (himself) to Allaah
(i.e. follows Allaah ‘s Religion of Islaamic Monotheism)
and he is a Muhsin (sincere in his worship) then his re-
ward is with his Lord (Allaah), on such shall be no fear,
nor shall they grieve. (Soorah Al-Baqarah 2:112)
And the greatest reward will be on the Day of Judgment when the Believers will be
honored by being permitted to see their Lord and Creator.
Some faces that Day shall be Naadirah (shining and ra-
diant). Looking at their Lord (Allaah); (Soorah Al-Qi-
yaamah 75:22-23)
As for those who do not believe and attest to the Right of Allaah to be worshipped
alone, and are not upon the religion of Islaam, and they recognize the truth but are
still arrogant, then for them is a grievous torment.
On the Day when every person will be confronted with
all the good he has done, and all the evil he has done, he
will wish that there were a great distance between him
and his evil. And Allaah warns you against Himself (His
Punishment) and Allaah is full of Kindness to the (His)
slaves. (Soorah Aali Imraan 3:30)
And let not those who disbelieve think that they can out-
strip (escape from the Punishment). Verily, they will
never be able to save themselves (from Allaah ‘s Punish-
ment). (Soorah Al-Anfaal 8:59)
So let us not fool ourselves into thinking that we are untouchable. On the Day of
Judgment our hands, limbs and tongue will testify against us; making known the
way we used them to obey or disobey Allaah. Verily Allaah Sees and Knows every-
thing we do, and He is All Wise and Ever Watchful.
Hopefully this small effort has been able to raise some questions in our hearts. For
instance, to whom do we direct our love, intention, and worship? What is the status
of worship in our lives? How often do we turn to Allaah? And for which matters do
we seek Him out? How sincere are we in our worship and are we doing it properly,
in the way that He has set them? Or are we among those who are ardent in fulflling
certain parts of worship while demolishing them with other actions? Are we heedless
of Allaah, and only turn to Him at times of need, and then forget Him once our
du’aa is answered? Or are we among those who despair and become doubtful of His
Infnite Mercy and Wisdom when our du’aa is not responded to and we forget the
countless blessings that He has bestowed upon us?
Do you still want to persist in your misguided ways, having hope and reliance on
other than Allaah? The same Allaah who fashioned you and was generous towards
you; the same Allaah who provides for you your sustenance and the same Allaah
who is the only One Able to forgive your sins and guide you to the Right Path. Do
you want to be among those who betray the covenant that was taken by Him from
all of mankind?
Fage 32 Fage 33
And (remember) when your Lord brought forth from
the Children of Adam, from their loins, their seed (or
from Adam’s loin his offspring) and made them testify
as to themselves (saying): “Am I not your Lord?” They
said: “Yes! We testify,” lest you should say on the Day of
Resurrection: “Verily, we have been unaware of this.”
(Soorah Al-A’raaf 7:172)
And know that every man is to bear his own burden. On the Day of Judgment none
shall relieve you from Allaah, and the very things that you worshipped will either
testify against you or join you in suffering the Punishment of Allaah. And Allaah
is Most Severe in Punishing. And if you believe and enter unto Islaam, then Allaah
is Most Forgiving, Most Merciful. Most assuredly He will forgive all your past sins
and will erase your record. And if you persist upon goodness in Islaam then most
certainly the Promise of Allaah’s reward awaits the Believers.
Verily life is short, and the trials and distractions are many, but we must be certain
of our purpose and our goal. Surely we have entered a time when even Muslims
themselves have engrossed themselves to becoming dedicated in the many forms
of disbelief just as the non-Muslims. So our call is all of humanity to return to the
worship of Allaah and Him alone. Only He has the capability of protecting us from
Shaitaan and from our own vain desires. We are not calling people to something
exotic or profound. Indeed Islaam is something most simple, but rest assured it is
also a message that is beautiful, powerful and meaningful.
May Allaah accept this small effort for His sake and may He make us among the
believers who are true to Him in Worshipping Him in the manner that pleases Him.
If there is anything good in this then it is most assuredly from Allaah and if there
are any mistakes in it then verily it is from Shaitaan and our own selves. May Al-
laah enable us to recognize the Truth, and guide us towards it, and keep us strong
upon it.
Aqeedah and Tawheed:
Facilitation by Allaah in Explaining the Evidences of
the Conditions of Laa Ilaaha Ilallaah
Author: Shaikh Ubaid ibn Abdullaah ibn Sualimaan al-Jaabiree
A book which no Muslim can be without. The Shaikh has clearly and concisely
explained the seven conditions of the kalimah – which every Muslim must fulfl.
An Explanation of Kitab al-Tawhid
Author: ‘Allaamah ‘Abdul-Rahmaan as-Sa’ di.
This book is a brief yet extremely benefcial explanation of Shaikh al-Islaam Mu-
hammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab’s famous Kitab At-Tawhid. The book, as the tittle
suggests, deals with the subject of worshipping Allaah alone without associating
partners with Him. The author highlights many matters that have become common
among Muslims even though they are clearly acts of shirk or associating partners
with Allaah.
Explanation of the Creed
Author: Abu Muhammad al-Hasan ibn ‘Alee ibn Khalf al-Barbahaaree.
This is an English translation of Imaam al-Barbahaaree’s classic work, Sharh as-
Sunnah. The book consists of 170 points on different aspects of the Muslim Creed.
Extensive notes have been provided, giving relevant passages of the Qur’aan and
authentic sayings of the Prophet, salallaahu ‘alayhi wassallam. Ample sayings of the
early scholars have also been included.
Explanation of the Three Fundamental
Principles of Islaam
Author: Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih Al-Uthaimin.
This is an explanation of the booklet Thalaathatul-Usool (“The Three Principles”)
by Shaykh Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab, rahimahullaah, who wrote this in
order to convey to every Muslim that which is obligatory upon him to know – in
fact the “three principles” are based on the three questions that we will all be asked
in our graves.
Fage 31 Fage 35
Manhaj (Methodology) and Dawah (Calling to Islaam)
The Methodology of the Prophets in Calling to Allaah
Author: Shaikh Rabee bin Haadee al-Madkhalee
Excellent book about the methodology of the Prophets of Allaah in implementing
the religion and following their example.
The Methodology of the Saved Sect
Author: Shaykh Muhammad bin Jameel Zaynoo.
The subject matter of this book calls the Muslims to the belief (aqeedah) of Ta-
wheed, pure and completely free of Shirk, the manifestations of which have spread
in most of the Islamic countries. The chapters of this book also clarify the method-
ology and belief (aqeedah) of the Saved Sect and Victorious Group, mentioned in
the narration’s of the Prophet, in order to illuminate this methodology to the Man-
kind and jinn, so that they may become from those who are Saved and Victorious

The Call to Allaah - Between Group Partisanship and
Legislated Co-Operation
Author: ‘Alee ibn Hasan ibn ‘Alee ibn Abdul-Hameed.
It contains a clear explanation of important truths of the Islamic work, differentia-
tion between the means and the goals. It affrms that the appearance of multiple
parties means opposition, disunity, contradiction and disagreement, and this is
what Allaah , the One free of all defects, has made His Deen and call free from. The
true Sharee’ah meaning of Jamaa’ah and what is done in the absence of a Jamaa’ah.
A reply to the doubts raised by supporters of the parties to justify their error and
deviation whilst they think that they are doers of good.

Tafsir Ibn Kathir
Tafsir Al-Qur’aan Al-Azim, which is famous by the title Tafsir Ibn Kathir, by Al-
Hafz. Abu Al-Fida’ `Imad Ad-Din Isma’il bin `Umar bin Kathir Al-Qurashi Al-
Busrawi (d. 774 H.), is the most popular interpretation of the Qur’aan in the Ara-
bic language, and one of the more reliable sources for proper interpretation of the
Saheeh al-Bukhaaree
Author: Imaam Muhammad ibn Ismaa’eel al-Bukhaaree.
The most authentic book after the Quraan is the Saheeh of Imaam al-Bukhaaree,
a vast collection of Hadeeth (narrations and actions) of the Prophet Muhammad.
He compiled it over sixteen years and only entered in it what he regarded to be most
authentic. This is that book which no Muslim can possibly be without.
Saheeh Muslim
Author: Imaam Muslim ibn Hajjaj Al-Neesabooree
Compiled by Hafz Muslim Bin Hajjaj, this book is a collection of the Hadeeth of
the Prophet Muhammad second only to Saheed Al-Bukhaaree.
Bidah – The Unique Nature of the Perfection Found in Islaam
Author: Shaykh Muhammad Saalih Al-Uthaymeen.
A booklet outlining the destructive effects of introducing new matters into the re-
The Prophet’s Prayer Described
Al-Imaam, Al-Muhaddith Muhammad Naasirud-Deen al-Albaanee.
The most excellent, comprehensive and authentic book concerning one of the most
important acts of worship in Islaam. Shaikh Muhammad Naasirud-Deen al-Albaa-
nee has gathered the precise details concerning the prayer that no Muslim can afford
to be heedless of.
The Most Excellent Manner of Seeking Forgiveness
Author: Shaikh Abdur-Razzaaq ibn Abdul-Muhsin al-Abbaad.
Included in it is the explanation of a tremendous way of seeking forgiveness, from
amongst the various forms of seeking forgiveness that occur in the sunnah of the
Prophet. We ask Allaah that it should be benefcial to us and a blessing for us.
The Benefts of Fearing Allah
Author: Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih Al-Uthaymeen.
This book, the English translation of Min Thamaraatit-Taqwaa Clearly illustrates
Fage 3ë
the excellence of the muttaqee and shows that when taqwaa affects the soul then
changes should become apparent in the believer’s character, priorities and even his
voice! It shows how it facilitates the believer in gaining knowledge and remaining
strong, and all this is just a brief mention of what is within these covers.
Diseases of the Hearts and Their Cures
Author: Shaykhul-Islaam Ibn Tyamiyyah
Know O Beloved reader that it is most important to spend one’s time and energy in
treating the heart, and hastening to correct and purify it from sickness and all sin.
This is due to the heart occupying a great and lofty position in Islaam, for it is the
place to which the Lord looks and the storehouse for tawheed, faith and sincerity.
Ibn Taymiyyah’s Essay on Servitude
Author: Shaykhul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah.
An enlightening book written by one of the most famous scholars of Islaam on the
important subject of servitude. In this book, the Shaykh of Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah,
defnes the concept of worship in Islaam and explains that to be a true, ‘Slave of Al-
laah,’ is a status of both virtue and nobility.
Fatawa Islamiyah, Islamic Verdicts (Eight Volumes)
Author: Shaikhs ibn Baz, Al-Uthaymeen, The Permanent Committee of Scholars.
This beautiful work is a collection of the legal rulings and articles of guidance of
Shaikh Abdul-Azeez bin Abdullaah bin Baz, Shaikh Muhammad bin Saalih al-
Uthaymeen, and the Permanent Committee for Legal Rulings and the Fiqh Council
of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
The ‘Wahhabi’ Myth
Author: Haneef James Oliver.
The author outlines the principles of the Salafee creed in an easy to understand
manner. Using many different sources, he carefully presents the arguments of the
critics of Salafsm and successfully addresses the misconceptions that are contained
within these criticisms. Specifcally, he addresses the commonly held belief that
Usamah bin Laden is a Salafee/”Wahhabi”. He compellingly dispels this myth and
unveils the sect that has provoked Bin Laden to become the leader of a terrorist
movement, something that the media has failed to do yet.
Aayah: (pl. aayaat) “sign,” a verse of the Qur‘aan.
Aahaad: a narration which is narrated through one
chain only.
Ahaadeeth: see Hadeeth.
’Alayhis-salaam: “may Allaah protect and preserve
him.” It is said after the name of a Prophet of Allaah
or after the name of an Angel.
Ansaar: “helpers;” the Muslims of al-Madeenah who
supported the Muslims who migrated from Makkah.
’Arsh: Throne of Allaah.
’Asr: the afternoon Prayer.
Awliyaa‘: see Walee.
Bid’ah: Heresy (any innovatory practice).
Buraaq: An animal bigger than a donkey and smaller
than a horse on which the Prophet (Sal-Allaahu Alay-
hi Wa Sallam) went for the Mi’raaj.
Daa’ee: one engaged in da’wah, caller.
Da’eef: “weak,” unauthentic narration.
Da’wah: invitation, call to Allaah.
Deen: a completed way of life prescribed by Allaah.
Dhikr: (pl. adhkaar) remembrance of Allaah with the
heart, sayings of the tongue and actions of our limbs.
Eemaan: faith, to affrm all that was revealed to the

Faahish: one who talks evil.
Fard Kifaayah: collective obligation – if fulflled by a
part of the community then the rest are not obligated.
Fatwaa: (pl. fataawaa) religious verdicts.
Faqeeh: A scholar who can give religious verdicts.
Fiqh: Islaamic jurisprudence, understanding.
Fitnah: (pl. ftan) Trials, persecution, conficts and
strifes among the Muslims.
Fitrah: the natural disposition that one is born upon.
Ghuloo: going to an extreme.
Ghusl: A ceremonial bath necessary for the one who is
in a state of Janaabah.
Hadeeth: (pl. ahaadeeh) the saying, actions and ap-
provals accurately narrated from the Prophet (sallal-
laahu ’alayhi wa sallam).
Halaal: lawful.
Haneef: pure Islaamic Monotheism (worshiping Al-
laah alone and nothing else).
Haraam: unlawful and forbidden.
Hasan: fne, good; a term used for an authentic
hadeeth, which does not reach the level of Saheeh.
Harj: killing.
Al-Harooriyyah: a special unorthodox religious sect
that branched off from the Khawaarij.
Hijrah: migration from the land of shirk to the land
of Islaam.
Hukm: a judgment of legal decision (especially of Al-
’Ibaadah: worship, worship of Allaah.
Ihsaan: worshipping Allaah as though you see Him.
However, since you cannot see Him, then know that
He sees you.
Ijmaa’: consensus, a unifed opinion of scholars re-
garding a certain issue.
Ijtihaad: exertion of effert; the process of arriving at a
reasoned decision by a scholar on an issue.
Imaam: leaders; leaders in Prayer, knowledge in fqh,
leader of a state.
Isnaad: the chain of narrators linking the collector of
the saying to the person quoted.
Istikhaarah: a Prayer consisting of two units (rak’ah)
asking Allaah for guidance.
Istiwaa: ascending; the ascending of Allaah above the
Throne (in the manner that befts His Majesty).
Janaabah: State of a person after having sexual inter-
course or sexual discharge.
Janaazah: (pl. janaa‘iz): Funeral.
Jihaad: striving, struggling, fghting to make the Word
of Allaah supreme.
Jumu’ah: Friday.
Jinn: invisible creation, created by Allaah from smoke-
less fre.
Junub: a person who is in the state of janaabah.
Ka’bah: a square stone building in al-Masjidul-Haram
(the great mosque in Makkah which Muslims go to
for pilgrimage and which all Muslims direct their face
in Prayer).
Al-Kabaa‘ir: the major sins.
Khaarijee: (pl. Khawaarij): those who declared that
a Muslim becomes a disbeliever due to commiting a
major sin alone.
Khaleefah: (pl. khulafaa‘): the head of the Islaamic
government to whom the oath of allegiance is given.
Khilaafah: an Islaamic state.
Khutbah: (person khateeb), religious talk (sermon).
Kufr: (person kaafr) act of disbelieve in the Religion
of Islaam.
Madhhab: position or opinion of a scholar; school of
Islaamic Jurisprudence.
Makrooh: not approved of, undesirable from the point
of view of Religion, although not punishable.
Manhaj: way; method; methodology.
Marfoo’: raised; a narration attributed to the Prophet
(sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam).
Masjid: mosque.
Mawbiqaat: great destructive sins.
Mudallis: one who practises tadlees.
Muhaajir: (pl. muhaajiroon, muhaajireen) one who
migrated from the land of the disbelievers to the land
of the Muslims for the sake of Allaah.
Muhaddith: scholar of the science of hadeeth.
Muftee: one who gives fataawaa.
Mujaahid: (pl. mujahidoon): a Muslim warrior in
Mujtahid: one who is qualifed to pass judgment us-
ing ijtihad.
Munkar: “rejected;” a narration which is inauthentic
itself and contradicts and authentic narrations.
Muqallid: one who practices taqleed.
Mushrik: (pl. mushrihoon) polythesists, pagans and
disbelievers in the oneness of Allaah and His Messen-
ger (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam).
Mustahabb: recommended; an action if left not pun-
ishable and if done it is rewardable.
Muttaqoon: those who are pious.
Mutawaatir: a hadeeth which is narrated by a very
large number of reporters, such that it cannot be sup-
ported that they all agreed upon a lie.
Muwahhid: (pl. muwahhidoon) one who unifes all of
his worship and directs it to Allaah alone.
Mawdoo’: fabricated; spurious; invented (narration).
Mawqoof: stopped; a narration from a companion
(not going back to the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi
wa sallam)).
Mawsool: “connected;” a continuous isnaad (can be
narrated back to the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa
Naaflah: (pl. nawaafl) Optional practice of worship.
Niyyah: intention from the heart.
Nusuk: a sacrafce.
Qadar: Divine pre-ordainment; that which Allaah has
ordained for his creation.
Qiblah: the direction the Muslims face during prayer.
Qiyaas: analogical deduction of Islaamic laws. New
laws are deduced from old laws based of similarity
between their causes.
Qunoot: “devotion;” a special supplication while
standing in the Prayer.
Quraysh: one of the greatest tribes in Arabia in the
pre-Islaamic period of Ignorance. The Prophet (sal-
lallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) belonged to this tribe.
Raafdee: the correct title for the extreme Shee’ah.
Those who bear malice and grudg against the noble
Companions to the extent that they declare them to be
apostates. They also hold that the Qur‘aan which the
Muslims have is neither complete nor preserved from
Ramadaan: the ninth month of Islaamic calander, in
which Muslims observe fasting.
Sahaabah: (pl. sahaabah) Muslims who met the
Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) believing in
him and died believing in him.
Saheeh: authentic, the highest rank of classifcation of
authentic ahaadeeth.
Salaf/Salafus-Saaliheen: pious predecessors; the
Muslims of the frst three generations: the compan-
ions, the successors and their successors.
Salafee: one who ascribes oneself to the salaf and fol-
lows their way.
Seerah: the life story of the Prophet (sallallaahu
’alayhi wa sallam).
Sharee’ah: the divine code of law of Islaam.
Shawwaal: the month after Ramadaan.
Shaytaan: Satan
Shee’ah: (see Raafdee) a collective name for various
sects claiming love for Ahlul-Bayt.
Shirk: associating partners with Allaah directly or in-
directly; compromising any aspects of Tawheed.
Soorah: a chapter of the Qur‘aan
Sunnah: “example, practice;” the way of life of the
Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam), consisting of
his words, actions and silent approvals. The Sunnah is
contained in various ahaadeeth.
Taabi’ee: (pl. taabi’een) the generation after the
Companions of the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa
Tafseer: explanation of the Qur‘aan.
Taaghoot: anything worshiped other than the real
God (Allaah) (i.e. false deities).
Tahajjud: voluntary, recommended Prayer between
the compulsory prayers of ’Ishaa‘ and Fajr.
Takhreej: to reference a hadeeth to its sources and
analyze its isnaads.
Taqleed: blind following; to follow someone’s opinion
(madhhab) without evidence.
Taqwaa: acting in obedience to Allaah, hoping for His
mecy upon lighting from Him and taqwaa is leaving
acts of disobedience, out of fear of Him, upon light
from Him.
Tarjamah: notes about a reporter of Hadeeth.
Tawwaaf: the circumambulation of the Ka’bah.
Tawheed: Islaamic Monotheism. The Oneness of
Allah. Believing and acting upon His Lordship, His
rights of Worship and Names and Attributes.
Uhud: A well known mountain in al-Madeenah. One
of the greatest battles in Islaamic history came at its
foot. This is called Ghazwah Uhud.
’Ulamaa‘: (singular: ’aalim) scholars.
Umm: mother of, used as an identifcation.
Ummah: “nation”, the Muslims as a whole.
’Umrah: a visit to Makkah during which one pre-
formes the Tawwaaf around the Ka’bah and the Sa’ee
between as-Safaa and al-Marwah. It is called the
lesser Hajj.
Usool: the fundamentals.
Wahyee: the revelation or inspiration of Allaah to His
Wahdatul-Wujood: the belief that everything in ex-
istance is intact Allaah. This deviant belief is held by
many Soofees.
Wakeel: disposer of affairs.
Witr: “odd;” the last Prayer at the night, which con-
sists of odd number of raka’aat (units).
Waleemah: the wedding feast.
Waseelah: the means of approach or achieving His
closeness to Allah by getting His favours.
Wudoo’: an ablution (ritual washing) that is per-
formed before Prayer and other kinds of worship.
Yaqeen: perfect absolute faith.
Yathrib: one of the names of al-Madeenah.
Zakaat: charity that is obligatory on averyone who has
wealth over and above a certain limit over which a
year has passed (2.5% of saved weath).
Zakaatul-Fitr: an obligatory charity by the Muslims to
be given to the poor before the Prayer of ’Eedul-Fitr.
Zamzam: the sacred water inside the haram (the
grand mosque) at Makkah.
Zanaadiqah: an athiest.

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