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Copyright
Information in this document, including URL and other Internet Web site references, is subject to change without notice. Unless otherwise noted, the example companies, organizations, products, domain names, e-mail addresses, logos, people, places, and events depicted herein are fictitious, and no association with any real company, organization, product, domain name, e-mail address, logo, person, place or event is intended or should be inferred. Complying with all applicable copyright laws is the responsibility of the user. Without limiting the rights under copyright, no part of this document may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), or for any purpose, without the express written permission of Microsoft Corporation. Microsoft may have patents, patent applications, trademarks, copyrights, or other intellectual property rights covering subject matter in this document. Except as expressly provided in any written license agreement from Microsoft, the furnishing of this document does not give you any license to these patents, trademarks, copyrights, or other intellectual property. The names of manufacturers, products, or URLs are provided for informational purposes only and Microsoft makes no representations and warranties, either expressed, implied, or statutory, regarding these manufacturers or the use of the products with any Microsoft technologies. The inclusion of a manufacturer or product does not imply endorsement of Microsoft of the manufacturer or product. Links may be provided to third party sites. Such sites are not under the control of Microsoft and Microsoft is not responsible for the contents of any linked site or any link contained in a linked site, or any changes or updates to such sites. Microsoft is not responsible for webcasting or any other form of transmission received from any linked site. Microsoft is providing these links to you only as a convenience, and the inclusion of any link does not imply endorsement of Microsoft of the site or the products contained therein. 2012 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Microsoft and the trademarks listed at http://www.microsoft.com/about/legal/en/us/IntellectualProperty /Trademarks/ENUS.aspx are trademarks of the Microsoft group of companies. All other trademarks are property of their respective owners Product Number: 20411B Part Number: X18-77105 Released: 12/2012

Welcome!
Thank you for taking our training! Weve worked together with our Microsoft Certied Partners for Learning Solutions and our Microsoft IT Academies to bring you a world-class learning experiencewhether youre a professional looking to advance your skills or a student preparing for a career in IT.

Microsoft Certied Trainers and Instructors


Your instructor is a technical and instructional expert who meets ongoing certication requirements. And, if instructors are delivering training at one of our Certied Partners for Learning Solutions, they are also evaluated throughout the year by students and by Microsoft.

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Certication Exam Benets


After training, consider taking a Microsoft Certication exam. Microsoft Certications validate your skills on Microsoft technologies and can help differentiate you when finding a job or boosting your career. In fact, independent research by IDC concluded that 75% of managers believe certications are important to team performance 1. Ask your instructor about Microsoft Certication exam promotions and discounts that may be available to you.

Customer Satisfaction Guarantee


Our Certied Partners for Learning Solutions offer a satisfaction guarantee and we hold them accountable for it. At the end of class, please complete an evaluation of todays experience. We value your feedback! We wish you a great learning experience and ongoing success in your career! Sincerely, Microsoft Learning www.microsoft.com/learning
1

IDC, Value of Certication: Team Certication and Organizational Performance, November 2006

Acknowledgments
Microsoft Learning wants to acknowledge and thank the following for their contribution toward developing this title. Their effort at various stages in the development has ensured that you have a good classroom experience.

Andrew J. Warren Content Developer


Andrew Warren has more than 25 years of experience in the IT industry, many of which he has spent teaching and writing. He has been involved as a subject matter expert for many of the Windows Server 2008 courses, and the technical lead on a number of other courses. He also has been involved in developing TechNet sessions on Microsoft Exchange Server 2007. Based in the United Kingdom, Andrew runs his own IT training and education consultancy.

Jason Kellington Content Developer


Jason Kellington (Microsoft Certified Trainer (MCT), Microsoft Certified IT Professional (MCITP), and Microsoft Certified Solutions Expert (MCSE) is a consultant, trainer, and author. He has experience working with a wide range of Microsoft technologies, focusing on enterprise network infrastructure. Jason works in several capacities with Microsoft. He is a content developer for Microsoft Learning courseware titles, a senior technical writer for Microsoft IT Showcase, and an author for Microsoft Press.

Brian Desmond Technical Reviewer


Brian Desmond is a Microsoft Most Valuable Professional (MVP) and consultant based out of Chicago, Illinois. Brian focuses on Active Directory, Exchange Server, and Identity Management projects for global enterprise customers. Brian is the author of Active Directory, 4th Edition (OReilly), and numerous articles in industry leading publications such as Windows IT Pro magazine. A frequent traveler, you can usually find Brian on the road speaking at conferences and visiting customers.

David Susemiehl Content Developer


David Susemiehl has worked as consultant, trainer, and courseware developer since 1996. David has extensive experience
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consulting on Microsoft Systems Management Server and Microsoft System Center Configuration Manager 2007, as well as Active Directory, Exchange Server, and Terminal Server/Citrix deployments. David has developed courseware development for Microsoft and Hewlett-Packard, and delivered those courses successfully in Europe, Central America, and across North America. For the last several years, David has been writing courseware for Microsoft Learning, and consulting on infrastructure transitions in Michigan.

Contents
Title Copyright Welcome! Acknowledgments About This Course About This Course Course Materials Virtual Machine Environment Module 1: Deploying and Maintaining Server Images Module Overview Lesson 1 : Lesson 2: Lesson 3: Lab: Overview of Windows Deployment Services Implementing Deployment with Windows Deployment Services Administering Windows Deployment Services Using Windows Deployment Services to Deploy Windows Server 2012 Module Review and Takeaways Module 2: Configuring and Troubleshooting Domain Name System Module Overview Lesson 1 : Lesson 2: Lesson 3: Lesson 4: Lesson 5: Lab: Installing the DNS Server Role Configuring the DNS Server Role Configuring DNS Zones Configuring DNS Zone Transfers Managing and Troubleshooting DNS Configuring and Troubleshooting DNS Module Review and Takeaways Module 3: Maintaining Active Directory Domain Services Module Overview Lesson 1 : Lesson 2: Lesson 3: Lesson 4: Overview of AD DS Implementing Virtualized Domain Controllers Implementing Read-Only Domain Controllers Administering AD DS
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Lesson 5: Lab:

Managing the AD DS Database Maintaining AD DS Module Review and Takeaways

Module 4:

Managing User and Service Accounts Module Overview

Lesson 1 : Lesson 2: Lesson 3: Lab:

Automating User Account Management Configuring Password-Policy and User-Account Lockout Settings Configuring Managed Service Accounts Managing User and Service Accounts Module Review and Takeaways

Module 5:

Implementing a Group Policy Infrastructure Module Overview

Lesson 1 : Lesson 2: Lesson 3: Lesson 4: Lab:

Introducing Group Policy Implementing and Administering GPOs Group Policy Scope and Group Policy Processing Troubleshooting the Application of GPOs Implementing a Group Policy Infrastructure Module Review and Takeaways

Module 6:

Managing User Desktops with Group Policy Module Overview

Lesson 1 : Lesson 2: Lesson 3: Lesson 4: Lab:

Implementing Administrative Templates Configuring Folder Redirection and Scripts Configuring Group Policy Preferences Managing Software with Group Policy Managing User Desktops with Group Policy Module Review and Takeaways

Module 7:

Configuring and Troubleshooting Remote Access Module Overview

Lesson 1 : Lesson 2: Lesson 3: Lesson 4: Lab A: Lesson 5: Lab B:

Configuring Network Access Configuring VPN Access Overview of Network Policies Troubleshooting Routing and Remote Access Configuring Remote Access Configuring DirectAccess Configuring DirectAccess
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Module Review and Takeaways Module 8: Installing, Configuring, and Troubleshooting the Network Policy Server Role Module Overview Lesson 1 : Lesson 2: Lesson 3: Lesson 4: Lab: Installing and Configuring a Network Policy Server Configuring RADIUS Clients and Servers NPS Authentication Methods Monitoring and Troubleshooting a Network Policy Server Installing and Configuring a Network Policy Server Module Review and Takeaways Module 9: Implementing Network Access Protection Module Overview Lesson 1 : Lesson 2: Lesson 3: Lesson 4: Lab: Overview of Network Access Protection Overview of NAP Enforcement Processes Configuring NAP Monitoring and Troubleshooting NAP Implementing NAP Module Review and Takeaways Module 10: Optimizing File Services Module Overview Lesson 1 : Lesson 2: Lesson 3: Lab A: Lesson 4: Lesson 5: Lesson 6: Lab B: Overview of FSRM Using FSRM to Manage Quotas, File Screens, and Storage Reports Implementing Classification and File Management Tasks Configuring Quotas and File Screening Using FSRM Overview of DFS Configuring DFS Namespaces Configuring and Troubleshooting DFS-R Implementing DFS Module Review and Takeaways Module 11: Configuring Encryption and Advanced Auditing Module Overview Lesson 1 : Lesson 2: Lab: Encrypting Files by Using Encrypting File System Configuring Advanced Auditing Configuring Encryption and Advanced Auditing Module Review and Takeaways
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Module 12:

Implementing Update Management Module Overview

Lesson 1 : Lesson 2: Lab:

Overview of WSUS Deploying Updates with WSUS Implementing Update Management Module Review and Takeaways

Module 13:

Monitoring Windows Server 2012 Module Overview

Lesson 1 : Lesson 2: Lesson 3: Lab:

Monitoring Tools Using Performance Monitor Monitoring Event Logs Monitoring Windows Server 2012 Module Review and Takeaways Course Evaluation

Lab Answer Key: Module 1: Deploying and Maintaining Server Images Lab: Using Windows Deployment Services to Deploy Windows Server 2012

Lab Answer Key: Module 2: Configuring and Troubleshooting Domain Name System Lab: Configuring and Troubleshooting DNS

Lab Answer Key: Module 3: Maintaining Active Directory Domain Services Lab: Maintaining AD DS

Lab Answer Key: Module 4: Managing User and Service Accounts Lab: Managing User and Service Accounts

Lab Answer Key: Module 5: Implementing a Group Policy Infrastructure Lab: Implementing a Group Policy Infrastructure

Lab Answer Key: Module 6: Managing User Desktops with Group Policy Lab: Managing User Desktops with Group Policy

Lab Answer Key: Module 7: Configuring and Troubleshooting Remote Access Lab A: Lab B: Configuring Remote Access Configuring DirectAccess

Lab Answer Key: Module 8: Installing, Configuring, and Troubleshooting the Network Policy Server Role Lab: Installing and Configuring a Network Policy Server

Lab Answer Key: Module 9: Implementing Network Access Protection Lab: Implementing NAP

Lab Answer Key: Module 10: Optimizing File Services Lab A: Lab B: Configuring Quotas and File Screening Using FSRM Implementing DFS
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Lab Answer Key: Module 11: Configuring Encryption and Advanced Auditing Lab: Configuring Encryption and Advanced Auditing

Lab Answer Key: Module 12: Implementing Update Management Lab: Implementing Update Management

Lab Answer Key: Module 13: Monitoring Windows Server 2012 Lab: Monitoring Windows Server 2012

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About This Course

About This Course


This section provides you with a brief description of the course20411B: Administering Windows Server 2012 audience, suggested prerequisites, and course objectives.

Course Description
The main objective for this course is to configure and maintain core infrastructure services in a Windows Server 2012 enterprise environment. The primary audience for this course is Information Technology (IT) Professionals who have successfully implemented a Microsoft Windows Server 2008 server, either in an existing enterprise infrastructure or as a standalone installation, and wish to acquire the skills and knowledge necessary to broaden that implementation to manage and maintain the core infrastructure required for a Windows Server 2008 environment. Candidates must also have knowledge equivalent to that already covered in Windows Server 2012 Enterprise Core 1 course, as this course will build upon that knowledge.

Audience
This course is intended for students to broaden the initial deployment of services in Core 1, and provide the skills necessary to manage and maintain domain-based Windows Server 2012 infrastructure. Candidates would typically be System Administrators and must have at least one year experience working in a Windows Server 2012 or Windows 8 environment. The secondary audience for this course will be candidates aspiring to acquire the Microsoft Certified Solutions Associate (MCSA) credential either in its own right, or to proceed in acquiring the Microsoft Certified Solutions Expert (MCSE) credentials, of which this course is a prerequisite.

Student Prerequisites
This course requires that you have the ability to meet following prerequisites: Install and Configure Windows Server 2012 into existing enterprise environments, or as standalone installations. Configure local storage. Configure roles and features. Configure file and print services. Configure Windows Server 2012 servers for local and remote administration. Configure IPv4 and IPv6 addresses. Configure Domain Name System (DNS) and Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) services. Install domain controllers. Create and configure users, groups, computers and organizational units (OUs). Create and manage Group Policies. Configure local security policies.

Course Objectives
After completing this course, students will be able to:
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About This Course

Deploy, manage, and maintain servers. Configure file and print services. Configure network services and access. Configure a network policy server Infrastructure. Configure and manage Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS). Configure and manage Group Policy.

Course Outline
The course outline is as follows: Module 1, Deploying and Maintaining Server Images Module 2, Configuring and Troubleshooting Domain Name System Module 3, Maintaining Active Directory Domain Services Module 4, Managing User and Service Accounts Module 5, Implementing a Group Policy Infrastructure Module 6, Managing User Desktops with Group Policy Module 7, Configuring and Troubleshooting Remote Access Module 8, Installing, Configuring, and Troubleshooting the Network Policy Server Role Module 9, Implementing Network Access Protection Module 10, Optimizing File Services Module 11, Configuring Encryption and Advanced Auditing Module 12, Implementing Update Management Module 13, Monitoring Windows Server 2012

Exam/Course Mapping
This course, 20411B: Administering Windows Server 2012, has a direct mapping of its content to the objective domain for the Microsoft Exam 70-411: Administering Windows Server 2012. The following table is provided as a study aid that will assist you in preparation for taking this exam, and to show you how the exam objectives and the course content fit together. The course is not designed exclusively to support the exam, but rather provides broader knowledge and skills to allow a real-world implementation of the particular technology. The course will also
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About This Course

contain content that is not directly covered in the examination and will utilize the unique experience and skills of your qualified Microsoft Certified Trainer. Note: The exam objectives are available online at the following URL: http://www.microsoft.com/learning/en/us/exam.aspx?ID=70-411#tab2.

Exam 70-411: Administering Windows Server 2012 Exam Objective Domain Deploy, Manage, and Maintain Servers (17%)
Deploy and manage server images. This objective may include but is not limited to: Install the Windows Deployment Services (WDS) role; configure and manage boot, install, and discover images; update images with patches, hotfixes, and drivers; install features for offline images Implement patch management. This objective may include but is not limited to: Install and configure the Windows Server Update Services (WSUS) role; configure group policies for updates; configure client-side targeting; configure WSUS synchronization; configure WSUS groups Monitor servers. This objective may include but is not limited to: Configure Data Collector Sets (DCS); configure alerts; monitor real-time performance; monitor virtual machines (VMs); monitor events; configure event subscriptions; configure network monitoring Configure File and Print Services (15%) Configure Distributed File System (DFS). This objective may include but is not limited to: Install and configure DFS namespaces; configure DFS Replication Targets; configure Replication Scheduling; configure Remote Differential Compression settings; configure staging; configure fault tolerance Configure File Server Resource Manager (FSRM). Configure file and disk encryption. This objective may include but is not limited to: Configure Bitlocker encryption; configure the Network Unlock feature; configure Bitlocker policies; configure the EFS recovery agent; manage EFS and Bitlocker certificates including backup and restore Configure advanced audit policies. This objective may include but is not limited to: Implement auditing using Group Policy and AuditPol.exe; create expression-based audit policies; create removable device audit policies Exam Objective Domain Configure Network Services and Access (17%) Configure DNS zones. This objective may include but is not limited to: Configure primary and secondary zones; configure stub zones; configure conditional forwards; configure zone and conditional forward storage in Active Directory; configure zone delegation; configure zone transfer settings; configure notify settings Configure DNS records. This objective may include but is not limited to: Create and configure DNS Resource Records (RR) including A, AAAA, PTR, SOA, NS, SRV, CNAME, and MX records; configure zone scavenging; configure record options including Time To Live (TTL) and weight; configure round robin; configure secure dynamic updates Configure VPN and routing. This objective may include but is not limited to: Install and configure the Remote Access role; implement Network Address Translation (NAT); configure VPN settings; configure remote dial-in settings for users; configure routing Configure DirectAccess. This objective may include but is not limited to: Implement server requirements; Mod 7 Lesson 5 Mod 7 Lab B Ex Mod 7 Lesson 1/2/3/ 4 Mod 7 Lab A Ex 1/2 Mod 2 Lesson 2/5 Mod 2 Ex 1/3 Mod 2 Lesson 1/3/4 Mod 2 Ex 2/4 Course Content Mod 11 Lesson 2 Mod 11 Ex 2 Mod 11 Lesson 1 Mod 11 Ex 1 This objective may include but is not limited to: Install the FSRM role; configure quotas; configure file screens; configure reports Mod 10 Lesson 1/2/3 Mod 10 Lab A Ex 1/2 Mod 10 Lesson 4/5/6 Mod 10 Lab B Ex 1/2/3 Mod 13 Lesson 1/2/3 Mod 13 Ex 1/2/3 Mod 12 Lesson 1/2 Mod 12 Ex 1/2/3

Course Content Module


Mod 1

Lesson
Lesson 1/2/3

Lab
Mod 1 Ex 1/2/3/4

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Direct Access Configure a Network Policy Server Infrastructure (14%) Configure Network Policy Server (NPS).

About This Course


implement client configuration; configure DNS for Direct Access; configure certificates for 1/2/3

This objective may include but is not limited to: Configure multiple RADIUS server infrastructures; configure RADIUS clients; manage RADIUS templates; configure RADIUS accounting; configure certificates

Mod 8

Lesson 3/4

Mod 8 Ex 2

Configure NPS policies.

This objective may include but is not limited to: Configure connection request policies; configure network policies for VPN clients (multilink and bandwidth allocation, IP filters, encryption, IP addressing); manage NPS templates; import and export NPS policies

Mod 6 Mod 8 Mod 9

Lesson 2 Lesson 1/2 Lesson 1/2/3/ 4 Mod 8 Ex 1 Mod 9 Ex 1/2/3

Configure Network Access Protection (NAP).

This objective may include but is not limited to: Configure System Health Validators (SHVs); configure health policies; configure NAP enforcement using DHCP and VPN; configure isolation and remediation of non- compliant computers using DHCP and VPN; configure NAP client settings

Exam 70-411: Administering Windows Server 2012 Exam Objective Domain Configure and Manage Active Directory (19%)
Configure service authentication. This objective may include but is not limited to: Create and configure Service Accounts; create and configure Group Managed Service Accounts; create and configure Managed Service Accounts; configure Kerberos delegation; manage Service Principal Names (SPNs) Configure Domain Controllers. This objective may include but is not limited to: Configure Universal Group Membership Caching (UGMC); transfer and seize operations masters; install and configure a read-only domain controller (RODC); configure Domain Controller cloning Maintain Active Directory. This objective may include but is not limited to: Back up Active Directory and SYSVOL; manage Active Directory offline; optimize an Active Directory database; clean up metadata; configure Active Directory snapshots; perform object- and container-level recovery; perform Active Directory restore Configure account policies. This objective may include but is not limited to: Configure domain user password policy; configure and apply Password Settings Objects (PSOs); delegate password settings management; configure local user password policy; configure account lockout settings Configure and Manage Group Policy (18%) Configure Group Policy processing. This objective may include but is not limited to: Configure processing order and precedence; configure blocking of inheritance; configure enforced policies; configure security filtering and WMI filtering; configure loopback processing; configure and manage slow-link processing; configure client-side extension (CSE) behavior Configure Group Policy settings. This objective may include but is not limited to: Configure settings including software installation, folder redirection, scripts, and administrative template settings; import security templates; import custom administrative template file; convert administrative templates using ADMX Migrator; configure property filters for administrative templates Manage Group Policy objects (GPOs). This objective may include but is not limited to: Back up, import, copy, and restore GPOs; create and configure Migration Table; reset default GPOs; delegate Group Policy management Mod 5 Lesson 2 Mod 5 Ex 4 Mod 6 Lesson 1/2/4 Mod 6 Ex 2 Mod 5 Lesson 1/3/4 Mod 5 Ex 1/2 Mod 4 Lesson 1/2/3 Mod 4 Ex 1 Mod 3 Lesson 1/3/4/ 5 Mod 3 Ex 2/3 Mod 3 Lesson 1/2/3 Mod 3 Ex 1/2 Mod 4 Lesson 1/2/3 Mod 4 Ex 1/2

Course Content

Exam 70-411: Administering Windows Server 2012 Exam Objective Domain


Configure Group Policy This objective may include but is not limited to: Configure Group Policy Preferences (GPP)

Course Content
Mod 6 Lesson Mod 6 Ex 1

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preferences.

About This Course


settings including printers, network drive mappings, power options, custom registry settings, Control Panel settings, Internet Explorer settings, file and folder deployment, and shortcut deployment; configure item-level targeting 1/2/3

Important: Attending this course in itself will not successfully prepare you to pass any associated certification exams.

The taking of this course does not guarantee that you will automatically pass any certification exam. In addition to attendance at this course, you should also have the following: Real-world, hands-on experience administering, managing and maintaining a Windows Server 2012 infrastructure. Additional study outside of the content in this handbook.

There may also be additional study and preparation resources, such as practice tests, available for you to prepare for this exam. Details of these are available at the following URL: http://www.microsoft.com/learning/en/us/exam.aspx?ID=70-411#tab3 You should familiarize yourself with the audience profile and exam prerequisites to ensure you are sufficiently prepared before taking the certification exam. The complete audience profile for this exam is available at the following URL: http://www.microsoft.com/learning/en/us/exam.aspx?ID=70-411#tab1 The exam/course mapping table outlined above is accurate at the time of printing, however it is subject to change at any time and Microsoft bears no responsibility for any discrepancies between the version published here and the version available online and will provide no notification of such changes.

Course Materials
The following materials are included with your kit: Course Handbook A succinct classroom learning guide that provides all the critical technical information in a crisp, tightlyfocused format, which is just right for an effective in-class learning experience. Lessons: Guide you through the learning objectives and provide the key points that are critical to the success of the in-class learning experience. Labs: Provide a real-world, hands-on platform for you to apply the knowledge and skills learned in the module. Module Reviews and Takeaways: Provide improved on-the-job reference material to boost knowledge and skills retention. Lab Answer Keys: Provide step-by-step lab solution guidance at your fingertips when its needed.

Course Companion Content on the http://www.microsoft.com/learning/companionmoc Site : Searchable, easy-to-navigate digital content with integrated premium on-line resources designed to supplement the Course Handbook. Modules: Include companion content, such as questions and answers, detailed demo steps and additional reading links, for
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About This Course

each lesson. Additionally, they include Lab Review questions and answers and Module Reviews and Takeaways sections, which contain the review questions and answers, best practices, common issues and troubleshooting tips with answers, and realworld issues and scenarios with answers. Resources: Include well-categorized additional resources that give you immediate access to the most up-to-date premium content on TechNet, MSDN, and Microsoft Press.

Student Course files on the http://www.microsoft.com/learning/companionmoc Site : Includes the Allfiles.exe, a selfextracting executable file that contains all the files required for the labs and demonstrations. Course evaluation At the end of the course, you will have the opportunity to complete an online evaluation to provide feedback on the course, training facility, and instructor. To provide additional comments or feedback on the course, send e-mail to support@mscourseware.com. To inquire about the Microsoft Certification Program, send e-mail to mcphelp@microsoft.com.

Virtual Machine Environment


This section provides the information for setting up the classroom environment to support the business scenario of the course.

Virtual Machine Configuration


In this course, you will use Hyper-V to perform the labs. Important At the end of each lab, you must close the virtual machine and must not save any changes. To close a virtual machine without saving the changes, perform the following steps: 1. 2. On the virtual machine, on the Action menu, click Close . In the Close dialog box, in the What do you want the virtual machine to do? list, click Turn off and delete changes, and then click OK.

The following table shows the role of each virtual machine that is used in this course.

Virtual machine
20411B-LON-DC1 20411B-LON-CL1 20411B-LON-CL2 20411B-LON-SVR1 20411B-LON-SVR3 20411B-LON-SVR4 20411B-LON-RTR

Role
Windows Server 2012 domain controller for the Adatum.com domain Windows 8 client computer and in the Adatum.com domain Windows 8 client computer and in the Adatum.com domain Windows Server 2012 in the Adatum.com domain No operating system installed A Windows Server 2012 server computer in the Adatum.com domain A Windows Server 2012 server computer in the Adatum.com domain

Software Configuration
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The following software is installed on each virtual machine: Network Monitor 3.4 is installed on LON-SVR2.

Course Files
There are lab files associated with the labs in this course. The lab files are located in the folder E:\Labfiles\LabXX on NYC-DC1.

Classroom Setup
Each classroom computer will have the same virtual machine configured in the same way.

Course Hardware Level


To ensure a satisfactory student experience, Microsoft Learning requires a minimum equipment configuration for trainer and student computers in all Microsoft Certified Partner for Learning Solutions (CPLS) classrooms in which Official Microsoft Learning Product courseware are taught. Hardware level 6 with 8 gigabytes (GB) of random access memory (RAM)

Navigation in Windows Server 2012


If you are not familiar with the user interface in Windows Server 2012 or Windows 8 then the following information will help orient you to the new interface. Sign in and Sign out replace Log in and Log out. Administrative tools are found in the Tools menu of Server Manager. Move your mouse to the lower right corner of the desktop to open a menu with: Settings: This includes Control Panel and Power Start menu: This provides access to some applications Search: This allows you to search applications, settings, and files

You may also find the following shortcut keys useful: Windows: Opens the Start menu Windows+C: Opens the same menu as moving the mouse to the lower right corner Windows+I: Opens Settings Windows+R: Opens the Run window

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Module 1: Deploying and Maintaining Server Images

Module 1: Deploying and Maintaining Server Images Contents:


Module Overview Lesson 1: Lesson 2: Lesson 3: Lab: Overview of Windows Deployment Services Implementing Deployment with Windows Deployment Services Administering Windows Deployment Services Using Windows Deployment Services to Deploy Windows Server 2012 Module Review and Takeaways

Module Overview
Larger organizations need deployment technologies that can reduce or eliminate user interaction during the deployment process. You can use the Deployment Services role in Windows Server 2012 and Windows Server 2008 to help support both lite-touch and zero-touch, high-volume deployments. This module explores the functionality of Windows Deployment Services, and explains how to use Windows Deployment Services tools to perform lite-touch deployments.

Objectives
After completing this module, students will be able to: Describe the important features and functionality of Windows Deployment Services. Configure Windows Deployment Services in Windows Server 2012. Perform deployments with Windows Deployment Services.

Lesson 1 : Overview of Windows Deployment Services


Windows Deployment Services enables you to deploy Windows operating systems. You can use a network-based installation of Windows Deployment Services to deploy these operating systems on new computers. This means that you do not have to be physically present at each computer. In addition, you do not have to install each operating system directly from local media. Consequently, Windows Deployment Services scales well to support the deployment needs of larger organizations.

Lesson Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to: Describe the function of Windows Deployment Services. Describe the components of Windows Deployment Services.

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Module 1: Deploying and Maintaining Server Images

Describe the benefits of Windows Deployment Services. Identify how to use Windows Deployment Services to support various deployment scenarios.

What Is Windows Deployment Services?

Windows Deployment Services is a server role provided with Windows Server 2012. It provides the following functions: Enables you to perform network-based installations. Simplifies the deployment process. Supports deployment to computers that have no current operating system. Provides end-to-end deployment solutions for both client and server computers. Uses existing technologies, such as Windows Preinstallation Environment (Windows PE), Windows image (.wim) file and Virtual Hard Disk (.vhd) image files, and image-based deployment.

Windows Deployment Services enables automated deployment of Windows operating systems. You can completely automate deployment of the following operating systems: Windows XP Windows Server 2003 Windows Vista with Service Pack 1 (SP1) Windows Server 2008 Windows 7 Windows Server 2008 R2 Windows 8 Windows Server 2012

Windows Deployment Services provides the ability to create, store, and deploy installation images of supported operating systems, and supports .wim and .vhd image files. Deployment now can be unicast or multicast. Using multicasting enables more
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effective management of network traffic that the deployment process consumes. This potentially speeds up deployment without affecting other network services adversely.

Operating Systems with Components


Windows Deployment Services integrates closely with Windows Vista, Windows Server 2008, Windows 7, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows 8, and Windows Server 2012. One important example of this integration is the design of these operating systems with components. These operating systems consist of self-describing elements, known as components. Self-describing refers to the fact that the elements contain a manifest that lists the different configuration options that you can set for each component. You can see the features and configurations for each component. Updates, service packs, and language packs are components that are applied on top of operating systems that can be divided. Drivers also are considered separate, configurable components. The primary benefit of this is that you can install drivers, such as hotfixes and service packs, into an offline operating system. Instead of updating complete images each time a new update, service pack, or driver becomes available, you can install these components into the offline image so that Windows applies them when you deploy the image. When deploying the images to the hard disk of a new computer, the system receives the base image with each of the components added, before the system boots for the first time. If your organization is multilingual or international, you can utilize the language-neutral nature of the latest Windows operating systems. The number of images that you need to maintain shrinks again because there are no longer localized versions. Some Windows operating systems versions are limited to the number of language packs. You can add or remove language packs from a system as necessary and at any time without otherwise altering the installation. If you need to support multiple languages, you add all of the necessary language packs to your deployment .wim file and then activate them as necessary, either on all computers or on specific computers.

Windows Deployment Services Components

Windows Deployment Services provides a number of distinct functions through a number of identifiable components.

Windows Deployment Services Pre-Boot EXecution Environment Server


The Pre-Boot EXecution Environment (PXE) server provides the following functionality: Binds to network interfaces.
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Listens for incoming PXE requests. Formats the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) response packets.

Windows Deployment Services client


The Windows Deployment Services client provides a graphical interface that is built on the Windows Server setup graphical interface. It establishes a communication channel with the Windows Deployment Services server and retrieves a list of install images on the Windows Deployment Services server. Additionally, the Windows Deployment Services client provides status information at the target computer during deployment.

Server Components
Additional server components include a Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) server that enables network-booting clients to load a boot image into memory. Also included is: an image repository that contains boot images, install images, files needed specifically for network-boot support, and a shared folder that hosts the install images.

Multicasting Engine
Transmitting large operating system images over the network is more efficient with Windows Deployment Services. However, pushing multi-gigabyte files across the network creates a large amount of network traffic. By using the new multicast feature, you can further reduce the network cost of using Windows Deployment Services deployment. With multicasting, the server sends the data a single time, and multiple targets receive the same data. If you are deploying to multiple targets, this can cut the network traffic to a fraction of the equivalent number of multiple unicast transmissions. Windows Deployment Services provides two types of multicasting: Scheduled-cast. There are two ways that you can configure scheduled-cast: o Client count. When you specify a client count, the server waits until the defined count of connected clients is reached, and then it starts to send the information. o Point in time. When you specify a point in time, the server waits until the specified time and begins deployment to connected client computers. While scheduled-cast provides a more efficient use of the network, it is somewhat labor-intensive; each target computer must be connected, turned on, and cued. Autocast. A target can join an Autocast at any time, and the server repeats the transmission as long as targets are connected. If the target starts receiving the image in the middle, or if it misses some portion of the image, it remains connected and collects the additional parts of the file when the server restarts the transmission. Question: What is the advantage of multicasting as opposed to unicasting in volume deployment scenarios?

Why Use Windows Deployment Services?

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Any organization that wants to reduce the administrator interaction that is required during deployment of Windows Server should use Windows Deployment Services. Because of its ability to support deployment from across the network, potentially with no user interaction, Windows Deployment Services allows organizations to create a more autonomous and efficient environment for installing Windows. Consider the following scenarios.

Scenario 1
In a small network consisting of a single server and around 25 Windows XP computers, you could use Windows Deployment Services to expedite the upgrade process of the client computers to Windows 8. Once you have installed and configured the Windows Deployment Services server role on the single server, you can use Windows Deployment Services to perform the following tasks: 1. 2. 3. Add boot.wim from the sources folder of the Windows Server 2012 media as a boot image in Windows Deployment Services. Add install.wim from the sources folder of the Windows 8 media as an install image. Create a capture image from the boot image that you added previously.

Note: A capture image is a modified boot image that contains the necessary elements that enable you to capture a WIM file image from a configured reference computer.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Start your reference computer from the network using PXE. Perform a standard installation of Windows 8 from the install.wim image. Install office productivity applications and custom applications as required on the reference computer. Generalize the reference computer with the System Preparation (Sysprep) tool. Restart the reference computer from the network using PXE. Connect to the capture image that you created, use it to capture the local operating system, and upload it back to the Windows Deployment Services server.

10. Start each of the existing target computers from the network using PXE, and connect to the appropriate boot image. 11. Select the custom install image. 12. Deployment starts.

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Benefits to the organization in this scenario are: A standardized desktop computer image. Quick deployment of each computer with limited installer interaction.

This solution would not suit larger deployments, as you need the installer to start the deployment on the target computer. Additionally, the installer is required to select a disk partition on which to install the selected installation image.

Scenario 2
In the second scenario, a medium to large-sized organization wants to deploy multiple servers in branch offices that are geographically dispersed. It would be time-consuming and expensive to send experienced IT staff to each location to deploy the servers. By using Windows Deployment Services, IT staff can address this issue: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Add boot.wim from the Windows Server 2012 media as a boot image in Windows Deployment Services. Add install.wim from the Windows Server 2012 media as an install image. Create a capture image. Start the reference computer from the network. Perform a standard installation of Windows Server 2012 from the install.wim image. Customize the reference computer as required. Generalize the reference computer. Restart the reference computer. Capture the reference Windows operating system, and upload it back to the Windows Deployment Services server.

10. Configure the necessary Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) computer accounts; this is known as prestaging the computer accounts. 11. Use Windows System Image Manager (SIM) in the Windows Automated Installation Kit (Windows ADK) to create an unattended answer file. 12. Configure the answer file for use with the captured installation image on Windows Deployment Services. 13. Configure a custom naming policy in Windows Deployment Services so that each server computer receives a suitable computer name during deployment. 14. Configure Windows Deployment Services to use a default boot image. 15. Configure Windows Deployment Services to respond to PXE requests and start deployment of the install image automatically. 16. Start each of the target computers from the network.

Note: To avoid a boot loop, it is advisable to configure the computers basic input/output system (BIOS) to start up from the hard disk and then the network. For further information about avoiding a boot loop, refer to the Windows Deployment Services Deployment Guide.
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Benefits to the organization in this scenario are: Standardized server builds. Automatic domain-join following deployment. Automatic computer naming. Little or no installer interaction.

The solution does not implement multicast transmissions, nor does it use PXE referral. These technologies could be used as well, to help manage network traffic during the deployment.

Discussion: How to Use Windows Deployment Services

Windows Deployment Services can be useful for many deployment scenarios involving Windows operating systems. Question: The A. Datum Corporation IT staff is about to deploy Windows Server 2012 to various branch offices. The following information has been provided to the IT staff by management: o The configuration of the various branch office servers is expected to be fairly consistent. o o There is no requirement to upgrade settings from existing servers, as these are new branch offices with no current IT infrastructure in place. Automation of the deployment process is important, as there are many servers to deploy.

How would you use Windows Deployment Services to aid deployment? Question: A. Datum Corporation wants to deploy several dozen new servers in their head offices. These servers will be installed with Windows Server 2012. The following information has been provided to the IT staff by management: o The configuration of the various servers is expected to vary slightly; there are two basic server configurations: full server, and Server Core. o Managing network traffic is critical, as the network is near capacity.

How would you advise staff at A. Datum to proceed with the deployment?
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Lesson 2: Implementing Deployment with Windows Deployment Services


While Windows Deployment Services is not complicated to install and configure, it is important that you understand the makeup of its components, and how to correctly configure it. By doing this, you will ensure that it provides the appropriate level of deployment automation, and that it addresses the deployment needs of your organization. Once you install and configure Windows Deployment Services, you must understand how to use it and its associated tools to create, manage, and deploy images to computers within your organization.

Lesson Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to: Describe Windows Deployment Services components. Explain how to install and configure Windows Deployment Services. Explain the process of using Windows Deployment Services to deploy Windows Server.

Understanding Windows Deployment Services Components

When you deploy the Windows Deployment Services server role, you can choose from two configuration options. You can choose the default configuration, which deploys both the Deployment Server and Transport Server role services, or you can choose to deploy only the Transport Server role service. In this second scenario, the Deployment Server role service provides the image server; the Transport Server does not provide imaging functionality. The Deployment Server enables an end-to-end deployment solution, while the Transport Server provides a platform that you use to create a custom multicast deployment solution. The following table compares the two role services.

Server component
Requirements PXE Image server

Deployment server
AD DS, DHCP, and Domain Name System (DNS) Uses the default PXE provider Includes Windows Deployment Services image server

Transport server
No infrastructure requirements You must create a PXE provider None

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Multicast only WDSutil.exe only

Both the WDSutil.exe command-line tools and the Windows Deployment Services Microsoft Management Console (MMC) snap-in

Target computer

Uses Windows Deployment Services client or the Wdsmcast.exe tool

Wdsmcast.exe only

Transport Server Functionality


You can use the Transport Server to provide the following functions: Boot from the network. The Transport Server provides only a PXE listener; this is the component that listens and accepts incoming traffic. You must write a custom PXE provider to use a Transport Server to boot a computer from the network. Multicasting. The multicast server in Windows Deployment Services consists of a multicast provider and a content provider: o Multicast provider. Transmits data over the network. o Content provider. Interprets the data and passes it to the multicast provider. This is installed with both the Transport Servers and Deployment Server, and can be used to transfer any file type, although it has specific knowledge about the .wim image file format.

Windows Deployment Services Installation Requirements


The specific requirements for installing the Windows Deployment Services role depend on whether you are deploying a Deployment Server or only a Transport Server. To install a Deployment Server, your network and target server must meet the following requirements. AD DS. Your Windows Deployment Services server must be either a member of an AD DS domain or a domain controller for an AD DS domain.

Note: The AD DS domain and forest functional levels are not relevant; all domain and forest configurations support Windows Deployment Services.

DHCP. You must have a working DHCP server with an active scope on the network. This is because Windows Deployment Services uses PXE, which relies on DHCP to allocate IP configurations. DNS. You must have a working DNS server on the network so that client computers can locate the required services for deployment. NTFS file system volume. The server running Windows Deployment Services requires an NTFS volume for the image store. Windows Deployment Services accesses the image store within the context of the logged on user. Therefore, deployment user accounts must have sufficient permissions on image files.

While not a requirement, the Windows ADK enables you to simplify the process for creating answer (unattend.xml) files for use with automated Windows Deployment Services deployments.

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Note: To install the Windows Deployment Services role, you must be a member of the Local Administrators group on the server. To initialize the server, you must be a member of the Domain Users group.

Installing and Configuring Windows Deployment Services

Once your network infrastructure meets the prerequisites, you can install the Windows Deployment Services server role.

Installing the Windows Deployment Services Server Role


Use the following high-level steps to provide guidance on installing the role. 1. 2. Open Server Manager, and then add the Windows Deployment Services server role. Choose whether you want to install the Deployment Server role service (which includes the Transport Server role), or just the Transport Server role service. 3. Complete the wizard to install the required role.

Initial Windows Deployment Services Configuration


Once Windows Deployment Services is installed, open Windows Deployment Services from Administrative Tools, and then use the following high-level guidance to configure Windows Deployment Services. 1. 2. Select your server in Windows Deployment Services the console, and launch the Configuration wizard. Specify a location to store images. This location: o o o 3. Must be an NTFS partition. Must be large enough to accommodate the deployment images that you anticipate needing. Should be a separate physical disk from that on which the operating system is installed to help optimize performance.

If the DHCP server role is co-hosted on the Windows Deployment Services server, you must: o o Prevent the PXE server from listening on User Datagram Protocol (UDP) port 67; this port is used by DHCP. Configure DHCP option 60 to PXEClient; this enables the PXE client to locate the Windows Deployment Services server port.

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Note: If you deploy Windows Deployment Services to a server that is already running the DHCP Server role, these changes are made automatically. If you subsequently add the DHCP Server role to a Windows Deployment Server, you must ensure that you make these changes.

4.

Determine how you want the PXE server to respond to clients: o The default is that the PXE server does not respond to any clients; this is useful when you are initially configuring Windows Deployment Services, as you do not yet have any images available for clients. o Alternatively, you can choose to configure the PXE server to: Respond to known client computers; these are computers that you have prestaged. Respond to all client computers, whether you have prestaged them or not; if you select this option, you can additionally define that administrator approval is required for unknown computers. While awaiting approval, client computers are held in a pending queue. Note: If necessary, you can reconfigure these settings after the initial configuration is complete.

Managing Deployments with Windows Deployment Services

Once you install and configure Windows Deployment Services, you can then prepare Windows Deployment Services to service client deployments; this involves the following procedures.

Configuring Boot Settings


You must complete several configuration tasks to configure boot settings on the server that is hosting Windows Deployment Services. Add boot images. A boot image is a Windows PE image that you use to boot a computer and install the install image. Typically, you use the boot.wim file on the Windows Server 2012 product DVD in the \sources folder. You may also decide to create a capture image, which is a specific type of boot image that you can use to capture a currently installed operating system on a reference computer. Configure the PXE boot policy for known and unknown clients. This policy determines the required installer behavior during
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the initial part of the deployment. By default, both known and unknown computer policies require the installer to press F12 to connect to the Windows Deployment Services image server. Failure to do so results in the computer using BIOS settings to determine an alternative boot methodfor example, hard disk or CD ROM. Instead of this default, you can configure the following options: o Always continue the PXE boot. This option ensures that the computer continues through the deployment process without any installer interaction. o Continue the PXE boot unless the user pressed the Esc key. This option gives the installer the ability to cancel the deployment. Configure a default boot image. If you have multiple boot imagesfor example, to support multiple platformsyou can configure a default boot image for each of them. This image is selected after a timeout period on the PXE client computer. Associate an answer file for setup. You can define an associated answer file for each client architecture. This answer file provides information that is used during the initial setup phase, and enables the Windows Deployment Services image server to select the appropriate install image for the client, without installer intervention. Create discover images. Not all computers support PXE network boot. For those that do not, you can create a discover image based on a boot image and export it to a removable storage device. To create a discover image, specify: o The image name and description. o The boot image on which it is based. o A filename with which to store the image. o The name of the Windows Deployment Services server that will be used for deployment.

Configuring Install Settings


You must configure additional install settings in Windows Deployment Services. Add install images. This is the operating system image that you use to install Windows Server. Typically, you start with the installation image install.wim, in the \sources folder on the Windows Server 2012 product DVD. Thereafter, you might choose to create custom images for groups of computers that have similar configurations.

Note: Before you can create install images, you must define an install image group in which to consolidate the related images. If you do not do so, the Windows Deployment Services administration program creates a generic group.

Associate an answer file with an install image. If you have created an answer file, for example by using Windows ADK, you can associate it with an install to provide the necessary information to complete deployment of the computer with no installer interaction. Configure a client naming policy. You can use the client naming policy to define computer names for unknown computers during deployment. The policy uses a number of variables to create a unique name: a. %First. The installers first name. Placing a number after the % sign results in using only that many characters. For example, %3First uses the first three characters of the installers first name. b. %Last. The installers last name. You can also define the number of characters to use.
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c. %Username. The installers user name. Again, you can limit the number of characters by specifying a number after the % sign. d. %MAC. The Media Access Control (MAC) address. e. %[n]#. You can use this sequence to define a unique identifying sequential number to the computer name containing n digits. If you want to use a multiple-digit number, pad the variable with leading zeros, after the % sign. For example, %2# results in the sequential numbers 1, 2, 3, and so on. %02# results in 01, 02, and 03. Specify the AD DS location for computer accounts. The default is to use the same AD DS domain as the Windows Deployment Services server. Alternatively, you can select between: o The same domain as the user performing the deployment. o The same organizational unit (OU) as the user who is performing the deployment. o A specified AD DS location.

Note: The Windows Deployment Services computer requires Create Computer object and Write All Properties permissions on the AD DS container that you specify.

Configuring Transmission Settings


Configure multicast transmissions. Unicast transmission is enabled by default; that is, you need do nothing further and you can deploy clients using unicast. However, to enable multicast transmission, specify: The multicast transmission name. An install image with which the transmission is associated. A method of multicast transmission. Choose between Autocast and Scheduled-Cast. If you choose Scheduled-Cast, you can define both a threshold minimum number of clients before transmission starts and the start date and time.

Configuring Drivers
Windows Deployment Services in Windows Server 2012 enables you to add and configure driver packages on the server, and then deploy them to client computers during installations based on their hardware. Use the following high-level steps to configure drivers: 1. 2. Obtain the drivers that you need. These must be in the form of an .inf file rather than an .msi or .exe file. Configure filters, if desired, on the driver group. These filters determine which computers receive the drivers based on the hardware characteristics of the client computers. For example, you can create a filter that applies the drivers only to computers that have a BIOS manufactured by A. Datum. 3. Add the drivers as a driver package. Driver packages must be associated with a driver group. If you associate the driver package with an unfiltered group, all computers receive the driver.

You can use Windows Deployment Services to add driver packages to your Windows 8 and Windows Server 2012 boot images;
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consequently, you do not have to export the image. Use the tools in the Windows ADK to add driver packages manually, and then add the updated boot image. Question: What is the advantage of defining a client naming policy?

Lesson 3: Administering Windows Deployment Services


When you have completed the configuration of Windows Deployment Services, you must create and administer boot images, install images, and optionally capture and discover images. In addition, you must make these images available to client computers with the desired level of automation, using an appropriate transmission mechanism.

Lesson Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to: Describe the common administration tasks. Explain how to add and configure boot, capture, discover, and install images. Explain how to automate deployments. Explain how to configure multicast transmission to deploy your images.

Common Administration Tasks

To configure Windows Deployment Services effectively, you must complete a number of common administration tasks. To help you complete these tasks, Windows Deployment Services provides a number of tools to help you. The administrative tasks that you must complete include the following: Configuring DHCP Creating and servicing images Managing the boot menu Prestaging client computers Automating deployment
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Configuring transmission

Configuring DHCP
Clients that boot using PXE require a dynamically allocated IPv4 configuration. You must create and configure an appropriate DHCP scope for this purpose. Additionally, if the DHCP and Windows Deployment Services server roles are co-hosted, then you must configure how the PXE server listens for client requests; there is an inherent conflict as both DHCP and Windows Deployment Services use UDP port 67. To create and manage DHCP scopes, you can use the DHCP snap-in or the Netsh.exe command-line tool.

Creating and Servicing Images


You can create and service images with the Windows Deployment Services snap-in, Windows SIM, the WDSutil.exe commandline tool, or the Dism.exe command-line tool. For example, to add a boot image, use the following command:

W D S U T I L/ V e r b o s e/ P r o g r e s s/ A d d I m a g e/ I m a g e F i l e : < p a t h >/ I m a g e T y p e : B o o t

To create a capture image, use the following command:

W D S U T I L/ N e w C a p t u r e I m a g e/ I m a g e : < s o u r c eb o o ti m a g en a m e >/ A r c h i t e c t u r e : { x 8 6 | i a 6 4 | x 6 4 } / D e s t i n a t i o n I m a g e/ F i l e P a t h : < f i l ep a t h >

To add an install image, use the following two commands, pressing Enter after each line:

W D S U T I L/ A d d I m a g e G r o u p/ I m a g e G r o u p : < i m a g eg r o u pn a m e >W D S U T I L/ V e r b o s e/ P r o g r e s s/ A d d I m a g e / I m a g e F i l e : < p a t ht o. w i mf i l e >/ I m a g e T y p e : I n s t a l l

Note: You can also perform these management tasks using the Windows Deployment Service management console, found in Server Manager.

Managing the Boot Menu


The boot environment for Windows Server 2012 relies on the Boot Configuration Data (BCD) store. This store defines how the boot menu is configured. You can customize the store using Bcdedit.exe. Note: When you customize the BCD store, you must force it to be recreated for your changes to take effect. To do this, run the following two WDSutil.exe commands (pressing Enter after each line), to stop and then restart the Windows Deployment Services server: wdsutil /stop-server wdsutil /start-server

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The following is a list of limitations for the boot menu user interface: Screen size. Only 13 images can be displayed on the menu. If you have more, the installer must scroll down to see them. Mouse. There is no mouse pointer. Keyboard. There is no support for alternate keyboards, other than what the BIOS supports. Localization. There is limited support for localization, other than what the BIOS supports. Accessibility. There is limited support for accessibility.

Prestaging Client Computers


Windows Deployment Services supports deployment to unknown clients. You can exert some control over unknown clients by configuring administrator approval. This ensures that clients that are attempting to deploy with Windows Deployment Services are placed in a pending queue awaiting your approval. You can also configure the client computers name during approval. However, if you want more specific control over deployments, you can prestage the computers in AD DS; this enables you to configure the client to: Start from a different Windows Deployment Services server. Use a different network boot program. Use a specific unattend file. Use a specific boot image. Join a particular AD DS domain.

You can use the following WDSutil.exe command-line tool to prestage computers:

W D S U T I L/ A d d D e v i c e/ D e v i c e : < n a m e >/ I D : < G U I D o r M A C A d d r e s s >

In this example, <GUIDorMACAddress> is the identifier of the new computer.

Automating Deployment
You can automate Windows Deployment Services deployments from end-to-end. You can use the Windows Deployment Services snap-in and Windows SIM to complete these tasks.

Configuring Transmission
Multicasting enables you to deploy an image to a large number of client computers without consuming excessive network bandwidth. Consider enabling multicast transmissions if your organization: Anticipates many concurrent deployments.
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Has routers that support the propagation of multicasts; that is support for the Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP).

You can use the Windows Deployment Services snap-in or the WDSutil.exe command-line tool to manage multicast transmission. For example, to create a multicast transmission with Autocast, use the following command:

W D S U T I L/ N e w M u l t i c a s t T r a n s m i s s i o n/ I m a g e : < i m a g en a m e >/ F r i e n d l y N a m e : < f r i e n d l yn a m e > / I m a g e T y p e : I n s t a l l/ I m a g e G r o u p : < I m a g eg r o u pn a m e >/ T r a n s m i s s i o n T y p e : A u t o C a s t

To create a Scheduled-Cast transmission, use the following command:

W D S U T I L/ N e w M u l t i c a s t T r a n s m i s s i o n/ I m a g e : < i m a g en a m e >/ F r i e n d l y N a m e : < f r i e n d l yn a m e > / I m a g e T y p e : I n s t a l l/ I m a g e G r o u p : < I m a g eg r o u pn a m e >/ T r a n s m i s s i o n T y p e : S c h e d u l e d C a s t [ / T i m e : < y y y y / m m / d d : h h : m m > ] [ / C l i e n t s : < n oo fc l i e n t s > ]

Demonstration: How to Administer Images


This demonstration shows how to administer images. In this demonstration, this process will be broken down into the following four steps: Install and configure the Windows Deployment Services role. Add a boot image. Create a capture image. Add an install image.

Demonstration Steps
Install and configure the Windows Deployment Services role 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Switch to the LON-SVR1 computer. Open Server Manager. Install the Windows Deployment Services server role with both role services. In the Windows Deployment Services console, right-click LON-SVR1.Adatum.com, and then click Configure Server. Use the following information to complete configuration: o o o o o Integrate Windows Deployment Services with Active Directory. On the Remote Installation Folder Location page, accept the defaults. Accept the System Volume Warning message. On the PXE Server Initial Settings page, select the Respond to all (known and unknown) client computers option. When prompted, choose to not add images to the server.
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Module 1: Deploying and Maintaining Server Images

Add a boot image 1. 2. 3. Switch to LON-SVR1. If necessary, open the Windows Deployment Services console. Add a new boot image using the following information to complete the process: a. b. c. 4. On the Image File page, use the file name: D:\sources\boot.wim. Accept the defaults on the Image Metadata page. Accept the defaults on the Summary page.

On the Task Progress page, click Finish.

Add an install image 1. 2. 3. If necessary, open Windows Deployment Services. Add a new Image Group with the image group name of Windows Server 2012. Use the Add Image Wizard to add a new install image to this group. Use the following information to complete the process: a. b. c. d. 4. On the Image File page, use the following file name: D:\sources\install.wim. On the Available Images page, clear all check boxes except Windows Server 2012 SERVERSTANDARDCORE. Accept the defaults on the Summary page. On the Task Progress page, click Finish.

Minimize the Windows Deployment Services window.

Automating Deployments

There are four phases that you can automate during the Windows Deployment Services deployment process. These are: PXE Boot Policy. You can determine how the PXE server responds to clients, and whether the installer is required to press the F12 key to connect to the Windows Deployment Services server and select a boot image. For example, the Always continue the PXE boot option ensures that the computer continues through the deployment process without any installer interaction.
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Module 1: Deploying and Maintaining Server Images

The default boot image. If you configure a default boot image, the installer will not be prompted to make a selection. The Windows Deployment Services screens. When the client computer uses the TFTP protocol to connect to the Windows Deployment Services server and select a boot image, the installer must then provide credentials and select an operating system image to install. You can create an Unattend.xml answer file to automate this phase. Windows Setup. You can customize the setup program so that once the install image has been selected (either automatically or manually), the setup program will complete the installation process with no installer intervention. This is the same type of automation that you use to automate installations with the Windows ADKADK.

Use Windows SIM to create both types of answer files, and then use the Windows Deployment Services snap-in to associate the answer files with the required deployment phase.

Automate Client Unattend


Use the following procedure to associate an answer file for the client unattend deployment phase: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Create the Unattend.xml file in Windows ADK with settings appropriate to Windows Deployment Services. Copy the file to the Windows Deployment Services server, and paste it into a folder under \RemoteInstall. Open Windows Deployment Services. View the Properties dialog box for the Windows Deployment Services server in the Windows Deployment Services console. On the Client tab, enable unattended installation, and then select the answer file that you created earlier.

Sample Unattend Answer File for Windows Deployment Services client Unattend
The following is a portion of a sample answer file that required to automate the Windows Deployment Services client Unattend phase:

< W i n d o w s D e p l o y m e n t S e r v i c e s >< L o g i n >< W i l l S h o w U I > O n E r r o r < / W i l l S h o w U I >< C r e d e n t i a l s > < U s e r n a m e > I n s t a l l e r < / U s e r n a m e >< D o m a i n > A d a t u m . c o m < / D o m a i n >< P a s s w o r d > P a $ $ w 0 r d < / P a s s w o r d > < / C r e d e n t i a l s >< / L o g i n >< I m a g e S e l e c t i o n >< W i l l S h o w U I > O n E r r o r < / W i l l S h o w U I >< I n s t a l l I m a g e > < I m a g e N a m e > W i n d o w sS e r v e r2 0 2 1 < / I m a g e N a m e >< I m a g e G r o u p > A d a t u mS e r v e rI m a g e s < / I m a g e G r o u p > < F i l e n a m e > I n s t a l l . w i m < / F i l e n a m e >< / I n s t a l l I m a g e >< I n s t a l l T o >< D i s k I D > 0 < / D i s k I D > < P a r t i t i o n I D > 1 < / P a r t i t i o n I D >< / I n s t a l l T o >< / I m a g e S e l e c t i o n >< / W i n d o w s D e p l o y m e n t S e r v i c e s >

Automate Windows Setup


To automate the Windows Setup process, use the following steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. Create the Unattend.xml file in Windows ADK, with settings appropriate to Windows Setup. Copy the file to a suitable location on the Windows Deployment Services server. In Windows Deployment Services, view the properties of the appropriate install image. Enable the Allow image to install in unattended mode option, and then select the answer file that you created.
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Module 1: Deploying and Maintaining Server Images

Demonstration: How to Configure Multicast Transmission


This demonstration shows how to configure multicast transmission.

Demonstration Steps
1. 2. Open the Windows Deployment Services console on LON-SVR1. Create a new multicast transmission by using the following information: o o o o Transmission name: Windows Server 2012 Branch Servers Image group: Windows Server 2012 Image: Windows Server 2012 SERVERENTERPRISECORE Multicast type: Autocast

Lab: Using Windows Deployment Services to Deploy Windows Server 2012


Scenario
A. Datum Corporation is a global engineering and manufacturing company with its head office in London, U.K. An IT office and data center are in London to support the head office and other branch locations. A. Datum has recently deployed a Windows Server 2012 server and client infrastructure. A. Datum is deploying servers to branch offices throughout the region for the Research department. You have been tasked with helping to automate this deployment. You suggest using Windows Deployment Services to deploy Windows Server 2012 to the branch offices. You have been sent some instructions by email regarding the deployment. You must read these instructions, and then install and configure Windows Deployment Services to support the deployment.

Objectives
After completing this lab, you will be able to: Install and configure Windows Deployment Services. Create operating system images using Windows Deployment Services. Configure custom computer naming. Deploy images with Windows Deployment Services.

Lab Setup
Estimated Time: 75 minutes

Virtual Machines

20411B-LON-DC1 20411B-LON-SVR1 20411B-LON-SVR3

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User Name Password

Module 1: Deploying and Maintaining Server Images


Administrator Pa$$w0rd

For this lab, you will use the available virtual machine environment. Before you begin the lab, you must complete the following steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. On the host computer, click Start, point to Administrative Tools, and then click Hyper-V Manager. In Hyper-V Manager, click 20411B-LON-DC1, and in the Actions pane, click Start. In the Actions pane, click Connect. Wait until the virtual machine starts. Log on using the following credentials: o o 5. User name: Adatum\Administrator Password: Pa$$w0rd

Perform steps 2 through 4 for 20411B-LON-SVR1. Do not start 20411B-LON-SVR3 until directed to do so.

Exercise 1: Installing and Configuring Windows Deployment Services


Scenario To assist with the process of configuring Windows Deployment Services, you have been sent an email with the appropriate configuration information.

Branch Office Deployment Guide


Requirements Overview To configure Microsoft Windows Deployment Services to aid in the deployment of branch office servers. Additional Information Deployment method: Automated standard image deployments Configuration information: o o o o o o LON-SVR1 is to be used to host Windows Deployment Services. Configure multicast transmission to use Autocast. Configure automatic naming to identify branch servers. Place branch servers in the Research organizational unit (OU). Operating system should be Windows Server 2012 Enterprise Edition. A Server Core installation should be performed.

The main tasks in this exercise are: 1. 2. Read the supporting documentation. Install the Windows Deployment Services role.
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Module 1: Deploying and Maintaining Server Images

3.

Configure Windows Deployment Services.

Task 1: Read the supporting documentation

Read the supporting documentation in the exercise scenario to determine the deployment details.

Task 2: Install the Windows Deployment Services role

1. 2. 3. 4.

Switch to the LON-SVR1 computer. Open Server Manager. Install the Windows Deployment Services server role with both role services. Close Server Manager.

Task 3: Configure Windows Deployment Services

1. 2. 3.

Open the Windows Deployment Services console. Right-click LON-SVR1.Adatum.com, and then click Configure Server. Use the following information to complete configuration: a. b. c. d. e. Integrate Windows Deployment Services with Active Directory. On the Remote Installation Folder Location page, accept the defaults. Accept the System Volume Warning message. On the PXE Server Initial Settings page, select the Respond to all client computers (known and unknown) option. When prompted, choose to not add images to the server.

Results: After completing this exercise, you will have installed and configured Windows Deployment Services.

Exercise 2: Creating Operating System Images with Windows Deployment Services


Scenario Windows Deployment Services is installed and configured successfully. You now must create various operating-system images to aid deployment. The main tasks in this exercise are: 1. Insert the Windows Server 2012 installation media in LON-SVR1.
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Module 1: Deploying and Maintaining Server Images

2. 3.

Add a boot image. Add an install image.

Task 1: Insert the Windows Server 2012 installation media in LON-SVR1

1. 2. 3.

On the host computer, open Hyper-V Manager. Open the Settings page for 20411B-LON-SVR1. Select the DVD Drive , and attach the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) file located at C:\Program Files\Microsoft Learning\20411\Drives\WIndows2012_RTM.iso.

Task 2: Add a boot image

1. 2. 3.

Switch to LON-SVR1. If necessary, open the Windows Deployment Services console. Add a new boot image using the following information to complete the process: o o o On the Image File page, use the file name: D:\sources\boot.wim. Accept the defaults on the Image Metadata page. Accept the defaults on the Summary page.

4.

On the Task Progress page, click Finish.

Task 3: Add an install image

1. 2. 3.

If necessary, open Windows Deployment Services. Add a new Image Group with the image group name of Windows Server 2012. Use the Add Image Wizard to add a new install image to this group. Use the following information to complete the process: a. b. c. d. On the Image File page, use the following file name: D:\sources\install.wim. On the Available Images page, clear all check boxes except Windows Server 2012 SERVERSTANDARDCORE. Accept the defaults on the Summary page. On the Task Progress page, click Finish.

4.

Minimize the Windows Deployment Services window.

Results: After completing this exercise, you will create an operating system image with Windows Deployment Services.

Exercise 3: Configuring Custom Computer Naming


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Scenario To automate computer naming, you must configure the custom naming properties for Windows Deployment Services as per the document that was sent to you. This also involves configuring delegation on the Active Directory OU that will contain the computer accounts. Administrator approval is required, so you must also configure that. The main tasks in this exercise are: 1. 2. 3. Configure automatic naming. Configure Administrator approval. Configure AD DS permissions.

Task 1: Configure automatic naming

1. 2.

In Windows Deployment Services, view the properties of LON-SVR1.Adatum.com. On the AD DS tab, use the following information to configure automatic naming: o o Format: BRANCH-SVR-%02# Computer Account Location: Adatum Research OU

Task 2: Configure Administrator approval

1. 2.

In Windows Deployment Services, view the properties of LON-SVR1.Adatum.com. On the PXE Response tab, select Require administrator approval for unknown computers, and change the PXE Response Delay to 3 seconds.

3.

Open Windows PowerShell, and then type the following command to create a message for installers to view while awaiting admin approval:
W D S U T I L/ S e t S e r v e r/ A u t o A d d P o l i c y/ M e s s a g e : T h eA d a t u ma d m i n i s t r a t o ri sa u t h o r i z i n gt h i s r e q u e s t .P l e a s ew a i t .

4.

Close the Command Prompt window.

Task 3: Configure Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) permissions

1. 2.

Switch to the LON-DC1 computer, and open Active Directory Users and Computers. Right-click the Research organizational unit (OU), and use the Delegate Control Wizard to delegate the LON-SVR1 computer account the ability to create computer objects in the OU. Use the following information to help:

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a. b.

Tasks to delegate: Create a custom task to delegate On the Active Directory Object Type page, click Only the following objects in the folder, select the Computer objects check box, and select the Create selected objects in this folder check box.

c.

On the Permissions page, in the Permissions list, select the Full Control check box.

Results: After completing this exercise, you will have configured custom computer naming.

Exercise 4: Deploying Images with Windows Deployment Services


Scenario You have provided instructions for a branch supervisor to initiate the installation process on the branch office server computer. The installation now will occur. The main tasks in this exercise are: 1. 2. Configure a Windows Deployment Services server for multicast transmission. Configure the client for Pre-Boot Execution Environment (PXE) Booting.

Task 1: Configure a Windows Deployment Services server for multicast transmission

1. 2.

Switch to the LON-SVR1 computer. Create a new multicast transmission using the following information to complete the process: o o o o Transmission name: Windows Sever 2012 Branch Servers Image group: Windows Server 2012 Image: Windows Server 2012 SERVERSTANDARDCORE Multicast type: Autocast

Task 2: Configure the client for Pre-Boot PXE Booting

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

On the host computer, switch to Hyper-V Manager. In the Virtual Machines list, right-click 20411B-LON-SVR3, and then click Settings. In the Settings for 20411B-LON-SVR3 dialog box, click BIOS. In the results pane, click Legacy Network adapter. Use the arrows to move Legacy Network adapter to the top of the list, and then click OK. In Hyper-V Manager, click 20411B-LON-SVR3, and in the Actions pane, click Start.
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Module 1: Deploying and Maintaining Server Images

7. 8.

In the Actions pane, click Connect. When the computer reboots, note the PXE Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) notice. When prompted, press F12 for Network Boot. Question: Do you see the admin approval message?

9.

Switch to the LON-SVR1 computer.

10. In Windows Deployment Services, click Pending Devices. 11. Right-click the pending request, and then click Approve . 12. In the Pending Device dialog box, click OK. 13. Switch to the LON-SVR3 computer. Question: Which image is the default?

Question: Does setup start?

14. You do not have to continue setup.

To prepare for the next module

When you finish the lab, revert the virtual machines to their initial state.

1. 2. 3. 4.

On the host computer, start Hyper-V Manager. Right-click 20411B-LON-DC1 in the Virtual Machines list, and then click Revert. In the Revert Virtual Machine dialog box, click Revert. Repeat these steps for 20411B-LON-SVR3 and 20411B-LON-SVR1.

Results: After completing this exercise, you will have deployed an image with Windows Deployment Services.

Module Review and Takeaways


Tools
Tool
Windows Deployment Services console WDSutil.exe Windows ADK

What it is used for


Administering Windows Deployment Services Command-line management of Windows Deployment Services Managing image files and creating answer files

Where to find it
Server Manager - Tools Command line Download from Microsoft.com

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Dism.exe Netsh.exe

Module 1: Deploying and Maintaining Server Images


Offline and online servicing of images Command-line tool for managing network-related settings Windows ADK Command line

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Lab Answer Key: Module 1: Deploying and Maintaining Server Images

Lab Answer Key: Module 1: Deploying and Maintaining Server Images Lab: Using Windows Deployment Services to Deploy Windows Server 2012
Exercise 1: Installing and Configuring Windows Deployment Services
Task 1: Read the supporting documentation

Read the supporting documentation in the exercise scenario to determine the deployment details.

Task 2: Install the Windows Deployment Services role

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Switch to the LON-SVR1 computer. In Server Manager, click Manage , and then click Add Roles and Features. In the Add Roles and Features Wizard window, click Next. On the Select installation type page, click Next. On the Select destination server page, click Next. On the Select server roles page, select the Windows Deployment Services check box. In the Add Roles and Features Wizard window, click Add Features. On the Select server roles page, select click Next. On the Select features page, click Next.

10. On the WDS page, review the information presented, and then click Next. 11. On the Select role services page, click Next. 12. On the Confirm installation selections page, click Install. 13. On the Installation Results page, click Close .

Task 3: Configure Windows Deployment Services

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

In Server Manager, click Tools, and then click Windows Deployment Services. In the Windows Deployment Services console, expand Servers. Right-click LON-SVR1.Adatum.com, and then click Configure Server. Click Next. On the Install Options page, click Next. On the Remote Installation Folder Location page, click Next. In the System Volume Warning dialog box, click Yes.
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Lab Answer Key: Module 1: Deploying and Maintaining Server Images

7.

On the PXE Server Initial Settings page, click Respond to all client computers (known and unknown), and then click Next.

8.

On the Operation Complete page, clear the Add images to the server now check box, and then click Finish.

Results: After completing this exercise, you will have installed and configured Windows Deployment Services.

Exercise 2: Creating Operating System Images with Windows Deployment Services


Task 1: Insert the Windows Server 2012 Installation media in LON-SVR1

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

On the host computer, open Hyper-V Manager. In Hyper-V Manager, right-click the 20411B-LON-SVR1 virtual machine, and then click Settings. In the Settings window, under IDE Controller 1, click DVD Drive . In the Settings window, under Media, click to select Image file , and then click Browse . In the Open window, double-click Local Disk (C:), double-click Program Files, double-click Microsoft Learning, doubleclick 20411, double-click Drives, and then double-click WIndows2012_RTM.iso.

6.

Click OK to close the Settings for 20411B-LON-SVR1 window.

Task 2: Add a boot image

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Switch to LON-SVR1. In Windows Deployment Services, in the console tree, expand LON-SVR1.Adatum.com. Right-click Boot Images, and then click Add Boot Image . In the Add Image Wizard, on the Image File page, click Browse . In the Select Windows Image File dialog box, in the navigation pane, click Computer, double-click DVD Drive (D:), double-click sources, and then double-click boot.wim.

6. 7. 8. 9.

On the Image File page, click Next. On the Image Metadata page, click Next. On the Summary page, click Next. On the Task Progress page, click Finish.

Task 3: Add an install image

1.

In the Windows Deployment Services console, right-click Install Images, and then click Add Image Group.
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Lab Answer Key: Module 1: Deploying and Maintaining Server Images

2.

In the Add Image Group dialog box, in the Enter a name for the image group field, type Windows Server 2012, and then click OK.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

In the Windows Deployment Services console, right-click Windows Server 2012, and then click Add Install Image . In the Add Image Wizard, on the Image File page, click Browse . In the File name text box, type D:\sources\install.wim, and then click Open. On the Image File page, click Next. On the Available Images page, clear all check boxes except Windows Server 2012 SERVERSTANDARDCORE, and then click Next.

8. 9.

On the Summary page, click Next. On the Task Progress page, click Finish.

10. Minimize the Windows Deployment Services window.

Results: After completing this exercise, you will create an operating system image with Windows Deployment Services.

Exercise 3: Configuring Custom Computer Naming


Task 1: Configure automatic naming

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

In Windows Deployment Services, in the console tree, right-click LON-SVR1.Adatum.com, and then click Properties. Click the AD DS tab. In the Format text box, type BRANCH-SVR-%02#. Under Computer Account Location, click The following location, and then click Browse . In the Browse for a Directory Service Folder dialog box, expand Adatum, click Research, and then click OK. In the LON-SVR1 Properties dialog box, click OK.

Task 2: Configure Administrator approval

1. 2. 3.

In Windows Deployment Services, in the console tree, right-click LON-SVR1.Adatum.com, and then click Properties. Click the PXE Response tab. Select the Require administrator approval for unknown computers check box. Change the PXE Response Delay to 3 seconds, and then click OK.

4. 5.

On the taskbar, click the Windows PowerShell shortcut. At the command prompt, type the following command, and then press Enter:
W D S U T I L/ S e t S e r v e r/ A u t o A d d P o l i c y/ M e s s a g e : T h eA d a t u ma d m i n i s t r a t o ri sa u t h o r i z i n gt h i s

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Lab Answer Key: Module 1: Deploying and Maintaining Server Images

r e q u e s t .P l e a s ew a i t .

6.

Close the command prompt window.

Task 3: Configure Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) permissions

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Switch to the LON-DC1 computer. In Server Manager, click Tools, and then click Active Directory Users and Computers. In Active Directory Users and Computers, expand Adatum.com, right-click Research, and then click Delegate Control. In the Delegation of Control Wizard, click Next. On the Users or Groups page, click Add. In the Select Users, Computers, or Groups dialog box, click Object Types. In the Object Types dialog box, select the Computers check box, and then click OK. In the Select Users, Computers, or Groups dialog box, in the Enter the object names to select text box, type LON-SVR1, click Check Names, and then click OK.

9.

On the Users or Groups page, click Next.

10. On the Tasks to Delegate page, click Create a custom task to delegate , and then click Next. 11. On the Active Directory Object Type page, click Only the following objects in the folder, select the Computer objects check box, select the Create selected objects in this folder check box, and then click Next. 12. On the Permissions page, in the Permissions list, select the Full Control check box, and then click Next. 13. On the Completing the Delegation of Control Wizard page, click Finish.

Results: After completing this exercise, you will have configured custom computer naming.

Exercise 4: Deploying Images with Windows Deployment Services


Task 1: Configure a Windows Deployment Services server for multicast transmission

1. 2.

Switch to the LON-SVR1 computer. In Windows Deployment Services, in the console tree, right-click Multicast Transmissions, and then click Create Multicast Transmission.

3.

In the Create Multicast Transmission Wizard, on the Transmission Name page, in the Type a name for this transmission field, type Windows Server 2012 Branch Servers, and then click Next.

4. 5.

On the Image Selection page, in the Select the image group that contains the image list, click Windows Server 2012. In the Name list, click Windows Server 2012 SERVERSTANDARDCORE, and then click Next.
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Lab Answer Key: Module 1: Deploying and Maintaining Server Images

6. 7.

On the Multicast Type page, verify that Auto-Cast is selected, and then click Next. Click Finish.

Task 2: Configure the client for Pre-Boot EXecution Environment (PXE) Booting

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

On the host computer, switch to Hyper-V Manager. In the Virtual Machines list, right-click 20411B-LON-SVR3, and then click Settings. In the Settings for 20411B-LON-SVR3 dialog box, click BIOS. In the results pane, click Legacy Network adapter. Use the arrows to move Legacy Network adapter to the top of the list, and then click OK. In Hyper-V Manager, click 20411B-LON-SVR3, and in the Actions pane, click Start. In the Actions pane, click Connect. When the computer reboots, review the PXE Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) notice. When prompted, press F12 for Network Boot. Question: Do you see the admin approval message?

Answer: Yes.

9.

Switch to the LON-SVR1 computer.

10. In Windows Deployment Services, click Pending Devices. 11. Right-click the pending request, and then click Approve . 12. In the Pending Device dialog box, click OK. 13. Switch to the LON-SVR3 computer. Question: Which image is the default?

Answer: Microsoft Windows Setup (x64)

Question: Does setup start?

Answer: Yes.

14. You do not have to continue setup.

To prepare for the next module


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Lab Answer Key: Module 1: Deploying and Maintaining Server Images

When you finish the lab, revert the virtual machines to their initial state

1. 2. 3. 4.

On the host computer, start Hyper-V Manager. Right-click 20411B-LON-DC1 in the Virtual Machines list, and then click Revert. In the Revert Virtual Machine dialog box, click Revert. Repeat these steps for 20411B-LON-SVR3 and 20411B-LON-SVR1.

Results: After completing this exercise, you will have deployed an image with Windows Deployment Services.

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Module 2: Configuring and Troubleshooting Domain Name System

Module 2: Configuring and Troubleshooting Domain Name System Contents:


Module Overview Lesson 1: Lesson 2: Lesson 3: Lesson 4: Lesson 5: Lab: Installing the DNS Server Role Configuring the DNS Server Role Configuring DNS Zones Configuring DNS Zone Transfers Managing and Troubleshooting DNS Configuring and Troubleshooting DNS Module Review and Takeaways

Module Overview
The Domain Name System (DNS) is the foundation name service in Windows Server 2012. It provides name resolution, and enables DNS clients to locate network services, such as Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) domain controllers, global catalog servers, and messaging servers. If you configure your DNS infrastructure poorly, or it is not working correctly, these important network services will be inaccessible to your network servers and clients. Consequently, it is vital that you understand how to deploy, configure, manage, and troubleshoot this critical service.

Objectives
After completing this module, you will be able to: Install the DNS server role. Configure the DNS server role. Create and configure DNS zones. Configure zone transfers. Manage and troubleshoot DNS.

Lesson 1 : Installing the DNS Server Role


To support the underlying network services within your organization, you must be able to install and configure the Windows Server 2012 DNS server role. Before installing the DNS server role, you must understand the requirement of your organizations network infrastructure and decide whether to use a split-brain DNS. You also must consider the placement of the DNS server role, and the number of DNS clients and zones that you will use. This lesson describes the installation process for a DNS server role.

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Lesson Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to: Explain the role and benefits of DNS in the network infrastructure. Explain a DNS namespace. Describe how to integrate DNS into AD DS. Explain the use of split-brain DNS. Explain how to install the DNS server role. Describe the considerations for deploying a DNS server.

Overview of the DNS Role

DNS is a name-resolution service that resolves names to IP addresses. The DNS service is a logically separated, hierarchical distributed database, which enables many different servers to host a worldwide database of DNS names.

How DNS Supports the Internet Naming Scheme Foundation


DNS is a worldwide service that allows you to type in a domain name (for example, Microsoft.com), which your computer resolves to an IP address. A benefit of DNS is that IPv4 addresses can be long and difficult to remember, such as 131.107.0.32. However, a domain name typically is easier to remember. Furthermore, you can use host names that do not change, although you can modify the underlying IP addresses to suit your organizational needs. With the adoption of IPv6, DNS will become even more critical because IPv6 addresses are even more complex than IPv4 addresses. An example of an IPv6 address is 2001:db8:4136:e38c:384f:3764:b59c:3d97.

How DNS Supports an Organizations Foundation for AD DS Naming Schemes


DNS is responsible for resolving resources in an Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) domain. The DNS role is a prerequisite for installing AD DS. DNS provides information to workstation clients, which enable them to sign in to the network. DNS resolves resources in the domain, such as servers, workstations, printers, and shared folders. If you configure a DNS server incorrectly, it can be the source of source of many AD DS problems.

Overview of the DNS Namespace


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The DNS namespace facilitates how a DNS resolver locates a computer. The namespace is organized hierarchically to distribute information across many servers.

Root Domain
A period (.) represents the root domain, and you do not type it into a web browser. The period (.) is assumed. The next time that you type an address into a computer, try adding the period at the end (for example, www.microsoft.com.). There are 13 root domain servers worldwide. Note: When troubleshooting DNS, it is usual to specify the trailing period.

Top-Level Domain
The top-level domain (TLD) is the first level of the DNS name space. Examples of TLDs on the Internet include .com, .net, .org, .biz, and .ca. The most recognized domains are .com, .net, .org, and .gov, which is for the government of the United States. There are several more domain names at this level, and there is a TLD for each country. For example, the TLD for Canada is .ca, and the TLD for the United Kingdom is .uk. The organization that regulates domain names, known as the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), adds new TLDs occasionally.

Second-Level Domain
The second-level domain name is the portion of the domain name that appears before the TLD. An example of a second-level domain name is microsoft in the www.microsoft.com domain. The organizations that register second-level domain names control them. Anyone may register a second-level domain name through an Internet registry service. Many second-level domains have special rules about what organizations or people can register a domain name. For example, only nonprofit organizations may use .org.

Subdomain
The subdomain is listed before the second-level and top-level domains. An example of a subdomain is www in the www.microsoft.com domain name. Subdomains are defined in the DNS server of the organization that holds the second-level DNS server.

Fully Qualified Domain Name


A fully qualified domain name (FQDN) is the explicit DNS name that includes the computer name and the subdomains to the root domain. For example, if the computer is designated as Server1 in the sales.south.contoso.com domain, the FQDN for that
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computer is server1.sales.south.contoso.com.

DNS Naming Standards


The following characters are valid for DNS names: A through Z a through z 0 through 9 Hyphen (-)

Note: The underscore (_) is a reserved character.

Integrating AD DS and DNS

When you begin planning your DNS namespace, you must consider both the internal and external namespaces. The internal namespace is the one that internal clients and servers use within your private network. The external namespace is the one by which your organization is referenced on the Internet. There is no requirement that you should implement the same DNS domain name internally that you have externally. When you implement AD DS, you must use a DNS namespace for hosting AD DS records. Note: Consider carefully your options before selecting a namespace design for AD DS. Although it is possible to change a namespace after implementing AD DS, it is a time-consuming and complex process that has many limitations.

To determine a DNS namespace for your AD DS environment, you can choose from the following scenarios: Make the internal namespace the same as the public namespace. In this scenario, the internal and public namespaces are the same, but will have different records. Although this provides simplicity, which makes it a suitable choice for smaller organizations, it can be difficult to manage for larger networks.
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Make the internal namespace different from the public namespace. In this scenario, the internal and public namespaces are completely different, with no link between them. This provides for obvious separation in the namespace. In complex networks, with many Internet-facing applications, use of a different name introduces some clarity when configuring these applications. For example, Edge Servers that are placed on a perimeter network often require multiple network interface cards: one connected to the private network; and one servicing requests from the public network. If each network interface card has a different domain name, it often is easier to complete the configuration of that server. Make the internal namespace a subdomain of the public namespace. In this scenario, the internal namespace is linked to the public namespace, but there is no overlap between them. This provides a hybrid approach. The internal name is different, which allows for separation of the namespace. However, the internal name also is related to the public name, which provides simplicity. This approach is the simplest to implement and manage. However, if you cannot use a subdomain of the public namespace for AD DS, you should use unique namespaces.

Note: In most situations, computers within an AD DS domain have a primary DNS suffix that matches the DNS domain name. Occasionally, you may require these names to differ, such as following a merger or during an acquisition. When names differ, this is known as a disjoint namespace. A disjoint namespace scenario is one in which the primary DNS suffix of a computer does not match the DNS domain name in which that computer resides. The computer with the primary DNS suffix that does not match is said to be disjointed . Another disjoint namespace scenario occurs if the NetBIOS domain name of a domain controller does not match the DNS domain name.

Determining Whether to Use Split DNS

Using the same namespace internally and externally simplifies resource access from the perspective of users, but it also increases management complexity. You should not make internal DNS records available externally, but some synchronization of records for external resources typically is required. For example, both your internal and external namespaces might use the name Contoso.com. Using unique namespaces for the internal and public namespaces provides a clear delineation between internal and external DNS, and avoids the need to synchronize records between the namespaces. However, in some cases, having multiple namespaces may lead to user confusion. For example, you may choose the external namespace of Contoso.com and the internal namespace of Contoso.local. Note that when you implement a unique namespace configuration, you no longer are tied to using registered domain names. Using a subdomain of the public namespace for AD DS avoids the need to synchronize records between the internal and external DNS servers. Because the namespaces are linked, users typically find this structure easy to understand. For example, if your public
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Module 2: Configuring and Troubleshooting Domain Name System

namespace is Contoso.com, you might choose to implement your internal namespace as the subdomain AD, or AD.Contoso.com.

Considering Split DNS


Having a matching internal and external DNS namespace can pose certain problems. However, split DNS can provide a solution to these problems. Split DNS is a configuration in which your domain has two root-server zones that contain domain-name registration information. Your internal network hosts are directed to one zone, while external hosts are directed to another for name resolution. For example, in a nonsplit DNS configuration for the domain Contoso.com, you might have a DNS zone that looks like the example in the following table.

Host
www Relay Webserver1 Exchange1

Record type
A A A A

IP address
131.107.1.200 131.107.1.201 192.168.1.200 192.168.0.201

When a client computer on the Internet wants to access the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) relay by using the published name of relay.contoso.com, it queries the DNS server that returns the result 131.107.1.201. The client then establishes a connection over SMTP to that IP address. However, the client computers on the corporate intranet also use the published name of relay.contoso.com. The DNS server returns the same result: a public IP address of 131.107.1.201. The client now attempts to establish a connection to the returned IP address by using the external interface of the publishing computer. Depending upon the client configuration, this may or may not be successful. By configuring two zones for the same domain nameone on each of the two DNS serversyou can avoid this problem. The internal zone for adatum.com would resemble the information in the following table.

Host
www Relay Webserver1 Exchange1

Record type
CNAME CNAME A A

IP address
Webserver1.contoso.com Exchange1.contoso.com 192.168.1.200 192.168.0.201

The external zone for adatum.com would resemble the information in the following table.

Host
www Relay

Record type
A A MX

IP address
131.107.1.200 131.107.1.201 Relay.contoso.com

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Now, client computers in the internal and external networks can resolve the name relay.contoso.com to the appropriate internal or external IP address.

Demonstration: Installing the DNS Server Role


This demonstration shows how to install the DNS server role.

Demonstration Steps
1. 2. Switch to LON-SVR1, and sign in as Adatum\Administrator with the password Pa$$w0rd. Use Server Manager to install the DNS Server role.

Considerations for Deploying the DNS Server Role

When you are planning to deploy DNS, you must review several considerations. Some of the questions that you should ask include: How many DNS zones will you configure on the server and how many DNS records will each zone contain? Typically, zones map on a one-to-one basis with domains in your namespace. When you have a large number of records, it might make more sense to split the records into multiple zones. How many DNS clients will be communicating with the server on which you configure the DNS role? The larger the number of client resolvers, the greater is the load placed on the server. When you anticipate additional load, consider deploying additional DNS servers. Where will you place DNS servers? For example, will you place the servers centrally, or does it make more sense to locate DNS servers in branch offices? If there are few clients at a branch office, you could satisfy most DNS requests by using a central DNS server or by implementing a caching-only server. A large number of users at a branch might benefit from a local DNS server with appropriate zone data.

How you answer the preceding questions will determine how many DNS servers you must deploy, and where you should place them.

Active Directory Integration


The Windows Server 2012 DNS role can store the DNS database in two different ways, as the following table shows.
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Storage method
Text File Active Directory

Description
The DNS server role stores the DNS entries in a text file, which you can edit with a text editor. The DNS server role stores the DNS entries in the Active Directory database, which replicates to other domain controllers, even if they do not run the Windows Server 2008 DNS role. You cannot use a text editor to edit DNS data that Active Directory stores.

Active Directory integrated zones are easier to manage than traditional text-based zones, and are more secure. The replication of zone data occurs as part of Active Directory replication.

DNS Server Placement


Typically, you will deploy the DNS role on all domain controllers. If you decide to implement some other strategy, ask yourself the following questions, and keep the answers in mind: How will client computers resolve names if their usual DNS server becomes unavailable? What will the impact on network traffic be if client computers start to use an alternate DNS server, perhaps located remotely? How will you implement zone transfers? Active Directory integrated zones use Active Directory replication to transfer the zone to all other domain controllers. If you implement non-Active Directory integrated zones, you must plan the zone transfer mechanism yourself.

Lesson 2: Configuring the DNS Server Role


The DNS infrastructure is the basis for name resolution on the Internet and in AD DS domains based on Windows Server 2012. This lesson provides guidance and information about what is required to configure the DNS server role, and explains the basic functions of a DNS server.

Lesson Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to: List the components of a DNS solution. Describe how various types of DNS queries work. Describe DNS resource records. Explain how root hints work. Explain how forwarding and conditional forwarding works. Explain how DNS server caching works. Explain how to configure the DNS server role properties.

What Are the Components of a DNS Solution?

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The components of a DNS solution include DNS servers, DNS servers on the Internet, and DNS resolvers or clients.

DNS Servers
A DNS server answers recursive and iterative DNS queries. DNS servers also can host one or more zones of a particular domain. Zones contain different resource records. DNS servers also can cache lookups to save time for common queries.

DNS Servers on the Internet


DNS servers on the Internet are accessible publicly. They host public zone information and the root server, and other common TLDs, such as .com, .net, and .edu. Note: Do not confuse these servers with your organizations DNS servers that host your public namespace. These are located physically on your perimeter network.

DNS Resolvers
The DNS resolver generates and sends iterative or recursive queries to the DNS server. A DNS resolver can be any computer performing a DNS lookup that requires interaction with the DNS server. DNS servers also can issue DNS requests to other DNS servers.

What Are DNS Queries?

A DNS query is the method that you use to request name resolution, and involves a query being sent to a DNS server. There are two types of responses to DNS queries: authoritative and nonauthoritative.
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It is important to note that DNS servers also can act as DNS resolvers and send DNS queries to other DNS servers. A DNS server can be either authoritative or nonauthoritative for the querys namespace. A DNS server is authoritative when it hosts a primary or secondary copy of a DNS zone. The two types of queries are: An authoritative query is one for which the server can return an answer that it knows is correct, because the request is directed to the authoritative server that manages the domain. A DNS server that contains in its cache the domain being requested answers a nonauthoritative query by using forwarders or root hints. However, the answer provided might not be accurate, because only the authoritative DNS server for the given domain can issue that information.

If the DNS server is authoritative for the querys namespace, the DNS server will check the zone, and then do one of the following: Return the requested address. Return an authoritative No, that name does not exist.

Note: An authoritative answer can be given only by the server with direct authority for the queried name.

If the local DNS server is nonauthoritative for the querys namespace, the DNS server will do one of the following: Check its cache, and return a cached response. Forward the unresolvable query to a specific server known as a forwarder. Use well-known addresses of multiple root servers to find an authoritative DNS server to resolve the query. This process uses root hints.

Recursive Queries
A recursive query can have two possible results: It returns the IP address of the requested host. The DNS server cannot resolve an IP address.

For security reasons, it sometimes is necessary to disable recursive queries on a DNS server. This prevents the DNS server in question from forwarding its DNS requests to another server. This can be useful when you do not want a particular DNS server communicating outside its local network.

Iterative Queries
Iterative queries provide a mechanism for accessing domain-name information that resides across the DNS system, and enable servers to resolve names quickly and efficiently across many servers.
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When a DNS server receives a request that it cannot answer using its local information or its cached lookups, it makes the same request to another DNS server by using an iterative query. When a DNS server receives an iterative query, it might answer with either the IP address for the domain name (if known) or with a referral to the DNS servers that are responsible for the domain being queried.

DNS Resource Records

The DNS zone file stores resource records. Resource records specify a resource type and the IP address to locate the resource. The most common resource record is an A resource record. This is a simple record that resolves a hostname to an IP address. The host can be a workstation, server, or another network device, such as a router. Resource records also help find resources for a particular domain. For instance, when an Exchange server needs to find the server that is responsible for delivering mail for another domain, it will request that domains Mail Exchanger (MX) record, which points to the A record of the host that is running the SMTP mail service. Resource records also can contain custom attributes. MX records, for instance, have a preference attribute, which is useful if an organization has multiple mail servers. This will inform the sending server which mail server the receiving organization prefers. Service locator (SRV) records also contain information regarding on which port the service is listening and the protocol that you should use to communicate with the service. The following table describes the most common resource records.

DNS resource records


Start of authority (SOA) resource record

Description
The record identifies the primary name server for a DNS zone, as well as other specifics, such as Time to Live (TTL) and refresh.

Host address (A) resource record Canonical name (CNAME) resource record

The main record that resolves a host name to an IPv4 address. An alias record type that maps one name to another (for example, www.microsoft.com is a CNAME of the A record microsoft.com).

MX resource record SRV resource record Name Server (NS) resource record AAAA

The record is used to specify an email server for a particular domain. The record identifies a service that is available in the domain. Active Directory uses these records extensively. The record identifies a name server for a domain. The main record that resolves a host name to an IPv6 address.

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Pointer (PTR) resource record

Module 2: Configuring and Troubleshooting Domain Name System


The record is used to look up and map an IP address to a domain name. The reverse lookup zone stores the names.

What Are Root Hints?

Root hints are the list of servers on the Internet that your DNS server uses if it cannot resolve a DNS query by using a DNS forwarder or its own cache. The root hints are the highest servers in the DNS hierarchy and can provide the necessary information for a DNS server to perform an iterative query to the next lowest layer of the DNS namespace. Root servers are installed automatically when you install the DNS role. They are copied from the cache.dns file that the DNS role setup files include. You also can add root hints to a DNS server to support lookups for noncontiguous domains within a forest. When a DNS server communicates with a root hints server, it uses only an iterative query. If you select the Do Not Use Recursion For This Domain option, the server will not be able to perform queries on the root hints. If you configure the server to use a forwarder, it will attempt to send a recursive query to its forwarding server. If the forwarding server does not answer this query, the server will respond that the host could not be found. It is important to understand that recursion on a DNS server and recursive queries are not the same thing. Recursion on a server means that the server will use its root hints and try to resolve a DNS query. The next topic discusses iterative and recursive queries in more detail.

What Is Forwarding?

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A forwarder is a DNS server-configuration setting that forwards DNS queries for external DNS names to DNS servers outside that network. You also can use conditional forwarders to forward queries according to specific domain names. A network DNS server is designated a forwarder when the networks other DNS servers forward to it the queries that they cannot resolve locally. By using a forwarder, you can manage name resolution for names outside your network, such as names on the Internet, and improve the efficiency of name resolution for your networks computers. The server that is forwarding requests in the network must be able to communicate with the DNS server that is located on the Internet. This means that either you configure it to forward requests to another DNS server or it uses root hints to communicate.

Best Practice
Use a central forwarding DNS server for Internet name resolution. This can improve performance, simplify troubleshooting, and is a security best practice. You can isolate the forwarding DNS server on a perimeter network, which ensures that no server within the network is communicating directly to the Internet.

Conditional Forwarding
A conditional forwarder is a configuration setting in the DNS server that forwards DNS queries according to the querys DNS domain name. For example, you can configure a DNS server to forward all queries that it receives for names ending with corp.contoso.com to the IP address of a specific DNS server or to the IP addresses of multiple DNS servers. This can be useful when you have multiple DNS namespaces in a forest.

Best Practice for Conditional Forwarding


Use conditional forwarders if you have multiple internal namespaces. This provides faster name resolution.

How DNS Server Caching Works

DNS caching increases the performance of an organizations DNS system by decreasing the time it takes to provide DNS lookups. When a DNS server resolves a DNS name successfully, it adds the name to its cache. Over time, this builds a cache of domain names and their associated IP addresses for the most common domains that the organization uses or accesses. Note: The default time to cache DNS data is one hour. You can configure this by changing the SOA record for the appropriate DNS zone.

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A caching-only server will not host any DNS zone data; it only answers lookups for DNS clients. This is the ideal type of DNS server to use as a forwarder. The DNS client cache is a DNS cache that the DNS Client service stores on the local computer. To view the current client-side cache, run the ipconfig /displaydns command at the command prompt. If you must clear the local cache, such as when you are troubleshooting name resolution, you can use ipconfig /flushdns. Note: You also can use the following Windows PowerShell cmdlets: clear-DnsClientCache to delete the DNS resolver cache get-DnsClientCache to view the resolver cache

Demonstration: Configuring the DNS Server Role


This demonstration shows how to configure the DNS server properties.

Demonstration Steps Configure DNS server properties


1. 2. 3. Switch to LON-DC1 and, if necessary, log on as Adatum\Administrator with the password Pa$$w0rd. Open the DNS console. Review the properties of the LON-DC1 server: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. On the Forwarders tab, you can configure forwarding. On the Advanced tab, you can configure options including securing the cache against pollution, and DNSSEC. On the Root Hints tab, you can see the configuration for the root hints servers. On the Debug Logging tab, you can configure debug logging options. On the Event Logging tab, you can configure the level of event recording. On the Monitoring tab, you can perform simple and recursive tests against the server. On the Security tab, you can define permissions on the DNS infrastructure.

Configure conditional forwarding


From the Conditional Forwarders node, you can configure conditional forwarding: a. In the New Conditional Forwarder dialog box, in the DNS Domain box, type contoso.com. b. Click the <Click here to add an IP Address or DNS Name> box. Type 131.107.1.2, and then press Enter. Validation will fail since this is just an example configuration.

Clear the DNS cache


In the navigation pane, right-click LON-DC1, and then click Clear Cache .

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Lesson 3: Configuring DNS Zones


DNS zones are an important concept in DNS infrastructure, because they enable you to logically separate and manage DNS domains. This lesson provides the foundation for understanding how zones relate to DNS domains, and provides information about the different types of DNS zones that are available in the Windows Server 2012 DNS role.

Lesson Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to: Explain a DNS zone. Explain the various DNS zone types available in Windows Server 2012. Explain the purpose of forward and reverse lookup zones. Explain the purpose of stub zones. Explain how to create zones. Explain how you can use DNS zone delegation.

What Is a DNS Zone?

A DNS zone hosts all or a portion of a domain and its subdomains. The slide illustrates how subdomains can belong to the same zone as their parents or can be delegated to another zone. The microsoft.com domain is separated into two zones. The first zone hosts the www.microsoft.com and ftp.microsoft.com records. Example.microsoft.com is delegated to a new zone, which hosts the example.microsoft.com subdomain, and its records ftp.example.microsoft.com and www.example.microsoft.com. Note: The zone that hosts a root of the domain (microsoft.com) must delegate the subdomain (example.microsoft.com) to the second zone. If this does not occur, example.microsoft.com will be treated as if it were part of the first zone.

Zone data can be replicated to more than one server. This adds redundancy to a zone because the information needed to find resources in the zone now exists on two or more servers. The level of redundancy that is needed is one reason to create zones. If you have a zone that hosts critical server resource records, it is likely that this zone will have a higher level of redundancy than a zone in which noncritical devices are defined.
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Characteristics of a DNS Zone


Zone data is maintained on a DNS server and is stored in one of two ways: In a flat zone file that contains mapping lists Integrated into Active Directory

A DNS server is authoritative for a zone if it hosts the resource records for the names and addresses that the clients request in the zone file.

What Are the DNS Zone Types?

The four DNS zone types are: Primary Secondary Stub Active Directory-integrated

Primary Zone
When a zone that a DNS server hosts is a primary zone, the DNS server is the primary source for information about this zone, and it stores the master copy of zone data in a local file or in AD DS. When the DNS server stores the zone in a file, the primary zone file is by default, named zone_name.dns, and is located in the %windir%\System32\Dns folder on the server. When the zone is not stored in Active Directory, the DNS server hosting the primary zone is the only DNS server that has a writable copy of the zone file.

Secondary Zone
When a zone that a DNS server hosts is a secondary zone, the DNS server is a secondary source for the zone information. The zone at this server must be obtained from another remote DNS server that also hosts the zone. This DNS server must have network access to the remote DNS server to receive updated zone information. Because a secondary zone is a copy of a primary zone that another server hosts, it cannot be stored in AD DS. Secondary zones can be useful if you are replicating data from DNS zones that are not on Windows or you are running DNS on servers that are not AD DS domain controllers.

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Stub Zone
Windows Server 2003 introduced stub zones, which solves several problems with large DNS namespaces and multiple tree forests. A multiple tree forest is an Active Directory forest that contains two different top-level domain names.

Active DirectoryIntegrated Zone


If Active Directory stores the zone, DNS can take advantage of the multimaster replication model to replicate the primary zone. This enables you to edit zone data on any DNS server. Windows Server 2008 introduced a new concept called a read-only domain controller (RODC). Active Directoryintegrated zone data can be replicated to domain controllers, even if the DNS role is not installed on the domain controller. If the server is a read-only domain controller, a local process cannot write to the data.

What Are Forward and Reverse Lookup Zones?

Zones can be either forward or reverse, sometimes known as inverse zones.

Forward Lookup Zone


The forward lookup zone resolves host names to IP addresses and hosts the common resource records: A, CNAME, SRV, MX, SOA, TXT, and NS.

Reverse Lookup Zone


The reverse lookup zone resolves an IP address to a domain name, and hosts SOA, NS, and PTR records. A reverse zone functions in the same manner as a forward zone, but the IP address is the part of the query and the host name is the returned information. Reverse zones are not always configured, but you should configure them to reduce warning and error messages. Many standard Internet protocols rely on reverse zone lookup data to validate forward zone information. For example, if the forward lookup indicates that training.contoso.com is resolved to 192.168.2.45, you can use a reverse lookup to confirm that 192.168.2.45 is associated with training.contoso.com. Having a reverse zone is important if you have applications that rely on looking up hosts by their IP addresses. Many applications will log this information in security or event logs. If you see suspicious activity from a particular IP address, you can resolve the host by using the reverse zone information. Many email security gateways use reverse lookups to validate that the IP address that is sending messages is associated with a domain.

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Overview of Stub Zones

A stub zone is a replicated copy of a zone that contains only those resource records necessary to identify that zones authoritative DNS servers. A stub zone resolves names between separate DNS namespaces, which might be necessary when a corporate merger requires that the DNS servers for two separate DNS namespaces resolve names for clients in both namespaces. A stub zone consists of the following: The delegated zones SOA resource record, NS resource records, and A resource records. The IP address of one or more master servers that you can use to update the stub zone.

The master servers for a stub zone are one or more DNS servers that are authoritative for the child zone, usually the DNS server that is hosting the primary zone for the delegated domain name.

Stub Zone Resolution


When a DNS resolver performs a recursive query operation on a DNS server that is hosting a stub zone, the DNS server uses the resource records in the stub zone to resolve the query. The DNS server sends an iterative query to the authoritative DNS servers that the stub zones NS resource records specify as if it were using NS resource records in its cache. If the DNS server cannot find the authoritative DNS servers in its stub zone, the DNS server that is hosting the stub zone attempts standard recursion by using root hints. The DNS server will store the resource records it receives from the authoritative DNS servers that a stub zone in its cache lists, but it will not store these resource records in the stub zone itself. Only the SOA, NS, and glue A resource records returned in response to the query are stored in the stub zone. The resource records that the cache stores are cached according to the TTL value in each resource record. The SOA, NS, and glue A resource records, which are not written to cache, expire according to the expire interval that the stub zones SOA record specifies. During the stub zones creation, the SOA record is created. SOA record updates occur during transfers to the stub zone from the original, primary zone. If the query was an iterative query, the DNS server returns a referral containing the servers that the stub zone specifies.

Communication between DNS Servers That Host Parent and Child Zones
A DNS server that delegates a domain to a child zone on a different DNS server is made aware of new authoritative DNS servers for the child zone only when resource records for them are added to the parent zone that the DNS server hosts. This is a manual process that requires administrators for the different DNS servers to communicate often. Stub zones enable a DNS server that is
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hosting a stub zone for one of its delegated domains to obtain updates of the authoritative DNS servers for the child zone when the stub zone is updated. The update is performed from the DNS server that is hosting the stub zone, and the administrator for the DNS server that is hosting the child zone does not need to be contacted.

Contrasting Stub Zones and Conditional Forwarders


There might be some confusion about when to use conditional forwarders rather than stub zones. This is because both DNS features allow a DNS server to respond to a query with a referral for, or by forwarding to, a different DNS server. However, these settings have different purposes: A conditional forwarder setting configures the DNS server to forward a query that it receives to a DNS server, depending on the DNS name that the query contains. A stub zone keeps the DNS server that is hosting a parent zone aware of all the DNS servers that are authoritative for a child zone.

When to Use Conditional Forwarders


If you want DNS clients on separate networks to resolve the names of each other without having to query Internet DNS servers, such as when a company merger occurs, you should configure each networks DNS servers to forward queries for names in the other network. DNS servers in one network will forward names for clients in the other network to a specific DNS server, which builds a large information cache about the other network. This allows you to create a direct point of contact between two networks DNS servers, which reduces the need for recursion. Stub zones do not provide the same server-to-server benefit, however. This is because a DNS server that is hosting a stub zone in one network replies to queries for names in the other network with a list of all authoritative DNS servers for the zone with that name, rather than the specific DNS servers that you designated to handle this traffic. This configuration complicates any security settings that you want to establish between specific DNS servers that are running in each of the networks.

When to Use Stub Zones


Use stub zones when you want a DNS server to remain aware of the authoritative DNS servers for a foreign zone. A conditional forwarder is not an efficient way to keep a DNS server that is hosting a parent zone aware of the authoritative DNS servers for a child zone. This is because whenever the authoritative DNS servers for the child zone change, you have to configure the conditional forwarder setting manually on the DNS server that hosts the parent zone. Specifically, you must update the IP address for each new authoritative DNS server for the child zone.

Demonstration: Creating Zones


This demonstration shows how to: Create a reverse lookup zone. Create a forward lookup zone.

Demonstration Steps Create a reverse lookup zone


1. Switch to LON-DC1, and then create a new reverse lookup zone for the 172.16.0.0 IPv4 subnet.
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2.

Enable dynamic updates on the zone.

Create a forward lookup zone


1. 2. 3. Switch to LON-SVR1, and then open the DNS console. Create a new forward lookup zone. Configure the type as secondary, and then define LON-DC1 as the Master server for this zone.

DNS Zone Delegation

DNS is a hierarchical system, and zone delegation connects the DNS layers together. A zone delegation points to the next hierarchical level down, and identifies the name servers that are responsible for lower-level domain. When deciding whether to divide the DNS namespace to make additional zones, consider the following reasons to use additional zones: You need to delegate management of a part of the DNS namespace to another organizational location or department. You need to divide one large zone into smaller zones so you can distribute traffic loads among multiple servers. This improves DNS name-resolution performance, and it creates a more fault-tolerant DNS environment. You need to extend the namespace by adding numerous subdomains immediately to accommodate the opening of a new branch or site.

Lesson 4: Configuring DNS Zone Transfers


DNS zone transfers determine how the DNS infrastructure moves DNS zone information from one server to another. Without zone transfers, the various name servers in your organization maintain disparate copies of the zone data. You also should consider that the zone contains sensitive data, and securing zone transfers is important. This lesson covers the different methods that the DNS server role uses when transferring zones.

Lesson Objectives
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After completing this lesson, you will be able to: Describe how DNS zone transfers work. Explain how to configure zone transfer security. Explain how to DNS zone transfers.

What Is a DNS Zone Transfer?

A zone transfer occurs when you replicate the DNS zone that is on one server to another DNS server. Zone transfers synchronize primary and secondary DNS server zones. This is how DNS builds its resilience on the Internet. It is important that DNS zones remain updated on primary and secondary servers. Discrepancies in primary and secondary zones can cause service outages and host names that are resolved incorrectly. Zone transfers can happen in one of three ways: Full zone transfer. A full zone transfer occurs when you copy the entire zone from one DNS server to another. A full zone transfer is known as an All Zone Transfer (AXFR). Incremental zone transfer. An incremental zone transfer occurs when there is an update to the DNS server and only the resource records that were changed are replicated to the other server. This is an Incremental Zone Transfer (IXFR). Fast transfer. Windows DNS servers also perform fast transfers, which is a type of zone transfer that uses compression and sends multiple resource records in each transmission.

Not all DNS server implementations support incremental and fast zone transfers. When integrating a Windows 2012 DNS server with a Berkeley Internet Name Domain (BIND) DNS server, you must ensure that the features you need are supported by the BIND version that is installed. The following table lists the features that various DNS servers support.

DNS server
BIND Older than 4.9.4

Full zone (AXFR)


Supported

Incremental zone (IXFR)


Not supported

Fast transfer
Not Supported

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BIND 4.9.4 8.1 BIND 8.2 Windows 2000 Service Pack 3 (SP3) Windows 2003 (R2) Windows 2008 and R2 Windows 2012

Module 2: Configuring and Troubleshooting Domain Name System


Supported Supported Supported Supported Supported Supported Not supported Supported Supported Supported Supported Supported Supported Supported Supported Supported Supported Supported

Active Directory-integrated zones replicate by using multimaster AD DS replication instead of the zone transfer process. This means that any standard domain controller that also holds the DNS role can update the DNS zone information, which then replicates to all DNS servers that host the DNS zone.

DNS Notify
DNS notify is used by a master server to alert its configured secondary servers that zone updates are available. The secondary servers then petition their master to obtain the updates. DNS notify is an update to the original DNS protocol specification that permits notification to secondary servers when zone changes occur. This is useful in a time-sensitive environment, where data accuracy is important.

Configuring Zone Transfer Security

Zone information provides organizational data, so you should take precautions to ensure it is protected from access by malicious users, and that it cannot be overwritten with bad data, which is known as DNS poisoning . One way to protect the DNS infrastructure is to secure the zone transfers. On the Zone Transfers tab in the Zone Properties dialog box, you can specify the list of allowed DNS servers. You also can use these options to disallow zone transfer. By default, zone transfers are turned off. Although the option that specifies the servers that might request zone data provides security by limiting the data recipients, it does not secure that data during transmissions. If the zone information is highly confidential, we recommend that you use an Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) policy to secure the transmission or replicate the zone data over a virtual private network (VPN) tunnel. This prevents packet sniffing to determine information in the data transmission. Using Active Directoryintegrated zones replicates the zone data as part of normal AD DS replications. The zone transfer is then secured as a part of AD DS replication.

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Demonstration: Configuring DNS Zone Transfers


This demonstration shows you how to: Enable DNS zone transfers. Update the secondary zone from the master server. Update the primary zone, and then verify the change on the secondary zone.

Demonstration Steps Enable DNS zone transfers


1. 2. 3. 4. On LON-DC1, enable zone transfers by configuring the Allow zone transfers option. Configure zone transfers to Only to servers listed on the Name Servers tab. Enable Notify to Only to servers listed on the Name Servers tab. Add LON-SVR1.adatum.com as a listed name server to receive transfers.

Update the secondary zone from the master server


Switch to LON-SVR1 and in the DNS Manager, select Transfer from Master. It is sometimes necessary to perform this step a number of times before the zone transfers. Also, note that the transfer might occur automatically at any time.

Update the primary zone, and then verify the change on the secondary zone
1. 2. Switch back to LON-DC1, and then create a new alias record. Switch back to LON-SVR1, and then verify that the new record is present in the secondary zone. This may require a manual Transfer from Master and a screen refresh before the record is visible.

Lesson 5: Managing and Troubleshooting DNS


DNS is a crucial service in the Active Directory infrastructure. When the DNS service experiences problems, it is important to know how to troubleshoot them and identify the common issues that can occur in a DNS infrastructure. This lesson covers the common problems that occur in DNS, the common areas from which you can gather DNS information, and the tools that you can use to troubleshoot problems.

Lesson Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to: Explain how TTL, aging, and scavenging help to manage DNS records. Explain how to manage TTL, aging, and scavenging for DNS records. Explain how to identify problems with DNS by using DNS tools.
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Describe how to troubleshoot DNS by using DNS tools. Explain how to monitor DNS by using the DNS Event Log and debug logging.

What Is TTL, Aging, and Scavenging?

TTL, aging, and scavenging help manage DNS resource records in the zone files. Zone files can change over time, so there needs to be a way to manage DNS records that are updated or that are not valid because the hosts they represent are no longer on the network. The following table describes the DNS tools that help to maintain a DNS database.

Tool

Description

TTL Aging

Indicates how long a DNS record remains valid and ineligible for scavenging. Occurs when records inserted into the DNS server reach their expiration and are removed. This keeps the zone database accurate. During normal operations, aging should take care of stale DNS resource records.

Scavenging

Performs DNS server resource record grooming for old records in DNS. If resource records have not been aged, an administrator can scavenge the zone database for stale records to force a database cleanup.

If left unmanaged, the presence of stale resource records in zone data might cause problems. For example: If a large number of stale resource records remain in server zones, they eventually can use up server disk space and cause unnecessarily long zone transfers. A DNS server that is loading zones with stale resource records might use outdated information to answer client queries, which could cause the client computers to experience name resolution or connectivity problems on the network. The accumulation of stale resource records on the DNS server might degrade its performance and responsiveness. In some cases, the presence of a stale resource record in a zone could prevent another computer or host device from using a DNS domain name.

To solve these problems, the DNS Server service has the following features:

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Time stamping, based on the current date and time that is set at the server computer, for any resource records that are added dynamically to primary-type zones. Additionally, time stamps are recorded in standard primary zones where you enable aging and scavenging. For resource records that you add manually, you use a time-stamp value of zero to indicate that the aging process does not affect these records and that they can remain without limitation in zone data unless you otherwise change their time stamp or delete them. Aging of resource records in local data, based on a specified refresh time period, for any eligible zones. Only primary type zones that the DNS Server service loads are eligible to participate in this process. Scavenging for any resource records that persist beyond the specified refresh period.

When a DNS server performs a scavenging operation, it can determine that resource records have aged to the point of becoming stale, and then remove them from zone data. You can configure servers to perform recurring scavenging operations automatically, or you can initiate an immediate scavenging operation at the server. Note: By default, the aging and scavenging mechanism for the DNS Server service is disabled. You should enable it only when all parameters are understood fully. Otherwise, you could configure the server to delete records accidentally that you should not delete. If a record is deleted accidentally, not only will users fail to resolve queries for that record, but any user can create the record and take ownership of it, even on zones that you configure for secure dynamic update. This is a significant security risk.

The server uses the contents of each time stamp for specific resource records, as well as other aging and scavenging properties that you can adjust or configure, to determine when it scavenges records.

Prerequisites for Aging and Scavenging


Before you can use the aging and scavenging features of DNS, several conditions must be met: You must enable scavenging and aging at the DNS server and on the zone. By default, aging and scavenging of resource records is disabled. You must add resource records to zones dynamically or manually modify them for use in aging and scavenging operations.

Typically, only those resource records that you add dynamically by using the DNS dynamic update protocol are subject to aging and scavenging. For records that you add to zones by loading a text-based zone file from another DNS server or by manually adding them to a zone, a time stamp of zero is set. This makes these records ineligible for use in aging and scavenging operations. To change this default, you can administer these records individually to reset and permit them to use a current (nonzero) timestamp value. This enables these records to become aged and scavenged.

Demonstration: Managing DNS Records


This demonstration shows how to:

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Configure TTL. Enable and configure scavenging and aging.

Demonstration Steps Configure TTL


1. 2. Switch to LON-DC1, and then open the Adatum.com zone properties. On the Start of Authority tab, configure the Minimum (default) TTL value to be 2 hours.

Enable and configure scavenging and aging


1. Right-click LON-DC1, and then select the Set Aging/Scavenging for All Zones option to configure aging and scavenging options. 2. Enable Scavenge stale resource records, and then use the default values.

Demonstration: Testing the DNS Server Configuration


Issues can occur when you do not configure the DNS server, and its zones and resource records, properly. When resource records are causing issues, it can sometimes be more difficult to identify the issue because configuration problems are not always obvious. The following table lists possible configuration issues that can cause DNS problems.

Issue
Missing records

Result
Records for a host are not in the DNS server. They might have been scavenged prematurely. This can result in workstations not being able to connect with each other.

Incomplete records

Records that are missing information required to locate the resource they represent can cause clients requesting the resource to use invalid information. For example, a service record that does not contain a needed port address is an example of an incomplete record.

Incorrectly configured records

Records that are pointing to an invalid IP address or have invalid information in their configuration will cause problems when DNS clients try to find resources.

The tools used to troubleshoot these and other configuration issues are: Nslookup . Use this tool to query DNS information. The tool is flexible, and it can provide valuable information about DNS server status. You also can use it to look up resource records and validate their configuration. Additionally, you can test zone transfers, security options, and MX record resolution.

Note: You can use the Windows PowerShell cmdlet Resolve-DnsName to perform similar functions to Nslookup when troubleshooting DNS.

Windows PowerShell. You can use Windows PowerShell cmdlets to configure and troubleshoot various DNS aspects. Dnscmd . Manage the DNS Server service with this command-line interface. This utility is useful in scripting batch files to help automate routine DNS management tasks or to perform simple unattended setup and configuration of new DNS servers on
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your network. IPconfig . Use this command to view and modify IP configuration details that the computer uses. This utility includes additional command-line options that you can use to troubleshoot and support DNS clients. You can view the client local DNS cache by using the command ipconfig /displaydns, and you can clear the local cache using ipconfig /flushdns.

Note: You can also use the following Windows PowerShell cmdlets: o clear-DnsClientCache to delete the DNS resolver cache o get-DnsClientCache to view the resolver cache

Monitoring tab on DNS server. In the DNS server Monitoring tab, you can configure a test that allows the DNS server to determine whether it can resolve simple local queries and perform a recursive query to ensure that the server can communicate with upstream servers. You also can schedule these tests for regular intervals. These are basic tests, but they provide a good place to start troubleshooting the DNS service. Possible causes for a test to fail include: o The DNS Server service has failed. o The upstream server is not available on the network.

This demonstration shows how to use Nslookup.exe to test the DNS server configuration.

Demonstration Steps
1. Open a command prompt, and then run the following command:
n s l o o k u p d 2L O N s v r 1 . A d a t u m . c o m

2.

Review the information provided by nslookup.

Monitoring DNS by Using the DNS Event Log

The DNS server has its own category in the event log. As with any event log in Windows Event Viewer, you should review the
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event log periodically.

Common DNS Events


The following table describes common DNS events.

Event ID
2 3

Description

The DNS server has started. This message generally appears at startup when either the server computer or the DNS Server service is started. The DNS server has shut down. This message generally appears when either the server computer is shut down or the DNS Server service is stopped manually.

408

The DNS server could not open socket for address [IPaddress]. Verify that this is a valid IP address for the server computer. To correct the problem, you can do the following: 1. 2. If the specified IP address is not valid, remove it from the list of restricted interfaces for the server and restart the server. If the specified IP address is no longer valid and was the only address enabled for the DNS server to use, the server might not have started as a result of this configuration error. To correct this problem, delete the following value from the registry and restart the DNS server:
H K E Y _ L O C A L _ M A C H I N E \ S y s t e m \ C u r r e n t C o n t r o l S e t \ S e r v i c e s \ D N S \ P a r a m e t e r s\ L i s t e n A d d r e s s

3.

If the IP address for the server computer is valid, verify that no other application that would attempt to use the same DNS server port (such as another DNS server application) is running. By default, DNS uses TCP port 53.

413

The DNS server sends requests to other DNS servers on a port other than its default port (TCP port 53). This DNS server is multihomed and has been configured to restrict DNS Server service to only some of its configured IP addresses. For this reason, there is no assurance that DNS queries that this server makes to other remote DNS servers will be sent by using one of the IP addresses that was enabled for the DNS server.

This might prevent query answer responses that these servers return from being received on the DNS port that the server is configured to use. To avoid this problem, the DNS server sends queries to other DNS servers using an arbitrary non-DNS port, and the response is received regardless of the IP address used.

If you want to limit the DNS server to using only its configured DNS port for sending queries to other DNS servers, use the DNS console to perform one of the following changes in server properties configuration on the Interfaces tab: o o Select All IP addresses to enable the DNS server to listen on all configured server IP addresses. Select Only the following IP addresses to limit the IP address list to a single server IP address.

414

The server computer currently has no primary DNS suffix configured. Its DNS name currently is a single label host name. For example, its configured name is host rather than host.example.microsoft.com or another FQDN. Although the DNS server has only a single label name, default resource records created for its configured zones use only this single label name when mapping the host name for this DNS server. This can lead to incorrect and failed referrals when clients and other DNS servers use these records to locate this server by name. In general, you should reconfigure the DNS server with a full DNS computer name that is appropriate for its domain or workgroup use on your network.

708 3150

The DNS server did not detect any zones of either primary or secondary type. It will run as a caching-only server, but will not be authoritative for any zones. The DNS server wrote a new version of zone [zonename] to file [filename]. You can view the new version number by clicking the Record Data tab. This event should appear only if you configure the DNS server to operate as a root server.

6527

Zone [ zonename] expired before it could obtain a successful zone transfer or update from a master server that is acting as its source for the zone. The

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zone has been shut down.

Module 2: Configuring and Troubleshooting Domain Name System


This event ID might appear when you configure the DNS server to host a secondary copy of the zone from another DNS server that is acting as its source or master server. Verify that this server has network connectivity to its configured master server. If the problem continues, consider one or more of the following options: 1. 2. Delete the zone and recreate it, specifying either a different master server, or an updated and corrected IP address for the same master server. If zone expiration continues, consider adjusting the expiration interval.

Monitoring DNS by Using Debug Logging

Sometimes it might be necessary to get more details about a DNS problem than what the Event Viewer provides. In this instance, you can use debug logging to provide additional information. The following DNS debug logging options are available: Direction of packets. This option has the following settings: o Send . The DNS server log file logs packets that the DNS server sends. o Receive. The log file logs packets that the DNS server receives. Content of packets. This option has the following settings: o Standard query. Specifies that packets containing standard queries, according to Request for Comments (RFC) 1034, are logged in the DNS server log file. o Updates. Specifies that packets containing dynamic updates, according to RFC 2136, are logged in the DNS server log file. o Notifies. Specifies that packets containing notifications, according to RFC 1996, are logged in the DNS server log file. Transport protocol. This option has the following settings: o UDP. Specifies that packets sent and received over User Datagram Protocol (UDP) are logged in the DNS server log file. o TCP. Specifies that packets sent and received over TCP are logged in the DNS server log file. Type of packet. This option has the following settings: o Request. Specifies that request packets are logged in the DNS server log file. A request packet is characterized by a Query/Response (QR) bit set to zero in the DNS message header. A QR bit is a one-bit field that specifies whether this message is a query (0) or a response. o Response. Specifies that response packets are logged in the DNS server log file. A response packet is characterized by a QR
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bit set to 1 in the DNS message header. Enable filtering based on IP address. This option provides additional filtering of packets that are logged in the DNS server log file. This option allows logging of packets that are sent from specific IP addresses to a DNS server or from a DNS server to specific IP addresses. Log file maximum size limit. This option allows you to set the maximum file size for the DNS server log file. When the DNS server log file reaches its specified maximum size, the DNS server overwrites the oldest packet information with new information. If you do not specify a maximum log-file size, the DNS server log file can consume a large amount of hard-disk space.

By default, all debug logging options are disabled. When you enable them selectively, the DNS Server service can perform additional trace-level logging of selected types of events or messages for general troubleshooting and server debugging. Debug logging can be resource intensive, affecting overall server performance and consuming disk space. Therefore, you should use it only on a temporary basis, when you need more detailed server-performance information. Note: Dns.log contains debug logging activity. By default, it is located in the %systemroot%\System32\Dns folder.

Lab: Configuring and Troubleshooting DNS


Scenario
A. Datum is a global engineering and manufacturing company with its head office in London, UK. An IT office and a data center are located in London to support the head office and other locations. A. Datum has recently deployed a Windows Server 2012 server and client infrastructure. You have been asked to add several new resource records to the DNS service installed on LON-DC1. Records include a new MX record for Exchange Server 2010 and a SRV record for a Microsoft Lync deployment that is occurring. A. Datum is working with a partner organization, Contoso, Ltd. You have been asked to configure internal name resolution between the two organizations. A small branch office has reported that name resolution performance is poor. The branch office contains a Windows Server 2012 server that performs several roles. However, there is no plan to implement an additional domain controller. You have been asked to install the DNS server role at the branch office and create a secondary zone of Adatum.com. To maintain security, you have been instructed to configure the branch office server to be on the Notify list for Adatum.com zone transfers. You also should update all branch office clients to use the new name server in the branch office. You should configure the new DNS server role to perform standard aging and scavenging, as necessary and as specified by corporate policy. After implementing the new server, you need to test and verify the configuration by using standard DNS troubleshooting tools.

Objectives
After completing this lab, you will be able to:

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Configure DNS resource records. Configure DNS conditional forwarding. Install and configure DNS zones. Troubleshoot DNS.

Lab Setup
Estimated Time: 60 minutes

Virtual Machines

20411B-LON-DC1 20411B-LON-SVR1 20411B-LON-CL1

User Name Password

Adatum\Administrator Pa$$w0rd

For this lab, you will use the available virtual machine environment. Before you begin the lab, you must complete the following steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. On the host computer, click Start, point to Administrative Tools, and then click Hyper-V Manager. In Hyper-V Manager, click 20411B-LON-DC1, and in the Actions pane, click Start. In the Actions pane, click Connect. Wait until the virtual machine starts. Sign in using the following credentials: o o o 5. User name: Administrator Password: Pa$$w0rd Domain: Adatum

Repeat steps 2 through 4 for 20411B-LON-SVR1 and 20411B-LON-CL1.

Exercise 1: Configuring DNS Resource Records


Scenario You have been asked to add several new resource records to the DNS service installed on LON-DC1. Records include a new MX record for Exchange Server 2010, and a SRV record required for a Lync deployment that is taking place currently. You have also been asked to configure a reverse lookup zone for the domain. The main tasks for this exercise are as follows: 1. 2. Add the required MX record. Add the required Lync server records.
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Module 2: Configuring and Troubleshooting Domain Name System

3.

Create the reverse lookup zone.

Task 1: Add the required MX record

1. 2. 3.

Switch to LON-DC1, and sign in as Adatum\Administrator with the password Pa$$w0rd. Open the DNS Manager console. Create a new host record with the following properties: o o o Zone: Adatum.com Name: Mail1 IP address: 172.16.0.250

4.

In the Adatum.com zone, add a new record with the following information: o o Type: New Mail Exchanger (MX) Fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of mail server: Mail1.Adatum.com.

Task 2: Add the required Lync server records

1.

Create a new host record with the following properties: o o o Zone: Adatum.com Name: Lync-svr1 IP address: 172.16.0.251

2.

In the Adatum.com zone, add a new record: o o o o o Type: Service Location (SRV) Service: _sipinternaltls Protocol: _tcp Port Number: 5061 Host offering this service: Lync-svr1.adatum.com.

Task 3: Create the reverse lookup zone

Create a new reverse lookup zone with the following properties: o Zone Type: Primary zone o Active Directory Zone Replication Scope: Default o Reverse Lookup Zone Name: IPv4 Reverse Lookup Zone
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Module 2: Configuring and Troubleshooting Domain Name System

o Reverse Lookup Zone Name: 172.16.0 o Dynamic Update: Default

Results: After this exercise, you should have configured the required messaging service records and the reverse lookup zone successfully.

Exercise 2: Configuring DNS Conditional Forwarding


Scenario You have been asked to configure internal name resolution between A. Datum Corporation and its partner organization, Contoso Ltd. The main task for this exercise is to add the conditional forwarding record for contoso.com. Task 1: Add the conditional forwarding record for contoso.com

From the Conditional Forwarders node, configure conditional forwarding for Contoso.com: a. In the New Conditional Forwarder dialog box, in the DNS Domain box, type contoso.com. b. Click in the <Click here to add an IP Address or DNS Name> box. Type 131.107.1.2, and then press Enter. Validation will fail since the server cannot be contacted. c. Enable Store this conditional forwarder in Active Directory, and replicate it as follows.

Results: After this exercise, you should have successfully configured conditional forwarding.

Exercise 3: Installing and Configuring DNS Zones


Scenario A small branch office has reported that name resolution performance is poor. The branch office contains a Windows Server 2012 Server that performs several roles. However, there is no plan to implement an additional domain controller. You have been asked to install the DNS server role at the branch office, and then create a secondary zone of Adatum.com. To maintain security, you also have been instructed to configure the branch office server to be on the Notify list for Adatum.com zone transfers. You also should update all branch office clients to use the new name server in the branch office, and then configure the new DNS server role to perform standard aging and scavenging, as needed and specified by corporate policy. The main tasks for this exercise are as follows: 1. 2. 3. Install the DNS server role on LON-SVR1. Create the required secondary zones on LON-SVR1. Enable and configure zone transfers.
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Module 2: Configuring and Troubleshooting Domain Name System

4. 5.

Configure TTL, aging, and scavenging. Configure clients to use the new name server.

Task 1: Install the DNS server role on LON-SVR1

1. 2.

Switch to LON-SVR1, and sign in as Adatum\Administrator with the password Pa$$w0rd. Use Server Manager to install the DNS Server role.

Task 2: Create the required secondary zones on LON-SVR1

1. 2.

Open a command prompt. Type the following command to create the required secondary zone:
D n s c m d . e x e/ z o n e a d dA d a t u m . c o m/ s e c o n d a r y1 7 2 . 1 6 . 0 . 1 0

3.

Open DNS Manager, and then verify the presence of the new secondary forward lookup zone Adatum.com.

Task 3: Enable and configure zone transfers

1. 2.

Switch to LON-DC1. Open a command prompt, and then run the following command to configure zone transfers for the Adatum.com zone:
D n s c m d . e x e/ z o n e r e s e t s e c o n d a r i e sA d a t u m . c o m/ n o t i f y l i s t1 7 2 . 1 6 . 0 . 2 1

3.

In DNS Manager, verify the changes to the Zone Transfers settings: a. b. c. d. e. In the navigation pane, click Adatum.com, and then on the toolbar, click Refresh. Right-click Adatum.com, and then click Properties. In the Adatum.com Properties dialog box, click the Zone Transfers tab. Click Notify, and verify that the server 172.16.0.21 is listed. Click Cancel. Close the Adatum.com Properties dialog box.

Task 4: Configure TTL, aging, and scavenging

1. 2.

On LON-DC1, open the Adatum.com zone properties. On the Start of Authority tab, configure the Minimum (default) TTL value to be 2 hours.
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Module 2: Configuring and Troubleshooting Domain Name System

3.

Right-click LON-DC1, and then select the Set Aging/Scavenging for All Zones option to configure aging and scavenging options.

4.

Enable Scavenge stale resource records, and then use the default values.

Task 5: Configure clients to use the new name server

1. 2. 3.

Sign in to the LON-CL1 virtual machine as Adatum\Administrator with the password Pa$$w0rd. Use Network and Sharing Center to view the properties of Local Area Connection. Reconfigure Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) as follows: o Modify the Preferred DNS server: 172.16.0.21.

Results: After this exercise, you should have successfully installed and configured DNS on LON-SVR1.

Exercise 4: Troubleshooting DNS


Scenario After implementing the new server, you need to test and verify the configuration by using standard DNS troubleshooting tools. The main tasks for this exercise are as follows: 1. 2. Test simple and recursive queries. Verify start-of-authority (SOA) resource records with Windows PowerShell.

Task 1: Test simple and recursive queries

1. 2. 3.

On LON-DC1, in DNS Manager, open the LON-DC1 properties. On the Monitoring tab, perform a simple query against the DNS server. This is successful. Perform simple and recursive queries against this and other DNS servers. The recursive test fails because there are no forwarders configured.

4. 5. 6.

Stop the DNS service, and then repeat the previous tests. They fail because no DNS server is available. Restart the DNS service, and then repeat the tests. The simple test is successful. Close the LON-DC1 Properties dialog box.

Task 2: Verify start-of-authority (SOA) resource records with Windows PowerShell

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1. 2.

Open Windows PowerShell LON-DC1. Type the following command, and then press Enter:
r e s o l v e d n s n a m e n a m eA d a t u m . c o m t y p eS O A

3.

View the results, and then close the Windows PowerShell prompt.

Results: After this exercise, you should have successfully tested and verified DNS.

To prepare for the next module

When you finish the lab, revert the virtual machines to their initial state. To do this, perform the following steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. On the host computer, start Hyper-V Manager. In the Virtual Machines list, right-click 20411B-LON-DC1, and then click Revert. In the Revert Virtual Machine dialog box, click Revert. Repeat steps 2 and 3 for 20411B-LON-SVR1 and 20411B-LON-CL1.

Module Review and Takeaways


Review Questions
Question: You are deploying DNS servers into an Active Directory domain, and your customer requires that the infrastructure is resistant to single points of failure. What must you consider while planning the DNS configuration? Question: What is the difference between recursive and iterative queries?

Question: What must you configure before a DNS zone can be transferred to a secondary DNS server?

Question: You are the administrator of a Windows Server 2012 DNS environment. Your company recently acquired another company. You want to replicate their primary DNS zone. The acquired company is using Bind 4.9.4 to host their primary DNS zones. You notice a significant amount of traffic between the Windows Server 2012 DNS server and the Bind server. What is one possible reason for this? Question: You must automate a DNS server configuration process so that you can automate the deployment of Windows Server 2012. What DNS tool can you use to do this?

Tools
Tool Use for Where to find it
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Dnscmd.exe Dnslint.exe Configure DNS server role Test DNS server

Module 2: Configuring and Troubleshooting Domain Name System


Command-line Download from the Microsoft website and then use from the command-line

Nslookup.exe Ping.exe Ipconfig.exe

Test DNS name resolution Simple test of DNS name resolution Verify and test IP functionality and view or clear the DNS client resolver cache

Command-line Command-line Command-line

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Lab Answer Key: Module 2: Configuring and Troubleshooting Domain Name System

Lab Answer Key: Module 2: Configuring and Troubleshooting Domain Name System Lab: Configuring and Troubleshooting DNS
Exercise 1: Configuring DNS Resource Records
Task 1: Add the required MX record

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Switch to LON-DC1, and sign in as Adatum\Administrator with the password Pa$$w0rd. In Server Manager, click Tools, and then click DNS. In DNS Manager, expand LON-DC1, expand Forward Lookup Zones, and then click Adatum.com. Right-click Adatum.com, and then click New host (A or AAAA). In the New Host dialog box, in the Name box, type Mail1. In the IP address box, type 172.16.0.250, and then click Add Host. In the DNS dialog box, click OK. In the New Host dialog box, click Done . Right-click Adatum.com, and then click New Mail Exchanger (MX).

10. In the New Resource Record dialog box, in the Fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of mail server box, type Mail1.Adatum.com, and then click OK.

Task 2: Add the required Lync server records

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Right-click Adatum.com, and then click New host (A or AAAA). In the New Host dialog box, in the Name box, type Lync-svr1. In the IP address box, type 172.16.0.251, and then click Add Host. In the DNS dialog box, click OK. In the New Host dialog box, click Done . Right-click Adatum.com, and then click Other New Records. In the Resource Record Type dialog box, in the Select a resource record type list, click Service Location (SRV), and then click Create Record.

8. 9.

In the New Resource Record dialog box, in the Service box, type _sipinternaltls. In the Protocol box, type _tcp.

10. In Port Number, type 5061.


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Lab Answer Key: Module 2: Configuring and Troubleshooting Domain Name System

11. In the Host offering this service box, type Lync-svr1.adatum.com. 12. Click OK, and then click Done .

Task 3: Create the reverse lookup zone

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

In DNS Manager, in the navigation pane, click Reverse Lookup Zones. Right-click Reverse Lookup Zones, and then click New Zone . In the New Zone Wizard, click Next. On the Zone Type page, click Primary zone , and then click Next. On the Active Directory Zone Replication Scope page, click Next. On the Reverse Lookup Zone Name page, click IPv4 Reverse Lookup Zone , and then click Next. On the second Reverse Lookup Zone Name page, in the Network ID: box, type 172.16.0, and then click Next. On the Dynamic Update page, click Next. On the Completing the New Zone Wizard page, click Finish.

Results: After this exercise, you should have configured the required messaging service records and the reverse lookup zone successfully.

Exercise 2: Configuring DNS Conditional Forwarding


Task 1: Add the conditional forwarding record for contoso.com

1. 2. 3. 4.

In DNS, in the navigation pane, click Conditional Forwarders. Right-click Conditional Forwarders, and then click New Conditional Forwarder. In the New Conditional Forwarder dialog box, in the DNS Domain box, type contoso.com. Click in the <Click here to add an IP Address or DNS Name> box. Type 131.107.1.2, and then press Enter. Validation will fail since the server cannot be contacted.

5. 6.

Select the Store this conditional forwarder in Active Directory, and replicate it as follows check box. Click OK.

Results: After this exercise, you should have successfully configured conditional forwarding.

Exercise 3: Installing and Configuring DNS Zones

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Lab Answer Key: Module 2: Configuring and Troubleshooting Domain Name System

Task 1: Install the DNS server role on LON-SVR1

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Switch to LON-SVR1, and sign in as Adatum\Administrator with the password Pa$$w0rd. If necessary, on the taskbar, click Server Manager. In Server Manager, in the navigation pane, click Dashboard, and then in the details pane, click Add roles and features. In the Add Roles and Features Wizard, click Next. On the Select installation type page, click Role-based or feature-based installation, and then click Next. On the Select destination server page, click Next. On the Select server roles page, in the Roles list, select the DNS Server check box. In the Add Roles and Features Wizard dialog box, click Add Features. On the Select server roles page, click Next.

10. On the Select features page, click Next. 11. On the DNS Server page, click Next. 12. On the Confirm installation selections page, click Install. 13. After the role is installed, click Close .

Task 2: Create the required secondary zones on LON-SVR1

1. 2. 3.

Pause your mouse pointer in the lower left of the display, and then click Start. From Start, type cmd.exe , and then press Enter. At the command prompt, type the following command, and then press Enter:
D n s c m d . e x e/ z o n e a d dA d a t u m . c o m/ s e c o n d a r y1 7 2 . 1 6 . 0 . 1 0

4. 5. 6.

In Server Manager, click Tools, and then click DNS. From Start, click DNS. In DNS Manager, in the navigation pane, expand LON-SVR1, and then click Forward Lookup Zones. Notice the new zone.

Task 3: Enable and configure zone transfers

1. 2. 3. 4.

Switch to LON-DC1. Pause your mouse pointer in the lower-left of the display, and then click Start. From Start, type cmd.exe , and then press Enter. At the command prompt, type the following command, and then press Enter:
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Lab Answer Key: Module 2: Configuring and Troubleshooting Domain Name System

D n s c m d . e x e/ z o n e r e s e t s e c o n d a r i e sA d a t u m . c o m/ n o t i f y l i s t1 7 2 . 1 6 . 0 . 2 1

5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

In DNS Manager, in the navigation pane, click Adatum.com, and then on the toolbar, click Refresh. Right-click Adatum.com, and then click Properties. In the Adatum.com Properties dialog box, click the Zone Transfers tab. Click Notify, and verify that the server 172.16.0.21 is listed. Click Cancel.

10. Click OK to close the Adatum.com Properties dialog box.

Task 4: Configure TTL, aging, and scavenging

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

On LON-DC1, in DNS Manager, right-click Adatum.com, and then click Properties. In the Adatum.com Properties dialog box, click the Start of Authority (SOA) tab. In the Minimum (default) TTL box, type 2, and then click OK. Right-click LON-DC1, and then click Set Aging/Scavenging for All Zones. In the Set Aging/Scavenging Properties dialog box, select the Scavenge stale resource records check box, and then click OK.

6.

In the Server Aging/Scavenging Confirmation dialog box, select the Apply these settings to the existing Active Directory-integrated zones check box, and then click OK.

Task 5: Configure clients to use the new name server

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Switch to LON-CL1. Sign in to the LON-CL1 virtual machine as Adatum\Administrator with the password Pa$$w0rd. On the Start screen, type Control, and then click Control Panel. In Control Panel, click Network and Internet. In Network and Internet, click Network and Sharing Center. In Network and Sharing Center, to the right of the Adatum.com Domain network, click Local Area Connection. In the Local Area Connection Status dialog box, click Properties. Click Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4), and then click Properties. In the Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) Properties dialog box, in the Preferred DNS server box, type 172.16.0.21, and then click OK.

10. In the Local Area Connection Properties dialog box, click Close . 11. In the Local Area Connection Status dialog box, click Close .
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Lab Answer Key: Module 2: Configuring and Troubleshooting Domain Name System

Results: After this exercise, you should have successfully installed and configured DNS on LON-SVR1.

Exercise 4: Troubleshooting DNS


Task 1: Test simple and recursive queries

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Switch to LON-DC1. On LON-DC1, switch to DNS Manager. In the navigation pane, right-click LON-DC1, and then click Properties. Click the Monitoring tab. On the Monitoring tab, select A simple query against this DNS server, and then click Test Now . On the Monitoring tab, select A recursive query to other DNS servers, and then click Test Now . Notice that the Recursive test fails for LON-DC1, which is normal given that there are no forwarders configured for this DNS server to use.

7. 8. 9.

Pause your mouse pointer in the lower-left of the display, and then click Start. In Start, type cmd, and then press Enter. At the command prompt, type the following command, and then press Enter:
s cs t o pd n s

10. Switch back to DNS Manager. 11. In DNS Manager, in the LON-DC1 Properties dialog box, on the Monitoring tab, click Test Now . Now, both simple and recursive tests fail because no DNS server is available. 12. Switch to the command prompt. 13. At the command prompt, type the following command, and then press Enter:
s cs t a r td n s

14. Switch back to DNS Manager. 15. On the Monitoring tab, click Test Now . The simple test completes successfully. 16. Close the LON-DC1 Properties dialog box.

Task 2: Verify start-of-authority (SOA) resource records with Windows PowerShell

1.

On LON-DC1, on the taskbar, click Windows PowerShell.


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Lab Answer Key: Module 2: Configuring and Troubleshooting Domain Name System

2.

At the Windows PowerShell prompt, type the following command, and then press Enter:
r e s o l v e d n s n a m e n a m eA d a t u m . c o m t y p eS O A

3.

Close the Windows PowerShell prompt.

Results: After this exercise, you should have successfully tested and verified DNS.

To prepare for the next module

When you finish the lab, revert the virtual machines to their initial state. To do this, perform the following steps:

1. 2. 3. 4.

On the host computer, start Hyper-V Manager. In the Virtual Machines list, right-click 20411B-LON-DC1, and then click Revert. In the Revert Virtual Machine dialog box, click Revert. Repeat steps 2 and 3 for 20411B-LON-SVR1 and 20411B-LON-CL1.

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Module 3: Maintaining Active Directory Domain Services

Module 3: Maintaining Active Directory Domain Services Contents:


Module Overview Lesson 1: Lesson 2: Lesson 3: Lesson 4: Lesson 5: Lab: Overview of AD DS Implementing Virtualized Domain Controllers Implementing Read-Only Domain Controllers Administering AD DS Managing the AD DS Database Maintaining AD DS Module Review and Takeaways

Module Overview
Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) is the most critical component in a Windows Server 2012 domain-based network. AD DS contains important information about authentication, authorization, and resources in your environment. This module focuses on explaining why you implement specific AD DS features, how important components integrate with each other, and how you can ensure that your domain-based network functions properly. You will learn about new features, such as virtualized domain controller cloning, recent features like read-only domain controllers (RODCs), and a host of other features and tools that you can use in the AD DS environment.

Objectives
After completing this module, you will be able to: Explain the general structure of AD DS. Implement virtualized domain controllers. Implement RODCs. Administer AD DS. Manage the AD DS database.

Lesson 1 : Overview of AD DS
The AD DS database stores information on user identity, computers, groups, services, and resources. AD DS domain controllers also host the service that authenticates user and computer accounts when they sign in to the domain. AD DS stores information about all of the domains objects, and all users and computers must connect to AD DS domain controllers when signing into the
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Module 3: Maintaining Active Directory Domain Services

network. Therefore, AD DS is the primary means by which you can configure and manage user and computer accounts on your network. This lesson covers the core logical components of an AD DS deployment.

Lesson Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to: Describe AD DS components. Explain AD DS forest and schema structure. Explain AD DS domain structure.

Overview of AD DS Components

AD DS is composed of both physical and logical components. You need to understand the way the components of AD DS work together so that you can maintain your AD DS environment effectively.

Physical Components
AD DS information is stored in a single file on each domain controllers hard disk. The following table lists some physical components and their storage locations.

Physical component
Domain controllers Data store Global catalog servers

Description
Contain copies of the AD DS database. The file on each domain controller that stores the AD DS information. Host the global catalog, which is a partial, read-only copy of all the objects in the forest. A global catalog speeds up searches for objects that might be stored on domain controllers in a different domain in the forest.

Read-only domain controllers (RODC)

A special AD DS install in read-only format. You typically use these in branch offices where security and IT support may be less advanced than in an enterprises main corporate centers.

Logical Components
AD DS logical components are structures that you use to implement an Active Directory design that is appropriate for an
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Module 3: Maintaining Active Directory Domain Services

organization. The following table describes some of the types of logical structures that an Active Directory database might contain.

Logical component
Partition

Description
A section of the AD DS database. Although the database actually is just one file named NTDS.DIT, users view, manage, and replicate it as if it consists of distinct sections or instances. These are partitions , or naming contexts .

Schema Domain Domain tree Forest Site

Defines the list of object types and attributes that all AD DS objects can have. A logical, administrative boundary for users and computers. A collection of domains that share a common root domain and a Domain Name System (DNS) namespace. A collection of domains that share a common AD DS. A collection of users, groups, and computers, which are defined by their physical locations. Sites are useful in planning administrative tasks such as replication of changes to the AD DS database.

OU

Organizational units (OUs) are containers in AD DS that provide a framework for delegating administrative rights and for linking Group Policy Objects (GPOs).

Understanding AD DS Forest and Schema Structure

In AD DS forest and schema structure are important for the defining the functionality and scope of your environment.

AD DS Forest Structure
A forest is a collection of one or more domain trees. A tree is a collection of one or more domains. The first domain that is created in the forest is called the forest root domain. The forest root domain contains a few objects that do not exist in other domains in the forest. For example, the forest root domain contains two special roles, the schema master and the domain naming master. In addition, the Enterprise Admins group and the Schema Admins group exist only in the forest root domain. The Enterprise Admins group has full control over every domain within the forest. The AD DS forest is a security boundary. This means that, by default, no users from outside the forest can access any resources inside the forest. It also means that administrators from outside the forest have no administrative access within the forest. One of the primary reasons why organizations deploy multiple forests is because they need to isolate administrative permissions between different parts of the organization. The AD DS forest is also the replication boundary for the configuration and schema partitions in the AD DS database. This means that all domain controllers in the forest must share the same schema. A second reason why organizations deploy multiple forests
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Module 3: Maintaining Active Directory Domain Services

is because they must deploy incompatible schemas in two parts of the organization. The AD DS forest is also the replication boundary for the global catalog. This makes most forms of collaboration between users in different domains easier. For example, all Microsoft Exchange Server 2010 recipients are listed in the global catalog, making it easy to send mail to any of the users in the forest, even those users in different domains. By default, all the domains in a forest automatically trust the other domains in the forest. This makes it easy to enable access to resources such as file shares and websites for all users in a forest, regardless of the domain in which the user account is located.

AD DS Schema Structure
The AD DS schema is the AD DS component that defines all object types and attributes that AD DS uses to store data. It is sometimes referred to as the blueprint for AD DS. AD DS stores and retrieves information from a wide variety of applications and services. AD DS standardizes how data is stored so that it can store and replicate data from these various sources. By standardizing how data is stored, AD DS can retrieve, update, and replicate data, while ensuring that the integrity of the data is maintained. AD DS uses objects as units of storage. All object types are defined in the schema. Each time that the directory handles data, the directory queries the schema for an appropriate object definition. Based on the object definition in the schema, the directory creates the object and stores the data. Object definitions control both the types of data that the objects can store, and the syntax of the data. Using this information, the schema ensures that all objects conform to their standard definitions. As a result, AD DS can store, retrieve, and validate the data that it manages, regardless of the application that is the original source of the data. Only data that has an existing object definition in the schema can be stored in the directory. If a new type of data needs to be stored, a new object definition for the data must first be created in the schema. In AD DS, the schema defines the following: Objects that are used to store data in the directory Rules that define what types of objects you can create, what attributes must be defined (mandatory) when you create the object, and what attributes are optional Structure and content of the directory itself

You can use an account that is a member of the Schema Administrators to modify the schema components in a graphical form. Examples of objects that are defined in the schema include user, computer, group, and site. Among the many attributes are location, accountExpires, buildingName , company, manager, and displayName . The schema master is one of the single master operations domain controllers in AD DS. Because it is a single master, you must make changes to the schema by targeting the domain controller that holds the schema master operations role. The schema is replicated among all domain controllers in the forest. Any change that is made to the schema is replicated to every domain controller in the forest from the schema operations master role holder, typically the first domain controller in the forest. Because the schema dictates how information is stored, and because any changes that are made to the schema affect every
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domain controller, changes to the schema should be made only when necessary. Before making any changes, you should review the changes through a tightly-controlled process, and then implement them only after you have performed testing to ensure that the changes will not adversely affect the rest of the forest and any applications that use AD DS. Although you might not make any change to the schema directly, some applications make changes to the schema to support additional features. For example, when you install Exchange Server 2010 into your AD DS forest, the installation program extends the schema to support new object types and attributes.

Understanding AD DS Domain Structure

An AD DS domain is a logical grouping of user, computer, and group objects for the purpose of management and security. All of these objects are stored in the AD DS database, and a copy of this database is stored on every domain controller in the AD DS domain. There are several types of objects that can be stored in the AD DS database, including user accounts. User accounts provide a mechanism that you can use to authenticate and then authorize users to access resources on the network. Each domain-joined computer must have an account in AD DS. This enables domain administrators to use policies that are defined in the domain to manage the computers. The domain also stores groups, which are the mechanism for grouping together objects for administrative or security reasons; for instance, user accounts and computer accounts. The AD DS domain is also a replication boundary. When changes are made to any object in the domain, that change is replicated automatically to all other domain controllers in the domain. An AD DS domain is an administrative center. It contains an Administrator account and a Domain Admins group, which both have full control over every object in the domain. Unless they are in the forest root domain, however, their range of control is limited to the domain. Password and account rules are managed at the domain level by default. The AD DS domain also provides an authentication center. All user accounts and computer accounts in the domain are stored in the domain database, and users and computers must connect to a domain controller to authenticate. A single domain can contain more than 1 million objects, so most organizations need to deploy only a single domain. Organizations that have decentralized administrative structures, or that are distributed across multiple locations, might instead implement multiple domains in the same forest.

Domain Controllers
A domain controller is a server that you can configure to store a copy of the AD DS directory database (NTDS.DIT) and a copy of the System Volume (SYSVOL) folder. All domain controllers except RODCs store a read/write copy of both NTDS.DIT and the
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SYSVOL folder. NTDS.DIT is the database itself, and the SYSVOL folder contains all the template settings for GPOs. Changes to the AD DS database can be initiated on any domain controller in a domain except for RODCs. The AD DS replication service then synchronizes the changes and updates to the AD DS database to all other domain controllers in the domain. Additionally, either the file replication service (FRS), or the newer Distributed File System Replication (DFS-R), replicates the SYSVOL folders. An AD DS domain should always have a minimum of two domain controllers. This way, if one of the domain controllers fails, there is a backup to ensure continuity of the AD DS domain services. When you decide to add more than two domain controllers, consider the size of your organization and the performance requirements.

Organization Units
An OU is a container object within a domain that you can use to consolidate users, groups, computers, and other objects. There are two reasons to create OUs: To configure objects contained within the OU. You can assign GPOs to the OU, and the settings apply to all objects within the OU. GPOs are policies that administrators create to manage and configure computer and user accounts. The most common way to deploy these policies is to link them to OUs. To delegate administrative control of objects within the OU. You can assign management permissions on an OU, thereby delegating control of that OU to a user or group within AD DS other than the administrator.

You can use OUs to represent the hierarchical, logical structures within your organization. For example, you can create OUs that represent the departments within your organization, the geographic regions within your organization, or a combination of both departmental and geographic regions. You can use OUs to manage the configuration and use of user, group, and computer accounts based on your organizational model. Every AD DS domain contains a standard set of containers and OUs that are created when you install AD DS, including the following: Domain container. Serves as the root container to the hierarchy. Users container. The default location for new user accounts and groups that you create in the domain. The users container also holds the administrator and guest accounts for the domain, and some default groups. Computers container. The default location for new computer accounts that you create in the domain. Domain Controllers OU. The default location for the computer accounts for domain controller computer accounts. This is the only OU that is present in a new installation of AD DS.

Note: None of the default containers in the AD DS domain can have GPOs linked to them, except for the default Domain Controllers OU and the domain itself. All the other containers are just folders. To link GPOs to apply configurations and restrictions, create a hierarchy of OUs, and then link GPOs to them.

Lesson 2: Implementing Virtualized Domain Controllers


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Virtualization is a common practice in IT departments. The consolidation and performance benefits that virtualization provides are great assets to any organization. Windows Server 2012 AD DS and domain controllers are now more aware of virtualization. In this lesson, you will learn the considerations for implementing virtualized domain controllers in Windows Server 2012, and how you can deploy and manage these domain controllers in the AD DS environment.

Lesson Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to: Identify considerations for implementing cloned virtualized domain controllers. Explain how to deploy a cloned virtualized domain controller. Describe how to manage virtualized domain controller snapshots.

Understanding Cloned Virtualized Domain Controllers

Windows Server 2012 introduces virtualized domain-controller cloning. In previous Windows Server versions, domain controllers that were running within a virtual machine were unaware of their virtual state. This made performing processes like cloning and restoring virtual machine snapshots potentially dangerous, because changes could occur to the operating-system environment that the domain controller did not expect. For example, two domain controllers cannot coexist in the same forest with the same name, invocation ID, and directory system agent (DSA) globally unique identifier (GUID). In earlier Windows versions prior to Windows Server 2012, you created virtualized domain controllers by deploying a Sysprepped base server image, and then promoting it manually to be a domain controller. Windows Server 2012 provides specific virtualization capabilities to AD DS Virtualized Domain Controllers (VDCs) to resolve those issues. Windows Server 2012 VDCs provide two significant benefits: You can clone domain controllers safely to deploy additional capacity and save configuration time. Accidental restoration of domain controller snapshots does not disrupt the AD DS environment.

Cloning VDCs in Windows Server 2012


In Windows Server 2012, cloning virtual machines that act as domain controllers provides the ability to deploy domain controllers rapidly in your environment. For example, you may need to increase your environments domain controllers to support increased AD DS usage. You can deploy additional domain controllers quickly with the following process:
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1. 2. 3. 4.

Run the cloning operation on an existing VDC. Shut down the existing VDC, and then use Hyper-V to export the virtual machine files. Start the existing VDC (if its intended to continue in production usage). Use Hyper-V to import the virtual machine files as a new virtual machine, and then start the virtual machine, which now contains the new domain controller.

Virtual domain controller cloning provides the following benefits in Windows Server 2012: Rapid domain-controller deployment in a new forest or domain. Scalable provisioning of domain controllers to handle increased load. Quick replacement or recovery of domain controllers for business continuity. Fast provisioning of test environments.

Safe Cloning
Domain controllers have unique characteristics that make unmanaged cloning detrimental to the AD DS database-replication process. Domain controllers that are simply cloned end up with the same name, which is unsupported within the same domain or forest. In previous Windows Server versions, you had to prepare a domain controller for cloning by using sysprep. After the cloning process, you then had to promote the new server to a domain controller manually. With Safe Cloning in Windows Server 2012, a cloned domain controller automatically runs a subset of the sysprep process, and promotes with the existing local AD DS data as installation media.

Safe Backup and Restore


Rolling back to a previous snapshot of a VDC is problematic because AD DS uses multimaster replication that relies on transactions being assigned numeric values called Update Sequence Numbers (USNs). The VDC tries to assign USNs to prior transactions that have already been assigned to valid transactions. This causes inconsistencies in the AD DS database. Windows Server 2003 and newer implements a process that is known as USN rollback protection. With this in place, the VDC does not replicate, and you must demote it forcibly or manually restore it. Windows Server 2012 now detects the snapshot state of a domain controller, and synchronizes or replicates the delta of changes, between a domain controller and its partners for AD DS and the SYSVOL. You now can use snapshots without risk of permanently disabling domain controllers and requiring manually forced demotion, metadata cleanup, and repromotion.

Deploying a Cloned Virtualized Domain Controller

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When deploying a VDC, consider the following regarding installation: All Windows Server 2012 computers support VDC cloning automatically. The following requirements must be met to support VDC cloning: o The primary domain controller (PDC) Emulator FSMO role must be located on a Windows Server 2012 domain controller. o The domain controller hosting the PDC Emulator flexible single master operations (FSMO) role must be available during cloning operations. The following requirements must be met to support both VDC cloning and safe restore: o Guest virtual machines must be running Windows Server 2012. o The virtualization host platform must support VM Generation ID (VM GENID). This includes Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V.

Creating a VDC Clone


To create a VDC clone in Windows Server 2012, perform the following steps: 1. 2. Create a DcCloneConfig.xml file that contains the unique server configuration. Copy this file into the location of the AD DS database on the source domain controller (C:\Windows\NTDS by default). This file can also be stored on removable media, if required. 3. 4. Take the source VDC offline and export or copy it. Create a new virtual machine by importing the exported one. This virtual machine is promoted automatically as a unique domain controller.

Managing Virtualized Domain Controllers

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The Windows Server 2012 safe restore capability enables VDCs that are running Windows Server 2012 to participate gracefully in the AD DS replication topology, after you apply a snapshot within Hyper-V to the virtual machine that is hosting the domain controller. Taking and applying snapshots for a VDC in Hyper-V requires specific considerations and steps.

Validating AD DS Replication
When a virtual machine snapshot is applied to a VDC, the safe restore process initiates, inbound replication for the changes in AD DS between the virtual domain controller and the rest of the AD DS environment. The relative identifier (RID) pool is released, and a new one is requested, to prevent duplicated SIDs in AD DS. It also initiates a nonauthoritative replication of the SYSVOL folder. This process ensures that the new applied snapshot version of the virtual domain controller is aware of all AD DS objects, fully upto-date, and is fully functional. To ensure that this process can complete successfully, the following elements of AD DS replication must be considered: A virtual domain controller recovered from a Hyper-V snapshot must be able to contact a writable domain controller. You may not restore all domain controllers in a domain simultaneously. If all domain controllers are restored simultaneously, SYSVOL replication will halt, and all partners in synchronization will be considered nonauthoritative. This is an important consideration for full environment rollback situations that may occur frequently in a test environment. Changes originated on a restored virtual domain controller that have not replicated since the snapshot was taken are lost. Because of this, you must ensure that all outgoing replication on a domain controller has been completed before taking a snapshot of the virtual machine.

Using Windows PowerShell for Hyper-V Snapshot Management


You can use the following Windows PowerShell cmdlets to perform snapshot management in Windows Server 2012: Checkpoint-VM Export-VMSnapshot Get-VMSnapshot Remove-VMSnapshot Rename-VMSnapshot
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Restore-VMSnapshot

Considerations for Managing Virtual Domain Controller Snapshots


Consider the following when managing virtual domain controller snapshots in Windows Server 2012: Do not use snapshots to replace regular system state backups. In a frequently changing AD DS environment, snapshots do not always contain the full contents of AD DS objects, due to replication changes. Do not restore a snapshot of a domain controller that was taken before it was promoted. Doing so will require that you repromote the server manually after the snapshot is applied and the metadata cleanup occurs. Do not host all virtual domain controllers on the same hypervisor or server. This introduces a single point of failure into the AD DS infrastructure, and circumvents many of the benefits that virtualizing your domain-controller infrastructure provides.

Lesson 3: Implementing Read-Only Domain Controllers


RODCs provide an alternative to a fully writable domain controller. In many scenarios, such as a remote branch office or a location where a server cannot be placed in a secure physical environment, RODCs can provide the functionality of a domain controller without potentially exposing your AD DS environment to unnecessary risks. This lesson will help you to better understand the methods and best practices that you can use to manage RODCs in the Windows Server 2012 environment.

Lesson Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to: Explain considerations for implementing RODCs. Describe how to manage RODC credential caching. Identify the important aspects of managing local administration for RODCs.

Considerations for Implementing RODCs

An RODC has a read-only copy of an Active Directory domain, which contains all of the domains objects, but not all of their attributes. System-critical attributes, such as passwords, do not replicate to an RODC because it is not considered secure. You can
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prevent additional attributes from being replicated to RODCs by marking the attribute as confidential and adding it to the Filtered Attribute Set (FAS).

Understanding RODC Functionality


You cannot make changes to the domain database on the RODC, because the AD DS database on the RODC does not accept modification requests from clients and applications. All requests for changes are forwarded to a writable domain controller. Because no changes occur on the RODC, replication of Active Directory changes is one way only from writable domain controllers to the RODC.

Credential Caching
User and computer credentials are not replicated to an RODC by default. To use an RODC to enhance user logon, you need to configure a Password Replication Policy (PRP) that defines which user credentials can be cached. Limiting the credentials cached on the RODC reduces the security risks. If the RODC is stolen, only passwords for the cached user and computer accounts need to be reset. If user and computer credentials are not replicated to an RODC then a writable domain controller must be contacted during the authentication process. Typically (in a branch office scenario), the credentials for local users and computers are cached on an RODC. When RODCs are placed in a perimeter network, the credentials for users and computers typically are not cached.

Administrative Role Separation


To manage a writable domain controller, you must be a member of the domain local Administrators group. Any user placed in the domain local Administrators group is given permissions to manage all domain controllers in the domain. This causes problems for remote-office administration with a writable domain controller, because the administrator in a remote office should not be given access to the organizations other domain controllers. This gives the administrator of a remote office permission to manage only that RODC, which may also be configured to provide other services such a file shares and printing.

Read-Only DNS
DNS is a critical resource for a Windows network. If you configure an RODC as a DNS server, then you can replicate DNS zones through AD DS to the RODC. DNS on the RODC is read-only. DNS update requests are referred to a writable copy of DNS.

Deploying RODCs
To deploy an RODC, ensure that the following activities are performed: Ensure that the forest functional level is Windows Server 2003 or newer. That means that all domain controllers must be Windows Server 2003 or newer, and each domain in the forest must be at the domain functional level of Windows Server 2003 or newer. Run ADPrep /RODCPrep. This configures permissions on DNS application directory partitions to allow them to replicate to RODCs. This is required only if the Active Directory forest has been upgraded. Ensure that there is a writable domain controller running Windows Server 2008 or newer. An RODC replicates the domain partition only from these domain controllers. Therefore, each domain with RODCs must have at least one Windows Server 2008 or newer domain controller. You can replicate the Schema and Configuration partitions from Windows Server 2003.

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RODC Installation
Like a writable domain controller, you can install an RODC by using an attended or an unattended installation. If you perform an attended installation by using the graphical interface, you select the RODC as one of the additional domain controller options. You also can delegate the RODC installation to the administrator in the remote office by using a staged installation. In a staged installation, you need to perform the following steps: 1. 2. Ensure that the server to be configured as the RODC is not a member of the domain. A domain administrator uses Active Directory Users and Computers to precreate the RODC account in the Domain Controllers organizational unit (OU). The wizard for performing this process prompts for the necessary information, including the user or group that is allowed to join the RODC to the domain. 3. The administrator in the remote office runs the Active Directory Domain Services installation Wizard, and follows the wizard to join the domain as the precreated RODC account.

Managing RODC Credential Caching

RODCs provide the capability to store only a subset of credentials for accounts in AD DS through the implementation of credential caching. With credential caching, a password replication policy (PRP) determines which user and computer credentials can be cached on a specific RODC. If PRP allows an RODC to cache an accounts credentials, authentication and service ticket activities of that account can be processed locally by the RODC. If an accounts credentials cannot be cached on RODC, or they are not cached on the RODC, authentication and service ticket activities are chained by the RODC to a writable domain controller.

Password Replication Policy Components


The PRP for an RODC contains both an Allowed List and a Denied List. Each list can contain specific accounts or groups. An account must be on the Allowed List for credentials to be cached. If a group is on the Allowed List and a member of that group is on the Denied List, caching is not allowed for that member. There are two domain local groups that you can use to allow or deny caching globally to all RODCs in a domain: Allowed RODC Password Replication Group is added to the Allowed List of all RODCs. This group has no members by default. Denied RODC Password Replication Group is added to the Denied List of all RODCs. By default, Domain Admins, Enterprise Admins, and Group Policy Creator Owners are the members of this group.

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You can configure the Allowed List and Denied List for each RODC. The Allowed List contains only the Allowed RODC Password Replication Group. The default membership of the Denied List includes Administrators, Server Operators, and Account Operators. In most cases, you will want to add accounts separately to each RODC, or add global groups containing accounts rather than globally allowing password caching. This allows you to limit the number of credentials cached to only those accounts commonly at that location. Domain administrative accounts should not be cached on RODCs in remote offices. You should cache computer accounts to speed up authentication of computer accounts during system startup. Additionally, you should cache service accounts for services that are running at the remote office.

Best Practices for Credential Caching


The following best practices should be observed to ensure the most effective use of cached credentials: Create separate AD DS global groups for each RODC. Do not cache passwords for domain-wide administrative accounts.

Managing Local Administration for RODCs

The management of RODCs is separated from other domain controllers. Therefore, you can delegate administration of RODCs to local administrators in remote offices, without giving those administrators access to writable domain controllers. You can delegate administration of an RODC in the properties of the RODC computer account on the Managed By tab. You should follow this method to delegate the administration of an RODC because you can manage it centrally and easily. You can specify only a single security principal on the Managed By tab of an RODC computer account. Specify a group so that you can delegate management permissions to multiple users by making them members of the group. You also can delegate administration of an RODC by using ntdsutil or dsmgmt with the local roles option, as the following example shows:

C : \ > d s m g m tD s m g m t :l o c a lr o l e sl o c a lr o l e s :a d dA d a t u m \ R e s e a r c h

You should cache the password for delegated administrators to ensure that you can perform system maintenance when a writable domain controller is unavailable.
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Note: You should never access the RODC with an account that has permissions similar to Domain Admins. RODC computers are considered compromised by default, so, you should assume that by logging in to the RODC you are giving up domain admin credentials. Thus domain administrators should have a separate server admin type account that is delegated management access to the RODC.

Lesson 4: Administering AD DS
AD DS management happens in many different forms. The AD DS environment contains a large number of management tools that enable you to monitor and modify AD DS, to ensure that your organizations domain infrastructure is serving its purpose and functioning properly. Windows Server 2012 includes a broader set of tools for working within AD DS than previous Windows versions included. Improvements to the Active Directory Administrative Center and the addition of several cmdlets to the Active Directory module for Windows PowerShell enable even greater control over your AD DS domain.

Lesson Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to: Describe the Active Directory administrative snap-ins. Describe the Active Directory Administrative Center. Explain how to manage AD DS by using management tools. Describe the Active Directory module for Windows PowerShell. Explain how to manage operations master roles. Explain how to manage AD DS backup and recovery.

Overview of the Active Directory Administration Snap-ins

You typically will perform most Active Directory administration by using the following snap-ins and consoles: Active Directory Users and Computers. This snap-in manages most common day-to-day resources, including users, groups, and computers. This is likely to be the most heavily used snap-in for an Active Directory administrator. Active Directory Sites and Services. This manages replication, network topology, and related services. Active Directory Domains and Trusts. This configures and maintains trust relationships and the domain and forest functional
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level. Active Directory Schema. This schema examines and modifies the definition of Active Directory attributes and object classes. The schema is the blueprint for Active Directory, and you typically do not view or change it very often. Therefore, the Active Directory Schema snap-in is not fully installed, by default.

Overview of the Active Directory Administrative Center

Windows Server 2012 provides another option for managing AD DS objects. The Active Directory Administrative Center provides a graphical user interface (GUI) built on Windows PowerShell. This enhanced interface allows you to perform Active Directory object management by using task-oriented navigation. Tasks that you can perform by using the Active Directory Administrative Center include: Creating and managing user, computer, and group accounts. Creating and managing OUs. Connecting to and managing multiple domains within a single instance of the Active Directory Administrative Center. Searching and filtering Active Directory data by building queries. Creating and managing fine-grained password policies. Recovering objects from the Active Directory Recycle Bin.

Installation Requirements
You can install the Active Directory Administrative Center only on computers that are running Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012, Windows 7 or Windows 8. You can install the Active Directory Administrative Center by: Installing the AD DS server role through Server Manager. Installing the Remote Server Administration Tools (RSAT) on a Windows Server 2012 server or Windows 8.

Note: The Active Directory Administrative Center relies on the Active Directory Web Services (ADWS) service, which you must install on at least one domain controller in the domain. The service also requires port 9389 to be open on the domain controller where ADWS is running.

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New Active Directory Administrative Center Features in Windows Server 2012


Active Directory Administrative Center contains several new features in Windows Server 2012 that enable the graphical management of AD DS functionality: Active Directory Recycle Bin. Active Directory Administrative Center now offers complete management of the Active Directory Recycle Bin. Administrators can use Active Directory Administrative Center to view and locate deleted objects, and manage and restore those objects to their original or other desired location. Fine-Grained Password Policy. Active Directory Administrative Center also provides a graphical user interface for the creation and management of password settings objects to implement fine-grained password policies in an AD DS domain. Windows PowerShell History Viewer. Active Directory Administrative Center functionality is built on Windows PowerShell. Any command or action that you perform within the Active Directory Administrative Center interface is carried out in Windows Server 2012 through Windows PowerShell cmdlets. When an administrator performs a task within the Active Directory Administrative Center interface, the Windows PowerShell History Viewer shows the Windows PowerShell commands that were issued for the task. This enables administrators to reuse code to create reusable scripts, and allows them to become more familiar with Windows PowerShell syntax and usage.

Overview of the Active Directory Module for Windows PowerShell

The Active Directory module for Windows PowerShell in Windows Server 2012 consolidates a group of cmdlets that you can use to manage your Active Directory domains. Windows Server 2012 builds on the foundation built in the Active Directory module for Windows PowerShell originally introduced in Windows Server 2008 R2, by adding an additional 60 cmdlets that expand the preexisting areas of Windows PowerShell capabilities and add new capabilities in the areas of replication and resource access control. The Active Directory module for Windows PowerShell enables management of AD DS in the following areas: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. User management Computer management Group management OU management Password policy management Searching and modifying objects
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7. 8. 9.

Forest and domain management Domain controller and operations master management Managed service account management

10. Site replication management 11. Central access and claims management

Cmdlet Examples
New-ADComputer creates a new computer object in AD DS. Remove-ADGroup removes an Active Directory group. Set-ADDomainMode sets the domain functional level for an Active Directory domain.

Installation
You can install the Active Directory module by using any of the following methods: By default, on a Windows Server 2008 R2 or Windows Server 2012 server, when you install the AD DS or Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS) server roles. By default, when you make a Windows Server 2008 R2 or Windows Server 2012 server a domain controller. As part of the RSAT feature on a Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012, Windows 7 or Windows 8 computer.

Demonstration: Managing AD DS by Using Management Tools


The various AD DS management tools each have a purpose in the administration of the complete AD DS environment. This demonstration will show you the primary tools that you can use to manage AD DS and a task that you typically perform with the tool. This demonstration shows how to: Create objects in Active Directory Users and Computers. View object attributes in Active Directory Users and Computers. Navigate within Active Directory Administrative Center. Perform an administrative task in Active Directory Administrative Center. Use the Windows PowerShell Viewer in Active Directory Administrative Center. Manage AD DS objects with Windows PowerShell.

Demonstration Steps Active Directory Users and Computers


View objects
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1. 2.

On LON-DC1, open Active Directory Users and Computers. Navigate the Adatum.com domain tree, viewing Containers, Organizational Units (OUs) and Computer, User, and Group objects.

Refresh the view Refresh the view in Active Directory Users and Computers.

Create objects 1. 2. Create a new computer object named LON-CL4 in the Computers container. To create an object in Active Directory Users and Computers, right-click a domain, or a container (such as Users or Computers), or an organizational unit, point to New , and then click the type of object that you want to create. 3. When you create an object, you are prompted to configure several of the objects most basic properties, including the properties that the object requires.

Configure object attributes 1. 2. In Active Directory Users and Computers, open the Properties page for LON-CL4. Add LON-CL4 to the Adatum/Research group.

View all object attributes 1. 2. Enable the Advanced Features view in Active Directory Users and Computers. Open the Properties page for LON-CL4, and then view the AD DS attributes.

Active Directory Administrative Center


Navigation 1. 2. 3. 4. On LON-DC1, open Active Directory Administrative Center. In Active Directory Administrative Center, click the Navigation nodes. Switch to the tree view. Expand Adatum.com.

Perform administrative tasks 1. Navigate to the Overview view.

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2. 3.

Reset the password for Adatum\Adam to Pa$$w0rd, without requiring the user to change the password at the next logon. Use the Global Search section to find any objects that match the search string Rex.

Use the Windows PowerShell History Viewer 1. 2. Open the Windows PowerShell History pane. View the Windows PowerShell cmdlet that you used to perform the most recent task.

Windows PowerShell
Creating a group 1. 2. Open the Active Directory Module for Windows PowerShell. Create a new group called SalesManagers by using the following command:
N e w A D G r o u p N a m e S a l e s M a n a g e r s G r o u p C a t e g o r yS e c u r i t y G r o u p S c o p eG l o b a lD i s p l a y N a m e S a l e sM a n a g e r s P a t h C N = U s e r s , D C = A d a t u m , D C = c o m

3.

Open Active Directory Administrative Center, and confirm that the SalesManager group is present in the Users container.

Move an object to a new organizational unit (OU) 1. At the PowerShell prompt, move SalesManagers to the Sales OU by using the following command:
M o v e A D O b j e c t C N = S a l e s M a n a g e r s , C N = U s e r s , D C = A d a t u m , D C = c o m T a r g e t P a t h O U = S a l e s , D C = A d a t u m , D C = c o m

2.

Switch to Active Directory Administrative Center, and then confirm that the SalesManagers group has been moved to the Sales OU.

Managing Operations Master Roles

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In an AD DS environment multimaster replication means that all domain controllers have the same general capabilities and priorities when modifying the AD DS database. However, certain operations must be performed by only one system. In AD DS, operation masters are domain controllers that perform a specific function within the domain environment.

Forest-Wide Operations Master Roles


The schema master and the domain-naming master must be unique in the forest. Each role is performed by only one domain controller in the entire forest.

Domain Naming Master Role


The domain-naming role is used when adding or removing domains and application partitions in the forest. When you add or remove a domain or application partition, the domain naming master must be accessible, or the operation will fail.

Schema Master Role


The domain controller holding the schema master role is responsible for making any changes to the forests schema. All other domain controllers hold read-only replicas of the schema. When you need to modify the schema, the modifications must be sent to the domain controller that hosts the schema master role.

Domain-Wide Operations Master Roles


Each domain maintains three single master operations: relative identifier (RID) master, infrastructure master, and primary domain controller (PDC) Emulator. Each role is performed by only one domain controller in the domain.

RID Master Role


The RID master plays an integral part in the generation of security identifiers (SIDs) for security principals such as users, groups, and computers. The SID of a security principal must be unique. Because any domain controller can create accounts, and therefore, SIDs, a mechanism is necessary to ensure that the SIDs generated by a domain controller are unique. Active Directory domain controllers generate SIDs by appending a unique RID to the domain SID. The RID master for the domain allocates pools of unique RIDs to each domain controller in the domain. Therefore, each domain controller can be confident that the SIDs that it generates are unique.

Infrastructure Master Role


In a multidomain environment, it is common for an object to reference objects in other domains. For example, a group can include members from another domain. Its multivalued member attribute contains the distinguished names of each member. If the member in the other domain is moved or renamed, the infrastructure master of the groups domain updates the references to
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the object.

PDC Emulator Role


The PDC Emulator role performs multiple, crucial functions for a domain: Participates in special password update handling for the domain. When a user's password is reset or changed, the domain controller that makes the change replicates the change immediately to the PDC emulator. This special replication ensures that the domain controllers know about the new password as quickly as possible. Manages Group Policy updates within a domain. If you modify a GPO on two domain controllers at approximately the same time, there could be conflicts between the two versions that could not be reconciled as the GPO replicates. To avoid this situation, the PDC emulator acts as the default focal point for all Group Policy changes. Provides a master time source for the domain. Many Windows components and technologies rely on time stamps, so synchronizing time across all systems in a domain is crucial. The PDC emulator in the forest root domain is the time master for the entire forest, by default. The PDC emulator in each domain synchronizes its time with the forest root PDC emulator. Other domain controllers in the domain synchronize their clocks against that domains PDC emulator. All other domain members synchronize their time with their preferred domain controller. Acts as the domain master browser. When you open network in Windows, you see a list of workgroups and domains, and when you open a workgroup or domain, you see a list of computers. The browser service creates these two lists, called browse lists. In each network segment, a master browser creates the browse list: the lists of workgroups, domains, and servers in that segment. The domain master browser serves to merge the lists of each master browser so that browse clients can retrieve a comprehensive browse list.

Guidelines for Placing Operations Master Roles


Place the domain-level roles on a high-performance domain controller. Do not place the Infrastructure Master domain-level role on a global catalog server, except when your forest contains only one domain or all of the domain controllers in your forest also are global catalogs. Leave the two forest-level roles on a domain controller in the forest-root domain. Adjust the workload of the PDC emulator, if necessary, by offloading non-AD DS roles to other servers.

Note: You can view the assignment of operations master roles by running the following from a command prompt:

N e t d o mq u e r yf s m o

Managing AD DS Backup and Recovery

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In earlier Windows versions, backing up Active Directory involved creating a backup of the SystemState, which was a small collection of files that included the Active Directory database and the registry. In Windows Server 2012, the SystemState concept still exists, but it is much larger. Because of interdependencies between server roles, physical configuration, and Active Directory, the SystemState is now a subset of a Full Server backup and, in some configurations, might be just as big. To back up a domain controller, you must back up all critical volumes fully.

Restoring AD DS Data
When a domain controller or its directory is corrupted, damaged, or failed, you have several options with which to restore the system.

Nonauthoritative Restore
The first such option is called normal restore or nonauthoritative restore. In a normal restore operation, you restore a backup of Active Directory as of a known good date. Effectively, you roll the domain controller back in time. When AD DS restarts on the domain controller, the domain controller contacts its replication partners and requests all subsequent updates. Effectively, the domain controller catches up with the rest of the domain by using standard replication mechanisms. Normal restore is useful when the directory on a domain controller has been damaged or corrupted, but the problem has not spread to other domain controllers. What about a situation in which damage has been done, and the damage has been replicated? For example, what if you delete one or more objects, and that deletion has replicated? In such situations, a normal restore is not sufficient. If you restore a known good version of Active Directory and restart the domain controller, the deletion (which happened subsequent to the backup) will simply replicate back to the domain controller.

Authoritative Restore
When a known good copy of AD DS has been restored that contains objects that must override existing objects in the AD DS database, an authoritative restore is necessary. In an authoritative restore, you restore the known good version of Active Directory just as you do in a normal restore. However, before restarting the domain controller, you mark the accidentally deleted or previously corrupted objects that you wish to retain as authoritative so that they will replicate from the restored domain controller to its replication partners. Behind the scenes, when you mark objects as authoritative, Windows increments the version number of all object attributes to be so high that the version is virtually guaranteed to be higher than the version number on all other domain controllers. When the restored domain controller is restarted, it replicates from its replication partners all changes that have been made to the
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directory. It also notifies its partners that it has changes, and the version numbers of the changes ensure that partners take the changes and replicate them throughout the directory service. In forests with the Active Directory Recycle Bin enabled, you can use the Active Directory Recycle Bin as a more simple alternative to an authoritative restore.

Other Restore Options


The third option for restoring the directory service is to restore the entire domain controller. This is done by booting to the Windows Recovery Environment, and then restoring a full server backup of the domain controller. By default, this is a normal restore. If you also need to mark objects as authoritative, you must restart the server in the Directory Services Restore Mode and set those objects as authoritative prior to starting the domain controller into normal operation. Finally, you can restore a backup of the SystemState to an alternate location. This allows you to examine files and, potentially, to mount the NTDS.dit file. You should not copy the files from an alternate restore location over the production versions of those files. Do not do a piecemeal restore of Active Directory. You also can use this option if you want to use the Install From Media option for creating a new domain controller.

Lesson 5: Managing the AD DS Database


At the core of the AD DS environment is the AD DS database. The AD DS database contains all the critical information required to provide AD DS functionality. Maintaining this database properly is a critical aspect of AD DS management, and there are several tools and best practices of which you should be aware so that you can manage your AD DS database effectively. This lesson will introduce you to AD DS database management, and show you the tools and methods for maintaining it.

Lesson Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to: Explain the AD DS database architecture. Describe NTDSUtil. Explain restartable AD DS. Explain how to perform AD DS database management. Describe how to create AD DS snapshots. Explain how to restore deleted objects. Describe how to configure the Active Directory Recycle Bin.

Understanding the AD DS Database

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AD DS information is stored within the directory database. Each directory partition, also called a naming context, contains objects of a particular replication scope and purpose. There are three AD DS partitions on each domain controller, as follows: Domain. The Domain partition contains all the objects stored in a domain, including users, groups, computers, and Group Policy containers (GPCs). Configuration. The Configuration partition contains objects that represent the logical structure of the forest, including information about domains, as well as the physical topology, including sites, subnets, and services. Schema. The Schema partition defines the object classes and their attributes for the entire directory.

Domain controllers also can host application partitions. You can use application partitions to limit replication of applicationspecific data to a subset of domain controllers. Active Directory integrated DNS is a common example of an application that takes advantage of application partitions. Each domain controller maintains a copy, or replica, of several partitions. The Configuration is replicated to every domain controller in the forest, as is the Schema. The Domain partition for a domain is replicated to all domain controllers within a domain, but not to domain controllers in other domains, with the exception of global catalog servers. Therefore, each domain controller has at least three replicas: the Domain partition for its domain, Configuration, and Schema.

AD DS Database Files
The AD DS database is stored as a file named NTDS.dit. When you install and configure AD DS, you can specify the location of the file. The default location is %systemroot%\NTDS. Within NTDS.dit are all of the partitions hosted by the domain controller: the forest schema and configuration; the domain-naming context; and, depending on the server configuration, the partial attribute set and application partitions. In the NTDS folder, there are other files that support the Active Directory database. The Edb*.log files are the transaction logs for Active Directory. When a change must be made to the directory, it is first written to the log file. The change is committed to the directory as a transaction. If the transaction fails, it can be rolled back. The following table describes the different file level components of the AD DS database.

File
NTDS.dit

Description
Main AD DS database file

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Contains all AD DS partitions and objects

EDB*.log EDB.chk Edbres00001.jrs Edbres00002.jrs

Transaction log(s) Database checkpoint file Reserve transaction log file that allows the directory to process transactions if the server runs out of disk space

AD DS Database Modifications and Replication


Under normal operations, the transaction log wraps around, with new transactions overwriting old transactions that had already been committed. However, if a large number of transactions are made within a short period of time, AD DS creates additional transaction log files, so you may see several EDB*.log files if you look in the NTDS folder of a particularly busy domain controller. Over time, those files are removed automatically. The EDB.chk file acts like a bookmark into the log files, marking the location before which transactions have been successfully committed to the database, and after which transactions remain to be committed. If a disk drive runs out of space, it is highly problematic for the server. It is even more problematic if that disk is hosting the AD DS database, because transactions that may be pending cannot be written to the logs. Therefore, AD DS maintains two additional log files, edbres0001.jrs and edbres0002.jrs. These are empty files of 10 megabytes (MB) each. When a disk runs out of space for normal transaction logs, AD DS recruits the space used by these two files to write the transactions that are in a queue currently. After that, it safely shuts down AD DS services, and dismounts the database. Of course, it will be important for an administrator to remediate the issue of low disk space as quickly as possible. The file simply provides a temporary solution to prevent the directory service from refusing new transactions.

What Is NTDSUtil?

NTDSUtil is a command-line executable that you can use to perform database maintenance, including the creation of snapshots, offline defragmentation, and the relocation of the database files. You also can use NTDSUtil to clean up domain controller metadata. If a domain controller is removed from the domain while offline, it is unable to remove important information from the directory service. You can then use NTDSUtil to clean out the remnants of the domain controller, and it is very important that you do so. NTDSUtil can also reset the password used to log on to the Directory Services Restore Mode. This password is initially configured during the configuration of a domain controller. If you forget the password, the NTDSUtil set dsrm command can reset it.

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Understanding Restartable AD DS

In most scenarios where AD DS management is required, you should restart the domain controller in Directory Services Restore mode. Windows Server 2012 enables administrators to stop and start AD DS just like any other service, and without restarting a domain controller, to perform some management tasks quickly. This feature is called Restartable Active Directory Domain Services. Restartable AD DS reduces the time required to perform certain operations. You can stop AD DS so that you can apply updates to a domain controller. Also, administrators can stop AD DS to perform tasks such as offline defragmentation of the Active Directory database, without restarting the domain controller. Other services that are running on the server and that do not depend on AD DS to function, such as Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), remain available to satisfy client requests while AD DS is stopped. Restartable AD DS is available by default on all domain controllers that run Windows Server 2012. There are no functional-level requirements or any other prerequisites for using this feature. Note: You cannot perform a system state restore of a domain controller while AD DS is stopped. To complete a system state restore of a domain controller, you need to start in Directory Services Restore Mode (DSRM). You can however perform an authoritative restore of Active Directory objects while AD DS is stopped by using Ntdsutil.exe.

Restartable AD DS adds minor changes to the existing Microsoft Management Console (MMC) snap-ins. A domain controller running Windows Server 2012 AD DS displays Domain Controller in the Services (Local) node of the Component Services snap-in and the Computer Management snap-in. Using the snap-in, an administrator can easily stop and restart AD DS the same way as any other service that is running locally on the server. Although stopping AD DS is similar to logging on in Directory Services Restore Mode, restartable AD DS provides a unique state, known as AD DS Stopped, for a domain controller that is running Windows Server 2012.

Domain Controller States


The three possible states for a domain controller running Windows Server 2012 are: AD DS Started. In this state, AD DS is started. The domain controller is able to perform AD DS related tasks normally. AD DS Stopped. In this state, AD DS is stopped. Although this mode is unique, the server has some characteristics of both a domain controller in DSRM and a domain-joined member server.
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DSRM. This mode (or state) allows standard AD DS administrative tasks.

With DSRM, the Active Directory database (Ntds.dit) on the local domain controller is offline. Another domain controller can be contacted for logon, if one is available. If no other domain controller can be contacted, by default you can do one of the following: Log on to the domain controller locally in DSRM by using the DSRM password. Restart the domain controller to log on with a domain account.

As with a member server, the server is joined to the domain. This means that Group Policy and other settings are still applied to the computer. However, a domain controller should not remain in the AD DS Stopped state for an extended period of time because in this state, it cannot service logon requests or replicate with other domain controllers.

Demonstration: Performing AD DS Database Maintenance


There are several tasks and related tools that you can use to perform AD DS database maintenance. This demonstration shows how to: Stop AD DS. Perform an offline defragmentation of the AD DS database. Check the integrity of the AD DS database. Start AD DS.

Demonstration Steps
Stop AD DS 1. 2. On LON-DC1, open the Services console. Stop the Active Directory Domain Services service.

Perform an offline defragmentation of the AD DS database Run the following commands from a Windows PowerShell prompt. Press Enter after each line:
n t d s u t i la c t i v a t ei n s t a n c eN T D Sf i l e sc o m p a c tt oC : \

Check the integrity of the offline database 1. Run the following commands from a Windows PowerShell prompt. Press Enter after each line:
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I n t e g r i t yq u i tQ u i t

2.

Close the command prompt window.

Start AD DS 1. 2. Open the Services console. Start the Active Directory Domain Services service.

Creating AD DS Snapshots

NTDSUtil in Windows Server 2012 can create and mount snapshots of AD DS. A snapshot is a form of historical backup that captures the exact state of the directory service at the time of the snapshot. You can use tools to explore the contents of a snapshot to examine the state of the directory service at the time the snapshot was made, or connect to a mounted snapshot with LDIFDE and export a reimport objects into AD DS.

Creating an AD DS Snapshot
To create a snapshot: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Open the command prompt. Type ntdsutil, and then press Enter. Type snapshot, and then press Enter. Type activate instance ntds, and then press Enter. Type create , and then press Enter. The command returns a message that indicates that the snapshot set was generated successfully. The GUID that is displayed is important for commands in later tasks. Make note of the GUID or, alternatively, copy it to the Clipboard. 8. Type quit, and then press Enter.

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Schedule snapshots of Active Directory regularly. You can use the Task Scheduler to execute a batch file by using the appropriate NTDSUtil commands.

Mounting an AD DS Snapshot
To view the contents of a snapshot, you must mount the snapshot as a new instance of AD DS. This is also accomplished with NTDSUtil. To mount a snapshot: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Open an elevated command prompt. Type ntdsutil, and then press Enter. Type activate instance ntds, and then press Enter. Type snapshot, and then press Enter. Type list all, and then press Enter. The command returns a list of all snapshots. Type mount {GUID}, where GUID is the GUID returned by the create snapshot command, and then press Enter. Type quit, and then press Enter. Type quit, and then press Enter.

10. Type dsamain -dbpath c:\$snap_datetime_volumec$\windows\ntds\ntds.dit -ldapport 50000, and then press Enter. 11. The port number, 50000, can be any open and unique TCP port number. 12. A message indicates that Active Directory Domain Services startup is complete. 13. Do not close the command prompt window and leave the command you just ran, Dsamain.exe , running while you continue to the next step.

Viewing an AD DS Snapshot
After the snapshot has been mounted, you can use tools to connect to and explore the snapshot. Even Active Directory Users and Computers can connect to the instance. To connect to a snapshot with Active Directory Users and Computers: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Open Active Directory Users and Computers. Right-click the root node, and then click Change Domain Controller. The Change Directory Server dialog box appears. Click <Type a Directory Server name[:port] here>. Type LON-DC1:50000, and then press Enter. LON-DC1 is the name of the domain controller on which you mounted the snapshot, and 50000 is the TCP port number that you configured for the instance. You now are connected to the snapshot.
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7.

Click OK.

Note that snapshots are read-only. You cannot modify the contents of a snapshot. Moreover, there are no direct methods with which to move, copy, or restore objects or attributes from the snapshot to the production instance of Active Directory.

Unmounting an AD DS Snapshot
To unmount the snapshot: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Switch to the command prompt in which the snapshot is mounted. Press Ctrl+C to stop DSAMain.exe . Type ntdsutil, and then press Enter. Type activate instance ntds, and then press Enter. Type snapshot, and then press Enter. Type unmount GUID, where GUID is the GUID of the snapshot, and then press Enter. Type quit, and then press Enter. Type quit, and then press Enter.

Understanding How to Restore Deleted Objects

When an object in AD DS is deleted, it is moved to the Deleted Objects container, and stripped of many important attributes. You can extend the list of attributes that remain when an object is deleted, but you can never retain linked attribute values (such as group membership). As long as the object has not yet been scavenged by the garbage collection process after reaching the end of its tombstone lifetime, you can restore or reanimate the deleted object. To restore a deleted object: 1. Click Start, and in the Start Search box, type LDP.exe , and then press Ctrl+Shift+Enter, which executes the command as an administrator.
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2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

The User Account Control dialog box appears. Click Use another account. In the User name box, type the user name of an administrator. In the Password box, type the password for the administrative account, and then press Enter. LDP opens. Click the Connection menu, click Connect, and then click OK. Click the Connection menu, click Bind, and then click OK. Click the Options menu, and then click Controls.

10. In the Load Predefined list, click Return Deleted Objects, and then click OK. 11. Click the View menu, click Tree , and then click OK. 12. Expand the domain, and then double-click CN=Deleted Objects,DC=contoso,DC=com. 13. Right-click the deleted object, and then click Modify. 14. In the Attribute box, type isDeleted. 15. In the Operation section, click Delete . 16. Press Enter. 17. In the Attribute box, type distinguishedName . 18. In the Values box, type the distinguished name of the object in the parent container or the OU into which you want the objects restoration to occur. For example, type the distinguished name of the object before it was deleted. 19. In the Operation section, click Replace . 20. Press Enter. 21. Select the Extended check box. 22. Click Run, click Close , and then close LDP. 23. Use Active Directory Users and Computers to repopulate the objects attributes, reset the password (for a user object), and enable the object (if disabled).

Configuring the Active Directory Recycle Bin

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In Windows 2012, the Active Directory Recycle Bin can be enabled to provide a simplified process for restoring deleted objects. This feature overcomes problems with authoritative restore or tombstone reanimation. The Active Directory Recycle Bin enables administrators to restore deleted objects with full functionality, without having to restore AD DS data from backups, and then restart AD DS or reboot domain controllers. Active Directory Recycle Bin builds on the existing tombstone reanimation infrastructure and enhances your ability to preserve and recover accidentally deleted Active Directory objects.

How Active Directory Recycle Bin Works


When you enable Active Directory Recycle Bin, all link-valued and nonlink-valued attributes of the deleted Active Directory objects are preserved, and the objects are restored in their entirety to the same consistent logical state that they were in immediately before deletion. For example, restored user accounts automatically regain all group memberships and corresponding access rights that they had immediately before deletion, within and across domains. Active Directory Recycle Bin works for both AD DS and Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS) environments. After you enable Active Directory Recycle Bin, when an Active Directory object is deleted, the system preserves all of the object's link-valued and non-link-valued attributes, and the object becomes logically deleted . A deleted object is moved to the Deleted Objects container, and its distinguished name is mangled. A deleted object remains in the Deleted Objects container in a logically deleted state throughout the duration of the deleted object lifetime. Within the deleted object lifetime, you can recover a deleted object with Active Directory Recycle Bin and make it a live Active Directory object again. The deleted object lifetime is determined by the value of the msDS-deletedObjectLifetime attribute. For an item deleted after the Active Directory Recycle Bin has been enabled (recycled object), the recycled object lifetime is determined by the value of the legacy tombstoneLifetime attribute. By default, msDS-deletedObjectLifetime is set to null. When msDSdeletedObjectLifetime is set to null, the deleted object lifetime is set to the value of the recycled object lifetime. By default, the recycled object lifetime, which is stored in the tombstoneLifetime attribute, is also set to null. When tombstoneLifetime is set to null, the recycled object lifetime defaults to 180 days. You can modify the values of the msDS-deletedObjectLifetime and tombstoneLifetime attributes anytime. When msDS-deletedObjectLife is set to some value other than null, it no longer assumes the value of tombstoneLifetime .

Enabling the Active Directory Recycle Bin


You can enable the Active Directory Recycle Bin only when the forest functional level is set to Windows Server 2008 R2 or higher. To enable the Active Directory Recycle Bin in Windows 2012, you can perform one the following: From the Active Directory module for Windows PowerShell prompt, use the Enable-ADOptionalFeature cmdlet.

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From Active Directory Administrative Center, select the domain, and then click Enable Active Directory Recycle Bin in the Tasks pane.

Only items deleted after the Active Directory Recycle Bin is turned on can be restored from the Active Directory Recycle Bin.

Restoring Items from the Active Directory Recycle Bin


In Windows Server 2012, the Active Directory Administrative Center provides a graphical interface for restoring AD DS objects that are deleted. When the Active Directory Recycle Bin has been enabled, the Deleted Objects container is visible in Active Directory Administrative Center. Deleted objects will be visible in this container until their deleted object lifetime period has expired. You can choose to restore the objects to their original location or to an alternate location within AD DS.

Lab: Maintaining AD DS
Scenario
A. Datum Corporation is a global engineering and manufacturing company with its head office in London, U.K.. An IT office and data center in London supports the head office and other locations. A. Datum recently deployed a Windows Server 2012 server and client infrastructure. A. Datum is making several organizational changes that require modifications to the AD DS infrastructure. A new location requires a secure method of providing onsite AD DS, and you have been asked to extend the capabilities of Active Directory Recycle Bin to the entire organization.

Virtual Machine(s)

20411B-LON-DC1 20411B-LON-SVR1

User Name Password

Administrator Pa$$w0rd

Objectives
After completing this lab, you will be able to: Install and configure a RODC. Configure and view Active Directory snapshots. Configure the Active Directory recycle bin.

Lab Setup
For this lab, you will use the available virtual machine environment. Before you begin the lab, you must complete the following steps: 1. On the host computer, click Start, point to Administrative Tools, and then click Hyper-V Manager.
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Module 3: Maintaining Active Directory Domain Services

2. 3. 4.

In Hyper-V Manager, click 20411B-LON-DC1, and in the Actions pane, click Start. In the Actions pane, click Connect. Wait until the virtual machine starts. Log on using the following credentials: a. b. c. User name: Administrator Password: Pa$$w0rd Domain: Adatum

5.

Repeat steps 2 through 4 for 20411B-LON-SVR1.

Exercise 1: Installing and Configuring a RODC


Scenario A. Datum is adding a new branch office. You have been asked to configure a RODC to service logon requests at the branch office. You also need to configure password policies that ensure caching only of passwords for local users in the branch office. The main tasks for this exercise are as follows: 1. 2. 3. Verify requirements for installing a RODC. Install an RODC. Configure a password-replication policy.

Task 1: Verify requirements for installing a RODC

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

On LON-DC1, from Server Manager, open Active Directory Users and Computers. In the properties of Adatum.com, verify that the forest functional level is at least Windows Server 2003. On LON-SVR1, open Server Manager, and verify whether the computer is a domain member. Use System Properties to place LON-SVR1 in a workgroup named TEMPORARY. Restart LON-SVR1. On LON-DC1, open Active Directory Users and Computers. Delete the LON-SVR1 computer account from the Computers container. In the Domain Controllers OU, precreate a RODC account by using default settings, except for the following: o o Computer name: LON-SVR1 Delegate to: ADATUM\IT

9.

Close Active Directory Users and Computers.

Task 2: Install an RODC


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Module 3: Maintaining Active Directory Domain Services

1. 2. 3.

Sign in to LON-SVR1 as Administrator with the password Pa$$w0rd. On LON-SVR1, add the Active Directory Domain Services Role . Complete the Active Directory Domain Services Installation Wizard by using default options except those listed below: o o o o o Domain: Adatum.com Network credentials: Adatum\April (a member of the IT group) Password for April: Pa$$w0rd Directory Services restore mode password: Pa$$w0rd Replicate from: LON-DC1.Adatum.com

4.

When installation is complete, restart LON-SVR1.

Task 3: Configure a password-replication policy

1. 2.

On LON-DC1, from Server Manager, open Active Directory Users and Computers. In the Users container, view the membership of the Allowed RODC Password Replication Group, and verify that there are no current members.

3. 4.

In the Domain Controllers OU, open the properties of LON-SVR1. On the Password Replication Policy tab, verify that the Allowed RODC Password Replication Group and Denied RODC Password Replication Group are listed.

5.

On LON-DC1, in Active Directory Users and Computers, in the Research OU, create a new group named Remote Office Users.

6. 7.

Add Aziz, Colin, Lukas, Louise , and LON-CL1 to the membership of Remote Office Users. On LON-DC1, in Active Directory Users and Computers, click the Domain Controllers OU, and then open the properties of LON-SVR1.

8. 9.

On the Password Replication Policy tab, allow the Remote Office Users group to replicate passwords to LON-SVR1. On LON-DC1, in Active Directory Users and Computers, in the Domain Controllers OU, open the properties of LON-SVR1.

10. On the Password Replication Policy tab, open the Advanced configuration. On the Resultant Policy tab, add Aziz, and then confirm that Azizs password can be cached. 11. Attempt to log on to LON-SVR1 as Aziz. This logon will fail because Aziz does not have permission to logon to the RODC, but authentication is performed and the credentials are cached. 12. On LON-DC1, in Active Directory Users and Computers, in the Domain Controllers OU, open the properties of LON-SVR1. 13. On the Password Replication Policy tab, open the Advanced configuration. 14. On the Policy Usage tab, select the Accounts that have been authenticated to this Read-only Domain Controller option. Notice that Azizs password has been cached. 15. On LON-DC1, in Active Directory Users and Computers, in the Domain Controllers OU, right-click LON-SVR1, and then
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Module 3: Maintaining Active Directory Domain Services

click Properties. 16. On the Password Replication Policy tab, open the Advanced configuration. 17. On the Policy Usage tab, prepopulate the password for Louise and LON-CL1. 18. Read the list of cached passwords, and then confirm that Louise and LON-CL1 have been added. 19. Close all open windows on LON-DC1.

Results: After completing this exercise, you will have installed and configured a RODC.

Exercise 2: Configuring AD DS snapshots


Scenario As part of the overall disaster recovery plan for A. Datum, you have been instructed to test the process for taking Active Directory snapshots and viewing them. If the process is successful, you will schedule them to occur on a regular basis to assist in the recovery of deleted or modified AD DS objects. The main tasks for this exercise are as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Create a snapshot of AD DS. Make a change to AD DS. Mount an Active Directory snapshot, and create a new instance. Explore a snapshot with Active Directory Users and Computers. Unmount an Active Directory snapshot.

Task 1: Create a snapshot of AD DS

1.

On LON-DC1, open a command prompt window, and then type the following commands each followed by Enter:
n t d s u t i ls n a p s h o ta c t i v a t ei n s t a n c en t d sc r e a t eq u i tQ u i t

2.

The command returns a message indicating that the snapshot set was generated successfully. The globally unique identifier (GUID) that displays is important for commands in later tasks. Make a note of the GUID or copy it to the Clipboard.

Task 2: Make a change to AD DS

1. 2.

On LON-DC1, open Server Manager. From Server Manager, open Active Directory Users and Computers.
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Module 3: Maintaining Active Directory Domain Services

3.

Delete Adam Barr's account from the Marketing OU.

Task 3: Mount an Active Directory snapshot, and create a new instance

1.

Open an administrative command prompt, and then type the following commands each followed by Enter:
n t d s u t i ls n a p s h o ta c t i v a t ei n s t a n c en t d sl i s ta l l

The command returns a list of all snapshots. 2. Type the following commands each followed by Enter: mount guid quit Quit Where guid is the GUID of the snapshot you created. 3. Use the snapshot to start an instance of Active Directory by typing the following command, all on one line, and then press Enter: dsamain /dbpath c:\$snap_datetime_volumec$\windows\ntds\ntds.dit /ldapport 50000 Note that datetime will be a unique value. There only should be one folder on your C:/ drive with a name that begins with $snap. A message indicates that AD DS startup is complete. Leave Dsamain.exe running, and do not close the command prompt.

Task 4: Explore a snapshot with Active Directory Users and Computers

1.

Switch to Active Directory Users and Computers. Right-click the root node of the snap-in, and then click Change Domain Controller. Type the directory server name and port LON-DC1:50000, and then press Enter. Click OK.

2.

Locate the Adam Barr user account object in the Marketing OU. Note that Adam Barr's object is displayed because the snapshot was taken prior to deleting it.

Task 5: Unmount an Active Directory snapshot

1. 2.

In the command prompt, press Ctrl+C to stop DSAMain.exe. Type the following commands:
n t d s u t i ls n a p s h o ta c t i v a t ei n s t a n c en t d sl i s ta l lu n m o u n tg u i dl i s ta l lq u i tQ u i t

Where guid is the GUID of the snapshot.

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Module 3: Maintaining Active Directory Domain Services

Results: After completing this exercise, you will have configured AD DS snapshots.

Exercise 3: Configuring the Active Directory Recycle Bin


Scenario As part of the Disaster Recovery plan for AD DS, you need to configure and test the Active Directory Recycle Bin to allow for object and container level recovery. The main tasks for this exercise are as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. Enable the Active Directory Recycle Bin. Create and delete test users. Restore the deleted users. To prepare for the next module.

Task 1: Enable the Active Directory Recycle Bin

1. 2. 3.

On LON-DC1, from Server Manager, open Active Directory Administrative Center. Enable the Recycle Bin. Press F5 to refresh Active Directory Administrative Center.

Task 2: Create and delete test users

1.

In Active Directory Administrative Center, create the following users in the Research OU. Give each a password of Pa$$w0rd: o o Test1 Test2

2.

Delete the Test1 and Test2 accounts.

Task 3: Restore the deleted users

1. 2. 3. 4.

In Active Directory Administrative Center, navigate to the Deleted Objects folder for the Adatum domain. Restore Test1 to its original location. Restore Test2 to the IT OU. Confirm that Test1 is now located in the Research OU and that Test2 is in the IT OU.

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Module 3: Maintaining Active Directory Domain Services

To prepare for the next module

When you finish the lab, revert the virtual machines to their initial state.

Results: After completing this exercise, you will have configured the Active Directory Recycle Bin.

Module Review and Takeaways


Best Practices for Administering AD DS
Do not virtualize all domain controllers on the same hypervisor host or server. Virtual machine snapshots provide an excellent reference point or quick recovery method, but you should not use them as a replacement for regular backups. They also will not allow you to recover objects by reverting to an older snapshot. Use RODCs when physical security makes a writable domain controller unfeasible. Use the best tool for the job. Active Directory Users and Computers is the most commonly used tool for managing AD DS, but it is not always the best. You can use Active Directory Administrative Center for performing large-scale tasks or those tasks that involve multiple objects. You also can use the Active Directory module for Windows PowerShell to create reusable scripts for frequently repeated administrative tasks. Enable Active Directory Recycle Bin if your forest functional level supports the functionality. It can be invaluable in saving time when recovering accidentally deleted objects in AD DS.

Tools
Tool
Hyper-V Manager Active Directory module for Windows PowerShell Active Directory Users and Computers Active Directory Administrative Center

Used for
Managing virtualized hosts on Windows Server 2012 Managing AD DS through scripts and from the command line Managing objects in AD DS Managing objects in AD DS, enabling and managing the Active Directory Recycle Bin

Where to find it
Server Manager - Tools Server Manager - Tools Server Manager Tools Server Manager - Tools

Ntdsutil.exe Dsamain.exe

Managing AD DS snapshots Mounting AD DS snapshots for browsing

Command prompt Command prompt

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Lab Answer Key: Module 3: Maintaining Active Directory Domain Services Lab: Maintaining AD DS
Exercise 1: Installing and Configuring a RODC
Task 1: Verify requirements for installing a RODC

1. 2.

On LON-DC1, in Server Manager, click Tools, and then click Active Directory Users and Computers. In Active Directory Users and Computers, in the navigation pane, right-click the Adatum.com domain, and then click Raise domain functional level.

3.

In the Raise domain functional level window, confirm that the Current domain functional level is set to Windows Server 2008 R2. The minimum level for RODC support is Windows Server 2003. Click Cancel.

4. 5. 6. 7.

Switch to LON-SVR1. On LON-SVR1, in Server Manager, click Local Server, and then click LON-SVR1 beside Computer name . In the System Properties window, click Change . In the Computer Name/Domain Changes window, click the Workgroup radio button, type TEMPORARY into the Workgroup field, and then click OK.

8. 9.

In the Computer Name/Domain Changes window, click OK. Click OK twice to confirm the name change and pending server restart.

10. In the System Properties window, click Close . 11. In the Microsoft Windows window, click Restart Now . 12. Switch to LON-DC1. 13. On LON-DC1, in Active Directory Users and Computers, in the navigation pane, expand Adatum.com, and then click Computers. 14. Right-click LON-SVR1, and then click Delete . 15. Click Yes twice. 16. In Active Directory Users and Computers, right-click Domain Controllers, and then click Pre-create Read-only Domain Controller account. 17. In the Active Directory Domain Services Installation Wizard window, click Next. 18. Click Next to accept the current credentials. 19. In the Computer name field, type LON-SVR1, and then click Next. 20. On the Select a site page, click Next. 21. On the Additional Domain Controller Options page, click Next. 22. On the Delegation of RODC Installation and Administration page, type Adatum\IT in the Group or user field, and then

click Next. 23. On the Summary page, click Next. 24. Click Finish to complete the wizard. 25. Close Active Directory Users and Computers.

Task 2: Install an RODC

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Log on to LON-SVR1 as Administrator with the password Pa$$w0rd. On LON-SVR1, in Server Manager, click Manage , and then click Add Roles and Features. In the Add Roles and Features Wizard, click Next. Ensure that Role-based or feature-based installation is selected, and then click Next. Select LON-SVR1, and then click Next. On the Select server roles page, select the check box to select Active Directory Domain Services, click Add Features, and then click Next.

7. 8. 9.

On the Select features page, click Next. Click Next, and then click Install to continue the installation. When the installation completes, click Close .

10. In Server Manager, click the Notifications icon, and then click Promote this server to a domain controller. 11. In the Deployment Configuration window, beside Domain, click Select. 12. In the Windows Security window, type Adatum\April for User name and Pa$$w0rd as a password, and then click OK. 13. In the Select a domain from the forest window, click Adatum.com, and then click OK. 14. In the Deployment Configuration window, click Next. 15. On the Domain Controller Options screen, under Type the Directory Services Restore Mode (DSRM) password, type Pa$$w0rd in the Password and Confirm password fields, and then click Next. 16. On the Additional Options page, beside Replicate from, click the drop-down box, click LON-DC1.Adatum.com, and then click Next. 17. On the Paths page, click Next. 18. On the Review Options page, click Next. 19. On the Prerequisites Check page, click Install. 20. After the Active Directory Domain Services Wizard has completed, LON-SVR1 will restart.

Task 3: Configure a password-replication policy

Configure password-replication groups

1. 2.

On LON-DC1, in Server Manager, click Tools, and then click Active Directory Users and Computers. In the Active Directory Users and Computers window, click the Users container, double-click Allowed RODC Password Replication Group, click the Members tab, and then verify that there is nothing listed.

3. 4.

Click OK. In Active Directory Users and Computers, click the Domain Controllers OU, right-click LON-SVR1, and then click Properties.

5.

Click the Password Replication Policy tab, and confirm that Allowed RODC Password Replication Group and Denied RODC Password Replication Policy Group are both listed.

6.

Click OK.

Create a group to manage password replication to the remote office RODC 1. 2. On LON-DC1, in Active Directory Users and Computers, right-click the Research OU, click New , and then click Group. In the New Object Group window, type Remote Office Users in the Group name field, confirm that Global and Security are selected, and then click OK. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. In Active Directory Users and Computers, click the Research OU, and then double-click the Remote Office Users group. In the Remote Office Users Properties window, click the Members tab. Click Add, type Aziz; Colin; Lukas; Louise and then click Check Names. Click Object Types, select Computers, and then click OK. In the Enter the object names to select field, type LON-CL1, click Check names, and then click OK. Click OK to the close the Remote Office Users Properties window.

Configure a password-replication policy for the remote office RODC

1.

On LON-DC1, in Active Directory Users and Computers, click the Domain Controllers OU, right-click LON-SVR1, and then click Properties.

2. 3.

In the LON-SVR1 Properties window, click the Password Replication Policy tab, and then click Add. In the Add Groups, Users, and Computers window, click the radio button to select Allow passwords for the account to replicate to this RODC, and then click OK.

4.

In the search window, in the Enter the object names to select field, type Remote Office Users, click Check Names, and then click OK.

5.

In the LON-SVR1 Properties window, click Apply, and do not close the window.

Evaluate the resulting password-replication policy

1.

On LON-DC1, in the LON-SVR1 Properties window, on the Password Replication Policy tab, click Advanced.

2. 3. 4.

Click the Resultant Policy tab, click Add, type Aziz, click Check Names, and then click OK. Confirm that the Resultant Setting for Aziz is Allow . Click Close , and then click OK to close the LON-SVR1 Properties dialog box.

Monitor credential caching 1. 2. Switch to LON-SVR1. Attempt to sign in as Adatum\Aziz with the password Pa$$w0rd. The sign in will fail, because Aziz does not have permission to sign in to LON-SVR1. However, the credentials for Azizs account were processed and cached on LON-SVR1. 3. 4. Switch to LON-DC1. In Active Directory Users and Computers, click the Domain Controllers OU, double-click LON-SVR1, and then click the Password Replication Policy tab. 5. On the Password Replication Policy tab, click Advanced. Notice that Azizs accounts password has been stored on LONSVR1. 6. Click Close , and then click OK.

Prepopulate credential caching

1.

On LON-DC1, in Active Directory Users and Computers, click the Domain Controllers OU, double-click LON-SVR1, and then click the Password Replication Policy tab.

2. 3. 4. 5.

On the Password Replication Policy tab, click Advanced, and then click Prepopulate Passwords. Type Louise; LON-CL1, click Check names, click OK, and then click Yes. Click OK, and confirm that Louise and LON-CL1 have both been added to the list of accounts with cached credentials. Close all open windows on LON-DC1.

Results: After completing this exercise, you will have installed and configured a RODC.

Exercise 2: Configuring AD DS snapshots


Task 1: Create a snapshot of AD DS

1. 2. 3.

On LON-DC1, move your mouse to the bottom left corner, and then click the Start charm. From the Start screen, type cmd, and then press Enter. At the command prompt, type the following, and then press Enter:
n t d s u t i l

4.

At the command prompt, type the following, and then press Enter:
s n a p s h o t

5.

At the command prompt, type the following, and then press Enter:
a c t i v a t ei n s t a n c en t d s

6.

At the command prompt, type the following, and then press Enter:
c r e a t e

Either make note of the GUID number that the command returns, or copy the GUID to the clipboard. 7. After the snapshot is created, at the command prompt, type the following, and then press Enter:
q u i t

8.

At the command prompt, type the following, and then press Enter:
q u i t

Task 2: Make a change to AD DS

1. 2. 3.

On LON-DC1, open Server Manager, click Tools, and then click Active Directory Users and Computers. In Active Directory Users and Computers, double-click the Marketing OU, right-click Adam Barr, and then click Delete . Click Yes to confirm the deletion.

Task 3: Mount an Active Directory snapshot, and create a new instance

1. 2. 3.

On LON-DC1, move your mouse to the bottom left corner, and click the Start charm. On the Start screen, type cmd, right-click the Command Prompt, and then click Run as Administrator. At the command prompt, type the following, and then press Enter:
n t d s u t i l

4.

At the command prompt, type the following, and then press Enter:
s n a p s h o t

5.

At the command prompt, type the following, and then press Enter:
a c t i v a t ei n s t a n c en t d s

6.

At the command prompt, type the following, and then press Enter:
l i s ta l l

7.

At the command prompt, type the following, and then press Enter: mount <GUID> Where <GUID> is the GUID returned by the Create command in Task 1.

8.

At the command prompt, type the following, and then press Enter:
q u i t

9.

At the command prompt, type the following, and then press Enter:
q u i t

10. At the command prompt, type the following, and then press Enter: dsamain /dbpath C:\$SNAP_datetime_volumec$\windows\ntds\ntds.dit /ldapport 50000 Note that datetime will be a unique value. There only should be one folder on your C:\ drive with a name that begins with $snap. A message indicates that Active Directory Domain Services startup is complete. Leave Dsamain.exe running, and do not close the command prompt.

Task 4: Explore a snapshot with Active Directory Users and Computers

1.

Switch to Active Directory Users and Computers. Right-click the root node of the snap-in, and then click Change Domain Controller.

2. 3. 4.

Click <Type a Directory Server name[:port] here>, type LON-DC1:50000, and then press Enter. Click OK. In the navigation pane, double-click Adatum.com. In the navigation pane, double-click the Marketing OU.

5.

Locate the Adam Barr user account object. Note that the Adam Barr object is displayed because the snapshot was taken prior to deleting it.

Task 5: Unmount an Active Directory snapshot

1. 2.

In the command prompt, press Ctrl+C to stop DSAMain.exe. Type the following commands:
n t d s u t i ls n a p s h o ta c t i v a t ei n s t a n c en t d sl i s ta l lu n m o u n tg u i dl i s ta l lq u i tQ u i t

Where guid is the GUID of the snapshot.

Results: After completing this exercise, you will have configured AD DS snapshots.

Exercise 3: Configuring the Active Directory Recycle Bin


Task 1: Enable the Active Directory Recycle Bin

1. 2. 3.

On LON-DC1, in Server Manager, click Tools, and then click Active Directory Administrative Center. Click Adatum (local). In the Tasks pane, click Enable Recycle Bin, click OK on the warning message box, and then click OK to the refresh Active Directory Administrative Center message.

4.

Press F5 to refresh Active Directory Administrative Center.

Task 2: Create and delete test users

1. 2. 3.

In Active Directory Administrative Center, double-click the Research OU. In the Task pane, click New , and then click User. Enter the following information under Account, and then click OK: o o o o Full name: Test1 User UPN logon: Test1 Password: Pa$$w0rd Confirm password: Pa$$w0rd

4. 5.

Repeat the previous steps to create a second user, Test2. Select both Test1 and Test2. Right-click the selection, and then click Delete .

6.

Click Yes at the confirmation prompt.

Task 3: Restore the deleted users

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

In Active Directory Administrative Center, click Adatum (Local), and then double-click Deleted Objects. Right-click Test1, and then click Restore . Right-click Test2, and then click Restore To. In the Restore To window, click the IT OU, and then click OK. Confirm that Test1 is now located in the Research OU and that Test2 is in the IT OU.

To prepare for the next module

When you finish the lab, revert the virtual machines to their initial state by completing the following steps:

1. 2. 3. 4.

On the host computer, start Hyper-V Manager. In the Virtual Machines list, right-click 20411B-LON-DC1, and then click Revert. In the Revert Virtual Machine dialog box, click Revert. Repeat steps 2 and 3 for 20411B-LON-SVR1.

Results: After completing this exercise, you will have configured the Active Directory Recycle Bin.

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Module 4: Managing User and Service Accounts

Module 4: Managing User and Service Accounts Contents:


Module Overview Lesson 1: Lesson 2: Lesson 3: Lab: Automating User Account Management Configuring Password-Policy and User-Account Lockout Settings Configuring Managed Service Accounts Managing User and Service Accounts Module Review and Takeaways

Module Overview
Managing user accounts in an enterprise environment can be a challenging task. You must ensure that you configure the user accounts in your environment properly, and that you protect them from unauthorized use and from users who abuse their account privileges. Using dedicated service accounts for system services and background processes, as well as setting appropriate account policies, will help to ensure that your Windows Server 2012 environment gives users and applications the access they need to function properly. This module will help you to understand how to manage large groups of user accounts, explain the different options available for providing adequate password security for accounts in your environment, and show you how to configure accounts to provide authentication for system services and background processes.

Objectives
After completing this module, you will be able to: Automate user account creation. Configure password-policy and account-lockout settings. Configure managed service accounts.

Lesson 1 : Automating User Account Management


Active Directory Users and Computers and the Active Directory Administrative Center provide graphical user interfaces (GUIs) for creating one or more user accounts. While the interface that these tools provide is easy to navigate, creating multiple users or performing modifications for multiple users can be cumbersome. Windows Server 2012 contains a number of tools that enable you to manage user accounts more efficiently in your Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) domain. This lesson introduces tools that allow you to perform tasks such as changing user attributes for many users, searching for users, and importing and exporting users to and from external data sources or directories.

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Module 4: Managing User and Service Accounts

Lesson Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to: Explain how to export users by using the Comma-Separated Values Data Exchange tool. Explain how to import users by using the Comma-Separated Values Data Exchange tool. Describe how to import user accounts by using the LDAP Data Interchange Format (LDIFDE) Internet standard. Explain how to import user accounts by using Windows PowerShell.

Demonstration: Exporting Users Accounts with Comma-Separated Values Data Exchange Tool
Comma-Separated Values Data Exchange tool is a command-line tool that exports or imports AD DS objects to or from a comma-delimited text file, which also is known as a comma-separated value text file or .csv file. You can create, modify, and open comma-delimited files by using familiar tools such as Notepad and Microsoft Office Excel. Additionally, you can use these files to export information from AD DS, for use in other areas of your organization, or you can use them to import information from other sources for use in creating or modifying your domains AD DS objects. The following is the basic syntax of the Comma-Separated Values Data Exchange tool command for export:

c s v d eff i l e n a m e

However, this command will export all objects in your Active Directory domain. You will want to limit the scope of the export, which you can do with the following four parameters: -d RootDN. Specifies the distinguished name of the container from which the export will begin. The default is the domain itself. -p SearchScope. Specifies the scope of the search relative to the container specified by -d. SearchScope can be either base (this object only), onelevel (objects within this container), or subtree (this container and all subcontainers). The default is subtree. -r Filter. Filters the objects returned within the scope configured by -d and -p. Filter is specified in Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) query syntax. You will work with a filter in the lab for this lesson. The LDAP query syntax is beyond the scope of this course. For more information, see http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=168752. -l ListOfAttributes. Specifies the attributes that will be exported. Use the LDAP name for each attribute, separated by a comma, as in
lD N , o b j e c t C l a s s , s A M A c c o u n t N a m e , s n , g i v e n N a m e , u s e r P r i n c i p a l N a m e

The output of a Comma-Separated Values Data Exchange tool export lists the LDAP attribute names on the first line. Each object follows, one per line, and must contain exactly the attributes listed on the first line, as illustrated in the following examples:

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D N , o b j e c t C l a s s , s n , g i v e n N a m e , s A M A c c o u n t N a m e , u s e r P r i n c i p a l N a m e" C N = D a v i d J o n e s , O U = E m p l o y e e s , O U = U s e r A c c o u n t s , D C = c o n t o s o , D C = c o m " , u s e r , J o n e s , D a v i d , d a v i d . j o n e s , d a v i d . j o n e s @ c o n t o s o . c o m" C N = L i s a A n d r e w s , O U = E m p l o y e e s , O U = U s e r A c c o u n t s , D C = c o n t o s o , D C = c o m " , u s e r , A n d r e w s , L i s a , l i s a . a n d r e w s , l i s a . a n d r e w s @ c o n t o s o . c o m

In this demonstration, you will see how to: Export user accounts with Comma-Separated Values Data Exchange tool.

Demonstration Steps
1. 2. On LON-DC1, open a command prompt. In the command prompt window, type the following command, and then press Enter:
c s v d efE : \ L a b f i l e s \ M o d 0 4 \ U s e r s N a m e d R e x . c s vr" ( n a m e = R e x * ) "l D N , o b j e c t C l a s s , s A M A c c o u n t N a m e , s n , g i v e n N a m e , u s e r P r i n c i p a l N a m e

3. 4. 5.

Open E:\LABFILES\Mod04\UsersNamedRex.csv in Notepad. Examine the file, and then close Notepad. Close all open windows on LON-DC1.

Demonstration: Importing User Accounts with the Comma-Separated Values Data Exchange Tool
You also can use Comma-Separated Values Data Exchange tool to create user accounts by importing a .csv file. If you have user information in existing Excel or Microsoft Office Access databases, you will find that Comma-Separated Values Data Exchange tool is a powerful way to take advantage of that information to automate user account creation. The following is the basic syntax of the Comma-Separated Values Data Exchange tool command for import:

c s v d eiff i l e n a m ek

The i parameter specifies import mode. Without this parameter, the default mode of the Comma-Separated Values Data Exchange tool is export. The f parameter identifies the file name to import from or export to. The k parameter is useful during import operations because it instructs the Comma-Separated Values Data Exchange tool to ignore errors, including Object Already Exists. The import file itself is a comma-delimited text file (.csv or .txt) in which the first line defines the imported attributes by their LDAP attribute names. Each object follows, one per line, and must contain exactly the attributes listed on the first line, for example, a sample file will be as follows:
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D N , o b j e c t C l a s s , s n , g i v e n N a m e , s A M A c c o u n t N a m e , u s e r P r i n c i p a l N a m e" C N = D a v i d J o n e s , O U = E m p l o y e e s , O U = U s e r A c c o u n t s , D C = c o n t o s o , D C = c o m " , u s e r , J o n e s , D a v i d , d a v i d . j o n e s , d a v i d . j o n e s @ c o n t o s o . c o m" C N = L i s a A n d r e w s , O U = E m p l o y e e s , O U = U s e r A c c o u n t s , D C = c o n t o s o , D C = c o m " , u s e r , A n d r e w s , L i s a , l i s a . a n d r e w s , l i s a . a n d r e w s @ c o n t o s o . c o m

This file, when imported by the Comma-Separated Values Data Exchange tool command, will create a user object for Lisa Andrews in the Employees organizational unit (OU). The file configures the user logon names, last name and first name. You cannot use the Comma-Separated Values Data Exchange tool to import passwords. Without a password, the user account will be disabled initially. After you have reset the password, you can enable the object in AD DS. In this demonstration, you will see how to: Import user accounts with the Comma-Separated Values Data Exchange tool.

Demonstration Steps
1. On LON-DC1, open E:\Labfiles\Mod04\NewUsers.csv with Notepad. Examine the information about the users listed in the file. 2. Open a command prompt, type the following command, and then press Enter:
c s v d eifE : \ L a b f i l e s \ M o d 0 4 \ N e w U s e r s . c s vk

3. 4.

From Server Manager, open Active Directory Users and Computers, and confirm that the users were created successfully. Examine the accounts to confirm that first name, last name, user principal name, and pre-Windows 2000 logon name are populated according to the instructions in NewUsers.csv.

5. 6. 7.

Reset the passwords of the two accounts to Pa$$w0rd. Enable the two accounts. Close all open windows on LON-DC1.

Demonstration: Importing User Accounts with LDIFDE


You can also use LDIFDE.exe to import or export Active Directory objects, including users. LDPA Interchange Format (LDIF) is a standard file format that you can use to store information and perform batch operations against directories that conform to the LDAP standards. LDIF supports both import and export operations, and batch operations that modify objects in the directory. The LDIFDE command implements these batch operations by using LDIF files. The LDIF file format consists of a block of lines, which together constitute a single operation. Multiple operations in a single file are separated by a blank line. Each line, comprising an operation, consists of an attribute name followed by a colon and the value of the attribute. For example, suppose you wanted to import user objects for two sales representatives named Bonnie Kearney and Bobby Moore. The contents of the LDIF file would look similar to the following example:
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d n :C N = B o n n i eK e a r n e y , O U = E m p l o y e e s , O U = U s e rA c c o u n t s , D C = c o n t o s o , D C = c o mc h a n g e t y p e :a d d o b j e c t C l a s s :t o po b j e c t C l a s s :p e r s o no b j e c t C l a s s :o r g a n i z a t i o n a l P e r s o no b j e c t C l a s s :u s e rc n : B o n n i eK e a r n e ys n :K e a r n e yt i t l e :O p e r a t i o n sd e s c r i p t i o n :O p e r a t i o n s( L o n d o n )g i v e n N a m e : B o n n i ed i s p l a y N a m e :K e a r n e y ,B o n n i ec o m p a n y :C o n t o s o ,L t d .s A M A c c o u n t N a m e :b o n n i e . k e a r n e y u s e r P r i n c i p a l N a m e :b o n n i e . k e a r n e y @ c o n t o s o . c o mm a i l :b o n n i e . k e a r n e y @ c o n t o s o . c o md n :C N = B o b b y M o o r e , O U = E m p l o y e e s , O U = U s e rA c c o u n t s , D C = c o n t o s o , D C = c o mc h a n g e t y p e :a d do b j e c t C l a s s :t o p o b j e c t C l a s s :p e r s o no b j e c t C l a s s :o r g a n i z a t i o n a l P e r s o no b j e c t C l a s s :u s e rc n :B o b b yM o o r es n : M o o r et i t l e :L e g a ld e s c r i p t i o n :L e g a l( N e wY o r k )g i v e n N a m e :B o b b yd i s p l a y N a m e :M o o r e ,B o b b y c o m p a n y :C o n t o s o ,L t d .s A M A c c o u n t N a m e :b o b b y . m o o r eu s e r P r i n c i p a l N a m e :b o b b y . m o o r e @ c o n t o s o . c o m m a i l :b o b b y . m o o r e @ c o n t o s o . c o m

Each operation begins with the domain-name (DN)attribute of the object that is the operations target. The next line, changeType, specifies the type of operation: add, modify, or delete. As you can see, the LDIF file format is not as intuitive or familiar as the comma-separated text format. However, because the LDIF format also is a standard, many directory services and databases can export LDIF files. After creating or obtaining an LDIF file, you can perform the operations that the file specifies, by using the LDIFDE command. From a command prompt, type ldifde /? for usage information. The two most important switches for the LDIFDE command are: i. Turns on import mode. Without this parameter, LDIFDE exports information. f filename. The file from which to import, or to which to export.

In this demonstration, you will see how to: Import user accounts with LDIFDE.

Demonstration Steps
1. 2. Open E:\Labfiles\Mod04\NewUsers.ldf with Notepad. Examine the information about the users that is listed in the file. Open a command prompt, type the following command, and then press Enter:
l d i f d eifE : \ L a b f i l e s \ M o d 0 4 \ N e w U s e r s . l d fk

3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Open Active Directory Users and Computers, and then confirm that the users were created successfully. Examine the accounts to confirm that user properties are populated according to the instructions in NewUsers.ldf. Reset the passwords of the two accounts to Pa$$w0rd. Enable the two accounts. Close all open windows on LON-DC1. Question: What advantages does LDIFDE have over the Comma-Separated Values Data Exchange tool when managing user accounts in an AD DS environment?

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Demonstration: Importing User Accounts with Windows PowerShell


The Active Directory module for Windows PowerShell also can utilize the contents of a .csv file to import objects into AD DS. Two cmdlets are used to perform this task: Import-CSV. This cmdlet creates objects from .csv files that can then be piped into other Windows PowerShell cmdlets. New-ADUser. This cmdlet is used to create the objects that have been imported from the Import-CSV cmdlet.

In this demonstration, you will see how to: Import user accounts with Windows PowerShell.

Demonstration Steps
1. On LON-DC1, from Server Manager, open Active Directory Users and Computers, and under Adatum.com, create a new OU named Import Users. 2. 3. 4. 5. Open E:\Labfiles\Mod04\ImportUsers.ps1 with Notepad. Examine the contents of the file. Next to $impfile , change path and filename to csv to E:\Labfiles\Mod04\ImportUsers.csv , and then save the file. Open the Active Directory Module for Windows PowerShell. Type the following commands, and then press Enter after each command. When prompted to change the execution policy, press enter to accept the default option of Y:
S e t E x e c u t i o n P o l i c yr e m o t e s i g n e dE : \ L a b f i l e s \ M o d 0 4 \ i m p o r t u s e r s . p s 1

6. 7.

At the password prompt, type Pa$$w0rd. Open Active Directory Users and Computers, and verify that the user accounts have been imported into the Import Users OU.

8.

Close all open windows on LON-DC1.

Lesson 2: Configuring Password-Policy and User-Account Lockout Settings


As an administrator, you must ensure that the user accounts in your environment conform to the security settings established by your organization. Window Server 2012 uses account policies to configure security-related settings for user accounts. This module will help you to identify the settings available for configuring account security and the methods available to configure those settings.

Lesson Objectives
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After this lesson, you will be able to: Explain user-account policies. Explain how to configure user-account policies. Describe password settings objects. Explain how to configure Password Settings Objects.

Understanding User-Account Policies

Account policies in AD DS define the default settings for security-related attributes assigned to user objects. In AD DS, account policies are separated into two different groups of settings: password policy and account lockout. You can configure both groups of settings in the local policy settings for an individual Windows Server 2012 server, or for the entire domain by using the Group Policy Management Console (GPMC) in AD DS. When settings between local policy and group policy conflict, group policy settings override local policy settings. In Group Policy Management within AD DS, most policy settings can be applied at different levels within the AD DS structure: domain, site, or OU. However, account policies can be applied only at one level in AD DSto the entire domain. Therefore, only one set of account policy settings can be applied to an AD DS domain.

Password Policy
You define the password policy by using the following settings: Enforce password history. This is the number of unique, new passwords that must be associated with a user account before an old password can be reused. The default setting is 24 previous passwords. When you use this setting with the minimum password-age setting, the enforce password history setting prevents constant reuse of the same password. Maximum password age. This is the number of days that a password can be used before the user must change it. Regularly changing passwords helps to prevent the compromise of passwords. However, you must balance this security consideration against the logistical considerations that result from requiring users to change passwords too often. The default setting of 42 days is probably appropriate for most organizations. Minimum password age. This is the number of days that a password must be used before the user can change it. The default value is one day, which is appropriate if you also enforce password history. You can restrict the constant use of the same password if you use this setting in conjunction with a short setting to enforce password history.
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Minimum password length. This is the minimum number of characters that a users password must contain. The default value is seven. This default is a widely used minimum, but you should consider increasing the password length to at least 10 to enhance security. Complexity requirements. Windows Server includes a default password filter that is enabled by default, and you should not disable it. The filter requires that a password have the following characteristics: o Does not contain your name or your user name o Contains at least six characters o Contains characters from three of the following four groups: Uppercase letters [AZ] Lowercase letters [az] Numerals [09] Special, nonalphanumeric characters, such as !@#)(*&^%

Account Lockout Policy


You can define thresholds for account lockout, duration of the lockout, and a way to unlock accounts. Thresholds for account lockout stipulate that accounts become inoperable after a certain number of failed logon attempts during a certain amount of time. Account-lockout policies help detect and prevent brute force attacks on account passwords. The following settings are available: Account lockout duration. Defines the number of minutes that a locked account remains locked. After the specified number of minutes, the account is unlocked automatically. To specify that an administrator must unlock the account, set the value to 0. Consider using fine-grained password policies to require administrators to unlock high security accounts, and then configuring this setting to 30 minutes for normal users. Account lockout threshold. Determines the number of failed logon attempts that are allowed before a user account is locked out. A value of 0 means that the account is never locked out. You should set this value high enough to allow for users who mistype their password, but low enough to help ensure that brute force attempts to guess the password fail. Common values for this setting range from three to five. Reset account lockout counter after. Determines how many minutes must elapse after a failed logon attempt before the bad logon counter is reset to 0. This setting applies when a user has typed in their password incorrectly, but they have not exceeded the account lockout threshold. Consider setting this value to 30 minutes.

Kerberos Policy
The Kerberos Policy configuration options contain settings for the Kerberos version 5 protocol Ticket Granting Ticket (TGT), and the session-ticket lifetimes and time-stamp settings. For most organizations, the default settings are appropriate.

Configuring User Account Policies

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There are several options available for configuring user-account policies when administering an AD DS environment.

Local Policy Settings with Secpol.msc


Each individual Windows Server 2012 computer has its own set of account policies, which apply to accounts created and managed on the local computer. To configure these policy settings, open the Local Security Policy console by running secpol.msc from the command prompt. The password-policy and account-policy settings can be located within the Local Security Policy Console by expanding Security Settings, and then expanding Account Policies.

Group Policy with Group Policy Management


In the AD DS domain environment, domain-wide account policy settings are configured within the Group Policy Management Console. The settings can be found in the Computer Configuration, by expanding the Policies node, expanding the under the Windows Settings node, expanding the Security Settings node, and then expanding the Account Policies node. The settings found within the Account Policies node are the same settings found in the Local Security Policy, with the addition of the Kerberos Policy settings that apply to domain authentication. The Group Policy Account Policy settings exist in the template of every Group Policy Object (GPO) created in the GPMC). However, you can apply an account policy only once in a domain and in only one GPO. This is the Default Domain Policy, and it links to the root of the AD DS domain. As such, the Account Policy settings in the Default Domain Policy apply to every computer that is joined to the domain. Note: If settings conflict between the account policy settings in the Local Security Policy and the account policy settings in the Default Domain Policy GPO, the Default Domain Policy settings take precedence.

Question: Why would you use secpol.msc to configure local account policy settings for a Windows Server 2012 computer instead of using domain- based Group Policy account-policy settings?

What Are Password Settings Objects?

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Starting with Windows Server 2008, administrators can define more than one password policy in a single domain by implementing fine-grained password policies. These enable you to have more granular control over user password requirements, and you can have different password requirements for different users or groups. To support the fine-grained password policy feature, AD DS in Windows Server 2008 and newer versions includes two object types: Password Setting Container. Windows Server creates this container by default, and you can view it in the domains System container. The container stores the Password Settings Objects that you create and link to global security groups or to users. Password Settings Objects. Members of the Domain Admins group create Password Settings Objects, and then define the specific password and account-lockout settings to be linked to a specific security group or user.

Fine-grained password policies apply only to user objects (or to inetOrgPerson objects, if you use those instead of user objects) and to global security groups. By linking a Password Settings Objects to a user or a group, youre modifying an attribute called msDS-PSOApplied, which is empty by default. This approach now treats password and account-lockout settings not as domainwide requirements, but as attributes to a specific user or a group. For example, to configure a strict password policy for administrative accounts, create a global security group, add the administrative user accounts as members, and link a Password Settings Object to the group. Applying fine-grained password policies to a group in this manner is more manageable than applying the policies to each individual user account. If you create a new service account, you simply add it to the group, and the account becomes managed by the Password Settings Object. By default, only members of the Domain Admins group can set fine-grained password policies. However, you also can delegate the ability to set these policies to other users.

Applying Fine-Grained Password Policies


You cannot apply a fine-grained password policy to an OU directly. To apply a fine-grained password policy to users of an OU, you can use a shadow group. A shadow group is a global security group that maps logically to an OU, and enforces a finegrained password policy. You can add an OUs users as members of the newly created shadow group, and then apply the finegrained password policy to this shadow group. If you move a user from one OU to another, you must update the membership of the corresponding shadow groups. The settings managed by fine-grained password policy are identical to those in the Password Policy and Accounts Policy nodes of a GPO. However, fine-grained password policies are neither implemented as part of Group Policy nor are they applied as part
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of a GPO. Instead, there is a separate class of object in Active Directory that maintains the settings for fine-grained password policythe PSO. You can create one or more PSOs in your domain. Each contains a complete set of password and lockout policy settings. A Password Settings Object is applied by linking the Password Settings Object to one or more global security groups or users. To use a fine-grained password policy, your domain functional level must be at least Windows Server 2008, which means that all of your domain controllers in the domain are running at least Windows Server 2008, and the domain functional level has been raised to at least Windows Server 2008. To confirm and modify the domain functional level: 1. 2. 3. Open Active Directory Domains and Trusts. In the console tree, expand Active Directory Domains and Trusts, and then expand the tree until you can see the domain. Right-click the domain, and then click Raise domain functional level.

Configuring Password Settings Objects

You can create and apply Password Settings Objects in the Windows Server 2012 environment by using either of the following tools: Active Directory Administrative Center Windows PowerShell

Configuring Password Settings Objects By Using Windows PowerShell


In Windows Server 2012, new Windows PowerShell cmdlets in the Active Directory module for Windows PowerShell can be used to create and manage Password Settings Objects in your domain. New-ADFineGrainedPasswordPolicy This cmdlet is used to create a new Password Settings Object, and define the Password Settings Object parameters. For example, the following command creates a new Password Settings Object named TestPwd, and then specifies its settings:

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N e w A D F i n e G r a i n e d P a s s w o r d P o l i c yT e s t P s w dC o m p l e x i t y E n a b l e d : $ t r u eL o c k o u t D u r a t i o n : " 0 0 : 3 0 : 0 0 "L o c k o u t O b s e r v a t i o n W i n d o w : " 0 0 : 3 0 : 0 0 "L o c k o u t T h r e s h o l d : " 0 "M a x P a s s w o r d A g e : " 4 2 . 0 0 : 0 0 : 0 0 "M i n P a s s w o r d A g e : " 1 . 0 0 : 0 0 : 0 0 "M i n P a s s w o r d L e n g t h : " 7 "P a s s w o r d H i s t o r y C o u n t : " 2 4 "P r e c e d e n c e : " 1 "R e v e r s i b l e E n c r y p t i o n E n a b l e d : $ f a l s eP r o t e c t e d F r o m A c c i d e n t a l D e l e t i o n : $ t r u e

Add-FineGrainedPasswordPolicySubject This cmdlet enable you to link a user or group to an existing Password Settings Object. For example, the following command links the TestPwd Password Settings Object to the AD DS group named group1:
A d d A D F i n e G r a i n e d P a s s w o r d P o l i c y S u b j e c tT e s t P s w dS u b j e c t sM a r k e t i n g

Configuring Password Settings Objects By Using Active Directory Administrative Center


The Active Directory Administrative Center provides a GUI for creating and managing Password Settings Objects. To manage Password Settings Objects in Active Directory Administrative Center, follow these steps: 1. 2. Open Active Directory Administrative Center. Click Manage , click Add Navigation Nodes, select the appropriate target domain in the Add Navigation Node dialog box, and then click OK. 3. In the Active Directory Administrative Center navigation pane, open the System container, and then click Password Settings Container. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. In the Tasks pane, click New , and then click Password Settings. Fill in or edit fields inside the property page to create a new Password Settings object. Under Directly Applies To, click Add, type Marketing, and then click OK. This associates the Password Policy object with the members of the global group that you created for the test environment. Click OK to submit the creation of the Password Settings Object.

Note: The Active Directory Administrative Center interface for Password Settings Object management uses the Windows PowerShell cmdlets mentioned previously to carry out the creation and management of Password Settings Objects.

Considerations for Configuring Password Settings Objects


It is possible for you to link more than one Password Settings Object to a user or a security group. You might do this if a user is a member of multiple security groups, which might each have an assigned Password Settings Object already, or if you assign multiple Password Settings Objects directly to a user object. In either case, it is important to understand that you can apply only one Password Settings Object as the effective password policy.

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If you assign multiple Password Settings Objects to a user or a group, the msDS-PasswordSettingsPrecedence attribute helps to determine the resultant Password Settings Object. A Password Settings Object with a lower value takes precedence over a Password Settings Object with a higher value. The following process describes how AD DS determines the resultant Password Settings Object if you link multiple Password Settings Objects to a user or a group: 1. Any Password Settings Object that you link directly to a user object is the resultant Password Settings Object. If you link multiple Password Settings Objects directly to the user object, the Password Settings Object with the lowest msDSPasswordSettingsPrecedence value is the resultant Password Settings Object. If two Password Settings Objects have the same precedence, the Password Settings Object with the mathematically smallest objectGUID is the resultant PSO. 2. If you do not link any Password Settings Objects directly to the user object, AD DS compares the Password Settings Objects for all global security groups that contain the user object. The Password Settings Object with the lowest msDSPasswordSettings Precedence value is the resultant Password Settings Object. If you apply multiple Password Settings Objects to the same user, and they have the same msDS-PasswordSettingsPrecedence value, AD DS applies the Password Settings Object with the mathematically smallest globally unique identifier (GUID). 3. If you do not link any Password Settings Objects to the user object, either directly or indirectly (through group membership), AD DS applies the Default Domain Policy.

All user objects contain a new attribute called msDS-ResultantPSO. You can use this attribute to help determine the distinguished name of the Password Settings Object that AD DS applies to the user object. If you do not link a Password Settings Object to the user object, this attribute does not contain any value and the Default Domain Policy GPO contains the effective password policy. To view the effect of a policy that AD DS is applying to a user, open Active Directory Users and Computers, and then, on the View menu, ensure that Advanced Features is enabled. Then open the properties of a user account. You can view the msDSResultantPSO attribute on the Attribute Editor tab, if the Show Constructed Attributes option has been configured under the Filter options.

Lesson 3: Configuring Managed Service Accounts


Creating user accounts to provide authentication for applications, system services, and background processes is a common practice in the Windows environment. Historically, accounts were created, and often named, for use by a specific service. Windows Server 2012 supports AD DS account-like objects called managed service accounts that make service accounts easier to manage and less of a security risk to your environment. This lesson will introduce you to managed service accounts, and new functionality related to managed service accounts in Windows Server 2012.

Lesson Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to: Identify the challenges of using standard user accounts for services.
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Describe managed service accounts. Explain how to configure managed service accounts. Describe group-managed service accounts.

What Are The Challenges Of Using Standard User Accounts For Services?

Many applications such as Microsoft SQL Server or Internet Information Services (IIS) contain services that are installed on the server that hosts the application. These services typically run at server startup or are triggered by other events. Services often run in the background and do not require any user interaction. For a service to start up and authenticate, a service account is used. A service account may be an account that is local to the computer, such as the built-in Local Service, Network Service, or Local System accounts. You also can configure a service account to use a domain-based account located in AD DS. To help centralize administration and to meet application requirements, many organizations choose to use a domain-based account to run application services. This does provide some benefit over using a local account. However, there are a number of associated challenges, such as the following: Extra administration effort may be necessary to manage the service account password securely. This includes tasks such as changing the password and resolving situations that cause an account lockout. Service accounts also typically are configured to have passwords that do not expire, which may go against your organizations security policies. It can be difficult to determine where a domain-based account is being used as a service account. A standard user account may be used for multiple services on various servers throughout the environment. A simple task, such as changing the password, may cause authentication issues for some applications. It is important to know where and how a standard user account is being used when it is associated with an application service. Extra administration effort may be necessary to manage the service principal name (SPN). Using a standard user account may require manual administration of the SPN. If the logon account of the service changes, the computer name is changed. Or, if a Domain Name System (DNS) host name property is modified, the SPN registrations may need to be manually modified to reflect the change. A misconfigured SPN causes authentication problems with the application service.

Windows Server 2012 supports an AD DS object used to ease service-account management, called a managed service account. The following topics provide information on the requirements and use of managed service accounts in Windows Server 2012.
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What Is A Managed Service Account?

A Managed Service Account is an AD DS object class that enables simplified password and SPN management for service accounts. Many network-based applications use an account to run services or provide authentication. For example, an application on a local computer might use the Local Service, Network Service, or Local System accounts. These service accounts may work fine. However, these typically are shared among multiple applications and services, making it difficult to manage for a specific application. Furthermore, you cannot manage these local service accounts at the domain level. Alternatively, it is quite common that an application might use a standard domain account that is configured specifically for the application. However, the main drawback is that you need to manage passwords manually, which increases administration effort. A managed service account can provide an application with its own unique account, while eliminating the need for an administrator to administer the accounts credentials manually.

How a Managed Service Account Works


Managed Service Accounts are stored in AD DS as msDS-ManagedServiceAccount objects. This class inherits structural aspects from the Computer class (which inherits from the User class). This enables an Managed Service Account to fulfill User-like functions such as providing authentication and security context for a running service. It also enables an Managed Service Account to use the same password update mechanism used by Computer objects in AD DS, a process that requires no user intervention. Managed service accounts provide the following benefits to simplify administration: Automatic password management. A managed service account automatically maintains its own password, including password changes. Simplified SPN management. SPN management can be managed automatically if your domain is configured at the Windows Server 2008 R2 domain functional level or higher.

Managed Service Accounts are stored in the CN=Managed Service Accounts, DC=<domain>, DC=<com> container. You can see this by enabling the Advanced Features option in the View menu within Active Directory Users and Computers. This container is visible by default in the Active Directory Administrative Center.

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Requirements for Using Managed Service Accounts


To use a managed service account, the server that runs the service or application must be running Windows Server 2008 R2 or Windows Server 2012. You also must ensure that .NET Framework 3.5.x and the Active Directory module for Windows PowerShell are both installed on the server. Note: A standard managed service account cannot be shared between multiple computers or be used in server clusters where the service is replicated between nodes.

To simplify and provide full automatic password and SPN management, we strongly recommend that the AD DS domain be at the Windows Server 2008 R2 functional level or higher. However, if you have a domain controller running Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2003, you can update the Active Directory schema to Windows Server 2008 R2 to support this feature. The only disadvantage is that the domain administrator must configure SPN data manually for the managed service accounts. To update the schema in Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2003, or mixed-mode environments, you must perform the following tasks: 1. 2. Run adprep/forestprep at the forest level and run adprep/domainprep at the domain level. Deploy a domain controller running Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2008 with the Active Directory Management Gateway Service, or Windows Server 2003 with the Active Directory Management Gateway Service.

Note: The Active Directory Management Gateway Service allows administrators with domain controllers running Windows Server 2003 or Windows Server 2008 to use Windows PowerShell cmdlets to manage managed service accounts.

Considerations for Managed Service Accounts on Windows Server 2012 Domain Controllers
On Windows 2012, Managed Service Accounts are created as the new group Managed Service Account object type by default. However, to accommodate this, you must fulfill the one of the requirements for group Managed Service Accounts before you can create any Managed Service Account on a Windows 2012 domain controller. On a Windows 2012 domain controller, a key distribution services root key must be created for the domain before any Managed Service Accounts can be created. To create the root key, run the following cmdlet from the Active Directory PowerShell module for Windows PowerShell:

A d d K D S R o o t K e y E f f e c t i v e T i m e( ( G e t D a t e ) . A d d H o u r s ( 1 0 ) )

More information on group Managed Service Accounts, including further explanation of the cmdlet above, and creating a Key Distribution Services (KDS) root key can be found later in this lesson.

Demonstration: Configuring Managed Service Accounts by Using Windows PowerShell


Creating and configuring a Managed Service Account requires the use of four cmdlets from the Active Directory Module for Windows PowerShell:
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Add-KDSRootkey creates the KDS root key to support group Managed Service Accounts, a requirement on Windows Server 2012 DCs:
A d d K D S R o o t K e y E f f e c t i v e T i m e( ( G e t D a t e ) . A d d H o u r s ( 1 0 ) )

New-ADServiceAccount creates the Managed Service Account within AD DS:


N e w A D S e r v i c e A c c o u n t N a m e< M S AN a m e >D N S H o s t n a m e< D CD N SN a m e >

Add-ADComputerServiceAccount associates the Managed Service Account with a computer account in the AD DS domain:
A d d A D C o m p u t e r S e r v i c e A c c o u n t i d e n t i t y< H o s tC o m p u t e rN a m e >S e r v i c e A c c o u n t< M S AN a m e >

Install-ADServiceAccount installs the Managed Service Account on a host computer in the domain, and makes the Managed Service Account available for use by services on the host computer:
I n s t a l l A D S e r v i c e A c c o u n t I d e n t i t y< M S AN a m e >

In this demonstration, you will see how to: Create the KDS root key for the domain.

Create and associate a managed service account.

Demonstration Steps
Create the Key Distribution Services (KDS) root key for the domain 1. 2. On LON-DC1, from Server Manager, open the Active Directory Module for Windows PowerShell console. Use the Add-KDSRootKey cmdlet to create the domain KDS root key.

Create and associate a managed service account 1. 2. 3. 4. On LON-DC1, open the Active Directory Module for Windows PowerShell console. Use the New-ADServiceAccount cmdlet to create a Managed Service Account. Use the Add-ADComputerServiceAccount cmdlet to associate the Managed Service Account with LON-SVR1. Use the Get-ADServiceAccount cmdlet to view the newly created Managed Service Account and confirm proper configuration.

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Install a managed service account 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. On LON-SVR1, open the Active Directory Module for Windows PowerShell console. Use the Install-ADServiceAccount cmdlet to install the Managed Service Account on LON-SVR1. Open Server Manager, and start the Services console. Open the Properties pages for the Application Identity service, and then select the Log On tab. Configure the Application Identity service to use Adatum\SampleApp_SVR1$.

What Are Group Managed Service Accounts?

Group Managed Service Accounts enable you to extend the capabilities of Standard Managed Service Accounts to more than one server in your domain. In server farm scenarios such as network load balancing (NLB) clusters or IIS servers, there often is a need to run system or application services under the same service account. Standard Managed Service Accounts cannot provide managed service account functionality to services that are running on more than one server. By using Group Managed Service Accounts, you can configure multiple servers to use the same Managed Service Account, and still retain the benefits that Managed Service Accounts provide, like automatic password maintenance and simplified SPN management.

Group Managed Service Account Requirements


In order to support group Managed Service Account functionality, your environment must meet the following requirements: At least one domain controller must be running Windows Server 2012 to store managed password information. A KDS root key must be created on a domain controller in the domain. To create the KDS root key, run the following command from the Active Directory Module for Windows PowerShell on a Windows Server 2012 domain controller:
A d d K d s R o o t K e y E f f e c t i v e I m m e d i a t e l y

Note: The EffectiveImmediately switch uses the current time to establish the timestamp that marks the key as valid. However, when using EffectiveImmediately, the actual effective time is set to 10 hours later than the current time. This 10-hour difference is to allow for AD DS replication to replicate the changes to other domain controllers in the domain. For testing purposes, it is possible to bypass this functionality by setting the EffectiveTime parameter to 10 hours before the current time:
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Module 4: Managing User and Service Accounts

Add-KdsRootKey EffectiveTime ((get-date).addhours(-10))

Understanding Group Managed Service Account Functionality


Group Managed Service Accounts enable Managed Service Account functionality across multiple servers by delegating the management of Managed Service Account password information to Windows Server 2012 domain controllers. By doing this, the management of passwords is no longer dependent on the relationship between a single server and AD DS, but rather controlled entirely by AD DS. The group Managed Service Account object contains a list of principals (computers or AD DS groups) that are allowed to retrieve group Managed Service Account password information from AD DS, and then use the group Managed Service Account for authentication for services. Group Managed Service Accounts are created by using the same cmdlets from the Active Directory Module for Windows PowerShell. In fact, the cmdlets used for Managed Service Account management will create group Managed Service Accounts, by default. On a Windows Server 2012 domain controller, create a new Managed Service Account by using the New-ADServiceAccount cmdlet with the PrinicipalsAllowedToRetrieveManagedPassword parameter. This parameter accepts one or more commaseparated computer accounts or AD DS groups that are permitted to obtain password information for the group Managed Service Account that is stored in AD DS on Windows Server 2012 domain controllers. For example, the following cmdlet will create a new group Managed Service Account called SQLFarm, and enable the LON-SQL1, LON-SQL2, and LON-SQL3 hosts to use the group Managed Service Account:

N e w _ A D S e r v i c e A c c o u n t N a m eL o n d o n S Q L F a r m P r i n c i p a l s A l l o w e d T o R e t r i e v e M a n a g e d P a s s w o r dL O N S Q L 1 ,L O N S Q L 2 ,L O N S Q L 3

Once a computer has been added to using the PrincipalsAllowedToRetrieveManagedPassword, the group Managed Service Account service account is available to be assigned to services by using same assignment process as standard Managed Service Accounts.

Using AD DS Groups to Manage Group Managed Service Account Server Farms


AD DS security groups can be used to identify group Managed Service Accounts. When you use an AD DS group for the PrincipalsAllowedToRetriveManagedPassword parameter, any computers that are members of that group will be allowed to retrieve the password and utilize group Managed Service Account functionality. When using an AD DS group as the principal allowed to retrieve a managed password, any accounts that are members of the group will also have the same capability.

Lab: Managing User and Service Accounts


Scenario
A. Datum is a global engineering and manufacturing company with its head office in London, UK. An IT office and data center is
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Module 4: Managing User and Service Accounts

located in London to support the London office and other locations. A. Datum has recently deployed a Windows Server 2012 server and client infrastructure, and needs to implement changes to how user accounts are managed in the environment.

Objectives
After completing this lab, you will be able to: Configure password-policy and account-lockout settings. Create and associate a Managed Service Account.

Lab Setup
Estimated Time: Estimated time: 45 minutes

Virtual Machine User Name Password

20411B-LON-DC1 Administrator Pa$$w0rd

For this lab, you will use the available virtual machine environment. Before you begin the lab, you must complete the following steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. On the host computer, click Start, point to Administrative Tools, and then click Hyper-V Manager. In Hyper-V Manager, click 20411B-LON-DC1, and in the Actions pane, click Start. In the Actions pane, click Connect. Wait until the virtual machine starts. Log on using the following credentials: a. b. User name: Adatum\Administrator Password: Pa$$w0rd

Exercise 1: Configuring Password-Policy and Account-Lockout Settings


Scenario A. Datum has recently completed a security review for passwords and account-lockout policies. You need to implement the recommendations contained in the report to control password complexity and length. You also need to configure appropriate account-lockout settings. Part of your password policy configuration will include a specific password policy to be assigned to the Managers security group. This group requires a different password policy than what has been applied at the domain level. The report has recommended that the following password settings should be applied to all accounts in the domain: Password history: 20 passwords Maximum password age: 45 days
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Module 4: Managing User and Service Accounts

Minimum password age: 1 day Password length: 10 characters Complexity enabled: Yes Account Lockout duration: 30 minutes Account lockout threshold: 5 attempts Reset account lockout counter after: 15 minutes

The report has also recommended that a separate policy be applied to users in the Managers group, due to the elevated privileges assigned to those user accounts. The policy applied to the Managers groups should contain the following settings: Password history: 20 passwords Maximum password age: 20 days Minimum password age: 1 day Password length: 15 characters Complexity enabled: Yes Account Lockout duration: 0 minutes (An administrator will have to unlock the account) Account lockout threshold: 3 attempts Reset account lockout counter after: 30 minutes

The main tasks for this exercise are as follows: 1. 2. 3. Configure a domain-based password policy. Configure an account-lockout policy. Configure and apply a fine-grained password policy.

Task 1: Configure a domain-based password policy

1. 2.

On LON-DC1, open the Group Policy Management console. Edit the Default Domain Policy, and configure the following Account Password Policy settings: o o o o o Password history: 20 passwords Maximum password age: 45 days Minimum password age: 1 day Password length: 10 characters Complexity enabled: Yes

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Task 2: Configure an account-lockout policy

1.

In the Group Policy Management Editor, configure the following Account Lockout Policy settings for the Default Domain Policy: o o o Account Lockout duration: 30 minutes Account lockout threshold: 5 attempts Reset account lockout counter after: 15 minutes

2. 3.

Close Group Policy Management Editor. Close Group Policy Management.

Task 3: Configure and apply a fine-grained password policy

1. 2.

On LON-DC1, open the Active Directory Administrative Center console. Change the group scope for the Managers group to Global.

Note: Ensure you open the Properties page for the Managers group, and not the Managers OU.

3.

In Active Directory Administrative Center, configure a fine-grained password policy for the Adatum\Managers group with the following settings: o o o o o o o o o o Name: ManagersPSO Precedence: 10 Password length: 15 characters Password history: 20 passwords Complexity enabled: Yes Minimum password age: 1 day Maximum password age: 30 days Number of failed logon attempts allowed: 3 attempts Reset failed logon attempts count after: 30 minutes Until an administrator manually unlocks the account: selected

4.

Close Active Directory Administrative Center.

Results: After completing this exercise, you will have configured password-policy and account-lockout settings.

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Exercise 2: Creating and Associating a Managed Service Account


Scenario You need to configure a managed service account to support a new Web-based application that is being deployed to the DefaultAppPool Web service on LON-DC1. Using a managed service account will help maintain the password security requirements for the account. The main tasks for this exercise are as follows: 1. 2. 3. Create and associate a Managed Service Account. Install a managed service account on a LON-DC1. To prepare for the next module.

Task 1: Create and associate a Managed Service Account

1. 2.

On LON-DC1, open the Active Directory Module for Windows PowerShell console. Create the KDS root key by using the Add-KdsRootKey cmdlet. Make the effective time minus 10 hours, so the key will be effective immediately.

3. 4. 5.

Create the new service account named Webservice for the host LON-DC1. Associate the Webservice managed account with LON-DC1. Verify the group managed service account was created by using the Get-ADServiceAccount cmdlet.

Task 2: Install a managed service account on a LON-DC1

1. 2. 3. 4.

On LON-DC1, install the Webservice service account. From the Tools menu in Server Manager, open Internet Information Services (IIS) Manager. Configure the DefaultAppPool to use the Webservice$ account as the identity. Stop and start the application pool.

To prepare for the next module

When you are finished the lab, revert the virtual machines to their initial state.

Results: After completing this exercise, you will have created and associated a Managed Service Account.

Module Review and Takeaways


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Module 4: Managing User and Service Accounts

Common Issues and Troubleshooting Tips


Common Issue
User accounts contained in a .csv file fail to import when using the Comma-Separated Values Data Exchange tool.

Troubleshooting Tip

User password settings are not applying as expected.

The New-ADServiceAccount cmdlet fails with key-related messages.

Tools
Tool
Comma-Separated Values Data Exchange tool LDIFDE

What it is used for


Importing and exporting users by using .csv files Importing, exporting, and modifying users by using .ldf files

Where to find it
Command prompt: csvde.exe Command prompt: ldifde.exe

Local Security Policy Group Policy Management console

Configuring local account- policy settings Configuring domain Group Policy account-policy settings

Secpol.msc Server Manager Tools

Active Directory Administrative Center Active Directory module for Windows PowerShell

Creating and managing Password Settings Objects Creating and Managing Managed Service Accounts

Server Manager Tools Server Manager - Tools

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Lab Answer Key: Module 4: Managing User and Service Accounts Lab: Managing User and Service Accounts
Exercise 1: Configuring Password-Policy and Account-Lockout Settings
Task 1: Configure a domain-based password policy

1. 2.

On LON-DC1, in Server Manager, click Tools, and then click Group Policy Management. In Group Policy Management, expand Forest: Adatum.com. expand Domains, expand Adatum.com, expand Group Policy Objects, right-click Default Domain Policy, and then click Edit.

3.

In the Group Policy Management Editor, in the navigation pane, under Computer Configuration, expand Policies, expand Windows Settings, expand Security Settings, expand Account Policies, and then click Password Policy.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Double-click Enforce password history. In the Enforce password history Properties window, type 20 in the Keep password history for field, and then click OK. Double-click Maximum password age . In the Maximum password age Properties window, type 45 in the Password will expire in field, and then click OK. Double-click Minimum password age . In the Minimum password age Properties window, ensure that the Password can be changed after field is 1, and then click OK.

10. Double-click Minimum password length. 11. In the Minimum password length Properties window, type 10 in the Password must be at least field, and then click OK. 12. Double-click Password must meet complexity requirements. 13. In the Password must meet complexity requirements Properties window, click Enabled, and then click OK. 14. Do not close the Group Policy Management Editor.

Task 2: Configure an account-lockout policy

1. 2. 3.

In the Group Policy Management Editor, in the navigation pane, click Account Lockout Policy. Double-click Account lockout duration. In the Account lockout duration Properties window, click Define this policy setting, type 30 in the minutes field, and then click OK.

4.

In the Suggested Value Changes window, note the suggested values, including the automatic configuration of Account lockout threshold, and then click OK.

5.

Double-click Reset account lockout counter after.

6.

In the Reset account lockout counter after Properties window, type 15 in the Reset account lockout counter after field, and then click OK.

7. 8.

Close Group Policy Management Editor. Close Group Policy Management.

Task 3: Configure and apply a fine-grained password policy

1. 2. 3. 4.

On LON-DC1, in Server Manager, click Tools, and then click Active Directory Administrative Center. In Active Directory Administrative Center, in the navigation pane, click Adatum (local). In the details pane, double-click the Managers OU. In the details pane, right-click the Managers group, and then click Properties.

Note: Ensure you open the Properties page for the Managers group, and not the Managers OU. In the Managers window, under Group scope , click Global, and then click OK.

5. 6. 7. 8.

In Active Directory Administrative Center, in the navigation pane, click Adatum (local). In the details pane, double-click the System container. In the details pane, right-click the Password Settings Container, click New , and then click Password Settings. In the Create Password Settings window, complete the following steps: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. Type ManagersPSO in the Name field. Type 10 in the precedence field. Type 15 in the Minimum password length field. Type 20 in the Number of passwords remembered field. Type 30 in the Enforce maximum password age field. Click Enforce account lockout policy. Type 3 in the Number of failed logon attempts field. Type 30 in the Reset failed logon attempts count field. Click the Until an administrator manually unlocks the account option.

9.

In the Directly Applies to section, click Add.

10. In the Enter the object names to select field, type Adatum\Managers, click Check Names, and then click OK. 11. In the Create Password Settings window, click OK. 12. Close Active Directory Administrative Center.

Results: After completing this exercise, you will have configured password-policy and account-lockout settings.

Exercise 2: Creating and Associating a Managed Service Account


Task 1: Create and associate a Managed Service Account

1. 2.

On LON-DC1, in Server Manager, click Tools, and then click Active Directory Module for Windows Powershell. Type the following In the Windows PowerShell command window, and then press Enter:
A d d K d s R o o t K e y E f f e c t i v e T i m e( ( g e t d a t e ) . a d d h o u r s ( 1 0 ) )

3.

Type the following In the Windows PowerShell command window, and then press Enter:
N e w A D S e r v i c e A c c o u n t N a m eW e b s e r v i c e D N S H o s t N a m eL O N D C 1 P r i n c i p a l s A l l o w e d T o R e t r i e v e M a n a g e d P a s s w o r dL O N D C 1 $

4.

Type the following In the Windows PowerShell command window, and then press Enter:
A d d A D C o m p u t e r S e r v i c e A c c o u n t i d e n t i t yL O N D C 1 S e r v i c e A c c o u n tW e b s e r v i c e

5.

Type the following In the Windows PowerShell command window, and then press Enter:
G e t A D S e r v i c e A c c o u n tF i l t e r*

6. 7.

Note the output of the command, ensuring the newly created account is listed. Minimize the Windows PowerShell command window.

Task 2: Install a managed service account on a LON-DC1

1.

On LON-DC1, type the following In the Windows PowerShell command window, and then press Enter:
I n s t a l l A D S e r v i c e A c c o u n t I d e n t i t yW e b s e r v i c e

2. 3.

In Server Manager click the Tools menu, and then click Internet Information Services (IIS) Manager. In the Internet Information Services (IIS) Manager console, expand LON-DC1 (Adatum\Administrator), and then click Application Pools. When the Internet Information Services (IIS) Manager window appears, click No.

4. 5.

In the details pane, right-click the DefaultAppPool, and then click Advanced Settings. In the Advanced Settings dialog box, click Identity and then click the ellipses.

6. 7. 8. 9.

In the Application Pool Identity dialog box, click Custom Account and then click Set. In the Set Credentials dialog box, type Adatum\Webservice$ in the User name: field, and then click OK three times. In the Actions pane, click Stop to stop the application pool. Click Start to start the application pool.

10. Close the Internet Information Services (IIS) Manager.

To prepare for the next module

1. 2. 3.

On the host computer, start Hyper-V Manager. In the Virtual Machines list, right-click 20411B-LON-DC1, and then click Revert. In the Revert Virtual Machine dialog box, click Revert.

Results: After completing this exercise, you will have created and associated a Managed Service Account.

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Module 5: Implementing a Group Policy Infrastructure

Module 5: Implementing a Group Policy Infrastructure Contents:


Module Overview Lesson 1: Lesson 2: Lesson 3: Lesson 4: Lab: Introducing Group Policy Implementing and Administering GPOs Group Policy Scope and Group Policy Processing Troubleshooting the Application of GPOs Implementing a Group Policy Infrastructure Module Review and Takeaways

Module Overview
Group Policy provides an infrastructure within which you can define settings centrally and deploy them to users and computers in your enterprise. In an environment managed by a well-implemented Group Policy infrastructure, very little configuration takes place by an administrator directly touching a users computer. You can define, enforce, and update the entire configuration by using the settings in Group Policy Objects (GPOs) or GPO filtering. By using GPO settings, you can affect an entire site or domain within an enterprise, or narrow your focus to a single organizational unit (OU). This module will detail what Group Policy is, how it works, and how best to implement it in your organization.

Objectives
After completing this module, you will be able to: Describe the components and technologies that comprise the Group Policy framework. Configure and understand a variety of policy setting types. Scope GPOs by using links, security groups, Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) filters, loopback processing, and preference targeting. Describe how GPOs are processed. Locate the event logs that contain Group Policy-related events and troubleshoot the Group Policy application.

Lesson 1 : Introducing Group Policy


A Group Policy infrastructure has several interacting components, and you need to understand what each component does, as well as how they work together and how you can assemble them into different configurations. This lesson provides a comprehensive overview of Group Policy components, procedures, and functions.

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Lesson Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to: Identify the business requirements for configuration management. Describe the core components and terminology of Group Policy. Explain the benefits of implementing GPOs. Describe GPOs. Explain the function and behavior of the client-side GPO components. Explain GPO refresh. Create and configure GPOs.

What Is Configuration Management?

If you have only one computer in your environmentat home, for exampleand you need to modify the desktop background, you can achieve that in several different ways. Most people would probably open Appearance and Personalization from Control Panel, and make the change by using the Windows interface. While that works well for one computer, it may be tedious if you want to make the change across multiple computers. Implementing any change and maintaining a consistent environment is more difficult with multiple computers. Configuration management is a centralized approach to applying one or more changes to one or more users or computers. The key elements of configuration management are: Setting. A setting is also known as a centralized definition of a change. The setting brings a user or a computer to a desired state of configuration. Scope. The scope of the change is the ability to change users computers. Application. The application is a mechanism or process that ensures that the setting is applied to users and computers within the scope.

Group Policy is a framework within Windowswith components that reside in Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS), on domain controllers, and on each Windows server and clientthat enables you to manage configuration in an AD DS domain.
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Overview of Group Policies

The most granular component of Group Policy is an individual policy setting, also known as a policy that defines a specific configuration change to apply, such as a policy setting that prevents a user from accessing registry-editing tools. If you define that policy setting, and then apply it to the user, the user will be unable to run tools such as Regedit.exe. It is important to know that some settings affect a user, known as user-configuration settings (or user policies), and some affect the computer, known as computer-configuration settings (or computer policies). Group Policy manages various policy settings, and the Group Policy framework is extensible. In the end, you can manage just about any configurable setting with Group Policy. Within the Group Policy Management Editor, you can define a policy setting by double-clicking it. The policy setting Properties dialog box appears. A policy setting can have three states: Not Configured, Enabled, and Disabled. In a new GPO, every policy setting defaults to Not Configured. This means that the GPO cannot modify the existing configuration of that particular setting for a user or computer. If you enable or disable a policy setting, a change is made to the configuration of users and computers to which the GPO is applied. When you return a setting to its Not Configured value, you return it to its default value. The effect of the change depends on the policy setting. For example, if you enable the Prevent Access To Registry Editing Tools policy setting, users are unable to launch the Regedit.exe Registry Editor. If you disable the policy setting, you ensure that users can launch the Registry Editor. Notice the double negative in this policy setting: You disable a policy that prevents an action, so you allow the action. Some policy settings bundle several configurations into one policy, and these might require additional parameters. Note: Many policy settings are complex, and the effect of enabling or disabling them might not be obvious. Furthermore, some policy settings affect only certain versions of the Windows operating system. Be sure to review a policy settings explanatory text in the Group Policy Management Editor detail pane or on the Explain tab in the policy settings Properties dialog box. Additionally, always test the effects of a policy setting and its interactions with other policy settings before deploying a change in your production environment.

Benefits of Using Group Policy

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Group Policies are very powerful administrative tools. You can use them to push various settings to a large number of users and computers. Because you can apply them to various levels from local to domain, you also can focus these settings very precisely. Primarily, you can use Group Policies to configure settings that you do not want users to configure. Additionally, you can use Group Policies to standardize desktop environments on all computers in an OU or in an entire enterprise, to provide additional security and some advanced system settings, and for other purposes that the following sections detail.

Apply Security Settings


In the Windows Server 2012 operating system, GPOs include a large number of security-related settings that you can apply to both users and computers. For example, you can enforce settings for Windows Firewall, and configure auditing and other security settings. You also can configure full sets of user-rights assignments.

Manage Desktop and Application Settings


You can use a Group Policy to provide a consistent desktop and application environment to all users in your organization. By using GPOs, you can configure each setting that affects the look and feel of user environment and also configure settings for some applications that support GPOs.

Deploy Software
Group Policies enable you to deploy software to users and computers. You can use Group Policy to deploy all software that is in the .msi format. Additionally, you can enforce automatic software installation or you can let your users decide whether they want the software to deploy to their machines. Note: Deploying large packages with GPOs may not be the most efficient way of distributing an application to your organizations computers. In many circumstances, it may be more effective to distribute the applications as part of the desktop computer image.

Manage Folder Redirection


With folder redirection, you can manage and back up data quickly and easily. By redirecting folders, you also ensure that users have access to their data regardless of the computer on which they sign in. Additionally, you can centralize all users data to one place on the network server, while still providing a user experience that is similar to storing these folders on their computers. For example, you can configure folder redirection to redirect the users Documents folders to a shared folder on a network server.

Configure Network Settings


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Using Group Policy enables you to configure various network settings on client computers. For example, you can enforce settings for wireless networks to allow users to connect only to specific service set identifiers (SSIDs), and with predefined authentication and encryption settings. You also can deploy policies that apply to wired network settings as well as configure the client side of services, such as Network Access Protection (NAP).

Group Policy Objects

Policy settings are defined and exist within a GPO. A GPO is an object that contains one or more policy settings that apply to one or more configuration settings for a user or a computer. Note: GPOs can be managed in AD DS by using the Group Policy Management Console (GPMC).

GPOs are displayed in a container named Group Policy Objects. To create a new GPO in a domain, right-click the Group Policy Objects container, and then click New . To modify the configuration settings in a GPO, right-click the GPO, and then click Edit. This opens the Group Policy Management Editor snap-in. The Group Policy Management Editor displays the thousands of policy settings available in a GPO in an organized hierarchy that begins with the division between computer settings and user settings: the Computer Configuration node and the User Configuration node. The next two levels of the hierarchy are nodes called Policies and Preferences. You will learn about the difference between these two nodes later in this module. Progressing further down the hierarchy, you can see that the Group Policy Management Editor displays folders, which also are called nodes or policy setting groups. Within the folders are the policy settings themselves. Note: The GPO must be applied to a domain, site, or OU in the AD DS hierarchy for the settings within the object to take effect.

GPO Scope

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Configuration is defined by policy settings in GPOs. However, the configuration changes in a GPO do not affect computers or users in your organization until you specify the computers or users to which the GPO applies. This is called scoping a GPO. The scope of a GPO is the collection of users and computers that will apply the settings in the GPO. You can use several methods to manage the scope of GPOs. The first is the GPO link. You can link GPOs to sites, domains, and OUs in AD DS. The site, domain, or OU then becomes the maximum scope of the GPO. All computers and users within the site, domain, or OU, including those in child OUs, will be affected by the configurations that the policy settings in the GPO specify. Note: You can link a GPO to more than one domain, OU, or site. Linking GPOs to multiple sites can introduce performance issues when the policy is being applied, and you should avoid linking a GPO to multiple sites. This is because in a multisite network, the GPOs are stored in the domain controllers of the forest root domain. The consequence of this is that computers in other domains may need to traverse a slow wide area network (WAN) link to obtain the GPOs.

You can further narrow the scope of the GPO with one of two types of filters. Security filters specify security groups that fall within the GPOs scope, but to which the GPO explicitly should or should not apply. WMI filters specify a scope by using characteristics of a system, such as operating-system version or free disk space. Use security filters and WMI filters to narrow or specify the scope within the initial scope that the GPO link created. Note: Windows Server 2008 introduced a new component of Group Policy: Group Policy Preferences. Settings that are configured by Group Policy Preferences within a GPO can be filtered or targeted based on several criteria. Targeted preferences allow you to further refine the scope of preferences within a single GPO.

Group Policy Client and Client-Side Extensions

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Group Policy Application


It is important to understand how Group Policies apply on client computers. The outline below details the process: 1. When Group Policy refresh begins, a service that is running on all Windows-based computers, known as the Group Policy Client in Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2008 R2, and Windows Server 2012, determines which GPOs apply to the computer or user. 2. 3. This service downloads any GPOs that are not cached already. Client-side extensions (CSEs) interpret the settings in a GPO and make appropriate changes to the local computer or to the currently logged-on user. There are CSEs for each major category of policy setting. For example, there is a security CSE that applies security changes, a CSE that executes startup and logon scripts, a CSE that installs software, and a CSE that makes changes to registry keys and values. Each Windows version has added CSEs to extend the functional reach of Group Policy, and there are several dozen CSEs in Windows.

One of the more important concepts to remember about Group Policy is that it is very client-driven. The Group Policy client pulls the GPOs from the domain, triggering the CSEs to apply settings locally. Group Policy is not a push technology. In fact, you can configure the behavior of CSEs by using Group Policy. Most CSEs will apply settings in a GPO only if that GPO has changed. This behavior improves overall policy processing by eliminating redundant applications of the same settings. Most policies are applied in such a way that standard users cannot change the setting on their computerthey will always be subject to the configuration enforced by Group Policy. However, standard users can change some settings, and many can be changed if a user is an administrator on that system. If users in your environment are administrators on their computers, you should consider configuring CSEs to reapply policy settings even if the GPO has not changed. That way, if an administrative user changes a configuration so that it is no longer compliant with policy, the configuration will be reset to its compliant state at the next Group Policy refresh. Note: You can configure CSEs to reapply policy settings at the next background refresh, even if the GPO has not changed. You can do this by configuring a GPO scoped to computers, and then defining the settings in the Computer Configuration\Policies\Administrative Templates \System\ Group Policy node. For each CSE that you want to configure, open its policy- processing policy setting, such as Registry Policy Processing for the Registry CSE. Click Enabled, and select the Process even if the Group Policy objects have not changed check box.

The security CSE manages an important exception to the default policy-processing settings. Security settings are reapplied every 16 hours, even if a GPO has not changed.
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Note: Enable the Always Wait For Network At Startup And Logon policy setting for all Windows clients. Without this setting, by default, Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7, and Windows 8 clients perform only background refreshes. This means that a client may start up, and then a user might sign in without receiving the latest policies from the domain. The setting is located in Computer Configuration\Policies\Administrative Templates\System\Logon. Be sure to read the policy settings explanatory text.

Group Policy Refresh


Policy settings in the Computer Configuration node are applied at system startup, and then every 90 to 120 minutes thereafter. User Configuration policy settings are applied at logon, and then every 90 to 120 minutes thereafter. The application of policies is called Group Policy refresh. Note: You also can force a policy refresh by using the GPUpdate command.

Demonstration: How to Create a GPO and Configure GPO Settings


Group Policy settings, also known as policies, are contained in a GPO, and you can view and modify them by using the Group Policy Management Editor. This demonstration delves more closely into the categories of settings available in a GPO.

Computer Configuration and User Configuration


There are two major divisions of policy settings: computer settings, which are contained in the Computer Configuration node, and user settings, which are contained in the User Configuration node: The Computer Configuration node contains the settings that are applied to computers, regardless of who logs on to them. Computer settings are applied when the operating system starts, during background refreshes, and every 90 to 120 minutes thereafter. The User Configuration node contains settings that are applied when a user logs on to the computer, during background refreshes, and every 90 to 120 minutes thereafter.

Within the Computer Configuration and User Configuration nodes are the Policies and Preferences nodes. Policies are settings that are configured and behave similarly to the policy settings in older Windows operating systems. Preferences were introduced in Windows Server 2008. Within the Policies nodes of Computer Configuration and User Configuration are a hierarchy of folders that contain policy settings. Because there are thousands of settings, it is beyond the scope of this course to examine individual settings. However, it is worthwhile to define the broad categories of settings in the folders.

Software Settings Node


The Software Settings node is the first node. It contains only the Software Installation extension, which helps you specify how applications are installed and maintained within your organization.

Windows Settings Node


In both Computer Configuration and User Configuration nodes, the Policies node contains a Windows Settings node, which includes the Scripts, Security Settings, and Policy-Based QoS nodes.
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Note: It also contains the Name Resolution Policy folder that contains settings for configuring Windows 8 DirectAccess, which is discussed in a later module.

Scripts Node
The Scripts extension enables you to specify two types of scripts, startup/shutdown (in the Computer Configuration node), and logon/logoff (in the User Configuration node). Startup/shutdown scripts run at computer startup or shutdown. Logon/logoff scripts run when a user logs on or off. When you assign multiple logon/logoff or startup/shutdown scripts to a user or computer, the Scripts CSE executes the scripts from top to bottom. You can determine the order of execution for multiple scripts in the Properties dialog box. When a computer is shut down, the CSE first processes logoff scripts, followed by shutdown scripts. By default, the timeout value for processing scripts is 10 minutes. If the logoff and shutdown scripts require more than 10 minutes to process, you must adjust the timeout value with a policy setting. You can use any ActiveX scripting language to write scripts. Some possibilities include Microsoft Visual Basic Scripting Edition (VBScript), Microsoft JScript, Perl, and Microsoft MSDOSstyle batch files (.bat and .cmd). Logon scripts on a shared network directory in another forest are supported for network logon across forests. Windows 7 and Windows 8 both support Windows PowerShell scripts, too.

Security Settings Node


The Security Settings node allows a security administrator to configure security by using GPOs. This can be done after, or instead of, using a security template to set system security.

Policy-Based QoS Node


This quality of service (QoS) node, known as Policy-Based QoS node, defines policies that manage network traffic. For example, you might want to ensure that users in the Finance department have priority for running a critical network application during the end-of-year financial reporting period. The Policy-Based QoS node enables you to do that. In the User Configuration node only, the Windows Settings folder contains the additional Remote Installation Services, Folder Redirection, and Internet Explorer Maintenance nodes. Remote Installation Services (RIS) policies control the behavior of a remote operating-system installation. Folder Redirection enables you to redirect user data and settings folders such as AppData, Desktop, Documents, Pictures, Music, and Favorites from their default user profile location to an alternate location on the network, where they can be centrally managed. Internet Explorer Maintenance enables you to administer and customize Windows Internet Explorer.

Administrative Templates Node


In the Computer Configuration and User Configuration nodes, the Administrative Templates node contains registry-based Group Policy settings. There are thousands of such settings available for configuring the user and computer environment. As an administrator, you might spend a significant amount of time manipulating these settings. To assist you with the settings, a description of each policy setting is available in two locations: On the Explain tab in the Properties dialog box for the setting. Additionally, the Settings tab in the Properties dialog box for each setting also lists the required operating system or software for the setting. On the Extended tab of the Group Policy Management Editor. The Extended tab appears on the lower right of the details pane, and provides a description of each selected setting in a column between the console tree and the settings pane. The required operating system or software for each setting is also listed.

Demonstration
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This demonstration shows how to: 1. 2. 3. Open the Group Policy Management Console . Create a new GPO named Desktop in the Group Policy container. In the computer configuration, prevent the last logon name from displaying, and then prevent Windows Installer from running. 4. In the user configuration, remove the Search link from the Start menu, and then hide the display settings tab.

Demonstration Steps Use the GPMC to create a new GPO


1. 2. 3. Sign in to LON-DC1 as administrator. Open the Group Policy Management console. Create a new GPO called Desktop.

Configure Group Policy settings


1. 2. 3. 4. Open the new Desktop policy for editing. In the computer configuration, prevent the last logon name from displaying, and prevent Windows Installer from running. In the user configuration, remove the Search link from the Start menu, and then hide the display settings tab. Close all open windows.

Lesson 2: Implementing and Administering GPOs


In this lesson, you will examine GPOs in more detail, learning how to create, link, edit, manage, and administer GPOs and their settings.

Lesson Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to: Describe domain-based GPOs. Explain how to create, link, and edit GPOs. Explain GPO storage. Describe starter GPOs. Perform common GPO management tasks. Explain how to delegate administration of GPOs. Describe how to use Windows PowerShell to manage GPOs.

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Domain-Based GPOs

Domain-based GPOs are created in AD DS and stored on domain controllers. You can use them to manage configuration centrally for the domains users and computers. The remainder of this course refers to domain-based GPOs rather than local GPOs, unless otherwise specified. When you install AD DS, two default GPOs are created: Default Domain Controllers Policy and Default Domain Policy.

Default Domain Policy


This GPO is linked to the domain, and has no security group or WMI filters. Therefore, it affects all users and computers in the domain, including computers that are domain controllers. This GPO contains policy settings that specify password, account lockout, and Kerberos version 5 protocol policies. You should not add unrelated policy settings to this GPO. If you need to configure other settings to apply broadly in your domain, create additional GPOs that link to the domain.

Default Domain Controllers Policy


This GPO is linked to the OU of the domain controllers. Because computer accounts for domain controllers are kept exclusively in the Domain Controllers OU, and other computer accounts should be kept in other OUs, this GPO affects only domain controllers. You should modify the Default Domain Controllers GPO to implement your auditing policies and to assign user rights required on domain controllers. Note: Windows computers also have local GPOs, which are used when computers are not connected to domain environments. Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2008 R2, and Windows Server 2012 support the notion of multiple local GPOs. The Local Computer GPO is the same as the GPO in the previous Windows versions. In the Computer Configuration node, you can configure all computer-related settings. In the User Configuration node, you can configure settings that you want to apply to all users on the computer. The user settings in the Local Computer GPO can be modified by the user settings in two new local GPOs: Administrators and NonAdministrators. These two GPOs apply user settings to logged-on users according to whether they are members of the local Administrators group, in which case they would use the Administrators GPO, or not members of the Administrators group, and therefore use the Non-Administrators GPO. You can further refine the user settings with a local GPO that applies to a specific user account. User-specific local GPOs are associated with local, not domain, user accounts.

It is important to understand that domain-based GPO setting combined with those applied using local GPOs, but as domainbased GPOs apply last, they take precedence over local GPO settings.

GPO Storage
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Group Policy settings are presented as GPOs in AD DS user interface tools, but a GPO is actually two components: a Group Policy container and a Group Policy template. The Group Policy container is an AD DS object stored in the Group Policy Objects container within the domain-naming context of the directory. Like all AD DS objects, each Group Policy container includes a globally unique identifier (GUID) attribute that uniquely identifies the object within AD DS. The Group Policy container defines basic attributes of the GPO, but it does not contain any of the settings. The settings are contained in the Group Policy template, a collection of files stored in the System Volume (SYSVOL) of each domain controller in the %SystemRoot%\SYSVOL\Domain\Policies\GPOGUID path, where GPOGUID is the GUID of the Group Policy container. When you make changes to the settings of a GPO, the changes are saved to the Group Policy template of the server from which the GPO was opened. By default, when Group Policy refresh occurs, the CSEs apply settings in a GPO only if the GPO has been updated. The Group Policy client can identify an updated GPO by its version number. Each GPO has a version number that is incremented each time a change is made. The version number is stored as a Group Policy container attribute and in a text file, Group Policy template.ini, in the Group Policy template folder. The Group Policy client knows the version number of each GPO it has previously applied. If, during Group Policy refresh, the Group Policy client discovers that the version number of the Group Policy container has been changed, the CSEs will be informed that the GPO is updated.

GPO Replication
Group Policy container and Group Policy template are both replicated between all domain controllers in AD DS. However, different replication mechanisms are used for these two items. The Group Policy container in AD DS is replicated by the Directory Replication Agent (DRA). The DRA uses a topology generated by the Knowledge Consistency Checker (KCC), which you can define or refine manually. The result is that the Group Policy container is replicated within seconds to all domain controllers in a site and is replicated between sites based on your intersite replication configuration. The Group Policy template in the SYSVOL is replicated by using one of the following two technologies. The File Replication Service (FRS) is used to replicate SYSVOL in domains running Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2003, and Windows 2000. If all domain controllers are running Windows Server 2008 or newer, you can configure SYSVOL replication by using Distributed File System (DFS) Replication, which is a much more efficient and robust mechanism. Because the Group Policy container and Group Policy template are replicated separately, it is possible for them to become out of sync for a short time.
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Typically, when this happens, the Group Policy container will replicate to a domain controller first. Systems that obtained their ordered list of GPOs from that domain controller will identify the new Group Policy container, will attempt to download the Group Policy template, and will notice that the version numbers are not the same. A policy processing error will be recorded in the event logs. If the reverse happens, and the GPO replicates to a domain controller before the Group Policy container, clients obtaining their ordered list of GPOs from that domain controller will not be notified of the new GPO until the Group Policy container has replicated.

Starter GPOs

A Starter GPO is used as a template from which to create other GPOs within GPMC. Starter GPOs only contain Administrative Template settings. You may use a Starter GPO to provide a starting point for new GPOs created in your domain. The Starter GPO already may contain specific settings that are recommended best practices for your environment. Starter GPOs can be exported to, and imported from, cabinet (.cab) files to make distribution to other environments simple and efficient. GPMC stores Starter GPOs in a folder named, StarterGPOs, which is located in SYSVOL. Preconfigured Starter GPOs from Microsoft are available for Windows client operating systems. These Starter GPOs contain Administrative Template settings that reflect Microsoft-recommended best practices for the configuration of the client environment.

Common GPO Management Tasks

Like critical data and AD DS-related resources, you must back up GPOs to protect the integrity of AD DS and GPOs. GPMC not only provides the basic backup and restore options, but also provides additional control over GPOs for administrative purposes. Options for managing GPOs include the following:
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Backing Up GPOs
You can back up GPOs individually or as a whole with GPMC. You must provide only a backup location, which can be any valid local or shared folder. You must have Read permission on the GPO to back it up. Every time that you perform a backup, a new backup version of the GPO is created, which provides a historical record.

Restoring Backed Up GPOs


You can restore any version of a GPO. If one becomes corrupt or you delete it, you can restore any of the historical versions of that GPO. The restore interface provides the ability for you to view the settings stored in the backed-up version before restoring it.

Importing GPO Settings from a Backed Up GPO


You can import policy settings from one GPO into another. Importing a GPO allows you to transfer settings from a backed up GPO to an existing GPO. Importing a GPO transfers only the GPO settings. The import process does not import GPO links. Security principals defined in the source may need to be migrated to target. Note: It is not possible to merge imported settings with the current target GPO settings. The imported settings will overwrite all existing settings.

Copying GPOs
You can copy GPOs by using GPMC, both in the same domain and across domains. A copy operation copies an existing, live GPO to the desired destination domain. A new GPO always gets created during this process. The new GPO is named copy of OldGPOName. For example, if you copied a GPO named Desktop, the new version would be named Copy of Desktop. After the file is copied and pasted into the Group Policy Objects container, you can rename the policy. The destination domain can be any trusted domain in which you have the rights to create new GPOs. When copying between domains, security principals defined in the source may need to be migrated to target. Note: It is not possible to copy settings from multiple GPOs into a single GPO.

Migration Tables
When importing GPOs or copying them between domains, you can use migration tables to modify references in the GPO that need to be adjusted for the new location. For example, you may need to replace the Universal Naming Convention (UNC) path for folder redirection with a UNC path that is appropriate for the new user group to which the GPO will be applied. You can create migration tables prior to this process, or you can create them during the import or cross-domain copy operation.

Delegating Administration of Group Policies

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Delegation of GPO-related tasks allows you to distribute the administrative workload across the enterprise. You can task one group with creating and editing GPOs, while another group performs reporting and analysis duties. A third group might be in charge of creating WMI filters. You can delegate the following Group Policy tasks independently: Creating GPOs Editing GPOs Managing Group Policy links for a site, domain, or OU Performing Group Policy Modeling analyses on a given domain or OU Reading Group Policy Results data for objects in a given domain or OU Creating WMI filters in a domain

The Group Policy Creator Owners group lets its members create new GPOs, and edit or delete GPOs that they have created.

Group Policy Default Permissions


By default, the following user and groups have Full Control over GPO management: Domain Admins Enterprise Admins Creator Owner Local System

The Authenticated User group has Read and Apply Group Policy permissions.

Creating GPOs
By default, only Domain Admins, Enterprise Admins, and Group Policy Creator Owners can create new GPOs. You can use two methods to grant a group or user this right:

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Add the user or group to the Group Policy Creator Owners group. Explicitly grant the group or user permission to create GPOs by using GPMC.

Editing GPOs
To edit a GPO, the user must have both Read and Write access to the GPO. You can grant this permission by using the GPMC.

Managing GPO Links


The ability to link GPOs to a container is a permission that is specific to that container. In GPMC, you can manage this permission by using the Delegation tab on the container. You also can delegate it through the Delegation of Control Wizard in Active Directory Users and Computers.

Group Policy Modeling and Group Policy Results


You can delegate the ability to use the reporting tools in the same fashion, through GPMC or the Delegation of Control Wizard in Active Directory Users and Computers.

Create WMI Filters


You can delegate the ability to create and manage WMI filters in the same fashion, through GPMC or the Delegation of Control Wizard in Active Directory Users and Computers.

Managing GPOs with Windows PowerShell

In addition to using the Group Policy Management console and the Group Policy Management Editor, you can also perform common GPO administrative tasks by using Windows PowerShell. The following table lists some of the more common administrative tasks possible with Windows PowerShell.

Cmdlet name

Description

New-GPO New-GPLink Backup-GPO

Creates a new GPO Creates a new GPO link for the specified GPO Backs up the specified GPOs

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Restore-GPO Copy-GPO Get-GPO Import-GPO Set-GPInheritance

Module 5: Implementing a Group Policy Infrastructure


Restores the specified GPOs Copies a GPO Gets the specified GPOs Imports the backed up settings into a specified GPO Grants specified permissions to a user or security group for the specified GPOs

For example, the following command creates a new GPO called Sales:

N e w G P ON a m eS a l e sc o m m e n t" T h i st h es a l e sG P O "

The following code imports the settings from the backed up Sales GPO stored in the C:\Backups folder into the NewSales GPO.

i m p o r t g p oB a c k u p G p o N a m eS a l e sT a r g e t N a m eN e w S a l e sp a t hc : \ b a c k u p s

Lesson 3: Group Policy Scope and Group Policy Processing


A GPO is, by itself, a collection of configuration instructions that will be processed by the CSEs of computers. Until the GPO is scoped, it does not apply to any users or computers. The GPOs scope determines the CSEs of which computers will receive and process the GPO, and only the computers or users within the scope of a GPO will apply the settings in that GPO. In this lesson, you will learn to manage the scope of a GPO. The following mechanisms are used to scope a GPO: The GPO link to a site, domain, or OU, and whether that link is enabled The Enforce option of a GPO The Block Inheritance option on an OU Security group filtering WMI filtering Policy node enabling or disabling Preferences targeting Loopback policy processing

You must be able to define the users or computers to which you plan to deploy these configurations. Consequently, you must master the art of scoping GPOs. In this lesson, you will learn each of the mechanisms with which you can scope a GPO and, in the process, you will master the concepts of Group Policy application, inheritance, and precedence.

Lesson Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to: Describe GPO links.
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Explain GPO processing. Describe GPO inheritance and precedence. Use security filters to filter GPO scope. Explain how to use WMI filters to filter GPO scope. Describe how to enable and disable GPOs. Explain how and when to use loopback processing. Explain considerations for computers that are disconnected, or which are connected by slow links. Explain when Group Policy settings take effect.

GPO Links

You can link a GPO to one or more AD DS sites, domains, or OUs. After you have linked a GPO, the users or computers in that container are within the scope of the GPO, including computers and users in child OUs.

Link a GPO
To link a GPO, either: Right-click the domain or OU in the GPMC console tree, and then click Link as existing GPO. If you have not yet created a GPO, click Create A GPO In This {Domain | OU | Site} And Link It Here .

You can choose the same commands to link a GPO to a site, but by default, your AD DS sites are not visible in the GPMC. To show sites in the GPMC, right-click Sites in the GPMC console tree, and then click Show Sites. Note: A GPO linked to a site affects all computers in the site, without regard to the domain to which the computers belong, as long as all computers belong to the same Active Directory forest. Therefore, when you link a GPO to a site, that GPO can be applied to multiple domains within a forest. Site-linked GPOs are stored on domain controllers in the domain in which you create the GPO. Therefore, domain controllers for that domain must be accessible for site-linked GPOs to be applied correctly. If you implement site-linked policies, you must consider policy application when planning your network infrastructure. You can either place a domain controller from the GPOs domain in the site to which the policy is linked, or ensure that a WAN connectivity provides accessibility to a domain controller in the GPOs domain.
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When you link a GPO to a container, you define the initial scope of the GPO. Select a GPO, and then click the Scope tab to identify the containers to which the GPO is linked. In the details pane of the GPMC, the GPO links are displayed in the first section of the Scope tab. The impact of the GPOs links is that the Group Policy Client downloads the GPO if either the computer or the user objects fall within the scope of the link. The GPO will be downloaded only if it is new or updated. The Group Policy Client caches the GPO to make policy refresh more efficient.

Link a GPO to Multiple OUs


You can link a GPO to more than one site or OU. It is common, for example, to apply configuration to computers in several OUs. You can define the configuration in a single GPO, and then link that GPO to each OU. If you later change settings in the GPO, your changes will apply to all OUs to which the GPO is linked.

Delete or Disable a GPO Link


After you have linked a GPO, the GPO link appears in the GPMC underneath the site, domain, or OU. The icon for the GPO link has a small shortcut arrow. When you right-click the GPO link, a context menu appears: To delete a GPO link, right-click the GPO link in the GPMC console tree, and then click Delete .

Deleting a GPO link does not delete the GPO itself, which remains in that GPO container. However, deleting the link does change the scope of the GPO, so that it no longer applies to computers and users within the previously linked container object. You also can modify a GPO link by disabling it: To disable a GPO link, right-click the GPO link in the GPMC console tree and then clear the Link Enabled option.

Disabling the link also changes the GPO scope so that it no longer applies to computers and users within that container. However, the link remains so that you can more easily re-enable it.

Demonstration: How to Link GPOs


This demonstration shows how to: Open the Group Policy Management console. Create two new GPOs. Link the first GPO to the domain. Link the second GPO to the IT OU. Disable the first GPOs link. Delete the second GPO. Re-enable the first GPOs link.

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Demonstration Steps Create and edit two GPOs


1. 2. 3. Open the Group Policy Management Console . Create two new GPOs called Remove Run Command and Do Not Remove Run Command. Edit the settings of the two GPOs.

Link the GPOs to different locations


1. Link the Remove Run Command GPO to the domain. The Remove Run Command GPO is now attached to the Adatum.com domain. 2. Link the Do Not Remove Run Command GPO to the IT OU. The Do Not Remove Run Command GPO is now attached to the IT OU. 3. View the GPO inheritance on the IT OU. The Group Policy Inheritance tab shows the order of precedence for the Group Policy objects.

Disable a GPO link


1. 2. Disable the Remove Run Command GPO on the Adatum.com domain. Refresh the Group Policy Inheritance pane for the IT OU and then notice the results in the right pane. The Remove Run Command GPO is no longer listed.

Delete a GPO link


1. Select the IT OU, and then delete the Do Not Remove Run Command GPO link. Verify the removal of the Do Not Remove Run command and the absence of the Remove Run command GPOs. 2. Enable the Remove Run Command GPO on the Adatum.com domain. Refresh the Group Policy Inheritance window for the IT OU, and then notice the results in the right pane.

Group Policy Processing Order

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The GPOs that apply to a user, computer, or both do not all apply at once. GPOs are applied in a particular order. This order means that settings that are processed first may be overwritten by conflicting settings that are processed later. Group Policy follows the following hierarchical processing order: 1. Local group policies. Each computer running Windows 2000 or newer has at least one local group policy. The local policies are applied first. 2. Site group policies. Policies linked to sites are processed second. If there are multiple site policies, they are processed synchronously in the listed preference order. 3. Domain group policies. Policies linked to domains are processed third. If there are multiple domain policies, they are processed synchronously in the listed preference order. 4. OU group policies. Policies linked to top-level OUs are processed fourth. If there are multiple top-level OU policies, they are processed synchronously in the listed preference order. 5. Child OU group policies. Policies linked to child OUs are processed fifth. If there are multiple child OU policies, they are processed synchronously in the listed preference order. When there are multiple levels of child OUs, policies for higher-level OUs are applied first and policies for the lower-level OUs are applied next.

In Group Policy application, the general rule is that the last policy applied wins. For example, a policy that restricts access to Control Panel applied at the domain level could be reversed by a policy applied at the OU level for the objects contained in that particular OU. If you link several GPOs to an OU, their processing occurs in the order that the administrator specifies on the OUs Linked Group Policy Objects tab in the GPMC. By default, processing is enabled for all GPO links. You can disable a containers GPO link to block the application of a GPO completely for a given site, domain, or OU. Note that if the GPO is linked to other containers, they will continue to process the GPO if their links are enabled. You also can disable the user or computer configuration of a particular GPO independent of either the user or computer. If one section of a policy is known to be empty, disabling the other side speeds up policy processing. For example, if you have a policy that only delivers user desktop configuration, you could disable the computer side of the policy.

Configuring GPO Inheritance and Precedence

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You can configure a policy setting in more than one GPO, which results in GPOs conflicting with each other. For example, you may enable a policy setting in one GPO, disable it in another GPO, and then not configure it in a third GPO. In this case, the precedence of the GPOs determines which policy setting the client applies. A GPO with higher precedence prevails over a GPO with lower precedence. Precedence is shown as a number in the GPMC. The smaller the numberthat is, the closer to 1the higher the precedence. Therefore, a GPO that has a precedence of 1 will prevail over other GPOs. Select the relevant AD DS container, and then click the Group Policy Inheritance tab to view the precedence of each GPO. When a policy setting is enabled or disabled in a GPO with higher precedence, the configured setting takes effect. However, remember that policy settings are set to Not Configured, by default. If a policy setting is not configured in a GPO with higher precedence, the policy setting (either enabled or disabled) in a GPO with lower precedence will take effect. You can link more than one GPO to an AD DS container object. The link order of GPOs determines the precedence of GPOs in such a scenario. GPOs with a higher-link order take precedence over GPOs with a lower-link order. When you select an OU in the GPMC, the Linked Group Policy Objects tab shows the link order of GPOs linked to that OU. The default behavior of Group Policy is that GPOs linked to a higher-level container are inherited by lower-level containers. When a computer starts up or a user logs on, the Group Policy Client examines the location of the computer or user object in AD DS, and evaluates the GPOs with scopes that include the computer or user. Then, the CSEs apply policy settings from these GPOs. Policies are applied sequentially, beginning with the policies linked to the site, followed by those linked to the domain, followed by those linked to OUsfrom the top-level OU down to the OU in which the user or computer object exists. It is a layered application of settings, so a GPO that is applied later in the process, because it has higher precedence, overrides settings applied earlier in the process. The sequential application of GPOs creates an effect called policy inheritance. Policies are inherited, so the resultant set of Group Policies for a user or computer will be the cumulative effect of site, domain, and OU policies. By default, inherited GPOs have lower precedence than GPOs linked directly to the container. For example, you might configure a policy setting to disable the use of registry-editing tools for all users in the domain by configuring the policy setting in a GPO linked to the domain. That GPO, and its policy setting, is inherited by all users within the domain. However, you probably want administrators to be able to use registry-editing tools, so you will link a GPO to the OU that contains administrators accounts, and then configure the policy setting to allow the use of registry-editing tools. Because the GPO linked to the administrators OU takes higher precedence than the inherited GPO, administrators will be able to use registry-editing tools.

Precedence of Multiple Linked GPOs


If there are multiple GPOs linked to an AD DS container object, the objects link order determines their precedence. To change the precedence of a GPO link: 1. 2. 3. 4. Select the AD DS container object in the GPMC console tree. Click the Linked Group Policy Objects tab in the details pane. Select the GPO. Use the Up, Down, Move To Top, and Move To Bottom arrows to change the link order of the selected GPO.

Block Inheritance
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You can configure a domain or OU to prevent the inheritance of policy settings. This is known as blocking inheritance. To block inheritance, right-click the domain or OU in the GPMC console tree, and then select Block Inheritance . The Block Inheritance option is a property of a domain or OU, so it blocks all Group Policy settings from GPOs linked to parents in the Group Policy hierarchy. For example, when you block inheritance on an OU, GPO application begins with any GPOs linked directly to that OU. Therefore, GPOs linked to higher-level OUs, the domain, or the site will not apply. You should use the Block Inheritance option sparingly because blocking inheritance makes it more difficult to evaluate Group Policy precedence and inheritance. With security group filtering, you can carefully scope a GPO so that it applies to only the correct users and computers in the first place, making it unnecessary to use the Block Inheritance option.

Enforce a GPO Link


Additionally, you can set a GPO link to be Enforced. To enforce a GPO link, right-click the GPO link in the console tree, and then select Enforced from the context menu. When you set a GPO link to Enforced, the GPO takes the highest level of precedence; policy settings in that GPO will prevail over any conflicting policy settings in other GPOs. Furthermore, a link that is enforced will apply to child containers even when those containers are set to Block Inheritance. The Enforced option causes the policy to apply to all objects within its scope. Enforced will cause policies to override any conflicting policies and will apply regardless of whether a Block Inheritance option is set. Enforcement is useful when you must configure a GPO that defines a configuration mandated by your corporate IT security and usage policies. Therefore, you want to ensure that other GPOs do not override those settings. You can do this by enforcing the GPOs link.

Evaluating Precedence
To facilitate evaluation of GPO precedence, you can simply select an OU (or domain), and then click the Group Policy Inheritance tab. This tab will display the resulting precedence of GPOs, accounting for GPO link, link order, inheritance blocking, and link enforcement. This tab does not account for policies that are linked to a site, nor does it account for GPO security or WMI filtering.

Using Security Filtering to Modify Group Scope

Although you can use Enforcement and Block Inheritance options to control the application of GPOs to container objects, you might need to apply GPOs only to certain groups of users or computers rather than to all users or computers within the scope of the GPO. Although you cannot directly link a GPO to a security group, there is a way to apply GPOs to specific security groups.
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The policies in a GPO apply only to users who have Allow Read and Allow Apply Group Policy permissions to the GPO. Each GPO has an ACL that defines permissions to the GPO. Two permissions, Allow Read and Allow Apply Group Policy, are required for a GPO to apply to a user or computer. For example, if a GPO is scoped to a computer by its link to the computers OU, but the computer does not have Read and Apply Group Policy permissions, it will not download and apply the GPO. Therefore, by setting the appropriate permissions for security groups, you can filter a GPO so that its settings apply only to the computers and users that you specify. By default, Authenticated Users are given the Allow Apply Group Policy permission on each new GPO. This means that by default, all users and computers are affected by the GPOs set for their domain, site, or OU, regardless of the other groups in which they might be members. Therefore, there are two ways of filtering GPO scope: Remove the Apply Group Policy permission (currently set to Allow) for the Authenticated Users group, but do not set this permission to Deny. Then, determine the groups to which the GPO should be applied and set the Read and Apply Group Policy permissions for these groups to Allow. Determine the groups to which the GPO should not be applied and set the Apply Group Policy permission for these groups to Deny. If you deny the Apply Group Policy permission to a GPO, the user or computer will not apply settings in the GPO, even if the user or computer is a member of another group that is allowed the Apply Group Policy Permission.

Filtering a GPO to Apply to Specific Groups


To apply a GPO to a specific security group: 1. 2. Select the GPO in the Group Policy Objects container in the console tree. In the Security Filtering section, select the Authenticated Users group, and then click Remove .

Note: You cannot filter GPOs with domain local security groups.

3. 4. 5.

Click OK to confirm the change. Click Add. Select the group to which you want the policy to apply, and then click OK.

Filtering a GPO to Exclude Specific Groups


The Scope tab of a GPO does not allow you to exclude specific groups. To exclude a groupthat is, to deny the Apply Group Policy permissionyou must use the Delegation tab. To deny a group the Apply Group Policy permission: 1. 2. 3. Select the GPO in the Group Policy Objects container in the console tree. Click the Delegation tab. Click the Advanced button. The Security Settings dialog box appears.
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4. 5.

Click the Add button. Select the group you want to exclude from the GPO. Remember, it must be a global group. GPO scope cannot be filtered by domain local groups.

6. 7. 8. 9.

Click OK. The group you selected is given the Allow Read permission, by default. Clear the Allow Read permission check box. Select the Deny Apply Group Policy check box. Click OK. You are warned that Deny permissions override other permissions. Because Deny permissions override Allow permissions, we recommend that you use them sparingly. Microsoft Windows reminds you of this best practice with the warning message. The process to exclude groups with the Deny Apply Group Policy permission is far more laborious than the process to include groups in the Security Filtering section of the Scope tab.

10. Confirm that you want to continue.

Note: Deny permissions are not exposed on the Scope tab. Unfortunately, when you exclude a group, the exclusion is not shown in the Security Filtering section of the Scope tab. This is yet one more reason to use Deny permissions sparingly.

What Are WMI Filters?

WMI is a management-infrastructure technology that enables administrators to monitor and control managed objects in the network. A WMI query is capable of filtering systems based on characteristics, including random access memory (RAM), processor speed, disk capacity, IP address, operating-system version, and service-pack level, installed applications, and printer properties. Because WMI exposes almost every property of every object within a computer, the list of attributes that you can use in a WMI query is virtually unlimited. WMI queries are written by using WMI Query Language (WQL). You can use a WMI query to create a WMI filter, with which you can filter a GPO. You can use Group Policy to deploy software applications and service packs. You might create a GPO to deploy an application, and then use a WMI filter to specify that the policy should apply only to computers with a certain operating system and service pack, such as Windows XP Service Pack 3 (SP3). The WMI query to identify such systems is:

S e l e c t*F R O MW i n 3 2 _ O p e r a t i n g S y s t e mW H E R EC a p t i o n = " M i c r o s o f tW i n d o w sX PP r o f e s s i o n a l "A N D C S D V e r s i o n = " S e r v i c eP a c k3 "


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When the Group Policy Client evaluates GPOs it has downloaded to determine which should be handed off to the CSEs for processing, it performs the query against the local system. If the system meets the criteria of the query, the query result is a logical True, and the CSEs process the GPO. WMI exposes namespaces, within which are classes that can be queried. Many useful classes, including Win32_Operating System, are found in a class called root\CIMv2. To create a WMI filter: 1. Right-click the WMI Filters node in the GPMC console tree, and then click New . Type a name and description for the filter, and then click the Add button. 2. 3. 4. In the Namespace box, type the namespace for your query. In the Query box, enter the query. Click OK.

To filter a GPO with a WMI filter: 1. 2. 3. Select the GPO or GPO link in the console tree. Click the Scope tab. Click the WMI drop-down list, and then select the WMI filter.

You can filter a GPO with only a single WMI filter, but you can create a WMI filter with a complex query that uses multiple criteria. You can link a single WMI filter to one or more GPOs. The General tab of a WMI filter displays the GPOs that use the WMI filter. There are three significant caveats regarding WMI filters: First, the WQL syntax of WMI queries can be challenging to master. You often can find examples on the Internet when you search by using the keywords WMI filter and WMI query, along with a description of the query that you want to create. Second, WMI filters are expensive in terms of Group Policy processing performance. Because the Group Policy Client must perform the WMI query at each policy processing interval, there is a slight impact on system performance every 90 to 120 minutes. With the performance of todays computers, the impact might not be noticeable. However, you should test the effects of a WMI filter prior to deploying it widely in your production environment.

Note: Note that the WMI query is processed only once, even if you use it to filter the scope of multiple GPOs.

Third, WMI filters are not processed by computers running the Microsoft Windows 2000 Server operating system. If a GPO is filtered with a WMI filter, a Windows 2000 Server system ignores the filter, and then processes the GPO as if the results of the filter were true.

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Demonstration: How to Filter Policies


This demonstration shows how to: Create a GPO that removes the Help menu link from the Start menu, and then link it to the IT OU. Use security filtering to exempt a user from the GPO. Test Group Policy application.

Demonstration Steps Create a new GPO, and link it to the IT organizational unit
1. 2. 3. Open the Group Policy Management console on LON-DC1. Create a new GPO called Remove Help menu, and then link it to the IT organizational unit. Modify the settings of the GPO to remove Help from the Start menu.

Filter Group Policy application by using security group filtering


1. Remove the Authenticated Users entry from the Security Filtering list for the Remove Help menu GPO in the IT organizational unit. 2. Add the user Ed Meadows to the Security Filtering list. Now, only Ed Meadows has the apply policy permission.

Filter Group Policy application by using WMI filtering


1. 2. Create a WMI filter called XP filter. Add the following query to the filter:
S e l e c t*f r o mW i n 3 2 _ O p e r a t i n g S y s t e mw h e r eC a p t i o n=" M i c r o s o f tW i n d o w sX PP r o f e s s i o n a l "

3. 4. 5. 6.

Save the query as XP filter. Create a new GPO called Software Updates for XP, and link it to the IT organizational unit. Modify the policys properties to use the XP filter. Close the Group Policy Management console.

Enable of Disable GPOs and GPO Nodes

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You can prevent the settings in the Computer Configuration or User Configuration nodes from processing during policy refresh by changing the GPO Status. To enable or disable a GPO's nodes, select the GPO or GPO link in the console tree, click the Details tab, shown in the figure, and then select one of the following from the GPO Status drop-down list: Enabled. Both computer configuration settings and user configuration settings will be processed by CSEs during policy refresh. All Settings Disabled. CSEs will not process the GPO during policy refresh. Computer Configuration Settings Disabled. During computer policy refresh, computer configuration settings in the GPO will not be applied. User Configuration Settings Disabled. During user policy refresh, user configuration settings in the GPO will not be applied.

You can configure GPO status to optimize policy processing. For example, if a GPO contains only user settings, then setting the GPO Status option to disable computer settings prevents the Group Policy client from attempting to process the GPO during computer policy refresh. Because the GPO contains no computer settings, there is no need to process the GPO, and you can save a few processor cycles. Note: You can define a configuration that should take effect in case of an emergency, security incident, or other disasters in a GPO, and then link the GPO so that it is scoped to appropriate users and computers. Then, disable the GPO. If you require the configuration to be deployed, enable the GPO.

Loopback Policy Processing

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By default, a users settings come from GPOs scoped to the user object in AD DS. Regardless of which computer the user logs on to, the resultant set of policies that determine the users environment is the same. There are situations, however, in which you might want to configure a user differently, depending on the computer in use. For example, you might want to lock down and standardize user desktops when users sign in to computers in closely managed environments, such as conference rooms, reception areas, laboratories, classrooms, and kiosks. It also is important for Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (VDI) scenarios, including remote virtual machines and Remote Desktop Services (RDS). Imagine a scenario in which you want to enforce a standard corporate appearance for the Windows desktop on all computers in conference rooms and other public areas of your office. How will you centrally manage this configuration by using Group Policy? Policy settings that configure desktop appearance are located in the User Configuration node of a GPO. Therefore, by default, the settings apply to users, regardless of which computer they sign in to. The default policy processing does not give you a way to scope user settings to apply to computers, regardless of which user logs on. That is how loopback policy processing can be useful. Loopback policy processing alters the default algorithm that the Group Policy client uses to obtain the ordered list of GPOs that should be applied to a users configuration. Instead of user configuration being determined by the User Configuration node of GPOs that are scoped to the user object, user configuration can be determined by the User Configuration node policies of GPOs that are scoped to the computer object. The Configure user Group Policy loopback processing mode policy, located in the Computer Configuration\Policies\Administrative Templates\System\Group Policy folder in Group Policy Management Editor, can be, like all policy settings, set to Not Configured, Enabled, or Disabled. When enabled, the policy can specify the Replace or Merge mode: Replace. In this case, the GPO list for the user is replaced entirely by the GPO list already obtained for the computer at computer startup. The settings in User Configuration policies of the computers GPOs are applied to the user. The Replace mode is useful in a situation such as a classroom where users should receive a standard configuration rather than the configuration applied to those users in a less managed environment. Merge. In this case, the GPO list obtained for the computer at computer startup is appended to the GPO list obtained for the user when logging on. Because the GPO list obtained for the computer is applied later, settings in GPOs on the computers list have precedence if they conflict with settings in the users list. This mode would be useful to apply additional settings to users typical configurations. For example, you might allow a user to receive the users typical configuration when logging on to a computer in a conference room or reception area, but replace the wallpaper with a standard bitmap, and disable the use of certain applications or devices.
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Note: Note that when you combine loopback processing with security group filtering, the application of user settings during policy refresh uses the computers credentials to determine which GPOs to apply as part of the loopback processing. However, the logged-on user also must have the Apply Group Policy permission for the GPO to be applied successfully. Also note that the loopback processing flag is configured on a per-session basis rather than per GPO.

Considerations for Slow Links and Disconnected Systems

Some settings that you can configure with Group Policy can be impacted by the speed of the link that the users computer has with your domain network. For instance, deploying software by using GPOs would be inappropriate over slower links. Furthermore, it is important to consider the effect of Group Policies on computers that are disconnected from the domain network.

Slow Links
The Group Policy Client addresses the issue of slow links by detecting the connection speed to the domain, and by determining whether the connection should be considered a slow link. That determination is then used by each CSE to decide whether to apply settings. The software extension, for example, is configured to forgo policy processing, so that software is not installed if a slow link is detected. Note: By default, a link is considered to be slow if it is less than 500 kilobits per second (Kbps). However, you can configure this to a different speed.

If Group Policy detects a slow link, it sets a flag to indicate the slow link to the CSEs. The CSEs then can determine whether to process the applicable Group Policy settings. The following table describes the default behavior of the client-side extensions.

Client-side extension
Registry policy processing Internet Explorer maintenance Software Installation policy Folder Redirection policy Scripts policy

Slow link processing


On Off Off Off Off

Can it be changed?
No Yes Yes Yes Yes

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Security policy Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) policy Wireless policy Encrypted File System (EFS) Recovery policy Disk Quota policy

Module 5: Implementing a Group Policy Infrastructure


On Off Off On Off No Yes Yes Yes Yes

Disconnected Computers
If a user is working while disconnected from the network, the settings previously applied by Group Policy continue to take effect. That way, a users experience is identical, irrespective of whether he or she is on the network or away. There are exceptions to this rule, most notably that startup, logon, logoff, and shutdown scripts will not run if the user is disconnected. If a remote user connects to the network, the Group Policy client wakes up and determines whether a Group Policy refresh window was missed. If so, it performs a Group Policy refresh to obtain the latest GPOs from the domain. Again, the CSEs determine, based on their policy processing settings, whether settings in those GPOs are applied. Note: This process does not apply to Windows XP or Windows Server 2003 systems. It applies only to Windows Vista, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows 7, Windows 8, and Windows Server 2012.

Identifying When Settings Become Effective

There are several processes that must be completed before Group Policy settings are actually applied to a user or a computer. This topic discusses these processes.

GPO Replication Must Happen


Before a GPO can take effect, the Group Policy container in Active Directory must be replicated to the domain controller from which the Group Policy Client obtains its ordered list of GPOs. Additionally, the Group Policy template in SYSVOL must replicate to the same domain controller.

Group Changes Must Be Incorporated


Finally, if you have added a new group or changed the membership of a group that is used to filter the GPO, that change also must be replicated. Furthermore, the change must be in the security token of the computer and the user, which requires a restart (for the computer to update its group membership) or a logoff and logon (for the user to update its group membership).

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User or Computer Group Policy Refresh Must Occur


Refresh happens at startup (for computer settings), at logon (for user settings), and every 90 to 120 minutes thereafter, by default. Note: Remember that the practical impact of the Group Policy refresh interval is that when you make a change in your environment, it will be, on average, one-half that time, or 45 to 60 minutes, before the change starts to take effect.

By default, Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7, and Windows 8 clients perform only background refreshes at startup and logon, which means that a client might start up and a user might sign in without receiving the latest policies from the domain. We highly recommend that you change this default behavior so that policy changes are implemented in a managed, predictable way. Enable the policy setting Always Wait For Network At Startup And Logon for all Windows clients. The setting is located in Computer Configuration\Policies\Administrative Templates\System\Logon. Be sure to read the policy settings explanatory text. Note that this does not affect the startup or logon time for computers that are not connected to a network. If the computer detects that it is disconnected, it does not "wait" for a network.

Logon or Restart
Although most settings are applied during a background policy refresh, some CSEs do not apply the setting until the next startup or logon event. For example, newly added startup and logon script policies do not run until the next computer startup or logon. Software installation will occur at the next startup if the software is assigned in computer settings. Changes to folder-redirection policies will not take effect until the next logon.

Manually Refresh Group Policy


When you experiment with Group Policy troubleshoot Group Policy processing, you might need to initiate a Group Policy refresh manually so that you do not have to wait for the next background refresh. You can use the GPUpdate command to initiate a Group Policy refresh. Used on its own, this command triggers processing identical to a background Group Policy refresh. Both computer policy and user policy are refreshed. Use the /target:computer or /target:user parameter to limit the refresh to computer or user settings, respectively. During background refresh, by default, settings are applied only if the GPO has been updated. The /force switch causes the system to reapply all settings in all GPOs scoped to the user or computer. Some policy settings require a logoff or reboot before they actually take effect. The /logoff and /boot switches of GPUpdate cause a logoff or reboot, respectively. You can use these switches when you apply settings that require a logoff or reboot. For example, the command that will cause a total refresh application, and, if necessary, reboot and logon to apply updated policy settings is:

g p u p d a t e/ f o r c e/ l o g o f f/ b o o t

Most CSEs Do Not Reapply Settings if the GPO Has Not Changed
Remember that most CSEs apply settings in a GPO only if the GPO version has changed. This means that if a user can change a setting that was specified originally by Group Policy, the setting will not be brought back into compliance with the settings that the GPO specifies until the GPO changes. Fortunately, most policy settings cannot be changed by a nonprivileged user. However, if a user is an administrator of his or her computer, or if the policy setting affects a part of the registry or of the system that the user has permissions to change, this could be a real problem. You have the option of instructing each CSE to reapply the settings of GPOs, even if the GPOs have not been changed. Processing
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behavior of each CSE can be configured in the policy settings found in Computer Configuration\Administrative Templates\System\Group Policy.

Lesson 4: Troubleshooting the Application of GPOs


With the interaction of multiple settings in multiple GPOs scoped by using a variety of methods, Group Policy application can be complex to analyze and understand. Therefore, you must be equipped to evaluate and troubleshoot your Group Policy implementation effectively, identify potential problems before they arise, and solve unforeseen challenges. Windows Server provides tools that are indispensable for supporting Group Policy. In this lesson, you will explore the use of these tools in both proactive and reactive troubleshooting and support scenarios.

Lesson Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to: Describe how to refresh GPOs on a client computer. Analyze the set of GPOs and policy settings that have been applied to a user or computer. Generate Resultant Set of Policy (RSoP) reports to help in the analysis of GPO settings. Proactively model the impact of Group Policy or Active Directory changes on the RSOP. Locate the event logs containing Group Policyrelated events.

Refreshing GPOs

Computer configuration settings are applied at startup, and then are refreshed at regular intervals. Any startup scripts are run at computer startup. The default interval is every 90 minutes, but this is configurable. The exception to the set interval is domain controllers, which have their settings refreshed every five minutes. User settings are applied at logon and are refreshed at regular, configurable intervals; the default is also 90 minutes. Any logon scripts are run at logon. Note: A number of user settings require two logons before the user sees the effect of the GPO. This is because users logging on to the same computer use cached credentials to speed up logons. This means that, although the policy settings are being delivered to the computer, the user is already logged on and the settings will therefore not take effect until the next logon. The folder redirection setting is an example of this.
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You can change the refresh interval by configuring a Group Policy setting. For computer settings, the refresh interval setting is found in the Computer Configuration\Policies\Administrative Templates \System\Group Policy node. For user settings, the refresh interval is found at the corresponding settings under User Configuration. An exception to the refresh interval is security settings. The security settings section of the Group Policy will be refreshed at least every 16 hours, regardless of the interval that you set for the refresh interval. You can also refresh Group Policy manually. The command line utility Gpupdate refreshes and delivers any new Group Policy configurations. The Gpupdate /force command refreshes all the Group Policy settings. There is also a new Windows PowerShell Invoke-Gpupdate cmdlet, which performs the same function. A new feature in Windows Server 2012 is Remote Policy Refresh. This feature allows administrators to use the GPMC to target an OU and force Group Policy refresh on all of its computers and their currently logged-on users. To do this, you right-click any OU, and then click Group Policy Update . The update occurs within 10 minutes. Note: Sometimes, the failure of a GPO to apply is as a result of problems with the underlying technology that is responsible for replicating both AD DS and SYSVOL. In Windows Server 2012, you can view the replication status by using Group Policy Management, selecting the Domain node, clicking the Status tab, and then click Detect Now .

Resultant Set of Policy

Group Policy inheritance, filters, and exceptions are complex, and it is often difficult to determine which policy settings will apply. RSoP is the net effect of GPOs applied to a user or computer, taking into account GPO links, exceptions, such as Enforced and Block Inheritance, and application of security and WMI filters. RSoP is also a collection of tools that help you evaluate, model, and troubleshoot the application of Group Policy settings. RSoP can query a local or remote computer, and then report back the exact settings that were applied to the computer and to any user who has logged on to the computer. RSoP also can model the policy settings that are anticipated to be applied to a user or computer under a variety of scenarios, including moving the object between OUs or sites, or changing the objects group membership. With these capabilities, RSoP can help you manage and troubleshoot conflicting policies. Windows Server 2012 provides the following tools for performing RSoP analysis: The Group Policy Results Wizard
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The Group Policy Modeling Wizard GPResult.exe

Generate RSoP Reports

To help you analyze the cumulative effect of GPOs and policy settings on a user or computer in your organization, the GPMC includes the Group Policy Results Wizard. If you want to understand exactly which policy settings have applied to a user or a computer, and why, the Group Policy Results Wizard is the tool to use.

Generate RSoP Reports with the Group Policy Results Wizard


The Group Policy Results Wizard can reach into the WMI provider on a local or remote computer that is running Window Vista or newer. The WMI provider can report everything there is to know about the way Group Policy was applied to the system. It knows when processing occurred, which GPOs were applied, which GPOs were not applied and why, errors that were encountered, and the exact policy settings that took precedence and their source GPO. There are several requirements for running the Group Policy Results Wizard, as follows: The target computer must be online. You must have administrative credentials on the target computer. The target computer must be running Windows XP or newer. The Group Policy Results Wizard cannot access Windows 2000 systems. You must be able to access WMI on the target computer. This means the computer must be online, connected to the network, and accessible through ports 135 and 445.

Note: Performing RSoP analysis by using Group Policy Results Wizard is just one example of remote administration. To perform remote administration, you may need to configure inbound rules for the firewall that your clients and servers use.

The WMI service must be started on the target computer. If you want to analyze RSoP for a user, that user must have logged on at least once to the computer, although it is not necessary for the user to be currently logged on.
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After you have ensured that the requirements are met, you are ready to run an RSoP analysis. To run an RSoP report, right-click Group Policy Results in the GPMC console tree, and then click Group Policy Results Wizard. The wizard prompts you to select a computer. It then connects to the WMI provider on that computer, and provides a list of users that have logged on to it. You then can select one of the users, or you can skip RSoP analysis for user configuration policies. The wizard produces a detailed RSoP report in a dynamic HTML format. If Internet Explorer Enhanced Security Configuration is set, you will be prompted to allow the console to display the dynamic content. You can expand or collapse each section of the report by clicking the Show or Hide link, or by double-clicking the heading of the section. The report is displayed on three tabs: Summary. The Summary tab displays the status of Group Policy processing at the last refresh. You can identify information that was collected about the system, the GPOs that were applied and denied, security group membership that might have affected GPOs filtered with security groups, WMI filters that were analyzed, and the status of CSEs. Settings. The Settings tab displays the resultant set of policy settings applied to the computer or user. This tab shows you exactly what has happened to the user through the effects of your Group Policy implementation. You can learn a tremendous amount of information from the Settings tab, although some data is not reported, including IPsec, wireless, and disk-quota policy settings. Policy Events. The Policy Events tab displays Group Policy events from the event logs of the target computer.

After you generate an RSoP report with the Group Policy Results Wizard, you can right-click the report to rerun the query, print the report, or save the report as either an XML file or an HTML file that maintains the dynamic expanding and collapsing sections. You can open both file types with Internet Explorer, so the RSoP report is portable outside the GPMC. If you right-click the node of the report itself, under the Group Policy Results folder in the console tree, you can switch to Advanced View . In Advanced View, RSoP is displayed by using the RSoP snap-in, which exposes all applied settings, including IPsec, wireless, and disk quota policies.

Generate RSoP Reports with GPResult.exe


The GPResult.exe command is the command-line version of the Group Policy Results Wizard. GPResult taps into the same WMI provider as the wizard, produces the same information and, in fact, enables you to create the same graphical reports. GPResult runs on Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, and Windows Server 2012. Note: Windows 2000 includes a GPResult.exe command, which produces a limited report of Group Policy processing. However, it is not as sophisticated as the command that newer Windows versions include.

When you run the GPResult command, you are likely to use the following options:

/ s c o m p u t e r n a m e

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This option specifies the name or IP address of a remote system. If you use a dot (.) as the computer name, or do not include the /s option, the RSoP analysis is performed on the local computer:

/ s c o p e[ u s e r|c o m p u t e r ]

This displays RSoP analysis for user or computer settings. If you omit the /scope option, RSoP analysis includes both user and computer settings:

/ u s e r u s e r n a m e

This specifies the name of the user for which you want to display RSoP data:

/ r

This option displays a summary of RSoP data:

/ v

This option displays verbose RSoP data, which presents the most meaningful information:

/ z

This displays super verbose data, including the details of all policy settings applied to the system. Often, this is more information than you will require for typical Group Policy troubleshooting:

/ u d o m a i n \ u s e r / p p a s s w o r d

This provides credentials that are in the Administrators group of a remote system. Without these credentials, GPResult runs by using the credentials with which you are logged on:

[ / x|/ h ]f i l e n a m e

This option saves the reports in the XML or HTML format. These options are available in Windows Vista Service Pack 1 (SP1) and newer, Windows Server 2008 and newer, Windows 7, and Windows 8.

Troubleshoot Group Policy with the Group Policy Results Wizard or GPResult.exe
As an administrator, you will likely encounter scenarios that require Group Policy troubleshooting. You might need to diagnose
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and solve problems, including the following: GPOs are not being applied at all. The resultant set of policies for a computer or user is not what was expected.

The Group Policy Results Wizard and GPResult.exe often will provide the most valuable insight into Group Policy processing and application problems. Remember that these tools examine the WMI RSoP provider to report exactly what happened on a system. Examining the RSoP report will often point you to GPOs that are scoped incorrectly or policy processing errors that prevented the application of GPO settings.

Demonstration: How to Perform What-If Analysis with the Group Policy Modeling Wizard
If you move a computer or user between sites, domains, or OUs, or change its security group membership, the GPOs scoped to that user or computer will change. Therefore, the RSoP for the computer or user will be different. The RSoP will also change if slow link or loopback processing occurs, or if there is a change to a system characteristic that a WMI filter targets. Before you make any of these changes, you should evaluate the potential impact that a user or computer will have on the RSoP. The Group Policy Results Wizard can perform RSoP analysis only on what has actually happened. To predict the future, and to perform what-if analyses, you can use the Group Policy Modeling Wizard. To perform Group Policy Modeling, right-click the Group Policy Modeling node in the GPMC console tree, click Group Policy Modeling Wizard, and then perform the steps in the wizard. Modeling is performed by conducting a simulation on a domain controller, so you are first asked to select a domain controller. You do not need to be logged on locally to the domain controller, but the modeling request will be performed on the domain controller. You then are asked to specify the settings for the simulation, including to: Select a user or computer object to evaluate, or specify the OU, site, or domain to evaluate. Choose whether slow link processing should be simulated. Specify to simulate loopback processing and, if so, choose Replace or Merge mode. Select a site to simulate. Select security groups for the user and for the computer. Choose which WMI filters to apply in the simulation of user and computer policy processing.

When you have specified the simulations settings, a report is produced that is very similar to the Group Policy Results report discussed earlier. The Summary tab shows an overview of which GPOs will be processed, and the Settings tab details the policy settings that will be applied to the user or computer. This report, too, can be saved by right-clicking it, and then choosing Save Report.

Demonstration
This demonstration shows how to: Run GPResult.exe from the command prompt.
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Run GPResult.exe from the command prompt, and then output the results to an HTML file. Open the GPMC. Run the Group Policy Reporting Wizard, and then view the results. Run the Group Policy Modeling Wizard, and then view the results.

Demonstration Steps Use GPResult.exe to create a report


1. 2. On LON-DC1, open a command prompt. Run the following commands:
G p r e s u l t/ tG p r e s u l t/ hr e s u l t s . h t m l

3.

Open the results.html report in Internet Explorer, and then review the report.

Use the Group Policy Reporting Wizard to create a report


1. 2. 3. 4. Close the command prompt, and then open the Group Policy Management Console . From the Group Policy Results node, launch the Group Policy Results Wizard. Complete the wizard by using the defaults. Review the report, and then save the report to the Desktop.

Use the Group Policy Modeling Wizard to create a report


1. 2. 3. 4. From the Group Policy Modeling node, launch the Group Policy Modeling Wizard. Specify the user for the report as Ed Meadows and the computer container as the IT organizational unit. Complete the wizard using the defaults, and then review the report. Close the Group Policy Management Console.

Examine Policy Event Logs

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Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2008, and Windows Server 2012 improve your ability to troubleshoot Group Policy not only with RSoP tools, but also with improved logging of Group Policy events, including the: System log, in which you will find high-level information about Group Policy, including errors created by the Group Policy client when it cannot connect to a domain controller or locate GPOs. Application log, which captures events recorded by CSEs. Group Policy Operational Log, which provides detailed information about Group Policy processing.

To find Group Policy logs, open the Event Viewer snap-in or console. The System and Application logs are in the Windows Logs node. The Group Policy Operational Log is found in: Applications And Services Logs\Microsoft \Windows\GroupPolicy\Operational

Lab: Implementing a Group Policy Infrastructure


Scenario
A. Datum is a global engineering and manufacturing company with its head office in London, UK. An IT office and a data center are located in London to support the London office and other locations. A. Datum recently has deployed a Windows Server 2012 server and client infrastructure. You have been asked to use Group Policy to implement standardized security settings to lock computer screens when users leave computers unattended for 10 minutes or more. You also have to configure a policy setting that will prevent access to certain programs on local workstations. After some time, you have been made aware that a critical application fails when the screens saver starts, and an engineer has asked you to prevent the setting from applying to the team of Research engineers that uses the application every day. You have also been asked to configure conference room computers to use a 45 minute timeout. After creating the policies you need to evaluate the resultant set of policies for users in your environment to ensure that the Group Policy infrastructure is optimized, and that all policies are applied as they were intended.

Objectives
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After completing this lab, you will be able to: Create and configure a GPO. Manage Group Policy scope. Troubleshoot Group Policy application. Manage GPOs.

Lab Setup
Estimated Time: 90 minutes

Virtual machine(s)

20411B-LON-DC1 20411B-LON-CL1

User Name Password

Adatum\Administrator Pa$$w0rd

For this lab, you will use the available virtual machine environment. Before you begin the lab, you must complete the following steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. On the host computer, click Start, point to Administrative Tools, and then click Hyper-V Manager. In Hyper-V Manager, click 20411B-LON-DC1, and in the Actions pane, click Start. In the Actions pane, click Connect. Wait until the virtual machine starts. Sign in using the following credentials: a. b. c. 5. User name: Administrator Password: Pa$$w0rd Domain: Adatum

Repeat steps 2 and 3 for 20411B-LON-CL1. Do not sign in to LON-CL1 until directed to do so.

Exercise 1: Creating and Configuring GPOs


Scenario You have been asked to use Group Policy to implement standardized security settings to lock computer screens when users leave computers unattended for 10 minutes or more. You also have to configure a policy setting that will prevent users from running the Notepad application on local workstations. The main tasks for this exercise are as follows: 1. Create and edit a Group Policy Object (GPO).
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2. 3.

Link the GPO. View the effects of the GPOs settings.

Task 1: Create and edit a Group Policy Object (GPO)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

On LON-DC1, from Server Manager, open the Group Policy Management console. Create a GPO named ADATUM Standards in the Group Policy Objects container. Edit the ADATUM Standards policy, and navigate to User Configuration, Policies, Administrative Templates, System. Prevent users from running notepad.exe by configuring the Dont run specified Windows applications policy setting. Navigate to the User Configuration, Policies, Administrative Templates, Control Panel, Personalization folder, and then configure the Screen saver timeout policy to 600 seconds.

6.

Enable the Password protect the screen saver policy setting, and then close the Group Policy Management Editor window.

Task 2: Link the GPO

Link the ADATUM Standards GPO to the Adatum.com domain.

Task 3: View the effects of the GPOs settings

1. 2. 3.

Sign in to LON-CL1 as Adatum\Pat with the password Pa$$w0rd. Attempt to change the screen saver wait time and resume settings. You are prevented from doing this by Group Policy. Attempt to run Notepad. You are prevented from doing this by Group Policy.

Results: After this exercise, you should have successfully created, edited, and linked the required GPOs.

Exercise 2: Managing GPO Scope


Scenario After some time, you have been made aware that a critical application that the Research engineering team uses is failing when the screen saver starts. You have been asked to prevent the GPO setting from applying to any member of the Engineering security group. You also have been asked to configure conference room computers to be exempt from corporate policy. However, they always must have a 45-minute screensaver timeout applied. The main tasks for this exercise are as follows: 1. Create and link the required GPOs.
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2. 3. 4.

Verify the order of precedence. Configure the scope of a GPO with security filtering. Configure loopback processing.

Task 1: Create and link the required GPOs

1.

On LON-DC1, open Active Directory Users and Computers and in the Research OU, create a sub-OU called Engineers, and then close Active Directory Users and Computers.

2.

In the Group Policy Management Console, create a new GPO linked to the Engineers OU called Engineering Application Override .

3.

Configure the Screen saver timeout policy setting to be disabled, and then close the Group Policy Management Editor.

Task 2: Verify the order of precedence

In the Group Policy Management console tree, select the Engineers OU, and then click the Group Policy Inheritance tab. Notice that the Engineering Application Override GPO has precedence over the ADATUM Standards GPO. The screen saver timeout policy setting you just configured in the Engineering Application Override GPO will be applied after the setting in the ADATUM Standards GPO. Therefore, the new setting will overwrite the standards setting, and will win. Screen saver timeout will be disabled for users within the scope of the Engineering Application Override GPO.

Task 3: Configure the scope of a GPO with security filtering

1.

On LON-DC1, open Active Directory Users and Computers. In the Research\Engineers OU, create a global security group named GPO_Engineering Application Override_Apply.

2.

In the Group Policy Management console, select the Engineering Application Override GPO. Notice that in the Security Filtering section, the GPO applies by default to all authenticated users. Configure the GPO to apply only to the GPO_Engineering Application Override_Apply group.

3. 4.

In the Users folder, create a global security group named GPO_ADATUM Standards_Exempt. In the Group Policy Management console, select the ADATUM Standards GPO. Notice that in the Security Filtering section, the GPO applies by default to all authenticated users.

5.

Configure the GPO delegation to deny Apply Group Policy permission to the GPO_ADATUM Standards_Exempt group.

Task 4: Configure loopback processing

1. 2. 3.

On LON-DC1, switch to Active Directory Users and Computers. Create a new OU called Kiosks. Under Kiosks, create a sub-OU called Conference Rooms.
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4. 5. 6. 7.

Switch to the Group Policy Management console. Create a new GPO named Conference Room Policies and link it to the Kiosks\Conference Rooms OU. Confirm that the Conference Room Policies GPO is scoped to Authenticated Users. Edit the Conference Room Policies GPO and modify the Screen Saver timeout policy to launch the screen saver after 45 minutes.

8.

Modify the Configure user Group Policy loopback processing mode policy setting to use Merge mode .

Results: After this exercise, you should have successfully configured the required scope of the GPOs.

Exercise 3: Verifying GPO Application


Scenario After creating the policies that you need to evaluate the resultant set of policies for your environments users to ensure that the Group Policy infrastructure is healthy, and that all policies are applied as they were intended. The main tasks for this exercise are as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. Perform Resultant Set of Policy (RSoP) analysis. Analyze RSoP with GPResults. Evaluate GPO results by using the Group Policy Modeling Wizard. Review policy events and determine GPO infrastructure status.

Task 1: Perform Resultant Set of Policy (RSoP) analysis

1. 2. 3.

On LON-CL1, verify that you are still logged on as Adatum\Pat. If necessary, provide the password of Pa$$w0rd. Run the command prompt as an administrator, with the user name Adatum\Administrator and the password Pa$$w0rd. Run the gpupdate /force command. After the command has completed, make a note of the current system time, which you will need to know for a task later in this lab: Time: ____________________________________

4. 5. 6. 7.

Restart LON-CL1, and then wait for it to restart before proceeding with the next task. On LON-DC1, switch to the Group Policy Management console. Use the Group Policy Results Wizard to run an RSoP report for Pat on LON-CL1. Review Group Policy Summary results. For both user and computer configuration, identify the time of the last policy refresh and the list of allowed and denied GPOs. Identify the components that were used to process policy settings.

8.

Click the Details tab. Review the settings that were applied during user and computer policy application, and then identify the GPO from which the settings were obtained.

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9.

Click the Policy Events tab, and then locate the event that logs the policy refresh you triggered with the GPUpdate command in Task 1.

10. Click the Summary tab, right-click the page, and then choose Save Report. Save the report as an HTML file your desktop. Then open the RSoP report from the desktop.

Task 2: Analyze RSoP with GPResults

1. 2.

Sign in to LON-CL1 as Adatum\Administrator with the password Pa$$w0rd. Open a command prompt and run the gpresult /r command. RSoP summary results are displayed. The information is very similar to the Summary tab of the RSoP report produced by the Group Policy Results Wizard.

3.

Type gpresult /v , and then press Enter. A more detailed RSoP report is produced. Notice that many of the Group Policy settings applied by the client are listed in this report.

4. 5.

Type gpresult /z, and then press Enter. The most detailed RSoP report is produced. Type gpresult /h:"%userprofile%\Desktop\RSOP.html", and then press Enter. An RSoP report is saved as an HTML file to your desktop.

6.

Open the saved RSoP report from your desktop. Compare the report, its information, and its formatting with the RSoP report you saved in the previous task.

Task 3: Evaluate GPO results by using the Group Policy Modeling Wizard

1. 2. 3. 4.

Switch to LON-DC1. Start the Group Policy Modeling Wizard. Select Adatum\Mike as the user, and LON-CL1 as the computer for modeling. When prompted, select the Loopback Processing check box, and then click Merge . Even though the Conference Room Polices GPO specifies loopback processing, you must instruct the Group Policy Modeling Wizard to consider loopback processing in its simulation.

5.

When prompted, on the Alternate Active Directory Paths page, choose the Kiosks\Conference Rooms location. You are simulating the effect of LON-CL1 as a conference room computer.

6. 7. 8.

Accept all other options as defaults. On the Summary tab, scroll to and expand, if necessary, User Details, Group Policy Objects, and Applied GPOs. Check whether the Conference Room Policies GPO applies to Mike as a User policy when he logs on to LON-CL1 if LON-CL1 is in the Conference Rooms OU.

9.

Scroll to, and expand if necessary, User Details, Policies, Administrative Templates and Control Panel/Personalization.

10. Confirm that the screen saver timeout is 2,700 seconds (45 minutes), the setting configured by the Conference Room Policies GPO that overrides the 10-minute standard configured by the ADATUM Standards GPO.

Task 4: Review policy events and determine GPO infrastructure status


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Module 5: Implementing a Group Policy Infrastructure

1. 2. 3. 4.

On LON-CL1, you are logged on as Adatum\Administrator. Open the Control Panel and then browse to the Event Viewer. Locate and review Group Policy events in the System log. Locate and review Group Policy events in the Application log. Review the events and identify the Group Policy events that have been entered in this log. Which events are related to Group Policy application and which are related to the activities you have been performing to manage Group Policy? Note that depending on how long the virtual machine has been running, you may not have any Group Policy Events in the application log.

5.

Browse to the Group Policy Operational log and locate the first event related in the Group Policy refresh you initiated in Exercise 1, with the GPUpdate command. Review that event and the events that followed it.

Results: After this exercise, you should have successfully used RSoP tools to verify the correct application of your GPOs.

Exercise 4: Managing GPOs


Scenario You must back up all critical GPOs. You use the Group Policy Management backup feature to back up the ADATUM Standard GPO. The main tasks for this exercise are as follows: 1. 2. 3. Perform a backup of GPOs. Perform a restore of GPOs. To prepare for the next module.

Task 1: Perform a backup of GPOs

1.

Switch to LON-DC1, and in the Group Policy Management console, in the navigation pane, click on the Group Policy Objects folder.

2.

Back up the ADATUM Standards GPO to C:\.

Task 2: Perform a restore of GPOs

In the Group Policy Management console, restore the previous back up of ADATUM Standards.

To prepare for the next module

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Module 5: Implementing a Group Policy Infrastructure

When you have finished the lab, revert all virtual machines back to their initial state.

Results: After this exercise, you should have successfully performed common management tasks on your GPOs.

Module Review and Takeaways


Common Issues and Troubleshooting Tips
Common Issue
Group Policy settings are not applied to all users or computers in OU where GPO is applied

Troubleshooting Tip

Group Policy settings sometimes need two restarts to apply

Tools
Tool
Group policy reporting RSoP

Use for
Reporting information about the current policies being delivered to clients.

Where to find it
Group Policy Management Console

GPResult GPUpdate

A command-line utility that displays RSoP information. Refreshing local and Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS)based Group Policy settings.

Command-line utility Command-line utility

Dcgpofix

Restoring the default Group Policy objects to their original state after initial installation.

Command-line utility

GPOLogView

Exporting Group Policy-related events from the system and operational logs into text, HTML, or XML files. For use with Windows Vista, Windows 7, and newer versions.

Command-line utility

Group Policy Management scripts

Sample scripts that perform a number of different troubleshooting and maintenance tasks.

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Lab Answer Key: Module 5: Implementing a Group Policy Infrastructure Lab: Implementing a Group Policy Infrastructure
Exercise 1: Creating and Configuring GPOs
Task 1: Create and edit a Group Policy Object (GPO)

1. 2.

On LON-DC1, from Server Manager, click Tools, and then click Group Policy Management. In the console tree, expand Forest: Adatum.com, Domains, and Adatum.com, and then click the Group Policy Objects container.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

In the console tree, right-click the Group Policy Objects container, and then click New . In the Name box, type ADATUM Standards, and then click OK. In the details pane of the Group Policy Management console, right-click the ADATUM Standards GPO, and then click Edit. In the console tree, expand User Configuration, Policies, and Administrative Templates, and then click System. Double-click the Dont run specified Windows applications policy setting. In the Dont run specified Windows applications window, click Enabled. Click Show .

10. In the Show Contents dialog box, in the Value list, type notepad.exe , and then click OK. 11. In the Dont run specified Windows applications dialog box, click OK. 12. In the console tree, expand User Configuration, Policies, Administrative Templates, and Control Panel, and then click Personalization. 13. In the details pane, click the Screen saver timeout policy setting. 14. Double-click the Screen Saver timeout policy setting. 15. Click Enabled. 16. In the Seconds box, type 600, and then click OK. 17. Double-click the Password protect the screen saver policy setting. 18. Click Enabled, and click OK. 19. Close the Group Policy Management Editor.

Task 2: Link the GPO

1. 2.

In the Group Policy Management console tree, right-click the Adatum.com domain, and then click Link an Existing GPO. In the Select GPO dialog box, click ADATUM Standards, and then click OK.

Task 3: View the effects of the GPOs settings

1. 2. 3. 4.

Switch to LON-CL1, and sign in as Adatum\Pat with the password Pa$$w0rd. On the Start screen, click the Desktop tile. Right-click the desktop, and then click Personalize . Click Screen Saver. Notice that the Wait control is disabledyou cannot change the timeout. Notice that the On resume, display logon screen option is selected and disabled, and that you cannot disable password protection.

5. 6. 7. 8.

Click OK to close the Screen Saver Settings dialog box. Pause the mouse pointer in the lower-right corner of the display, and then click Start. Right-click the Start screen, and then click All apps. In the Apps list, click Notepad. Notepad does not open.

Results: After this exercise, you should have successfully created, edited, and linked the required GPOs.

Exercise 2: Managing GPO Scope


Task 1: Create and link the required GPOs

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

On LON-DC1, switch to Server Manager, click Tools and then click Active Directory Users and Computers. In the console tree, expand the Adatum.com domain and click the Research organizational unit (OU). Right-click the Research OU, point to New , and then click Organizational Unit. Type Engineers, and then click OK. Close Active Directory Users and Computers. Switch to the Group Policy Management console. In the console tree, expand Forest: Adatum.com, Domains, Adatum.com, Research, and then click the Engineers OU. Right-click the Engineers OU, and then click Create a GPO in this domain and Link it here . Type Engineering Application Override , and then click OK.

10. Right-click the Engineering Application Override GPO, and then click Edit. 11. In the console tree, expand User Configuration, Policies, Administrative Templates, and Control Panel, and then click Personalization. 12. Double-click the Screen saver timeout policy setting. 13. Click Disabled, and click OK. 14. Close the Group Policy Management Editor.

Task 2: Verify the order of precedence

1. 2.

In the Group Policy Management console tree, click the Engineers OU. Click the Group Policy Inheritance tab. Notice that the Engineering Application Override GPO has higher precedence than the ADATUM Standards GPO. The screen saver timeout policy setting you just configured in the Engineering Application Override GPO is applied after the setting in the ADATUM Standards GPO. Therefore, the new setting will overwrite the standards setting, and will win. Screen saver timeout will be disabled for users within the scope of the Engineering Application Override GPO.

Task 3: Configure the scope of a GPO with security filtering

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

On LON-DC1, from Server Manager, click Tools, and then click Active Directory Users and Computers. In the console tree, if necessary, expand the Adatum.com domain and the Research OU, and then click the Engineers OU. Right-click the Engineers OU, point to New , and then click Group. Type GPO_Engineering Application Override_Apply, and then press Enter. Switch to the Group Policy Management console. In the console tree, if required, expand the Engineers OU, and then double-click the link of the Engineering Application Override GPO under the Engineers OU. A message appears.

7.

Read the message, select the Do not show this message again check box, and then click OK. In the Security Filtering section, you will see that the GPO applies by default to all authenticated users.

8. 9.

In the Security Filtering section, click Authenticated Users. Click the Remove button. A confirmation prompt appears.

10. Click OK. 11. In the details pane, click the Add button. 12. In the Select User, Computer, or Group dialog box, in the Enter the object name to select (examples): box, type GPO_Engineering Application Override_Apply, and then press Enter. 13. Switch to Active Directory Users and Computers. 14. In the console tree, expand the Adatum.com domain, and then click the Users folder. 15. Right-click Users, point to New , and then click Group. 16. Type GPO_ADATUM Standards_Exempt, and then press Enter. 17. Switch to the Group Policy Management console. 18. In the console tree, click the Adatum.com domain object, and then double-click the Adatum Standards GPO. In the Security Filtering section, notice that the GPO applies by default to all authenticated users. 19. Click the Delegation tab. 20. Click the Advanced button. The ADATUM Standards Security Settings dialog box appears.

21. Click the Add button. The Select Users, Computers, Service Accounts, or Groups dialog box appears. 22. In the Enter the object names to select (examples): box, type GPO_ADATUM Standards_Exempt, and press Enter. 23. Select the Deny check box next to Apply group policy. 24. Click OK. A warning message appears to remind you that deny permissions override allow permissions. Click Yes. Notice that the permission appears on the Delegation tab as Custom.

Task 4: Configure loopback processing

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

On LON-DC1, switch to Active Directory Users and Computers. In the console, click Adatum.com. Right-click Adatum.com, point to New , and the click Organizational Unit. In the New Object Organizational Unit dialog box, type Kiosks, and then click OK. Right-click Kiosks, point to New , and then click Organizational Unit. In the New Object Organizational Unit dialog box, type Conference Rooms, and then click OK. Switch to the Group Policy Management console. Refresh the console if necessary. In the tree, expand the Kiosks OU, and then click the Conference Rooms OU. Right-click the Conference Rooms OU, and then click Create a GPO in this domain, and Link it here .

10. In the New GPO box, in the Name box, type Conference Room Policies, and then press Enter. 11. In the console tree, expand Conference Rooms, and then click the Conference Room Policies GPO. 12. Click the Scope tab. Confirm that the GPO is scoped to apply to Authenticated Users. 13. Right-click the Conference Room Policies GPO in the console tree, and then click Edit. 14. In the Group Policy Management Editor console tree, expand User Configuration, Policies, Administrative Templates, and Control Panel, and then click Personalization. 15. Double-click the Screen saver timeout policy setting. 16. Click Enabled. 17. In the Seconds box, type 2700, and then click OK. 18. In the console tree, expand Computer Configuration, Policies, Administrative Templates, and System, and then click Group Policy. 19. Double-click the Configure user Group Policy loopback processing mode policy setting. 20. Click Enabled. 21. In the Mode drop-down list, select Merge , and then click OK. 22. Close the Group Policy Management Editor.

Results: After this exercise, you should have successfully configured the required scope of the GPOs.

Exercise 3: Verifying GPO Application


Task 1: Perform Resultant Set of Policy (RSoP) analysis

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Switch to LON-CL1. Verify that you are logged on as Adatum\Pat. If necessary, provide the password of Pa$$w0rd. Pause your mouse pointer in the lower-right corner of the display, and then click Start. Right-click the Start screen, and then click All apps. In the Apps list, right-click Command Prompt, and then click Run as administrator. In the User Account Control dialog box, in the User name box, type Administrator. In the Password box, type Pa$$w0rd. Click Yes.

7.

At the command prompt, type the following command, and then press Enter:
g p u p d a t e . e x e/ f o r c e

8.

Wait for the command to complete. Make a note of the current system time, which you will need to know for a task later in this lab. To record the system time, type the following command, and then press Enter twice:
T i m e

9.

Restart LON-CL1.

10. Wait for LON-CL1 to restart before proceeding with the next task. Do not sign in to LON-CL1. 11. Switch to LON-DC1. 12. Switch to the Group Policy Management console. 13. In the console tree, if required, expand Forest: Adatum.com, and then click Group Policy Results. 14. Right-click Group Policy Results, and click Group Policy Results Wizard. 15. On the Welcome to the Group Policy Results Wizard page, click Next. 16. On the Computer Selection page, click Another computer, type LON-CL1, and then click Next. 17. On the User Selection page, click Display policy settings for, click Select a specific user, select ADATUM\Pat, and then click Next. 18. On the Summary Of Selections page, review your settings, and then click Next. 19. Click Finish. The RSoP report appears in the details pane of the console. 20. Review the Group Policy Results. For both user and computer configuration, identify the time of the last policy refresh and the list of allowed and denied GPOs. Identify the components that were used to process policy settings. 21. Click the Details tab. Review the settings that were applied during user and computer policy application and identify the

GPO from which the settings were obtained. 22. Click the Policy Events tab, and then locate the event that logs the policy refresh you triggered with the GPUpdate command in Task 1. 23. Click the Summary tab, right-click the page, and then click Save Report. 24. In the navigation pane, click Desktop, and then click Save . 25. Open the saved RSoP report from the Desktop. Examine the RSoP report, and then close it.

Task 2: Analyze RSoP with GPResults

1. 2. 3. 4.

Sign in to LON-CL1 as Adatum\Administrator with the password Pa$$w0rd. Right-click the Start screen, and then click All apps. In the Apps list, click Command Prompt. At the command prompt, type the following command, and then press Enter:
g p r e s u l t/ r

RSoP summary results are displayed. The information is very similar to the Summary tab of the RSoP report produced by the Group Policy Results Wizard. 5. At the command prompt, type the following command, and then press Enter:
g p r e s u l t/ v

Notice that many of the Group Policy settings applied by the client are listed in this report. 6. At the command prompt, type the following command, and then press Enter:
g p r e s u l t/ z

The most detailed RSoP report is produced. 7. At the command prompt, type the following command, and then press Enter:
g p r e s u l t/ h : " % u s e r p r o f i l e % \ D e s k t o p \ R S O P . h t m l "

An RSoP report is saved as an HTML file to your desktop. 8. 9. Open the saved RSoP report from your desktop. Compare the report, its information, and its formatting with the RSoP report you saved in the previous task.

Task 3: Evaluate GPO results by using the Group Policy Modeling Wizard

1. 2. 3.

Switch to LON-DC1. In the Group Policy Management console tree, expand Forest:Adatum.com, and then click Group Policy Modeling. Right-click Group Policy Modeling, and then click Group Policy Modeling Wizard. The Group Policy Modeling Wizard appears.

4. 5. 6.

Click Next. On the Domain Controller Selection page, click Next. On the User And Computer Selection page, in the User information section, click the User button, and then click Browse . The Select User dialog box appears.

7. 8.

Type Mike , and then press Enter. In the Computer information section, click the Computer button, and then click Browse . The Select Computer dialog box appears.

9.

Type LON-CL1, and then press Enter.

10. Click Next. 11. On the Advanced Simulation Options page, select the Loopback Processing check box, and then click Merge . Even though the Conference Room Polices GPO specifies the loopback processing, you must instruct the Group Policy Modeling Wizard to consider loopback processing in its simulation. 12. Click Next. 13. On the Alternate Active Directory Paths page, click the Browse button next to Computer location. The Choose Computer Container dialog box appears. 14. Expand Adatum and Kiosks, and then click Conference Rooms. You are simulating the effect of LON-CL1 as a conference room computer. 15. Click OK. 16. Click Next. 17. On the User Security Groups page, click Next. 18. On the Computer Security Groups page, click Next. 19. On the WMI Filters for Users page, click Next. 20. On the WMI Filters for Computers page, click Next. 21. Review your settings on the Summary of Selections page, and then click Next. 22. Click Finish. 23. On the Details tab, scroll to and expand, if necessary, User Details, Group Policy Objects, and Applied GPOs. 24. Verify if the Conference Room Policies GPO apply to Mike as a User policy when he logs on to LON-CL1, if LON-CL1 is in the Conference Rooms OU. 25. Scroll to, and expand if necessary, User Details, Policies, Administrative Templates and Control Panel/Personalization.

26. Confirm that the screen saver timeout is 2,700 seconds (45 minutes), the setting configured by the Conference Room Policies GPO that overrides the 10-minute standard configured by the ADATUM Standards GPO.

Task 4: Review policy events and determine GPO infrastructure status

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Switch to LON-CL1. Pause your mouse pointer in the lower-right corner of the display and then click Settings. Click Control Panel. Click System and Security. Click Administrative Tools. Double-click Event Viewer. In the console tree, expand Windows Logs, and then click the System log. Sort the System log by Source . Locate events with Group Policy as the Source. You can even click the Filter Current Log link in the Actions pane and then select Group Policy in the Event Sources drop-down list.

9.

Review the information associated with Group Policy events.

10. In the console tree, click the Application log. 11. Sort the Application log by the Source column. 12. Review the events and identify the Group Policy events that have been entered in this log. Which events are related to Group Policy application and which are related to the activities you have been performing to manage Group Policy? Note that depending on how long the virtual machine has been running, you may not have any Group Policy Events in the application log. 13. In the console tree, expand Applications and Services Logs, Microsoft, Windows, and Group Policy, and then click Operational. 14. Locate the first event related in the Group Policy refresh you initiated in Exercise 1, with the GPUpdate command. Review that event and the events that followed it.

Results: After this exercise, you should have successfully used RSoP tools to verify the correct application of your GPOs.

Exercise 4: Managing GPOs


Task 1: Perform a backup of GPOs

1. 2. 3.

Switch to LON-DC1. Switch to the Group Policy Management console and then click the Group Policy Objects node. In the details pane, right-click ADATUM Standards, and then click Back Up.

4. 5. 6.

In the Back Up Group Policy Object dialog box, in the Location box, type C:\. Click Back Up. In the Backup dialog box, click OK.

Task 2: Perform a restore of GPOs

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

In the Group Policy Management console, right-click ADATUM Standards, and then click Restore from Backup. In the Restore Group Policy Object Wizard dialog box, click Next. On the Backup Location page, click Next. On the Source GPO page, click Next. On the Completing the Restore Group Policy Object Wizard page, click Finish. In the Restore dialog box, click OK. Close all open windows.

To prepare for the next module

When you have finished the lab, revert all virtual machines back to their initial state.

1. 2. 3. 4.

On the host computer, start Hyper-V Manager. In the Virtual Machines list, right-click 20411B-LON-DC1, and then click Revert. In the Revert Virtual Machines dialog box, click Revert. Repeat steps 2 to 3 for 20411B-LON-CL1.

Results: After this exercise, you should have successfully performed common management tasks on your GPOs.

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Module 6: Managing User Desktops with Group Policy

Module 6: Managing User Desktops with Group Policy Contents:


Module Overview Lesson 1: Lesson 2: Lesson 3: Lesson 4: Lab: Implementing Administrative Templates Configuring Folder Redirection and Scripts Configuring Group Policy Preferences Managing Software with Group Policy Managing User Desktops with Group Policy Module Review and Takeaways

Module Overview
Using Group Policy Objects (GPOs), you can implement desktop environments across your organization by using Administrative Templates, Folder Redirection, Group Policy preferences, and where applicable, use software deployment to install and update application programs. It is important to know how to use these various GPO features so that you can configure your users computer settings properly.

Objectives
After completing this module, you will be able to: Describe and implement Administrative Templates. Configure folder redirection and scripts by using GPOs. Configure GPO preferences. Deploy software by using GPOs.

Lesson 1 : Implementing Administrative Templates


The Administrative Template files provide the majority of available GPO settings, which modify specific registry keys. Using Administrative Templates sometimes is referred to as registry-based policy. For many applications, the use of registry-based policy that the Administrative Template files deliver is the most simple and best way to support centralized management of policy settings. In this lesson, you will learn how to configure Administrative Templates.

Lesson Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to:

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Module 6: Managing User Desktops with Group Policy

Describe Group Policy administrative templates. Describe ADM and ADMX, or administrative template, files. Describe the central store. Describe example scenarios for using Administrative Templates. Explain how to configure settings with Administrative Templates.

What Are Administrative Templates?

You can use Administrative Templates to control the environment of an operating system and the user experience. There are two sets of Administrative Templates: one for users and one for computers. Using the Administrative Template sections of the GPO, you can deploy hundreds of modifications to the registry. Administrative Templates have the following characteristics: They are organized into subfolders that deal with specific areas of the environment, such as network, system, and Windows components. The settings in the computer section edit the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE hive in the registry, and the settings in the user section edit the HKEY_CURRENT_USER hive in the registry. Some settings exist for both user and computer. For example, there is a setting to prevent Windows Messenger from running in both the user and the computer templates. In case of conflicting settings, the computer setting prevails. Some settings are available only to certain versions of Windows operating systems. For example, you can apply a number of new settings only to Windows 7 and newer versions of the Windows operating system. Double-clicking the settings displays the supported versions for that setting.

What Are ADM and ADMX Files?

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Module 6: Managing User Desktops with Group Policy

ADM Files
Traditionally, ADM files have been used to define the settings that an administrator can configure through Group Policy. Each successive Windows operating system and service pack has included a newer version of these files. ADM files use their own markup language. Therefore, it is difficult to customize ADM files. The ADM templates are located in the %SystemRoot%\Inf folder. A major drawback of ADM files is that they are copied into every GPO that is created, and consume about 3 megabytes (MB) of space. This can cause the System Volume (SYSVOL) folder to become very large and increase replication traffic.

ADMX Files
Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008 introduced a new format for displaying registry-based policy settings. These settings are defined by using a standards-based XML file format known as ADMX files. These new files replace ADM files. Group Policy tools on Windows Vista and newer operating systems, and Windows Server 2008, continue to recognize the custom ADM files that you have in your existing environment, but ignore any ADM file that ADMX files have superseded. Unlike ADM files, ADMX files are not stored in individual GPOs. The GPO Editor automatically reads and displays settings from the local ADMX file store. By default, ADMX files are stored in the Windows\PolicyDefinitions folder, but they can be stored in a central location. ADMX files are language neutral. The plain language descriptions of the settings are not part of the ADMX files. They are stored in language-specific ADML files. This means that administrators who speak different languages, such as English and Spanish, can look at the same GPO and see the policy descriptions in their own language, because they can each use their own languagespecific ADML files. ADML files are stored in a subfolder of the PolicyDefinitions folder. By default, only the ADML language files for the language of the installed operating system are added.

Migrate Classic Administrative Templates to .ADMX


ADMX Migrator is a snap-in for the Microsoft Management Console (MMC) that simplifies the process of converting your existing Group Policy ADM templates to the new ADMX format and provides a graphical user interface for creating and editing Administrative Templates. You can download the ADMX Migrator from the Microsoft Download website at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?linkID=270013.

The Central Store

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Module 6: Managing User Desktops with Group Policy

For domain-based enterprises, you can create a central store location of ADMX files, which anyone with permission to create or edit GPOs can access. The GPO Editor on Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008 (or newer) automatically reads and displays Administrative Template policy settings from ADMX files that the central store caches, and then ignores the ones stored locally. If the domain controller is not available, the local store is used. You must create the central store, and then update it manually on a domain controller. The use of ADMX files is dependent on the computers operating system where you are creating or editing the GPO. Therefore, the domain controller can be a server with Windows 2000 or newer. The File Replication Service (FRS) will not replicate the domain controller to that domains other controllers. Depending on your server operating system and configuration, you can use either FRS or Distributed File System Replication (DFS-R) to replicate the data. To create a central store for .admx and .adml files, create a folder that is named PolicyDefinitions in the following location: \\FQDN\SYSVOL\FQDN\policies. For example, to create a central store for the Test.Microsoft.com domain, create a PolicyDefinitions folder in the following location: \\Test.Microsoft.Com\SYSVOL\Test.Microsoft.Com\Policies. A user must copy all files and subfolders of the PolicyDefinitions folder. The PolicyDefinitions folder on a Windows 7based computer resides in the Windows folder. The PolicyDefinitions folder stores all .admx files and .adml files for all languages that are enabled on the client computer. Note: You must update the PolicyDefintions for each service pack and for other additional software, such as Microsoft Office 2010 ADMX files.

Discussion: Practical Uses of Administrative Templates

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Module 6: Managing User Desktops with Group Policy

Spend a few minutes examining the Administrative Templates, and consider how you could employ some of them in your organization. Be prepared to share information about your organizations current use of GPOs and logon scripts, such as: How do you provide desktop security currently? How much administrative access do users have to their systems? Which Group Policy settings will you find useful in your organization?

Demonstration: Configuring Settings with Administrative Templates


Group Policy editing tools in Windows Server 2012 provide several functionalities that ease configuration and management of GPOs. In this demonstration, you will review these options.

Filter Policy Settings for Administrative Templates


A disadvantage in the Group Policy editing tools in previous Windows versions is the inability to search for a specific policy setting. With thousands of policies to choose from, it can be difficult to locate exactly the setting you want to configure. The Group Policy Management Editor in Windows Server 2012 solves this problem for Administrative Template settings. You now can create filters to locate specific policy settings. To create a filter: 1. 2. Right-click Administrative Templates, and then click Filter Options. To locate a specific policy, select the Enable keyword filters check box, enter the words with which to filter, and then select the fields within which to search.

You also can filter for Group Policy settings that apply to specific versions of Windows, Windows Internet Explorer, and other Windows components. Unfortunately, the filter only applies to settings in the Administrative Templates nodes.

Filter Based on Comments


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Module 6: Managing User Desktops with Group Policy

You also can search and filter based on policy-setting comments. Windows Server 2012 enables you to add comments to policy settings in the Administrative Templates node. To do so, double-click a policy setting, and then click the Comment tab. It is a best practice to add comments to configured policy settings. You should document the justification for a setting and its intended effect. You also should add comments to the GPO itself. Windows Server 2012 enables you to attach comments to a GPO. In the Group Policy Management Editor, in the console tree, right-click the root node, click Properties, and then click the Comment tab.

How to Copy GPO Settings


Starter GPOs can contain only Administrative Templates policy settings. But in addition to using Starter GPOs, there are two other ways to copy settings from one GPO into a new GPO: You can copy and paste entire GPOs in the Group Policy Objects container of the GPMC, so that you have a new GPO with all settings of the source GPO. To transfer settings between GPOs in different domains or forests, right-click a GPO, and then click Back Up. In the target domain, create a new GPO, right-click the GPO, and then click Import Settings. You will be able to import the settings of the backed up GPO.

Additional Reading: Group Policy Search http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?linkID=270014

This demonstration shows how to: Filter Administrative Template policy settings. Apply comments to Administrative Templates policy settings. Add comments to Administrative Templates policy settings. Create a new GPO by copying an existing GPO. Create a new GPO by importing settings that were exported from another GPO.

Demonstration Steps Filter Administrative Template policy settings


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. On LON-DC1, open the Group Policy Management console. Create a new Group Policy Object (GPO) named GPO1. Open GPO1 for editing. Locate the User Configuration, Policies, Administrative Templates node. Filter the settings to display only those that contain the keywords screen saver. Filter the settings to display only configured values.

Add comments to a policy setting


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1. 2.

Locate the Personalization value from User Configuration\Policies\ Administrative Templates \Control Panel. Add a comment to both the Password Protect the screen saver and Enable screen saver values.

Add comments to a GPO


Open the GPO1 policy root node, and then add a comment to the Comment tab.

Create a new GPO by copying an existing GPO


Copy GPO1, and then paste it to the Group Policy Objects folder.

Create a new GPO by importing settings that were exported from another GPO
1. 2. 3. Back up GPO1. Create a new GPO called ADATUM Import. Import the settings from the GPO1 backup into the ADATUM Import GPO.

Lesson 2: Configuring Folder Redirection and Scripts


In Windows Server 2012, you can use GPOs to deploy scripts to users and computers. You also can redirect folders that are included in the users profile to a central server. These features enable you to configure the users desktop settings more easily and, where desirable, create a standardized desktop environment that meets your organizational needs.

Lesson Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to: Describe folder redirection. Explain the settings available for configuring folder redirection. Describe security settings for redirected folders. Explain how to configure folder redirection. Describe Group Policy settings for applying scripts. Explain how to configure scripts by using Group Policy.

What Is Folder Redirection?

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You can use the Folder Redirection feature to manage data effectively, and optionally, back up data. By redirecting folders, you can ensure user access to data regardless of the computers to which the users sign in. Folder redirection has the following characteristics: When you redirect folders, you change the folders storage location from the user computers local hard disk to a shared folder on a network file server. After you redirect a folder to a file server, it still appears to the user as if it is stored on the local hard disk. You can use the Offline Files technology in conjunction with redirection to synchronize data in the redirected folder to the users local hard drive. This ensures that users have access to their data if a network outage occurs or if the user is working offline.

Advantages of Folder Redirection


There are many advantages of folder redirection, including: Users that sign in to multiple computers can access their data as long as they can access the network share. Offline folders allow users to access their data even if they disconnect from the local area network (LAN). Data that is stored on servers in network shares is backed up. Roaming profile size can be reduced greatly by redirecting data from the profile.

Settings for Configuring Folder Redirection

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In a GPO, the following settings are available for folder redirection: None. None is the default setting. Folder redirection is not enabled. Basic. Basic folder redirection is for: o Users who must redirect their folders to a common area. o Users who need their data to be private. Advanced . You can use Advanced redirection to specify different network locations for different Active Directory security groups. Follow the Documents folder. Follow the Documents folder redirection is available only for the Pictures, Music, and Videos folders. This setting makes the affected folder a subfolder of the Documents folder.

Target Folder Locations for Basic and Advanced Settings


If you choose Basic or Advanced, you can choose from the following target folder locations: Create a folder for each user under the root path. This option creates a folder in the form \\server\share\User Account Name\Folder Name. For example, if you want to store your users desktop settings in a shared folder called Documents, on a server called LON-DC1, you could define the root path as \\lon-dc1\Documents. Each user has a unique path for the redirected folder to ensure that data remains private. By default, that user is granted exclusive rights to the folder. In the case of the Documents folder, the current contents of the folder are moved to the new location. Redirect to the following location. This option uses an explicit path for the redirection location. It causes multiple users to share the same path for the redirected folder. By default, that user is granted exclusive rights to the folder. In the case of the Documents folder, the current contents of the folder are moved to the new location. Redirect to the local user profile location. This option moves the location of the folder to the local user profile under the Users folder. Redirect to the users home directory. This option is available only for the Documents folder.

Note: After the initial creation and application of a GPO that delivers folder redirection settings, users require two logons before redirection takes effect. This is because users will sign in with cached credentials.

Question: Users in the same department often sign in to different computers. They need access to their Documents folder. They also need data to be private. What folder redirection setting would you choose?

Security Settings for Redirected Folders

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You must create and configure the permissions manually on a shared network folder to store the redirected folders. However, folder redirection also can create the users redirected folders. Folder permissions are handled as follows: When you use this option, the correct subfolder permissions are set automatically. If you manually create folders, you must know the correct permissions. The slide illustrates these permissions.

Demonstration: Configuring Folder Redirection


This demonstration shows how to: Create a shared folder. Create a GPO to redirect the Documents folder. Test folder redirection.

Demonstration Steps Create a shared folder


1. 2. On LON-DC1, create a folder named C:\Redirect. Share the folder to Everyone with Read/Write permission.

Create a GPO to redirect the Documents folder


1. Open the Group Policy Management console. Create a GPO named Folder Redirection, and then link it to the Adatum domain. 2. 3. 4. 5. Edit the Folder Redirection GPO. Configure the Documents folder properties to use the Basic-Redirect everyones folder to the same location setting. Ensure that the Target folder location is set to Create a folder for each user under the root path. Specify the root path as \\LON-DC1\Redirect.

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6.

Close all open windows on LON-DC1.

Test folder redirection


1. 2. 3. Sign in to LON-CL1 as Adatum\Administrator with the password Pa$$w0rd. Check the properties of the Documents folder. The path will be \\LON-DC1\Redirect. Sign out of LON-CL1.

Group Policy Settings for Applying Scripts

You can use Group Policy scripts to perform a number of tasks. There may be actions that you need to perform every time a computer starts up or shuts down, or when users sign in or sign off. For example, you can use scripts to: Clean up desktops when users sign out, and shut down computers. Delete the contents of temporary directories. Map drives or printers. Set environment variables.

Scripts that are assigned to the computer run in the security context of the Local System account. Scripts that are assigned to the user who is logging on run in that users security context. Other Group Policy settings control aspects of how scripts run. For example, if multiple scripts are assigned, you can control whether they run synchronously or asynchronously. You can write scripts in any scripting language that the Windows client can interpret, such as VBScript, Jscript, or simple command or batch files. Note: In Windows Server 2008 R2 and Windows Server 2012, the user interface (UI) in Group Policy Editor for Logon, Logoff, Startup, and Shutdown scripts provides an additional tab for Windows PowerShell scripts. You can deploy your Windows PowerShell script by adding it to this tab. Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012, Windows 7, or Windows 8 can run Windows PowerShell scripts through Group Policy.
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Scripts are stored in shared folders on the network. You need to ensure that the client has access to that network location. If clients cannot access the network location, the scripts fail to run. Although any network location stores scripts, as a best practice, use the Netlogon share because all users and computers that are authenticated to Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) have access to this location. For many of these settings, using Group Policy preferences is a better alternative to configuring them in Windows images or using logon scripts. Group Policy preferences are covered in more detail later in this module.

Demonstration: Configuring Scripts with GPOs


This demonstration shows how to: Create a logon script to map a network drive. Create and link a GPO to use the script, and store the script in the Netlogon share. Sign in to the client to test the results.

Demonstration Steps Create a logon script to map a network drive


1. On LON-DC1, launch Notepad, and then type the following command:
N e tu s et :\ \ L O N d c 1 \ R e d i r e c t

2. 3.

Save the file as Map.bat. Copy the file to the clipboard.

Create and link a GPO to use the script, and store the script in the Netlogon share
1. Use the Group Policy Management console to create a new GPO named Drivemap, and then link it to the Adatum.com domain. 2. 3. 4. Edit the GPO to configure a user logon script. Paste the Map.bat script into the Netlogon share. Add the Map.bat script to the logon scripts.

Sign in to the client to test the results


1. 2. 3. On LON-CL1, sign in as Adatum\Administrator with the password Pa$$word. Verify that drive is mapped. Sign out of LON-CL1.

Lesson 3: Configuring Group Policy Preferences


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In previous Windows Server versions, you could not use Group Policy to control common settings that affect the user and computer environment, such as mapped drives. Typically, these settings were delivered through logon scripts or imaging solutions. However, Windows Server 2012 includes the Group Policy preferences built-in to the GPMC, which enable settings such as mapped drives to be delivered through Group Policy. Additionally, you can configure preferences by installing the Remote Server Administration Tools (RSAT) on a computer that is running Windows 7 or Windows 8. This allows you to deliver many common settings by using Group Policy.

Lesson Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to: Describe Group Policy preferences. Identify the differences between Group Policy settings and preferences. Describe Group Policy preference features. Explain how to configure settings by using preferences.

What Are Group Policy Preferences?

Group Policy preference extensions include more than 20 Group Policy extensions that expand the range of configurable settings within a GPO. You now can use preferences to apply a number of settings that had to be applied by scripts in the past, such as drive mappings. Group Policy preferences are supported natively on Windows Server 2008 and newer versions, and on Windows Vista Service Pack 2 (SP2) and newer versions. You can download and install client-side extensions (CSEs) of Group Policy preferences for Windows Server 2003, Windows XP Service Pack 3 (SP3), and Windows Vista Service Pack 1 (SP1) to provide support for preferences on those systems. Examples of the new Group Policy preference extensions include: Folder Options Drive Maps

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Printers Scheduled Tasks Services Start Menu

Configuring Group Policy preferences does not require any special tools or software installation, but they are natively part of the GPMC in Windows Server 2008 (and newer), and are applied in the same manner as Group Policy settings, by default. Preferences have two distinct sections: Windows Settings and Control Panel Settings. When you configure a new preference, you can perform the following four basic actions: Create. Create a new preference setting for the user or computer. Delete. Remove an existing preference setting for the user or computer. Replace. Delete and recreate a preference setting for the user or computer. The result is that Group Policy preferences replace all existing settings and files associated with the preference item. Update. Modify an existing preference setting for the user or computer.

Comparing Group Policy Preferences and GPO Settings

Preferences are similar to policies in that they apply configurations to the user or computer. However, there are several differences in the way that you can configure and apply them. One of these differences is that preferences are not enforced. However, you can configure preferences to be reapplied automatically. The following is a list of other differences between Group Policy settings and preferences: Preference settings are not enforced. Group Policy settings disable the user interface for settings that the policy manages. Preferences do not do this. Group Policy settings are applied at regular intervals. You can apply preferences once only or at intervals. The end user can change any preference setting that is applied through Group Policy, but policy settings prevent users from changing them.
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In some cases, you can configure the same settings through a policy setting as well as a preference item. If conflicting preference and Group Policy settings are configured and applied to the same object, the value of the policy setting always applies.

Features of Group Policy Preferences

After you create a Group Policy preference, you must configure its properties. Different preferences will require different input information. For example, shortcut preferences require target paths, whereas environment variables require variable types and values. Preferences also provide a number of features in the common properties to assist in the deployment.

General Properties Tab


The General Properties tab is where basic information is provided. The first step is to specify the action for the preference: Create, Delete, Replace, or Update. Different settings will be available, depending on the initial action selected. For example, when creating a drive mapping, you must provide a Universal Naming Convention (UNC) path and an option for the drive letter, which you want to assign.

Common Properties Tab


The common properties are consistent for all preferences. You can use the Common Property tab to control the behavior of the preference as follows: Stop processing items in this extension if an error occurs. If an error occurs while processing a preference, no other preferences in this GPO will process. Run in logged-on users security context. Preferences can run as the System account or the logged-on user. This setting forces the logged-on user context. Remove this item when it is no longer applied . Unlike policy settings, preferences are not removed when the GPO that delivered it is removed. This setting will change that behavior. Apply once and do not reapply. Normally, preferences are refreshed at the same interval as Group Policy settings. This setting changes that behavior to apply the setting only once on logon or startup. Use Item-level targeting. One of the most powerful features of preferences is item-level targeting. You can use this feature to specify criteria easily, so that you can determine exactly which users or computers will receive a preference. Criteria includes, but is not limited to: o Computer name
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o IP address range o Operating system o Security group o User o Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) queries

Demonstration: Configuring Group Policy Preferences


This demonstration shows how to: Configure a desktop shortcut with Group Policy preferences. Target the preference. Configure a new folder with Group Policy preferences. Target the preference. Test the preference.

Demonstration Steps Configure a desktop shortcut with Group Policy preferences


1. 2. 3. On LON-DC1, in the Group Policy Management console, open the Default Domain Policy for editing. Navigate to Computer Configuration\Preferences\ Windows Settings\Shortcuts. Create a new shortcut to the Notepad.exe program.

Target the preference


Target the preference for the computer, LON-CL1.

Configure a new folder with Group Policy preferences


1. 2. Navigate to User Configuration\Preferences\Windows Settings\Folders. Create a new folder for the C:\Reports folder.

Target the preference


Target this preference for computers that are running the Windows 8 operating system.

Test the preferences


1. Switch to LON-CL1, and refresh the group policies by using the following command at the command prompt:
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g p u p d a t e/ f o r c e

2.

Sign in and verify the presence of both the C:\Reports folder and the Notepad shortcut on the Desktop.

Lesson 4: Managing Software with Group Policy


Windows Server 2012 includes a feature called Software Installation and Maintenance that AD DS, Group Policy, and the Windows Installer service use to install, maintain, and remove software from your organizations computers. In this lesson, you will learn how to manage software with Group Policy.

Lesson Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to: Describe how Group Policy software distribution addresses the software lifecycle. Describe how Windows Installer enhances software distribution. Describe the difference between assigning and publishing software. Explain how to manage software upgrades by using Group Policy.

How Group Policy Software Distribution Helps to Address the Software Lifecycle

The software lifecycle consists of four phases: preparation, deployment, maintenance, and removal. You can use Group Policy to manage all phases except the preparation. You can apply Group Policy settings to users or computers in a site, domain, or organization unit (OU) to install, upgrade, or remove software automatically. By applying Group Policy settings to software, you can manage the phases of software deployment without deploying software on each computer individually.

How Windows Installer Enhances Software Distribution

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To enable Group Policy to deploy and manage software, Windows Server 2012 uses the Windows Installer service. This component automates the installation and removal of applications by applying a set of centrally defined setup rules during the installation process. The Windows Installer service installs the Microsoft Installer (MSI) package files. MSI files contain a database that stores all the instructions required to install the application. Small applications may be entirely stored as MSI files, whereas other larger applications will have many associated source files that the MSI references. Many software vendors provide MSI files for their applications. The Windows Installer service has the following characteristics: This service runs with elevated privileges, so that software can be installed by the Windows Installer service, no matter which user is logged onto the system. Users only require read access to the software distribution point. Applications are resilient. If an application becomes corrupted, the installer will detect and reinstall or repair the application. Windows Installer cannot install .exe files. To distribute a software package that installs with an .exe file, the .exe file must be converted to an .msi file by using a third-party utility. Question: Do users need administrative rights to install applications manually that have MSI files?

Question: What are some disadvantages of deploying software through Group Policy?

Assigning and Publishing Software

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There are two deployment types available for delivering software to clients. Administrators can either install software for users or computers in advance by assigning the software, or give users the option to install the software when they require it by publishing the software in AD DS. Both user and computer configuration sections of a GPO have a Software Settings section. You can add software to a GPO by adding a new package to the Software Installation node, and then specifying whether to assign or publish it. You also can choose advanced deployment of a package. Use this option to apply a customization file to a package for custom deployment. For example, if you use the Office Customization tool to create a setup customization file to deploy Microsoft Office 2010.

Assigning Software
Assigning software has the following characteristics: When you assign software to a user, the users Start menu advertises the software when the user logs on. Installation does not begin until the user double-clicks the application's icon or a file that is associated with the application. Users do not share deployed applications. When you assign software to a user, an application that you install for one user through Group Policy will not be available to other users. When you assign an application to a computer, the application is installed the next time that the computer starts. The application will be available to all users of the computer.

Publishing Software
Publishing software has the following characteristics: The Programs shortcut in Control Panel advertises a published program to the user. Users can install the application by using the Programs applet, or you can set it up so that document activation installs the application. Applications that users do not have permission to install are not advertised to them. Applications cannot be published to computers.

Note: When configuring Group Policy to deploy applications, they must be mapped to UNC paths. If you use local paths, the deployment will fail.

Managing Software Upgrades by Using Group Policy

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Software vendors occasionally release software updates. These usually address minor issues, such as an update or feature enhancements, which do not warrant a complete application reinstallation. Microsoft releases some software patches as .MSP files. Major upgrades that provide new functionality require an upgrading of a software package to a newer version. You can use the Upgrades tab to upgrade a package by using the GPO. When you perform upgrades by using Group Policy, youll notice the following characteristics: You may redeploy a package if the original Windows Installer file has been modified. Upgrades will often remove the old version of an application and install a newer version, usually maintaining application settings. You can remove software packages if they were delivered originally by using Group Policy. This is useful if a line-of-business (LOB) application is being replaced with a different application. Removal can be mandatory or optional.

Lab: Managing User Desktops with Group Policy


Scenario
A. Datum Corporation is a global engineering and manufacturing company with its head office in London, U.K. An IT office and a data center are located in London to support the London head office and other locations. A. Datum has recently deployed a Windows Server 2012 server and client infrastructure. A. Datum has just opened up a new branch office. Users in this office require an automated method for mapping drives to shared server resources and you decide to use Group Policy preferences. Furthermore, you have been asked to create a shortcut to the Notepad application for all users that belong to the IT security group. To help minimize profile sizes, you have been asked to configure folder redirection to redirect several profile folders to each users home drive.

Objectives
After completing this lab, you will be able to: Implement settings by using Group Policy preferences. Configure folder redirection.

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Lab Setup
Estimated Time: 45 minutes

Virtual Machines

20411B-LON-DC1 20411B-LON-CL1

User Name Password

Adatum\Administrator Pa$$w0rd

For this lab, you will use the available virtual machine environment. Before you begin the lab, you must complete the following steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. On the host computer, click Start, point to Administrative Tools, and then click Hyper-V Manager. In Hyper-V Manager, click 20411B-LON-DC1, and in the Actions pane, click Start. In the Actions pane, click Connect. Wait until the virtual machine starts. Sign in using the following credentials: o o o 5. User name: Administrator Password: Pa$$w0rd Domain: Adatum

Repeat steps 2 through 4 for 20411B-LON-CL1.

Exercise 1: Implementing Settings by Using Group Policy Preferences


Scenario A. Datum has been using logon scripts to provide users with drive mappings to file shares. The maintenance of these scripts is an ongoing problem because they are large and complex. Your manager has asked you to implement the drive mappings by using Group Policy preferences so that logon scripts can be removed. You also have been asked to place a shortcut to the Notepad application for all users that belong to the IT security group. The main tasks for this exercise are as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. Create the required logon script. Create a new GPO, and link it to the Branch Office 1 organization unit (OU). Edit the Default Domain Policy with the required Group Policy preferences. Test the preferences.

Task 1: Create the required logon script

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1. 2.

Sign in to LON-DC1 as Adatum\Administrator with the password Pa$$w0rd. Open File Explorer and create a folder, and then share it with Specific people by using the following properties: o o o Path: C:\Branch1 Share name: Branch1 Permissions: Everyone, Read/Write .

3.

Launch Notepad, and then type the following command:


N e tu s eS :\ \ L O N d c 1 \ B r a n c h 1

4. 5.

Save the file to the desktop as BranchScript.bat. On the desktop, copy the file to the Clipboard. You will paste the file into the appropriate folder later in the lab.

Task 2: Create a new GPO, and link it to the Branch Office 1 organization unit (OU)

1.

On LON-DC1, open Active Directory Users and Computers, and then create an organizational unit (OU) in the Adatum.com domain called Branch Office 1.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Move user Holly Dickson from the IT OU to the Branch Office 1 OU. Move the LON-CL1 computer to the Branch Office 1 OU. Open the Group Policy Management console. Create and link a new GPO named Branch1 to the Branch Office 1 organizational unit. Open the Branch1 GPO for editing. Edit the GPO to configure a user logon script. Paste the BranchScript.bat script into the Netlogon share. Add the BranchScript.bat script to the logon scripts GPO setting.

Task 3: Edit the Default Domain Policy with the required Group Policy preferences

1. 2. 3.

On LON-DC1, open the Default Domain Policy for editing. Navigate to User Configuration\ Preferences\ Windows Settings\ Shortcuts. Create a new shortcut to the Notepad.exe program: o o o o Name: Notepad Action: Create Location: Desktop Target path: C:\Windows\notepad.exe
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4. 5.

Target the preference for members of the IT security group. Close all open windows.

Task 4: Test the preferences

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Switch to LON-CL1 and restart the computer. Sign in as Adatum\Administrator with the password Pa$$w0rd. Open the Command Prompt window, and then use the gpupdate /force command to refresh the Group Policy. Sign out of LON-CL1. Sign in as Adatum\Holly with the password Pa$$w0rd. Verify that a drive is mapped to \\LON-DC1\Branch1. Verify that the shortcut to Notepad is on Hollys desktop. If the shortcut does not appear, repeat steps 2 through 5. Sign out of LON-CL1.

Results: After this exercise, you should have created the required scripts and preference settings successfully, and then assigned them by using GPOs.

Exercise 2: Configuring Folder Redirection


Scenario In order to help minimize profile sizes, you have been asked to configure folder redirection for the branch office users to redirect several profile folders to each users home drive. The main tasks for this exercise are as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. Create a shared folder to store the redirected folders. Create a new GPO and link it to the branch office OU. Edit the folder redirection settings in the policy. Test the folder redirection settings.

Task 1: Create a shared folder to store the redirected folders

On LON-DC1, open File Explorer and then create a folder and share it with Specific people by using the following properties: o Path: C:\Branch1\Redirect
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o Share name: Branch1Redirect o Permissions: Everyone , Read/Write

Task 2: Create a new GPO and link it to the branch office OU

On LON-DC1, open Group Policy Management and then create and link a new GPO named Folder Redirection to the Branch Office 1 OU.

Task 3: Edit the folder redirection settings in the policy

1. 2.

Open the Folder Redirection GPO for editing. Under User Configuration, browse to Folder Redirection and then configure the Documents folder properties to use the Basic-Redirect everyones folder to the same location setting.

3. 4. 5.

Ensure that the Target folder location is set to Create a folder for each user under the root path. Specify the root path as \\LON-DC1\Branch1Redirect. Close all open windows on LON-DC1.

Task 4: Test the folder redirection settings

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Switch to LON-CL1. Sign in as Adatum\Administrator with the password Pa$$w0rd. Open the Command Prompt window, and use the gpupdate /force command to refresh the Group Policy. Sign out and then sign in as Adatum\Holly with the password Pa$$word. Browse to the desktop. Right-click the desktop and use the Personalize menu to enable Users Files on the desktop. From the Desktop, open the Holly Dickson folder. Right-click My Documents, and then click Properties. In the My Document Properties dialog box, note that the location of the folder is now the network share in a subfolder named for the user.

10. If the folder redirection is not evident, sign out, and then sign in as Adatum\Holly with the password Pa$$word. Repeat steps 7 to 9. 11. Sign out of LON-CL1.

Results: After this exercise, you should have successfully configured folder redirection to a shared folder on the LON-DC1 server.
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Module 6: Managing User Desktops with Group Policy

To prepare for the next module

When you finish the lab, revert the virtual machines to their initial state. To do this, perform the following steps:

1. 2. 3. 4.

On the host computer, start Hyper-V Manager. In the Virtual Machines list, right-click 20411B-LON-DC1, and then click Revert. In the Revert Virtual Machine dialog box, click Revert. Repeat steps 2 and 3 for 20411B-LON-CL1.

Module Review and Takeaways


Best Practices Related to Group Policy Management
Include comments on GPO settings Use a central store for Administrative Templates when having clients with Windows Vista, Windows 7, and Windows 8 Use Group Policy preferences to configure settings that are not available in the Group Policy set of settings Use Group Policy software installation to deploy packages in .msi format to a large number of users or computers

Common Issues and Troubleshooting Tips


Common Issue
You have configured folder redirection for an OU, but none of the users folders are being redirected to the network location. When you look in the root folder, you observe that a subdirectory named for each user has been created, but they are empty. You have assigned an application to an OU. After multiple logons, users report that no one has installed the application.

Troubleshooting Tip

You have a mixture of Windows XP and Windows 8 computers. After configuring several settings in the Administrative Templates of a GPO, users with Windows XP operating system report that some settings are being applied and others are not. Group Policy preferences are not being applied.

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Review Questions
Question: Why do some Group Policy settings take two logons before going into effect?

Question: How can you support Group Policy preferences on Windows XP?

Question: What is the benefit of having a central store?

Question: What is the main difference between Group Policy settings and Group Policy preferences?

Question: What is the difference between publishing and assigning software through Group Policy?

Question: Can you use Windows PowerShell scripts as startup scripts?

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Lab Answer Key: Module 6: Managing User Desktops with Group Policy Lab: Managing User Desktops with Group Policy
Exercise 1: Implementing Settings by Using Group Policy Preferences
Task 1: Create the required logon script

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Sign in to LON-DC1 as Adatum\Administrator with the password Pa$$w0rd. On the taskbar, click File Explorer. In the navigation pane, click Computer. In the details pane, double-click Local Disk (C:) , and then on the Home tab, click New folder. Name the new folder Branch1. Right-click the Branch1 folder, click Share with, and then click Specific people . In the File Sharing dialog box, click the drop-down arrow and select Everyone , and then click Add. For the Everyone group, click the Permission Level drop-down arrow, and then select Read/Write . Click Share and then click Done .

10. Close the Local Disk (C:) window. 11. Pause your mouse pointer in the lower right of the display, and then click Start. 12. Type Notepad and then press Enter. 13. In Notepad, type Net use S: \\LON-DC1\Branch1. 14. Click the File menu, and then click Save . 15. In the Save As dialog box, in the File name box, type BranchScript.bat. 16. In the Save as type list, select All Files (*.*). 17. In the navigation pane, click Desktop, and then click Save . 18. Close Notepad. 19. On the desktop, right-click the BranchScript.bat file, and then click Copy. You will paste the file into the appropriate folder later in the lab.

Task 2: Create a new GPO, and link it to the Branch Office 1 organization unit (OU)

1. 2. 3.

On LON-DC1, pause your mouse pointer in the lower right of the display, and then click Start. Click Administrative Tools. In Administrative Tools, double-click Active Directory Users and Computers.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

In Active Directory Users and Computers, click Adatum.com. Right-click Adatum.com, point to New , and then click Organizational Unit. In the New Object Organizational Unit dialog box, in the Name box, type Branch Office 1, and then click OK. In the navigation pane, click IT. In the details pane, right-click Holly Dickson, and then click Move . In the Move dialog box, click Branch Office 1, and then click OK.

10. In the navigation pane, click Computers. 11. In the details pane, right-click LON-CL1, and then click Move . 12. In the Move dialog box, click Branch Office 1, and then click OK. 13. Pause your mouse pointer in the lower right of the display, and then click Start. 14. Click Administrative Tools, and then double-click Group Policy Management. 15. Expand Forest: Adatum.com, expand Domains, and then expand Adatum.com. 16. Right-click Branch Office 1 and then click Create a GPO in this domain and link it here . 17. In the New GPO dialog box, in the Name box, type Branch1, and then click OK. 18. In the navigation pane, click Group Policy Objects. 19. Right-click the Branch1 GPO and then click Edit. 20. In the Group Policy Management Editor, under User Configuration expand Policies, expand Windows Settings, and then click Scripts (Logon/Logoff). 21. In the details pane, double-click Logon. 22. In the Logon Properties dialog box, click Show Files. 23. In the details pane, right-click a blank area, and then click Paste . 24. Close the Logon window. 25. In the Logon Properties dialog box, click Add. 26. In the Add a Script dialog box, click Browse . 27. Click the BranchScript.bat script, and then click Open. 28. Click OK twice to close all dialog boxes. 29. Close the Group Policy Management Editor.

Task 3: Edit the Default Domain Policy with the required Group Policy preferences

1.

In Group Policy Management, click the Group Policy Objects folder, in the details pane, right-click the Default Domain Policy, and then click Edit.

2.

Expand User Configuration, expand Preferences, expand Windows Settings, right-click Shortcuts, point to New , and then click Shortcut.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

In the New Shortcut Properties dialog box, in the Action list, click Create . In the Name box, type Notepad. In the Location box, click the arrow, and then select Desktop. In the Target path box, type C:\Windows\Notepad.exe . On the Common tab, select the Item-level targeting check box, and then click Targeting. In the Targeting Editor dialog box, click New Item, and then click Security Group. In the lower part of the dialog box, click the ellipsis button.

10. In the Select Group dialog box, in the Enter the object name to select (examples) box, type IT, and then click OK. 11. Click OK twice. 12. Close all open windows.

Task 4: Test the preferences

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Switch to LON-CL1. Pause your mouse pointer in the lower right of the display, and then click Settings. Click Power, and then click Restart. When the computer has restarted, sign in as Adatum\Administrator with the password Pa$$w0rd. From Start, type cmd.exe , and then press Enter. At the command prompt, type the following command, and then press Enter:
g p u p d a t e/ f o r c e

7. 8. 9.

Sign out of LON-CL1. Sign in as Adatum\Holly with the password Pa$$word. Click Desktop, and on the taskbar, click File Explorer.

10. Examine the navigation pane, and verify that you have a drive mapped to \\lon-dc1\Branch1. 11. Verify that the notepad shortcut is on Hollys desktop. 12. If the shortcut does not appear, repeat steps 4 through 8. 13. Sign out LON-CL1.

Results: After this exercise, you should have created the required scripts and preference settings successfully, and then assigned them by using GPOs.

Exercise 2: Configuring Folder Redirection

Task 1: Create a shared folder to store the redirected folders

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

On LON-DC1, on the taskbar, click File Explorer. In the navigation pane, click Computer. In the details pane, double-click Local Disk (C:) , and then on the Home tab, click New folder. Name the new folder Branch1Redirect. Right-click the Branch1Redirect folder, click Share with, and then click Specific people . In the File Sharing dialog box, click the drop-down arrow, select Everyone , and then click Add. For the Everyone group, click the Permission Level drop-down arrow, and then click Read/Write . Click Share , and then click Done . Close the Local Disk (C:) window.

Task 2: Create a new GPO and link it to the branch office OU

1. 2. 3. 4.

On LON-DC1, from Server Manager, click Tools and then click Group Policy Management. In Group Policy Management, expand Forest: Adatum.com, expand Domains, and then expand Adatum.com. Right-click Branch Office 1, and then click Create a GPO in this domain and Link it here . In the New GPO dialog box, in the Name box, type Folder Redirection, and then click OK.

Task 3: Edit the folder redirection settings in the policy

1. 2.

Expand Branch Office 1, right-click Folder Redirection, and then click Edit. In the Group Policy Management Editor, under User Configuration, expand Policies, expand Windows Settings, and then expand Folder Redirection.

3. 4.

Right-click Documents, and then click Properties. In the Document Properties dialog box, on the Target tab, next to Setting, click the drop-down arrow, and then select Basic Redirect everyones folder to the same location.

5. 6. 7. 8.

Ensure the Target folder location box is set to Create a folder for each user under the root path. In the Root Path box, type \\LON-DC1\Branch1Redirect, and then click OK. In the Warning dialog box, click Yes. Close all open windows on LON-DC1.

Task 4: Test the folder redirection settings

1. 2. 3. 4.

Switch to LON-CL1. Sign in as Adatum\Administrator with the password Pa$$w0rd. From Start, type cmd.exe , and then press Enter. At the command prompt, type the following command, and then press Enter:
g p u p d a t e/ f o r c e

5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Sign out and then sign in as Adatum\Holly with the password Pa$$word. From Start, click Desktop. Right-click the desktop, and then click Personalize . In the navigation pane, click Change desktop icons. In Desktop Icon Settings, select the Users Files check box, and then click OK.

10. On the desktop, double-click Holly Dickson. 11. Right-click My Documents, and then click Properties. 12. In the My Document Properties dialog box, note that the location of the folder is now the network share in a subfolder named for the user. 13. If the folder redirection is not evident, sign out, and then sign in as Adatum\Holly with the password Pa$$word. Repeat steps 10 through 12. 14. Sign out of LON-CL1.

Results: After this exercise, you should have successfully configured folder redirection to a shared folder on the LON-DC1 server.

To prepare for the next module

When you finish the lab, revert the virtual machines to their initial state. To do this, perform the following steps:

1. 2. 3. 4.

On the host computer, start Hyper-V Manager. In the Virtual Machines list, right-click 20411B-LON-DC1, and then click Revert. In the Revert Virtual Machine dialog box, click Revert. Repeat steps 2 and 3 for 20411B-LON-CL1.

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Module 7: Configuring and Troubleshooting Remote Access

Module 7: Configuring and Troubleshooting Remote Access Contents:


Module Overview Lesson 1: Lesson 2: Lesson 3: Lesson 4: Lab A: Lesson 5: Lab B: Configuring Network Access Configuring VPN Access Overview of Network Policies Troubleshooting Routing and Remote Access Configuring Remote Access Configuring DirectAccess Configuring DirectAccess Module Review and Takeaways

Module Overview
Most organizations have users that work remotely, perhaps from home or maybe from customer sites. To facilitate and support these remote connections, you must implement remote access technologies to support this distributed workforce. You must become familiar with the technologies that enable remote users to connect to your organizations network infrastructure. These technologies include virtual private networks (VPNs), and DirectAccess, a feature of the Windows 7 and Windows 8 operating systems. It is important that you understand how to configure and secure your remote access clients by using network policies. This module explores these remote access technologies.

Objectives
After completing this module, you will be able to: Configure network access. Create and configure a VPN solution. Describe the role of network policies. Troubleshoot routing and remote access. Configure DirectAccess.

Lesson 1 : Configuring Network Access


Network Access in the Windows Server 2012 operating system provides the required services that enable remote users to connect to your network. To support the needs of both your organization and your remote users, it is important that you are able to install and configure these Windows Server 2012 network access components successfully.
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Lesson Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to: Describe the components of a Network Access Services infrastructure. Describe the Network Policy and Access Services role. Describe Routing and Remote access. Explain network access authentication and authorization. Explain the types of authentication methods that are used for network access. Describe a public key infrastructure (PKI). Explain how Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) servers are used with the Routing and Remote Access Service.

Components of a Network Access Services Infrastructure

The underlying infrastructure in a complete Network Access Services infrastructure in Windows Server 2012 typically includes the following components: Virtual Private Network (VPN) Server. Provides remote access connectivity based on various VPN tunneling protocols over a public network, such as the Internet. Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS). Services authentication requests from remote access client connection attempts. Active Directory Certificate Services (AD CS). You can use digital certificates to provide for authentication in remote access scenarios. By deploying AD CS, you can create a PKI in your organization to support the issue, management, and revocation of certificates. DHCP Server. Supplies accepted inbound remote access connections with an IP configuration for network connectivity to the corporate local area network (LAN). Network Policy Server (NPS). Provides authentication services for other network access components. Network Access Protection (NAP) components: o NAP Health Policy Server. Evaluates system health against configured health policies that describe health requirements and enforcement behaviors, such as requiring that connecting clients must be compliant before they gain access to the network.
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o Health Registration Authority (HRA). Obtains health certificates for clients that pass the health policy verification. o Remediation Servers. Provide remediation services to those clients that do not meet the health requirements for the corporate network. Remediation Servers are special servers on a limited network.

What Is the Network Policy and Access Services Role?

The Network Policy and Access Services role in Windows Server 2012 provides the following network connectivity solutions: Enforces health policies. Establishes and enforces health policies automatically, which can include software requirements, security update requirements, and required computer configurations. Helps to secure wireless and wired access. When you deploy 802.1X wireless access points, secure wireless access provides wireless users with a secure certificate or password-based authentication method that is simple to deploy. When you deploy 802.1X authenticating switches, they allow you to secure your wired network by ensuring that intranet users are authenticated before they can connect to the network or obtain an IP address using DHCP. Centralizes network policy management with Remote Authentication Dial-in User Service (RADIUS) server and proxy. Rather than configuring network access policy at each network access server (such as wireless access points, 802.1X authenticating switches, VPN servers, and dial-up servers), you can create policies in a single location that specify all aspects of network connection requests. These policies can include who is allowed to connect, when they can connect, and the level of security that they must use to connect to your network.

Note: The Remote Access components are a separate server role in Windows Server 2012.

What Is the Remote Access Role?

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The Remote Access role enables you to provide users with remote access to your organizations network using one of the following technologies: VPN Access. A VPN provides a point-to-point connection between components of a private network through a public network, such as the Internet. Tunneling protocols enable a VPN client to establish and maintain a connection to a VPN servers listening virtual port. You also can connect branch offices to your network with VPN solutions, deploy full-featured software routers on your network, and share Internet connections across the intranet. DirectAccess. DirectAccess enables seamless remote access to intranet resources without the user first establishing a VPN connection. DirectAccess ensures seamless connectivity to the application infrastructure for both internal users and remote users.

You can deploy the following technologies during the installation of the Remote Access role: DirectAccess and VPN Remote Access Service (RAS). Using DirectAccess and VPN RAS, you can enable and configure: o DirectAccess solutions for your organization. o VPN connections to provide end users with remote access to your organizations network. Routing. This provides a full-featured software router and an open platform for routing and Internet working. It offers routing services to businesses in LAN and wide area network (WAN) environments. When you choose routing, Network Address Translation (NAT) is also installed. When you deploy NAT, the server that is running Remote Access is configured to share an Internet connection with computers on a private network, and to translate traffic between its public address and the private network. By using NAT, the computers on the private network gain some measure of protection because the router on which you configure NAT does not forward traffic from the Internet into the private network unless a private network client requests it or traffic is explicitly allowed. When you deploy VPN and NAT, you configure the server that is running Remote Access to provide NAT for the private network, and to accept VPN connections. Computers on the Internet will not be able to determine the IP addresses of computers on the private network. However, VPN clients will be able to connect to computers on the private network as if they were physically attached to the same network.

Network Authentication and Authorization

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The distinction between authentication and authorization is important in understanding why connection attempts are accepted or denied: Authentication is the verification of the connection attempts credentials. This process consists of sending the credentials from the remote access client to the Remote Access server in either plaintext or encrypted form by using an authentication protocol. Authorization is the verification that the connection attempt is allowed. Authorization occurs after successful authentication.

For a connection attempt to be accepted, the connection attempt must be authenticated and authorized. It is possible for the connection attempt to be authenticated by using valid credentials, but not authorized; in this case, the connection attempt is denied. If you configure a Remote Access server for Windows Authentication, the security features of Windows Server 2012 verify the authentication credentials, while the user accounts dial-in properties and locally stored remote access policies authorize the connection. If the connection attempt is both authenticated and authorized, then the connection attempt is accepted. If you configure the Remote Access server for RADIUS authentication, the connection attempts credentials are passed to the RADIUS server for authentication and authorization. If the connection attempt is both authenticated and authorized, the RADIUS server sends an accept message back to the Remote Access server and the connection attempt is accepted. If the connection attempt is either not authenticated or not authorized, the RADIUS server sends a reject message back to the Remote Access server and the connection attempt is rejected.

Authentication Methods

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The authentication of access clients is an important security concern. Authentication methods typically use an authentication protocol that is negotiated during the connection establishment process. The following methods are supported by the Remote Access role.

PAP
Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) uses plaintext passwords and is the least secure authentication protocol. It typically is negotiated if the remote access client and Remote Access server cannot negotiate a more secure form of validation. PAP is included in Microsoft Windows Server 2012 to support older client operating systems than support no other authentication method.

CHAP
The Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) is a challenge-response authentication protocol that uses the industry-standard MD5 hashing scheme to encrypt the response. Various vendors of network access servers and clients use CHAP. Because CHAP requires the use of a reversibly encrypted password, you should consider using another authentication protocol, such as Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (MS-CHAP) version 2.

MS-CHAP V2
MS-CHAP v2 is a one-way, encrypted password, mutual-authentication process that works as follows: 1. The authenticator (the Remote Access server or the computer that is running NPS) sends a challenge to the remote access client. The challenge consists of a session identifier and an arbitrary challenge string. 2. The remote access client sends a response that contains a one-way encryption of the received challenge string, the peer challenge string, the session identifier, and the user password. 3. The authenticator checks the response from the client and sends back a response containing an indication of the success or failure of the connection attempt and an authenticated response based on the sent challenge string, the peer challenge string, the clients encrypted response, and the user password. 4. The remote access client verifies the authentication response and, if correct, uses the connection. If the authentication response is not correct, the remote access client terminates the connection.

EAP
With the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP), an arbitrary authentication mechanism authenticates a remote access connection. The remote access client and the authenticator (either the Remote Access server or the RADIUS server) negotiate the exact authentication scheme to be used. Routing and Remote Access includes support for EAP-Transport Level Security (EAPTLS) by default. You can plug in other EAP modules to the server that is running Routing and Remote Access to provide other EAP methods.

Other Options
In addition to the previously mentioned authentication methods, there are two other options that you can enable when selecting an authentication method: Unauthenticated Access. Strictly speaking, this is not an authentication method, but rather the lack of one. Unauthenticated access allows remote systems to connect without authentication. This option should never be enabled in a production environment, however, as it leaves your network at risk. Nonetheless, this option can sometimes be useful for troubleshooting
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authentication issues in a test environment. Machine Certificate for Internet Key Exchange version 2 (IKEv2). Select this option if you wish to use VPN Reconnect.

What Is a PKI?

A PKI consists of several components that help you secure corporate communications and transactions, including those used in remote access scenarios. There are many components that are required to work together to provide a complete PKI solution. The PKI components in Windows Server 2012 are: Certification Authority (CA). CA issues and manages digital certificates for users, services, and computers. By deploying CA, you establish the PKI in your organization. Digital certificates. Digital certificates are similar in function to an electronic passport. A digital certificate is used to prove the identity of the user (or other entity). Digital certificates contain the electronic credentials that are associated with a public key and a private key, which are used to authenticate users and other devices such as Web servers and mail servers. Digital certificates also ensure that software or code is run from a trusted source. Digital certificates contain various fields, such as Subject, Issuer, and Common Name . These fields are used to determine the specific use of the certificate. For example, a Web server certificate might contain the Common Name field of web01.contoso.com, which would make that certificate valid only for that web server. If an attempt were made to use that certificate on a web server named web02.contoso.com, the user of that server would receive a warning. Certificate templates. This component describes the content and purpose of a digital certificate. When requesting a certificate from an AD CS enterprise CA, the certificate requestor will, depending on his or her access rights, be able to select from a variety of certificate types based on certificate templates, such as User and Code Signing. The certificate template saves users from low-level, technical decisions about the type of certificate they need. In addition, they allow administrators to distinguish who might request which certificates. CRLs and Online Responders. o Certificate revocation lists (CRLs) are complete, digitally signed lists of certificates that have been revoked. These lists are published periodically and can be retrieved and cached by clients, based on the configured lifetime of the CRL. The lists are used to verify a certificates revocation status. o Online Responders are part of the Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP) role service in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2012. An Online Responder can receive a request to check for revocation of a certificate without requiring the client to download the entire CRL. This speeds up certificate revocation checking, and reduces the network bandwidth. It also increases scalability and fault tolerance by allowing for array configuration of Online Responders.
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Public keybased applications and services. This relates to applications or services that support public key encryption. In other words, the application or services must be able to support public key implementations to gain the benefits from it. Certificate and CA management tools. Management tools provide command-line and GUI-based tools to: o Configure CAs. o Recover archived private keys. o Import and export keys and certificates. o Publish CA certificates and CRLs. o Manage issued certificates. Authority information access (AIA) and CRL distribution points (CDPs). AIA points determine the location where CA certificates can be found and validated, and CDP locations determine the points where certificate revocation lists can be found during certificate validation process. Because CRLs can become large, (depending on the number of certificates issued and revoked by a CA), you can also publish smaller, interim CRLs called delta CRLs. Delta CRLs contain only the certificates revoked since the last regular CRL was published. This allows clients to retrieve the smaller delta CRLs and more quickly build a complete list of revoked certificates. The use of delta CRLs also allows revocation data to be published more frequently, because the size of a delta CRL means that it usually does not require as much time to transfer as a full CRL. Hardware security module (HSM). A hardware security module is an optional secure cryptographic hardware device that accelerates cryptographic processing for managing digital keys. It is a high security, specialized storage that is connected to the CA for managing the certificates. An HSM is typically attached to a computer physically. This is an optional add-on in your PKI, and is most widely used in high security environments where there would be a significant impact if a key were compromised.

Integrating DHCP with Routing and Remote Access

You can deploy the DHCP role with the Remote Access role, which provides remote access clients with a dynamically assigned IP address during connection. When you use these services together on the same server, the information that is provided during dynamic configuration is provided in a way that is different from typical DHCP configuration for LANbased clients. In LAN environments, DHCP clients negotiate and receive the following configuration information, based entirely on settings that you configure in the DHCP console for the DHCP server: A leased IP address that is provided from an available address pool of an active scope on the DHCP server. The DHCP server
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directly manages and distributes the address to the LAN-based DHCP client. Additional parameters and other configuration information that assigned DHCP options in the address lease provided. The values and list of options correspond to option types that you configure and assign on the DHCP server.

When a Remote Access server provides dynamic configuration for remote access clients, it first performs the following steps: 1. When the server that is running Remote Access starts with the Use DHCP to assign remote TCP/IP addresses option, it instructs the DHCP client to obtain 10 IP addresses from a DHCP server. 2. The Remote Access server uses the first of these 10 IP addresses that are obtained from the DHCP server for the Remote Access server interface. 3. The remaining nine addresses are allocated to TCP/IP-based clients as they dial in to establish a session with the Remote Access server.

IP addresses that are freed when remote access clients disconnect are reused. When all 10 IP addresses are used, the Remote Access server obtains 10 more from a DHCP server. When the Routing and Remote Access service stops, all IP addresses that were obtained through DHCP are released. When the Remote Access server uses this type of proactive caching of DHCP address leases for dial-up clients, it records the following information for each lease response that it obtains from the DHCP server: The IP address of the DHCP server. The client-leased IP address (for later distribution to the Routing and Remote Access client). The time at which the lease was obtained. The time at which the lease expires. The lease duration.

All other DHCP option information that the DHCP server returnssuch as server, scope, or reservation optionsis discarded. When the client dials in to the server and requests an IP address (that is, when Server Assigned IP Address is selected), it uses a cached DHCP lease to provide the dial-up client with dynamic IP address configuration. When the IP address is provided to the dial-up client, the client is unaware that the IP address has been obtained through this intermediate process between the DHCP server and the Remote Access server. The Remote Access server maintains the lease on the clients behalf. Therefore, the only information that the client receives from the DHCP server is the IP address. In dial-up environments, DHCP clients negotiate and receive dynamic configuration using the following modified behavior: A leased IP address from the Routing and Remote Access server cache of DHCP scope addresses. The Routing and Remote Access server obtains and renews its cached address pool with the DHCP server. If the DHCP server typically provides the additional parameters and other configuration information that currently is provided through assigned DHCP options in the address lease, this information is returned to the Remote Access client based on TCP/IP properties that are configured on the Remote Access server.
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Note: DHCP servers that are running Windows Server 2012 provide a predefined user classthe Default Routing and Remote Access Classfor assigning options that are provided only to Routing and Remote Access clients. To assign these options, you must create a DHCP policy with a condition of the User Class Equals Default Routing and Remote Access Class. Then, configure the required options.

Lesson 2: Configuring VPN Access


To properly implement and support a VPN environment within your organization, it is important that you understand how to select a suitable tunneling protocol, how to configure VPN authentication, and how to configure the Network Policy and Access Services server role to support your chosen configuration.

Lesson Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to: Describe what a VPN connection is, and how it is used to connect remote network clients. Describe the tunneling protocols used for a VPN connection. Describe VPN Reconnect. Describe configuration requirements for a VPN connection. Explain how to configure VPN access. Describe additional tasks that you can be completed after configuring a VPN server. Describe the features in and benefits of the Connection Manager Administration Kit. Explain how to create a connection profile using the Connection Manager Administration Kit.

What Is a VPN Connection?

To emulate a point-to-point link, data is encapsulated (or wrapped) and prefixed with a header; this header provides routing information that enables the data to traverse the shared or public network to reach its endpoint.

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To emulate a private link, data is encrypted to ensure confidentiality. Packets that are intercepted on the shared or public network are indecipherable without encryption keys. The link in which the private data is encapsulated and encrypted is known as a VPN connection. There are two types of VPN connections: Remote access Site-to-site

Remote Access VPN


Remote access VPN connections enable your users who are working offsite (for example, at home, at a customer site, or from a public wireless access point) to access a server on your organizations private network using the infrastructure that a public network provides, such as the Internet. From the users perspective, the VPN is a point-to-point connection between the computer, the VPN client, and your organizations server. The exact infrastructure of the shared or public network is irrelevant because it appears logically as if the data is sent over a dedicated private link.

Site-to-Site VPN
Site-to-site VPN connections, which are also known as router-to-router VPN connections, enable your organization to have routed connections between separate offices (or with other organizations) over a public network while helping to maintain secure communications. A routed VPN connection across the Internet logically operates as a dedicated WAN link. When networks connect over the Internet, a router forwards packets to another router across a VPN connection. To the routers, the VPN connection operates as a data-link layer link. A site-to-site VPN connection connects two portions of a private network. The VPN server provides a routed connection to the network to which the VPN server is attached. The calling router (the VPN client) authenticates itself to the answering router (the VPN server), and for mutual authentication, the answering router authenticates itself to the calling router. In a site-to site VPN connection, the packets sent from either router across the VPN connection typically do not originate at the routers.

Properties of VPN Connections


VPN connections that use the Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP), Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol with Internet Protocol Security (L2TP/IPsec), and Secure Socket Tunneling Protocol (SSTP), have the following properties: Encapsulation. With VPN technology, private data is encapsulated with a header containing routing information that allows the data to traverse the transit network. Authentication. Authentication for VPN connections takes the following three different forms: o User-level authentication by using Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) authentication. To establish the VPN connection, the VPN server authenticates the VPN client that is attempting the connection by using a PPP user-level authentication method, and verifies that the VPN client has the appropriate authorization. If you use mutual authentication, the VPN client also authenticates the VPN server, which provides protection against computers that are masquerading as VPN servers. o Computer-level authentication by using Internet Key Exchange (IKE). To establish an IPsec security association, the VPN client and the VPN server use the IKE protocol to exchange either computer certificates or a pre-shared key. In either case, the VPN client and server authenticate each other at the computer level. We recommend computer-certificate authentication because it is a much stronger authentication method. Computer-level authentication is only performed for
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L2TP/IPsec connections. o Data origin authentication and data integrity. To verify that the data sent on the VPN connection originated at the other end of the connection and was not modified in transit, the data contains a cryptographic checksum based on an encryption key known only to the sender and the receiver. Data origin authentication and data integrity are only available for L2TP/IPsec connections. Data encryption. To ensure the confidentiality of data as it traverses the shared or public transit network, the sender encrypts the data, and the receiver decrypts it. The encryption and decryption processes depend on the sender and the receiver both using a common encryption key. Packets that are intercepted in the transit network are unintelligible to anyone who does not have the common encryption key. The encryption keys length is an important security parameter. You can use computational techniques to determine the encryption key. However, such techniques require more computing power and computational time as the encryption keys get larger. Therefore, it is important to use the largest possible key size to ensure data confidentiality.

Tunneling Protocols for VPN Connections

PPTP, L2TP, and SSTP depend heavily on the features originally specified for PPP. PPP was designed to send data across dial-up or dedicated point-to-point connections. For IP, PPP encapsulates IP packets within PPP frames, and then transmits the encapsulated PPP packets across a point-to-point link. PPP was defined originally as the protocol to use between a dial-up client and a network access server.

PPTP
PPTP enables you to encrypt and encapsulate in an IP header multi-protocol traffic that then is sent across an IP network or a public IP network, such as the Internet. You can use PPTP for remote access and site-to-site VPN connections. When using the Internet as the VPN public network, the PPTP server is a PPTPenabled VPN server with one interface on the Internet, and a second interface on the intranet. Encapsulation. PPTP encapsulates PPP frames in IP datagrams for network transmission. PPTP uses a Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) connection for tunnel management, and a modified version of Generic Route Encapsulation (GRE) to encapsulate PPP frames for tunneled data. Payloads of the encapsulated PPP frames can be encrypted, compressed, or both. Encryption. The PPP frame is encrypted with Microsoft Point-to-Point Encryption (MPPE) by using encryption keys that are generated from the MS-CHAPv2 or EAP-TLS authentication process. VPN clients must use the MS-CHAPv2 or EAP-TLS authentication protocol so that the payloads of PPP frames are encrypted. PPTP uses the underlying PPP encryption and encapsulating a previously encrypted PPP frame.
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L2TP
L2TP enables you to encrypt multi-protocol traffic to send over any medium that supports point-to-point datagram delivery, such as IP or asynchronous transfer mode (ATM). L2TP is a combination of PPTP and Layer 2 Forwarding (L2F). L2TP represents the best features of PPTP and L2F. Unlike PPTP, the Microsoft implementation of L2TP does not use MPPE to encrypt PPP datagrams. L2TP relies on IPsec in Transport Mode for encryption services. The combination of L2TP and IPsec is known as L2TP/IPsec. To utilize L2TP/IPsec, both the VPN client and server must support L2TP and IPsec. Client support for L2TP is built in to the Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7, and Windows 8 remote access clients. VPN server support for L2TP is built in to members of the Windows Server 2012, Windows Server 2008, and Windows Server 2003 families. Encapsulation: Encapsulation for L2TP/IPsec packets consists of two layers, L2TP encapsulation, and IPsec encapsulation. L2TP encapsulates and encrypts data in the following way: o First layer. The first layer is the L2TP encapsulation. A PPP frame (an IP datagram) is wrapped with an L2TP header and a User Datagram Protocol (UDP) header. o Second layer. The second layer is the IPsec encapsulation. The resulting L2TP message is wrapped with an IPsec encapsulating security payload (ESP) header and trailer, an IPsec Authentication trailer that provides message integrity and authentication, and a final IP header. The IP header contains the source and destination IP address that corresponds to the VPN client and server. Encryption: The L2TP message is encrypted with either Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) or Triple Data Encryption Standard (3DES) by using encryption keys that the IKE negotiation process generates.

SSTP
SSTP is a tunneling protocol that uses the HTTP/Secure (HTTPS) protocol over TCP port 443 to pass traffic through firewalls and web proxies, which otherwise might block PPTP and L2TP/IPsec traffic. SSTP provides a mechanism to encapsulate PPP traffic over the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) channel of the HTTPS protocol. The use of PPP allows support for strong authentication methods, such as EAP-TLS. SSL provides transport-level security with enhanced key negotiation, encryption, and integrity checking. When a client tries to establish a SSTP-based VPN connection, SSTP first establishes a bidirectional HTTPS layer with the SSTP server. Over this HTTPS layer, the protocol packets flow as the data payload using the following encapsulation and encryption methods: Encapsulation. SSTP encapsulates PPP frames in IP datagrams for transmission over the network. SSTP uses a TCP connection (over port 443) for tunnel management and as PPP data frames. Encryption. The SSTP message is encrypted with the SSL channel of the HTTPS protocol.

IKEv2
IKEv2 uses the IPsec Tunnel Mode protocol over UDP port 500. IKEv2 supports mobility making it a good protocol choice for a mobile workforce. IKEv2-based VPNs enable users to move easily between wireless hotspots, or between wireless and wired connections.
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The use of IKEv2 and IPsec enables support for strong authentication and encryption methods. Encapsulation. IKEv2 encapsulates datagrams by using IPsec ESP or Authentication Header (AH) for transmission over the network. Encryption. The message is encrypted with one of the following protocols by using encryption keys that are generated from the IKEv2 negotiation process: AES 256, AES 192, AES 128, and 3DES encryption algorithms.

IKEv2 is supported only on computers that are running Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2008 R2, and Windows Server 2012. IKEv2 is the default VPN tunneling protocol in Windows 7 and Windows 8.

What Is VPN Reconnect?

In dynamic business scenarios, users must be able to securely access data anytime, from anywhere, and access it continuously, without interruption. For example, users might want to securely access data that is on the companys server, from a branch office or while on the road. To meet this requirement, you can configure the VPN Reconnect feature that is available in Windows Server 2012, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows 8, and Windows 7. With this feature, users can access the companys data by using a VPN connection, which will reconnect automatically if connectivity is interrupted. VPN Reconnect also enables roaming between different networks. VPN Reconnect uses the IKEv2 technology to provide seamless and consistent VPN connectivity. Users who connect via a wireless mobile broadband will benefit most from this capability. Consider a user with a laptop that is running Windows 8. When the user travels to work in a train, he or she connects to the Internet with a wireless mobile broadband card, and then establishes a VPN connection to the companys network. When the train passes through a tunnel, the Internet connection is lost. After the train emerges from the tunnel, the wireless mobile broadband card reconnects automatically to the Internet. With older versions of Windows client and server operating systems, VPN did not reconnect automatically. Therefore, the user would have to repeat the multistep process of connecting to the VPN manually. This was time-consuming and frustrating for mobile users with intermittent connectivity. With VPN Reconnect, Windows Server 2012 and Windows 8 re-establish active VPN connections automatically when Internet connectivity is re-established. Even though the reconnection might take several seconds, users need not reinstate the connection manually, or authenticate again to access internal network resources. The system requirements for using the VPN Reconnect feature are as follows:
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Windows Server 2008 R2 or Windows Server 2012 as a VPN server. Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2008 R2, or Windows Server 2012 client. Public Key Infrastructure PKI, because a computer certificate is required for a remote connection with VPN Reconnect. You can use certificates issued by either an internal or public CA.

Configuration Requirements

Before deploying your organizations VPN solution, consider the following configuration requirements: Your VPN server requires two network interfaces. You must determine which network interface will connect to the Internet, and which network interface will connect to your private network. During configuration, you will be asked to choose which network interface connects to the Internet. If you specify the incorrect interface, your remote access VPN server will not operate correctly. Determine whether remote clients receive IP addresses from a DHCP server on your private network or from the remote access VPN server that you are configuring. If you have a DHCP server on your private network, the remote access VPN server can lease 10 addresses at a time from the DHCP server, and then assign those addresses to remote clients. If you do not have a DHCP server on your private network, the remote access VPN server can automatically generate and assign IP addresses to remote clients. If you want the remote access VPN server to assign IP addresses from a range that you specify, you must determine what that range should be. Determine whether you want connection requests from VPN clients to be authenticated by a RADIUS server or by the remote access VPN server that you are configuring. Adding a RADIUS server is useful if you plan to install multiple remote access VPN servers, wireless access points, or other RADIUS clients to your private network.

Note: To enable a RADIUS infrastructure, install the Network Policy and Access Services server role. The NPS can act as either a RADIUS proxy or a RADIUS server.

Determine whether VPN clients can send DHCPINFORM messages to the DHCP server on your private network. If a DHCP server is on the same subnet as your remote access VPN server, DHCPINFORM messages from VPN clients will be able to reach the DHCP server after the VPN connection is established. If a DHCP server is on a different subnet from your remote access VPN server, make sure that the router between subnets can relay DHCP messages between clients and the server. If your router is running Windows Server 2008 R2 or Windows Server 2012, you can configure the DHCP Relay Agent service on the router to forward DHCPINFORM messages between subnets.
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Ensure that the person who is responsible for the deployment of your VPN solution has the necessary administrative group memberships to install the server roles and configure the necessary services; membership of the local Administrators group is required to perform these tasks.

Demonstration: How to Configure VPN Access


This demonstration shows how to: Configure Remote Access as a VPN server. Configure a VPN client.

Demonstration Steps Configure Remote Access as a VPN server


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Sign in to LON-RTR as Adatum\Administrator with the password Pa$$w0rd. On LON-RTR, open Server Manager, and add the Network Policy and Access Services role. Close Server Manager. Open the Network Policy Server console. Register the server in AD DS. Leave the Network Policy Server window open. Open Routing and Remote Access. Disable the existing configuration. Reconfigure LON-RTR as a VPN Server using the following settings: o o o Local Area Connection 2 is the public interface. The VPN server allocates addresses from the pool: 172.16.0.100 - 172.16.0.111. The server is configured with the option No, use Routing and Remote Access to authenticate connection requests.

10. Start the VPN service.

Configure a VPN Client


1. 2. Switch to LON-CL2, and sign in as Adatum\Administrator with the password of Pa$$w0rd. Create a new VPN connection with the following properties: o o o 3. Internet address to connect to: 10.10.0.1 Destination name: Adatum VPN Allow other people to use this connection: true

Once you have created the VPN, modify its settings by viewing the properties of the connection, and then select the Security tab to reconfigure the VPN using the following settings:

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o o 4.

Type of VPN: Point to Point Protocol (PPTP) Authentication: Allow these protocols =Microsoft CHAP Version 2 (MS-CHAP v2)

Test the VPN connection using the following credentials: o o User name: Adatum\administrator Password: Pa$$w0rd

5.

Wait for the VPN connection to be made. Your connection is unsuccessful. You receive an error relating to authentication issues.

Completing Additional Configuration Tasks

After you complete the steps to deploy and initially configure your Remote Access solution, your server is ready for use as a remote access VPN server. However, the following are the additional tasks that you can also perform on your remote access/VPN server: Configure static packet filters. Add static packet filters to better protect your network. Configure services and ports. Choose which services on the private network you want to make available for remote access users. Adjust logging levels. Configure the level of event details that you want to log. You can decide which information you want to track in log files. Configure the number of VPN ports. Add or remove VPN ports. Create a Connection Manager profile for users. Manage the client connection experience for users, and simplify configuration and troubleshooting of client connections. Add (AD CS. Configure and manage a CA on a server for use in a PKI. Increase remote access security. Protect remote users and the private network by enforcing use of secure authentication methods, requiring higher levels of data encryption, and more. Increase VPN security. Protect remote users and the private network by requiring use of secure tunneling protocols, configuring account lockout, and more. Consider implementing VPN Reconnect. Consider adding VPN Reconnect to re-establish VPN connections automatically for users who temporarily lose their Internet connections.
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What Is the Connection Manager Administration Kit?

The Connection Manager Administration Kit (CMAK) allows you to customize users remote connection options by creating predefined connections to remote servers and networks. The CMAK wizard creates an executable file, which you can then distribute in many ways, or include during deployment activities as part of the operating system image. Connection Manager is a client network connection tool that allows a user to connect to a remote network, such as an Internet Service Provider (ISP) or a corporate network protected by a VPN server. CMAK is a tool that you can use to customize the remote connection experience for users on your network by creating predefined connections to remote servers and networks. You use the CMAK wizard to create and customize a connection for your users. CMAK is an optional component that is not installed by default. You must install CMAK to create connection profiles that your users can install to access remote networks.

Distributing the Connection Profile


The CMAK wizard compiles the connection profile into a single executable file with an .exe file name extension. You can deliver this file to users through any method that is available to you. Some methods to consider are: Include the connection profile as part of the image that is included with new computers. You can install your connection profile as part of the client computer images that are installed on your organizations new computers. Deliver the connection profile on removable media for the user to install manually. You can deliver the connection profile installation program on a CD/DVD, USB flash drive, or any other removable media that you permit your users to access. Some removable media support autorun capabilities, which allow you to start the installation automatically, when the user inserts the media into the client computer. Deliver the connection profile with automated software distribution tools. Many organizations use a desktop management and software deployment tool such as Microsoft System Center Configuration Manager (previously called Systems Management Server). Configuration Manager provides the ability to package and deploy software that is intended for your client computers. The installation can be invisible to your users, and you can configure it to report back to the management console whether the installation was successful or not.

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Demonstration: How to Create a Connection Profile


This demonstration shows how to: Install CMAK. Create a connection profile. Examine the profile.

Demonstration Steps Install CMAK


1. 2. If necessary, on LON-CL2, sign in as Adatum\administrator with the password Pa$$w0rd. Open Control Panel, and turn on a new windows feature called RAS Connection Manager Administration Kit (CMAK) feature.

Create a connection profile


1. 2. In Administrative Tools, open the Connection Manager Administration Kit. Complete the Connection Manager Administration Kit Wizard to create the connection profile.

Examine the created profile


Use Windows Explorer to examine the contents of the folder that you created with the Connection Manager Administration Kit Wizard to create the connection profile. Normally, you would now distribute this profile to your users.

Lesson 3: Overview of Network Policies


Network policies determine whether a connection attempt is successful. If the connection attempt is successful, then the network policy also defines connection characteristics, such as day and time restrictions, session idle-disconnect times, and other settings. Understanding how to configure network policies is essential if you are to successfully implement VPNs based on the Network Policy and Access Services server role within your organization.

Lesson Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to: Describe what a network policy is. Describe network policy processing. Describe the process for creating a new network policy. Explain how to create a network policy for VPN connections.

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What Is a Network Policy?

A network policy is a set of conditions, constraints, and settings that enable you to designate who is authorized to connect to the network, and the circumstances under which they can or cannot connect. Additionally, when you deploy NAP, health policy is added to the network policy configuration so that NPS performs client health checks during the authorization process. You can view network policies as rules: each rule has a set of conditions and settings. NPS compares the rules conditions to the properties of connection requests. If a match occurs between the rule and the connection request, then the settings that you define in the rule are applied to the connection. When you configure multiple network policies in NPS, they are an ordered set of rules. NPS checks each connection request against the lists first rule, then the second, and so on, until a match is found. Note: Once a matching rule is determined, further rules are disregarded. Therefore, it is important that you order your network policies appropriately, in order of importance.

Each network policy has a Policy State setting that allows you to enable or disable the policy. When you disable a network policy, NPS does not evaluate the policy when authorizing connection requests.

Network Policy Properties


Each network policy has four categories of properties: Overview. Overview properties allow you to specify whether the policy is enabled, whether the policy grants or denies access, and whether a specific network connection method or type of network access server is required for connection requests. Overview properties also enable you to specify whether to ignore the dial-in properties of user accounts in AD DS. If you select this option, NPS uses only the network policys settings to determine whether to authorize the connection. Conditions. These properties allow you to specify the conditions that the connection request must have to match the network policy. If the conditions that are configured in the policy match the connection request, NPS applies the network policy settings to the connection. For example, if you specify the network access server IPv4 address (NAS IPv4 Address) as a condition of the network policy, and NPS receives a connection request from a NAS that has the specified IP address, the condition in the policy matches the connection request. Constraints. Constraints are additional parameters of the network policy that are required to match the connection request. If the connection request does not match a constraint, NPS rejects the request automatically. Unlike the NPS response to unmatched conditions in the network policy, if a constraint is not matched, NPS does not evaluate additional network policies,
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and the connection request is denied. Settings. The Settings properties allow you to specify the settings that NPS applies to the connection request, provided that all of the policys network policy conditions are matched and the request is accepted.

When you add a new network policy using the NPS Microsoft Management Console (MMC) snap-in, you must use the New Network Policy Wizard. After you have created a network policy using the New Network Policy Wizard, you can customize the policy by double-clicking it in NPS to obtain the policy properties. Note: The default policies on the NPS block network access. After creating your own policies, you should change the priority, disable, or remove these default policies.

Network Policy Processing

When NPS performs authorization of a connection request, it compares the request with each network policy in the ordered list of policies, starting with the first policy and moving down the list. If NPS finds a policy in which the conditions match the connection request, NPS uses the matching policy and the dial-in properties of the user account to perform authorization. If you configure the dial-in properties of the user account to grant or control access through network policy, and the connection request is authorized, NPS applies the settings that you configure in the network policy to the connection: If NPS does not find a network policy that matches the connection request, NPS rejects the connection unless the dial-in properties on the user account are set to grant access. If the dial-in properties of the user account are set to deny access, NPS rejects the connection request.

Process for Creating and Configuring a Network Policy

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NPS uses network policies and the dial-in properties of user accounts to determine whether to authorize a connection request to your network. You can configure a new network policy in either the NPS MMC snap-in, or the Routing and Remote Access Service MMC snap-in.

Creating Your Policy


When you use the New Network Policy Wizard to create a network policy, the value that you specify as the network connection method is used automatically to configure the Policy Type condition. If you keep the default value of Unspecified, NPS evaluates the network policy that you create for all network connection types through any type of network access server. If you specify a network connection method, NPS evaluates the network policy only if the connection request originates from the type of network access server that you specify. For example, if you specify Remote Desktop Gateway, NPS evaluates the network policy only for connection requests that originate from Remote Desktop Gateway servers. On the Specify Access Permission page, you must select Access granted if you want the policy to allow users to connect to your network. If you want the policy to prevent users from connecting to your network, select Access denied. If you want user account dial-in properties in AD DS to determine access permission, you can select the Access is determined by User Dial-in properties check box. This setting overrides the NPS policy.

Configuring Your Policy


Once you have created your network policy, you can use the network policys Properties dialog box to view or modify its settings.

Network Policy Properties - Overview Tab


From the Overview tab of the network policys Properties dialog box, or while running the New Network Policy Wizard, you can configure the following settings: Policy name . Type a friendly and meaningful name for the network policy. Policy State . Designate whether to enable the policy. Access Permission. Designate whether the policy grants or denies access. Also, specify whether NPS should ignore the dial-in properties of user accounts in AD DS when using the policy to perform the connection attempts authorization. The network connection method to use for the connection request:

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o Unspecified. If you select Unspecified, NPS evaluates the network policy for all connection requests that originate from any type of network access server, and for any connection method. o Remote Desktop Gateway. If you specify Remote Desktop Gateway, NPS evaluates the network policy for connection requests that originate from servers that are running Remote Desktop Gateway. o Remote Access Server (VPN-Dial-up). If you specify Remote Access Server (VPN-Dial-up), NPS evaluates the network policy for connection requests that originate from a computer that is running Routing and Remote Access service configured as a dial-up or VPN server. If another dial-up or VPN server is used, the server must support both the RADIUS protocol and the authentication protocols that NPS provides for dial-up and VPN connections. o DHCP Server. If you specify DHCP Server, NPS evaluates the network policy for connection requests that originate from servers that are running DHCP. o Health Registration Authority. If you specify Health Registration Authority, NPS evaluates the network policy for connection requests that originate from servers that are running Health Registration Authority. o HCAP server. If you specify HCAP server, NPS evaluates the network policy for connection requests that originate from servers that are running HCAP.

Network Policy Properties - Conditions Tab


You must configure at least one condition for every network policy. You do this on the network policys Properties dialog box Conditions tab. From this tab, NPS provides many condition groups, which allow you to define clearly the properties that the connection request must have to match the policy. The available condition groups from which you can select are: Groups. These specify user or computer groups that you configure in AD DS and to which you want the other rules of the network policy to apply, when group members attempt to connect to the network. Host Credential Authorization Protocol (HCAP). These conditions are used only when you want to integrate your NPS NAP solution with Cisco Network Admission Control. To use these conditions, you must deploy Cisco Network Admission Control and NAP. You also must deploy a HCAP server that is running Internet Information Services (IIS) and NPS. Day and Time Restrictions. The Day and Time Restrictions condition allows you to specify, at a weekly interval, whether to allow connections on a specific set of days and times. NAP. Settings include Identity Type, MS-Service Class, NAP-Capable Computers, Operating System, and Policy Expiration. Connection Properties. Settings include Access Client IPv4 Address, Access Client IPv6 Address, Authentication Type, Allowed EAP Types, Framed Protocol, Service Type, and Tunnel Type. RADIUS Client Properties. Settings include Calling Station ID, Client Friendly Name, Client IPv4 Address, Client IPv6 Address, Client Vendor, and MS RAS Vendor. Gateway. Settings include Called Station ID, NAS Identifier, NAS IPv4 Address, NAS IPv6 Address, and NAS Port Type.

Network Policy Properties - Constraints Tab


Constraints are optional additional network policy parameters that differ from network policy conditions in one substantial way: when a condition does not match a connection request, NPS continues to evaluate other configured network policies to find a match for the connection request. When a constraint does not match a connection request, NPS does not evaluate additional
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network policies, but rejects the connection request and the user or computer is denied network access. The following list describes the constraints that you can configure on the network policys Properties dialog box Constraints tab: Authentication Methods. Allows you to specify the authentication methods that are required for the connection request to match the network policy. Idle Timeout. Allows you to specify the maximum time, in minutes, that the network access server can remain idle before the connection disconnects. Session Timeout. Allows you to specify the maximum amount of time, in minutes, that a user can be connected to the network. Called Station ID . Allows you to specify the telephone number of the dial-up server that clients use to access the network. Day and time restrictions. Allows you to specify when users can connect to the network. NAS Port Type. Allows you to specify the access media types that are allowed for users to connect to the network.

Network Policy Properties - Settings Tab


If all of the conditions and constraints that you configure in the policy match the connection requests properties, then NPS applies to the connection the settings that you configure on the network policys Properties dialog box Settings tab. These settings include: RADIUS Attributes. This setting allows you to define additional RADIUS attributes to send to the RADIUS server. NAP. This setting enables you to configure NAPrelated settings, including whether connecting clients are granted full network access, limited access, or are enabled for auto-remediation. Routing and Remote Access. This setting allows you to configure multilink and bandwidth allocation protocol settings, IP filters, encryption settings, and other IP settings for the connections.

Demonstration: How to Create a Network Policy


This demonstration shows how to: Create a VPN policy based on Windows Group condition. Test the VPN.

Demonstration Steps Create a VPN policy based on Windows Groups condition


1. 2. 3. On LON-RTR, switch to the Network Policy Server console. Disable the two existing network policies. These would interfere with the processing of the policy you are about to create. Create a new Network Policy using the following properties: o o o Policy name: Adatum VPN Policy Type of network access server: Remote Access Server(VPN-Dial up) Condition: Windows Groups = Domain Admins
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o o o o

Permission: Access granted Authentication methods: default Constraints: default Settings: default

Test the VPN


1. 2. Switch to LON-CL2. Test the Adatum VPN connection. Use the following credentials: o o User name: Adatum\administrator Password: Pa$$w0rd

Lesson 4: Troubleshooting Routing and Remote Access


Troubleshooting the Routing and Remote Access Service can be a time-consuming task. The issues might be varied and not easily identifiable. Given that you might be using dial-up, dedicated, leased, or public-based networks to satisfy your remote connectivity solution, you must perform troubleshooting in a methodical, systematic process. In some cases, you can identify and resolve the problem quickly, while other cases might test your understanding of all the available tools to help you determine the issues source and resolve it in a timely fashion.

Lesson Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to: Describe how to configure remote access logging. Describe how to configure remote access tracing. Explain how to resolve general VPN connectivity problems. Explain how to troubleshoot other common remote access issues.

Configuring Remote Access Logging

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To configure remote-access logging, open the Routing and Remote Access console, right-click servername , and then click Properties. Click the Logging tab to view the available options for, and the location of the tracing log. Initially, it might be best to specify more logging options than you might necessarily need, rather than specifying too few options. Once you determine the logging level that is most useful for troubleshooting your infrastructure, you can change the options and/or level of logging at your discretion. Four logging levels are available on the Logging tab, as described in the following table.

Dialogue box option


Log Errors Only Log Errors and Warnings Log all events Do not log any events

Description
Specifies that only errors are logged in the system log in Event Viewer. Specifies that errors and warnings are both logged in the system log in Event Viewer. Specifies that the maximum amount of information is logged in the system log in Event Viewer. Specifies that no events are logged in the system log in Event Viewer.

The Log additional Routing and Remote Access information (used for debugging) check box enables you to specify whether the events in the PPP connection-establishment process are written to the PPP.LOG file. This log file is stored in the systemroot\Tracing folder (the default location).

Configuring Remote Access Tracing

The Remote Access service in Windows Server 2012 has an extensive tracing capability that you can use to troubleshoot complex network problems. You can enable the components in Windows Server 2012 to log tracing information to files using the Netsh
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command, or through the registry.

Enabling Tracing with the Netsh Command


You can use the Netsh command to enable and disable tracing for specified components or for all components. To enable and disable tracing for a specific component, use the following syntax:

n e t s hr a ss e tt r a c i n gc o m p o n e n te n a b l e d | d i s a b l e d

Where component is a component in the list of Routing and Remote Access service components found in the registry under HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Tracing. For example, to enable tracing for the RASAUTH component, the command is as follows:

n e t s hr a ss e tt r a c i n gr a s a u t he n a b l e d

To enable tracing for all components, use the following command:

n e t s hr a ss e tt r a c i n g*e n a b l e d

Enabling Tracing through the Registry


You also can configure tracing by changing settings in the registry under the following path:

H K E Y _ L O C A L _ M A C H I N E \ S O F T W A R E \ M i c r o s o f t \ T r a c i n g

You can enable tracing for each Remote Access service component by setting the appropriate registry values. You can enable and disable tracing for components while the Routing and Remote Access service is running. Each component is capable of tracing, and appears as a subkey under the preceding Registry key. To enable tracing for each component, you can configure the following registry entries for each protocol key:

E n a b l e F i l e T r a c i n gR E G _ D W O R DF l a g

You can enable logging tracing information to a file by setting EnableFileTracing to 1. The default value is 0. You can change the default location of the tracing files by setting FileDirectory to the path that you want. The log files file name is the component name for which tracing is enabled. By default, log files are placed in the SystemRoot\Tracing folder.

F i l e D i r e c t o r yR E G _ E X P A N D _ S ZP a t h

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FileTracingMask determines how much tracing information is logged to the file. The default value is 0xFFFF0000.

F i l e T r a c i n g M a s kR E G _ D W O R DL e v e l O f T r a c i n g I n f o r m a t i o n L o g g e d

You can change the log file size by setting different values for MaxFileSize. The default value is 0x10000 (64K).

M a x F i l e S i z eR E G _ D W O R DS i z e O f L o g F i l e

Note: Tracing consumes system resources, and you should use it sparingly to help identify network problems. After you capture the trace or identify the problem, you should disable tracing immediately. Do not leave tracing enabled on multiprocessor computers.

Tracing information can be complex and detailed. Therefore, typically only Microsoft support professionals or network administrators who are experienced with the Routing and Remote Access service find this information useful. You can save tracing information as files, and send it to Microsoft support for analysis.

Resolving General VPN Problems

To resolve general problems with establishing a remote access VPN connection, perform the following tasks: Use the ping command to verify that the host name is being resolved to its correct IP address. The ping itself might not be successful due to packet filtering that is preventing the delivery of Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) messages to and from the VPN server. Verify that the credentials of the VPN client which consist of user name, password, and domain nameare correct and that the VPN server can validate them. Verify that the user account of the VPN client is not locked out, expired, disabled, or that the time that the connection is being made does not correspond to the configured logon hours. If the password on the account has expired, verify that the remote access VPN client is using MS-CHAP v2. MS-CHAP v2 is the only authentication protocol that Windows Server 2012 provides that allows you to change an expired password during the connection process. Reset expired administrator-level account passwords by using another administrator-level account.
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Verify that the user account has not been locked out due to remote access account lockout. Verify that the Routing and Remote Access service is running on the VPN server. Verify that the VPN server is enabled for remote access from the VPN server Properties dialog box General tab. Verify that the WAN Miniport (PPTP) and WAN Miniport (L2TP) devices are enabled for inbound remote access from the properties of the Ports object in the Routing and Remote Access snap-in. Verify that the VPN client, the VPN server, and the network policy that correspond to VPN connections are configured to use at least one common authentication method. Verify that the VPN client and the network policy that correspond to VPN connections are configured to use at least one common encryption strength. Verify that the connections parameters have permission through network policies.

Troubleshooting Other Issues

This topic lists other common issues that you might encounter when using Remote Access in Windows Server 2012.

Error 800: VPN Server is Unreachable


Cause: PPTP/L2TP/SSTP packets from the VPN client cannot reach the VPN server. Solution: Ensure that the appropriate ports are open on the firewall. o PPTP. For PPTP traffic, configure the network firewall to open TCP port 1723, and to forward IP protocol 47 for GRE traffic to the VPN server. o L2TP. For L2TP traffic, configure the network firewall to open UDP port 1701, and to allow IPsec ESPformatted packets (IP protocol 50). o SSTP. For SSTP, enable TCP port 443.

Error 721: Remote Computer is Not Responding


Cause: This issue can occur if the network firewall does not permit GRE traffic (IP protocol 47). PPTP uses GRE for tunneled data.

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Solution: Configure the network firewall between the VPN client and the server to permit GRE. Additionally, make sure that the network firewall permits TCP traffic on port 1723. Both of these conditions must be met to establish VPN connectivity by using PPTP.

Note: The firewall might be on or in front of the VPN client, or in front of the VPN server.

Error 741/742: Encryption Mismatch Error


Cause: These errors occur if the VPN client requests an invalid encryption level or if the VPN server does not support an encryption type that the client requests. Solution: Check the properties on the Security tab of the VPN connection on the VPN client. If Require data encryption (disconnect if none) is selected, clear the selection and retry the connection. If you are using NPS, check the encryption level in the network policy in the NPS console, or check the policies on other RADIUS servers. Ensure that the encryption level that the VPN client requested is selected on the VPN server.

L2TP/IPsec Authentication Issues


The following list describes the most common reasons that L2TP/IPsec connections fail: No certificate. By default, L2TP/IPsec connections require that, for IPsec peer authentication, an exchange of computer certificates occur between the Remote Access server and Remote Access client. Check the Local Computer certificate stores of both the Remote Access client and the Remote Access server that are using the Certificates snap-in to ensure that a suitable certificate exists. Incorrect certificate. The VPN client must have a valid computer certificate installed, that was issued by a CA that follows a valid certificate chain from the issuing CA to a root CA, and that the VPN server trusts. Additionally, the VPN server must have a valid computer certificate installed that was issued by a CA that follows a valid certificate chain from the issuing CA to a root CA, and that the VPN client trusts. A NAT device exists between the remote access client and Remote Access server. If there is a NAT between a Windows 2000 Server, Windows Server 2003, or Windows XP-based L2TP/IPsec client and a Windows Server 2008 L2TP/IPsec server, you cannot establish an L2TP/IPsec connection unless the client and server support IPsec NAT traversal (NAT-T). A firewall exists between the Remote Access client and the Remote Access server. If there is a firewall between a Windows L2TP/IPsec client and a Windows Server 2012 L2TP/IPsec server, and if you cannot establish an L2TP/IPsec connection, verify that the firewall allows forwarding of L2TP/IPsec traffic.

EAP-TLS Authentication Issues


When you use EAP-TLS for authentication, the VPN client submits a user certificate and the authenticating server (the VPN server or the RADIUS server) submits a computer certificate. To enable the authenticating server to validate the VPN clients certificate, the following must be true for each certificate in the certificate chain that the VPN client sends: The current date must be within the certificates validity dates. When certificates are issued, they are issued with a range of valid dates, before which they cannot be used, and after which they are considered expired.
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The certificate has not been revoked. Issued certificates can be revoked at any time. Each issuing CA maintains a list of certificates that are not considered valid, and publishes an up-to-date certificate revocation list CRL. By default, the authenticating server checks all certificates in the VPN clients certificate chain (the series of certificates from the VPN client certificate to the root CA) for revocation. If any of the chains certificates have been revoked, certificate validation fails. The certificate has a valid digital signature. CAs digitally sign certificates that they issue. The authenticating server verifies the digital signature of each certificate in the chain (with the exception of the root CA certificate), by obtaining the public key from the certificates issuing CA and mathematically validating the digital signature. For the VPN client to validate the authenticating servers certificate for either EAP-TLS authentication, the following must be true for each certificate in the certificate chain that the authenticating server sends: o The current date must be within the certificates validity dates. o The certificate must have a valid digital signature.

Lab A: Configuring Remote Access


Scenario
A. Datum Corporation is a global engineering and manufacturing company with a head office based in London, United Kingdom. An IT office and a data center are located in London to support the London location and other locations. A. Datum has recently deployed a Windows Server 2012 server and client infrastructure. The management at A. Datum wants to implement a remote access solution for their employees so that the users can connect to the corporate network while away from the office. You decide to deploy a pilot project that will enable users in the IT department to connect using a VPN to the corporate intranet.

Objectives
After completing this lab, you will be able to: 1. 2. Configure a VPN server. Configure VPN clients.

Lab Setup

Virtual machines

20411B-LON-DC1 20411B-LON-RTR 20411B-LON-CL2

User Name Password

Administrator Pa$$w0rd

For this lab, you will use the available virtual machine environment. Before you begin the lab, you must complete the following steps:

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1. 2. 3. 4.

On the host computer, click Start, point to Administrative Tools, and then click Hyper-V Manager. In Hyper-V Manager, click 20411B-LON-DC1, and in the Actions pane, click Start. In the Actions pane, click Connect. Wait until the virtual machine starts. Sign in using the following credentials: o o User name: Adatum\Administrator Password: Pa$$w0rd

5.

Perform steps 2 through 4 for 20411B-LON-RTR and 20411B-LON-CL2.

Exercise 1: Configuring a Virtual Private Network Server


Scenario A. Datum Corporation wants to implement a Remote Access solution for its employees so they can connect to the corporate network while away from the office. You are required to enable and configure the necessary server services to facilitate this remote access. To support the VPN solution, you need to configure a Network Policy that reflects corporate remote connection policy. For the pilot, only the IT security group should be able to use VPN. Required conditions include the need for a client certificate, and connection hours are only allowed between Monday and Friday, at any time. The main tasks for this exercise are as follows: 1. 2. 3. Configure server and client certificates. Configure the Remote Access role. Create a network policy for virtual private network (VPN) clients.

Task 1: Configure server and client certificates

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Switch to LON-DC1. Sign in as Adatum\Administrator with the password Pa$$w0rd. Open Certification Authority. From the Certificate Templates console, open the properties of the Computer certificate template. On the Security tab, grant the Authenticated Users group the Allow Enroll permission. Restart the Certification Authority. Close Certification Authority. Open the Group Policy Management Console . Navigate to Forest: Adatum.com\Domains\Adatum.com.

10. Edit the Default Domain Policy. 11. Navigate to Computer Configuration\Policies\Windows Settings\Security Settings \Public Key Policies.
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12. Create a new Automatic Certificate Request Settings for the Computer certificate template. 13. Close the Group Policy Management Editor and the Group Policy Management Console. 14. Switch to the LON-RTR computer. 15. Create a management console by running mmc.exe . 16. Add the Certificates snap-in with the focus on the local computer account. 17. Navigate to the Personal certificate store, and Request New Certificate . 18. On the Select Certificate Enrollment Policy page, click Active Directory Enrollment Policy, and then click Next. 19. Enroll the Computer certificate that is listed. 20. Close the console, and do not save the console settings. 21. Switch to the LON-CL2 computer, and sign in as Adatum\Administrator with the password Pa$$w0rd. 22. Open a command prompt, and run the gpupdate /force command to refresh the group policy settings. 23. Create a management console by running mmc.exe . 24. Add the Certificates snap-in with the focus on the local computer account. 25. Navigate to the Personal certificate store. 26. Verify that a certificate exists for LON-CL2 that has been issued by Adatum-LON-DC1-CA. 27. Close the console, and do not save the console settings.

Task 2: Configure the Remote Access role

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

On LON-RTR, open Server Manager, and add the Network Policy and Access Services role. Close Server Manager. Open the Network Policy Server console. Register the server in AD DS. Leave the Network Policy Server window open. Open Routing and Remote Access. Disable the existing configuration. Reconfigure LON-RTR as a VPN Server with the following settings: a. b. c. Local Area Connection 2 is the public interface The VPN server allocates addresses from the pool: 172.16.0.100 - 172.16.0.111 The server is configured with the option No, use Routing and Remote Access to authenticate connection requests.

9.

Start the VPN service.

Task 3: Create a network policy for virtual private network (VPN) clients
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1. 2. 3.

On LON-RTR, switch to the Network Policy Server console. Disable the two existing network policies. These would interfere with the processing of the policy you are about to create. Create a new Network Policy using the following properties: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. Policy name: IT Pilot VPN Policy Type of network access server: Remote Access Server (VPN-Dial up) Condition: Windows Groups = IT Permission: Access granted Authentication methods: Microsoft Encrypted Authentication version 2 (MS-CHAP-v2) Constraints: Day and time restrictions = All day Monday to Friday allowed. Settings: default

Results: After this exercise, you should have successfully deployed a VPN server, and configured access for members of the IT global security group.

Exercise 2: Configuring VPN Clients


Scenario You must now provide a simple client solution so that users can install a preconfigured L2TP-based VPN connection, which enables them to connect to the corporate network. The main tasks for this exercise are as follows: 1. 2. 3. Configure and distribute a Connection Manager Administration Kit profile. Verify client access. To prepare for the next lab.

Task 1: Configure and distribute a Connection Manager Administration Kit profile

1. 2. 3. 4.

Switch to LON-CL2. From Control Panel, install the RAS Connection Manager Administration Kit (CMAK) feature. From Administrative Tools, open the Connection Manager Administration Kit. Complete the Connection Manager Administration Kit Wizard using defaults except where stated below: a. b. Select the Target Operating System page: Windows Vista or above Create or Modify a Connection Manager profile page: New profile
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c.

Specify the Service Name and the File Name page: Service name: Adatum Pilot VPN File name: Adatum

d. e.

Specify a Realm Name page: Do not add a realm name to the user name Add Support for VPN Connections page: Phone book from this profile: enabled VPN server name or IP address: 10.10.0.1

f.

Create or Modify a VPN Entry page: Edit the listed VPN entry. On the Security tab: VPN strategy: Only use Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP).

g. 5. 6.

Add a Custom Phone Book page: Automatically download phone book updates deselected.

Open Windows Explorer and navigate to C:\Program Files\CMAK\Profiles \Windows Vista and above\Adatum. Double-click Adatum.exe , and complete the Adatum Pilot VPN Wizard: o Make this connection available for: All users

7.

In the connection window, click Cancel.

Task 2: Verify client access

1. 2. 3. 4.

Sign out of LON-CL2. Sign in as Adatum\April with the password of Pa$$w0rd. Open Network Connections. Test the Adatum Pilot VPN connection. Use the following credentials: o o User name: Adatum\April Password: Pa$$w0rd

To prepare for the next lab

When you are finished the lab, revert all virtual machines back to their initial state.

Results: After this exercise, you should have successfully distributed a CMAK profile, and tested VPN access.

Lesson 5: Configuring DirectAccess


Organizations often rely on VPN connections to provide remote users with secure access to data and resources on the corporate
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network. VPN connections are easy to configure and are supported by different clients. However, VPN connections must first be initiated by the user, and could require additional configuration on the corporate firewall. In addition, VPN connections usually enable remote access to the entire corporate network. Moreover, organizations cannot effectively manage remote computers unless they are connected. To overcome such limitations in VPN connections, organizations can implement DirectAccess to provide a seamless connection between the internal network and the remote computer on the Internet. With DirectAccess, organizations can manage remote computers more effectively, because they are effectively considered part of the corporate network.

Lesson Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to: Discuss complexities of typical VPN connections. Describe DirectAccess. Describe the components required to implement DirectAccess. Explain how to use the Name Resolution Policy Table. Explain how DirectAccess works for internally connected clients. Explain how DirectAccess works for externally connected clients. List the DirectAccess prerequisites. Explain how to configure DirectAccess.

Complexities of Managing VPNs

Many organizations rely on VPN connections to provide their users with secure remote access to resources on the internal corporate network. These VPN connections must often be configured manually, which can present interoperability issues in situations when the users are using multiple different VPN clients. Additionally, VPN connections can pose the following problems: Users must initiate the VPN connections. The connections may require multiple steps to initiate, and the connection process can take several seconds or more. Firewalls can pose additional considerations. If not properly configured on the firewall, VPN connections may fail, or worse, may inadvertently enable remote access to the entire corporate network.
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Troubleshooting failed VPN connections can often be a significant portion of Help Desk calls for many organizations. VPN connected computers are not easily managed. VPNbased remote client computers present a challenge to IT professionals, because these computers might not connect to the internal network for weeks at a time, preventing them from downloading Group Policy Objects (GPOs) and software updates.

Extending the Network to the Remotely-Connected Computers and Users


To overcome these limitations in traditional VPN connections, organizations can implement DirectAccess to provide a seamless connection between the internal network and the remote computer on the Internet. With DirectAccess, organizations can more easily manage remote computers, because they are always connected.

What Is DirectAccess?

The DirectAccess feature in Windows Server 2012 enables seamless remote access to intranet resources without first establishing a user-initiated VPN connection. The DirectAccess feature also ensures seamless connectivity to the application infrastructure for internal users and remote users. Unlike traditional VPNs that require user intervention to initiate a connection to an intranet, DirectAccess enables any IPv6capable application on the client computer to have complete access to intranet resources. DirectAccess also enables you to specify resources and client-side applications that are restricted for remote access. Organizations can benefit from DirectAccess by providing a way in which IT staff can manage remote computers as they would manage local computers. Using the same management and update servers, you can ensure that remote computers are always up-to-date and in compliance with your security and system health policies. You can also define more detailed access control policies for remote access when compared with defining access control policies in VPN solutions. DirectAccess offers the following features: Connects automatically to the corporate intranet when connected to the Internet. Uses various protocols, including HTTPS, to establish IPv6 connectivityHTTPS is typically allowed through firewalls and proxy servers. Supports selected server access and end-to-end IPsec authentication with intranet network servers. Supports end-to-end authentication and encryption with intranet network servers.
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Supports management of remote client computers. Allows remote users to connect directly to intranet servers.

DirectAccess also provides the following benefits: Always-on connectivity. Whenever the user connects the client computer to the Internet, the client computer is also connected to the intranet. This connectivity enables remote client computers to access and update applications more easily. It also makes intranet resources always available, and enables users to connect to the corporate intranet from anywhere and anytime, thereby improving their productivity and performance. Seamless connectivity. DirectAccess provides a consistent connectivity experience, regardless of whether the client computer is local or remote. This allows users to focus more on productivity and less on connectivity options and process. This consistency can reduce training costs for users, with fewer support incidents. Bidirectional access. You can configure DirectAccess in a way that the DirectAccess clients have access to intranet resources and you can also have access from the intranet to those DirectAccess clients. Therefore, DirectAccess can be bidirectional. This ensures that the client computers are always updated with recent security updates, the domain Group Policy is enforced, and there is no difference whether the users are on the corporate intranet or on the public network. This bidirectional access also results in: o Decreased update time o Increased security o Decreased update miss rate o Improved compliance monitoring Manage-out Support. The Manage-out Support feature is new in Windows Server 2012, and it provides the ability to enable only remote management functionality in the DirectAccess client. This new sub-option of the DirectAccess client configuration wizard automates the deployment of policies that are used for managing the client computer. Manage-out support does not implement any policy options that allow users to connect to the network for file or application access. Manage-out support is unidirectional, and provides incoming-only access for administration purposes only. Improved security. Unlike traditional VPNs, DirectAccess offers many levels of access control to network resources. This tighter control allows security architects to precisely control remote users who access specified resources. You can use a granular policy to specifically define which user can use DirectAccess, and the location from which the user can access it. IPsec encryption is used for protecting DirectAccess traffic so that users can ensure that their communication is safe. Integrated solution. DirectAccess fully integrates with Server and Domain Isolation and NAP solutions, resulting in the seamless integration of security, access, and health requirement policies between the intranet and remote computers.

Components of DirectAccess

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To deploy and configure DirectAccess, your organization must support the following infrastructure components: DirectAccess server DirectAccess clients Network location server Internal resources AD DS domain Group Policy PKI (Optional for the internal network) Domain Name System (DNS) server NAP server

DirectAccess Server
The DirectAccess server can be any Windows Server 2012 server that you join to a domain, and which accepts connections from DirectAccess clients and establishes communication with intranet resources. This server provides authentication services for DirectAccess clients, and acts as an IPsec tunnel mode endpoint for external traffic. The new Remote Access server role allows centralized administration, configuration, and monitoring for both DirectAccess and VPN connectivity. Compared with previous implementation in Windows Server 2008 R2, the new DirectAccess Wizard-based setup simplifies DirectAccess management for small and medium organizations. The wizard does this by removing the need for full PKI deployment and removing the requirement for two consecutive public IPv4 addresses for the physical adapter that is connected to the Internet. In Windows Server 2012, the DirectAccess setup wizard detects the actual implementation state of the DirectAccess server, and selects the best deployment automatically. This hides the complexity of manually configuring IPv6 transition technologies from the administrator.

DirectAccess Clients
DirectAccess clients can be any domain-joined computer that is running Windows 8 Enterprise, Windows 7 Enterprise, or Windows 7 Ultimate. Note: With off-premise provisioning, you can join a Windows 8 Enterprise client computer in a domain without
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connecting the client computer in your internal premises.

The DirectAccess client computer connects to the DirectAccess server by using IPv6 and IPsec. If a native IPv6 network is not available, then the client establishes an IPv6-over-IPv4 tunnel by using 6to4 or Teredo. Note that the user does not have to be logged on to the computer for this step to complete. If a firewall or proxy server prevents the client computer that is using 6to4 or Teredo from connecting to the DirectAccess server, the client computer automatically attempts to connect by using the IP-HTTPS protocol, which uses a SSL connection to ensure connectivity. The client has access to the Name Resolution Policy Table (NRPT) rules and Connection Security tunnel rules.

Network Location Server


DirectAccess clients use the network location server (NLS) to determine their location. If the client computer can connect with HTTPS, then the client computer assumes it is on the intranet and disables DirectAccess components. If the NLS is not contactable, the client assumes it is on the Internet. The NLS server is installed with the web server role. Note: The URL for the NLS is distributed by using GPO.

Internal Resources
You can configure any IPv6capable application that is running on internal servers or client computers to be available for DirectAccess clients. For older applications and servers, including those that are not based on Windows operating systems and have no IPv6 support, Windows Server 2012 now includes native support for protocol translation (NAT64) and name resolution (DNS64) gateway to convert IPv6 communication from DirectAccess client to IPv4 for the internal servers. Note: As in the past, this functionality can also be achieved with Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway. Likewise, as in past versions, these translation services do not support sessions initiated by internal devices, only requests originating from IPv6 DirectAccess clients.

Active Directory Domain


You must deploy at least one Active Directory domain, running at a minimum Windows Server 2003 domain functional level. Windows Server 2012 DirectAccess provides integrated multiple domain support, which allows client computers from different domains to access resources that may be located in different trusted domains.

Group Policy
Group Policy is required for the centralized administration and deployment of DirectAccess settings. The DirectAccess Setup Wizard creates a set of GPOs, and settings for DirectAccess clients, the DirectAccess server, and selected servers.

PKI
PKI deployment is optional for simplified configuration and management. DirectAccess in Windows Server 2012 enables client authentication requests to be sent over a HTTPSbased Kerberos proxy service that is running on the DirectAccess server. This eliminates the need for establishing a second IPsec tunnel between clients and domain controllers. The Kerberos proxy will send Kerberos requests to domain controllers on behalf of the client.

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However, for a full DirectAccess configuration that allows NAP integration, two-factor authentication, and force tunneling, you still need to implement certificates for authentication for every client that will participate in DirectAccess communication.

DNS Server
When using ISATAP, you must use at least Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2008 Service Pack 2 (SP2) or newer, or a nonMicrosoft DNS server that supports DNS message exchanges over ISATAP.

NAP Servers
NAP is an optional component of the DirectAccess solution that allows you to provide compliance checking and enforce security policy for DirectAccess clients over the Internet. DirectAccess in Windows Server 2012 provides the ability to configure NAP health check directly from the setup user interface, instead of manually editing the GPO as is required with DirectAccess in Windows Server 2008 R2.

What Is the Name Resolution Policy Table?

To separate Internet traffic from intranet traffic in DirectAccess, both Windows Server 2012 and Windows 8 include the NRPT. NRPT is a feature that allows DNS servers to be defined per DNS namespace, rather than per interface. The NRPT stores a list of rules. Each rule defines a DNS namespace and configuration settings that describe the DNS clients behavior for that namespace. When a DirectAccess client is on the Internet, each name query request is compared against the namespace rules stored in the NRPT. If a match is found, the request is processed according to the settings in the NRPT rule. If a name query request does not match a namespace listed in the NRPT, the request is sent to the DNS servers that are configured in the TCP/IP settings for the specified network interface.

DNS settings are configured depending on the client location: For a remote client computer, the DNS servers are typically the Internet DNS servers that are configured through the ISP. For a DirectAccess client on the intranet, the DNS servers are typically the intranet DNS servers that are configured through DHCP.
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Single-label names, for example, http://internal, typically have configured DNS search suffixes appended to the name before they are checked against the NRPT. If no DNS search suffixes are configured, and if the single-label name does not match any other single-label name entry in the NRPT, the request is sent to the DNS servers that are specified in the clients TCP/IP settings. Namespacesfor example, internal.adatum.comare entered into the NRPT, followed by the DNS servers to which requests matching that namespace should be directed. If an IP address is entered for the DNS server, all DNS requests are sent directly to the DNS server over the DirectAccess connection; you need not specify any additional security for such configurations. However, if a name is specified for the DNS server (such as dns.adatum.com) in the NRPT, the name must be publicly resolvable when the client queries the DNS servers specified in its TCP/IP settings. The NRPT allows DirectAccess clients to use intranet DNS servers for name resolution of internal resources, and Internet DNS for name resolution of other resources. Dedicated DNS servers are not required for name resolution. DirectAccess is designed to prevent the exposure of your intranet namespace to the Internet. Some names need to be treated differently with regards to name resolution; these names should not be resolved by using intranet DNS servers. To ensure that these names are resolved with the DNS servers specified in the clients TCP/IP settings, you must add them as NRPT exemptions. NRPT is controlled through Group Policy. When the computer is configured to use NRPT, the name resolution mechanism uses the following in order: The local name cache The hosts file NRPT

Then the name resolution mechanism finally sends the query to the DNS servers that are specified in the TCP/IP settings.

How DirectAccess Works for Internal Clients

An NLS is an internal network server that hosts an HTTPS-based URL. DirectAccess clients try to access a NLS URL to determine if they are located on the intranet or on a public network. The DirectAccess server can also be the NLS. In some organizations where DirectAccess is a business-critical service, the NLS should be highly available. Generally, the web server on the NLS does not have
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to be dedicated to just supporting DirectAccess clients. It is critical that the NLS be available from each company location, because the behavior of the DirectAccess client depends on the response from the NLS. Branch locations may require a separate NLS at each branch location to ensure that the NLS remains accessible even when there is a link failure between branches.

How DirectAccess Works for Internal Clients


The DirectAccess connection process happens automatically, without requiring user intervention. DirectAccess clients use the following process to connect to intranet resources: 1. The DirectAccess client tries to resolve the Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) of the NLS URL. Because the FQDN of the NLS URL corresponds to an exemption rule in the NRPT, the DirectAccess client instead sends the DNS query to a locally configured (intranet-based) DNS server. The intranet-based DNS server resolves the name. 2. 3. The DirectAccess client accesses the HTTPS-based URL of the NLS, during which process it obtains the certificate of the NLS. Based on the CRL distribution points field of the NLS certificate, the DirectAccess client checks the CRL revocation files in the CRL distribution point to determine if the NLS certificate has been revoked. 4. Based on an HTTP response code 200 in the response DirectAccess client determines the success of the NLS URL (successful access and certificate authentication and revocation check). The DirectAccess client switches to domain firewall profile and ignores the DirectAccess policies and assumes it is in internal network until next network change happens. 5. The DirectAccess client computer attempts to locate and sign in to the AD DS domain by using its computer account. Because the client no longer references any DirectAccess rules in the NRPT for the rest of the connected session, all DNS queries are sent through interface-configured (intranet-based) DNS servers. With the combination of network location detection and computer domain logon, the DirectAccess client configures itself for normal intranet access. 6. Based on the computers successful logon to the domain, the DirectAccess client assigns the domain (firewall network) profile to the attached network.

By design, the DirectAccess Connection Security tunnel rules are scoped for the public and private firewall profiles, and they are disabled from the list of active connection security rules. The DirectAccess client has successfully determined that it is connected to its intranet, and does not use DirectAccess settings (NRPT rules or Connection Security tunnel rules). The DirectAccess client can now access intranet resources normally. It can also access Internet resources through normal means, such as a proxy server.

How DirectAccess Works for External Clients

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When a DirectAccess client starts, the DirectAccess client tries to reach the URL address specified for NLS, and assumes that it is not connected to the intranet because it cannot communicate with NLS. Instead, the DirectAccess client starts to use NRPT and connection security rules. The NRPT has DirectAccessbased rules for name resolution, and connection security rules define DirectAccess IPsec tunnels for communication with intranet resources. Internet-connected DirectAccess clients use the following high-level steps to connect to intranet resources: The DirectAccess client first attempts to access the NLS. Then, the client attempts to locate a domain controller. Finally, the client attempts to access intranet resources, and then Internet resources.

DirectAccess Client Attempts to Access the Network Location Server


The DirectAccess client attempts to access the NLS as follows: 1. The client tries to resolve the FQDN of the NLS URL. Because the FQDN of the NLS URL corresponds to an exemption rule in the NRPT, the DirectAccess client does not send the DNS query to a locally configured (Internet-based) DNS server. An external Internet-based DNS server would not be able to resolve the name. 2. 3. The DirectAccess client processes the name resolution request as defined in the DirectAccess exemption rules in the NRPT. Because the NLS is not found on the same network on which the DirectAccess client is currently located, the DirectAccess client applies a public or private firewall network profile to the attached network. 4. The Connection Security tunnel rules for DirectAccess, scoped for the public and private profiles, provide the public or private firewall network profile.

The DirectAccess client uses a combination of NRPT rules and connection security rules to locate and access intranet resources across the Internet through the DirectAccess server.

DirectAccess Client Attempts to Locate a Domain Controller


After determining its network location, the DirectAccess client attempts to locate and sign in to a domain controller. This process creates an IPsec tunnel or infrastructure tunnel by using the IPsec tunnel mode and ESP to the DirectAccess server. The process is as follows: 1. The DNS name for the domain controller matches the intranet namespace rule in the NRPT, which specifies the IPv6 address
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of the intranet DNS server. The DNS client service constructs the DNS name query that is addressed to the IPv6 address of the intranet DNS server, and then forwards it to the DirectAccess clients TCP/IP stack for sending. 2. Before sending the packet, the TCP/IP stack checks to determine if there are Windows Firewall outgoing rules or connection security rules for the packet. 3. Because the destination IPv6 address in the DNS name query matches a connection security rule that corresponds with the infrastructure tunnel, the DirectAccess client uses Authenticated IP (AuthIP) and IPsec to negotiate and authenticate an encrypted IPsec tunnel to the DirectAccess server. The DirectAccess client (both the computer and the user) authenticates itself with its installed computer certificate and its Microsoft Windows NT LAN Manager (NTLM) credentials, respectively.

Note: AuthIP enhances authentication in IPsec by adding support for user-based authentication with Kerberos v5 or SSL certificates. AuthIP also supports efficient protocol negotiation and usage of multiple sets of credentials for authentication.

4. 5.

The DirectAccess client sends the DNS name query through the IPsec infrastructure tunnel to the DirectAccess server. The DirectAccess server forwards the DNS name query to the intranet DNS server. The DNS name query response is sent back to the DirectAccess server, and then back through the IPsec infrastructure tunnel to the DirectAccess client.

Subsequent domain logon traffic goes through the IPsec infrastructure tunnel. When the user on the DirectAccess client logs on, the domain logon traffic goes through the IPsec infrastructure tunnel.

DirectAccess Client Attempts to Access Intranet Resources


The first time that the DirectAccess client sends traffic to an intranet location that is not on the list of destinations for the infrastructure tunnel (such as an internal website), the following process occurs: 1. The application or process that attempts to communicate constructs a message or payload, and then hands it off to the TCP/IP stack for sending. 2. Before sending the packet, the TCP/IP stack checks to determine if there are Windows Firewall outgoing rules or connection security rules for the packet. 3. Because the destination IPv6 address matches the connection security rule that corresponds with the intranet tunnel (which specifies the IPv6 address space of the entire intranet), the DirectAccess client uses AuthIP and IPsec to negotiate and authenticate an additional IPsec tunnel to the DirectAccess server. The DirectAccess client authenticates itself with its installed computer certificate and the user accounts Kerberos credentials. 4. 5. The DirectAccess client sends the packet through the intranet tunnel to the DirectAccess server. The DirectAccess server forwards the packet to the intranet resources. The response is sent back to the DirectAccess server and back through the intranet tunnel to the DirectAccess client.

Any subsequent intranet access traffic that does not match an intranet destination in the infrastructure tunnel connection security rule goes through the intranet tunnel.

DirectAccess Client Attempts To Access Internet Resources


When the user or a process on the DirectAccess client attempts to access an Internet resource (such as an Internet web server),
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the following process occurs: 1. The DNS client service passes the DNS name for the Internet resource through the NRPT. There are no matches. The DNS client service constructs the DNS name query that is addressed to the IP address of an interface-configured Internet DNS server, and hands it off to the TCP/IP stack for sending. 2. Before sending the packet, the TCP/IP stack checks to determine if there are Windows Firewall outgoing rules or connection security rules for the packet. 3. Because the destination IP address in the DNS name query does not match the connection security rules for the tunnels to the DirectAccess server, the DirectAccess client sends the DNS name query normally. 4. 5. The Internet DNS server responds with the IP address of the Internet resource. The user application or process constructs the first packet to send to the Internet resource. Before sending the packet, the TCP/IP stack checks to determine if there are Windows Firewall outgoing rules or connection security rules for the packet. 6. Because the destination IP address in the DNS name query does not match the connection security rules for the tunnels to the DirectAccess server, the DirectAccess client sends the packet normally.

Any subsequent Internet resource traffic that does not match a destination in either the infrastructure Internet tunnel or connection security rules is sent and received normally. Like the connection process, accessing the domain controller and intranet resources is also a very similar process, because both of these processes are using NRPT tables to locate appropriate DNS server to resolve the name queries. The difference is the IPsec tunnel that is established between the client and DirectAccess server. When accessing the domain controller, all the DNS queries are sent through the IPsec infrastructure tunnel, and when accessing intranet resources, a second IPsec (intranet) tunnel is established.

Prerequisites for Implementing DirectAccess

Requirements for DirectAccess Server


To deploy DirectAccess, you need to ensure that your server meets the following hardware and network requirements: The server must be joined to an AD DS domain. The server must have Windows Server 2012 or Windows Server 2008 R2 operating system installed. The Windows Server 2012 that will be installed as the DirectAccess server can have a single network adapter installed, which is
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connected to the intranet and published over Microsoft Forefront Threat Management Gateway (TMG) 2010 or Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG) 2010 for Internet connection. In the deployment scenario where DirectAccess is installed on an Edge server, it needs to have two network adapters: one that is connected to the internal network, and one that is connected to the external network. An edge server is any server that resides on the edge between two or more networks, typically a private network and Internet. Implementation of DirectAccess in Windows Server 2012 does not require two consecutive static, public IPv4 addresses be assigned to the network adapter. You can circumnavigate the need for an additional public address by deploying Windows Server 2012 DirectAccess behind a NAT device, with support for a single or multiple interfaces. In this configuration, only IP over HTTPS (IP-HTTPS) is deployed, which allows a secure IP tunnel to be established using a secure HTTP connection. On the DirectAccess server, you can install the Remote Access role to configure DirectAccess settings for the DirectAccess server and clients, and to monitor the status of the DirectAccess server. The Remote Access Wizard provides you with the option to configure only DirectAccess, only VPN, or both scenarios on the same server that is running Windows Server 2012. This was not possible in Windows Server 2008 R2 deployment of DirectAccess. For Load Balancing Support, Windows Server 2012 has the ability to use NLB (up to 8 nodes) to achieve high availability and scalability for both DirectAccess and RAS.

Requirements for DirectAccess Client


To deploy DirectAccess, you also need to ensure that the client computer meets certain requirements: The client computer should be joined to an Active Directory domain. With the new 2012 DirectAccess scenario you can offline provision Windows 8 client computers for domain membership without requiring the computer to be on premises. The client computer can be loaded with Windows 8 Enterprise, Windows 7 Enterprise, Windows 7 Ultimate, Windows Server 2012, or Windows Server 2008 R2. You cannot deploy DirectAccess on clients running Windows Vista, Windows Server 2008, or other older versions of the Windows operating systems.

Infrastructure Requirements
The following are the infrastructure requirements to deploy DirectAccess: AD DS. You must deploy at least one Active Directory domain. Workgroups are not supported. Group Policy. You need Group Policy for centralized administration and deployment of DirectAccess client settings. The DirectAccess Setup Wizard creates a set of GPOs and settings for DirectAccess clients, DirectAccess servers, and management servers. DNS and domain controller. You must have at least one domain controller and at least one DNS server running Windows Server 2012, Windows Server 2008 SP2, or Windows Server 2008 R2. PKI. If you have only Windows 8 client computers, you do not need a PKI. Windows 7 client computers require a more complex setup and therefore require a PKI. IPsec policies. DirectAccess utilizes IPsec policies that are configured and administered as part of Windows Firewall with Advanced Security.
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ICMPv6 Echo Request traffic. You must create separate inbound and outbound rules that allow ICMPv6 Echo Request messages. The inbound rule is required to allow ICMPv6 Echo Request messages, and must be scoped to all profiles. The outbound rule to allow ICMPv6 Echo Request messages must be scoped to all profiles, and is only required if the Outbound block is turned on. DirectAccess clients that use Teredo for IPv6 connectivity to the intranet use the ICMPv6 message when establishing communication. IPv6 and transition technologies. IPv6 and the transition technologies must be available for use on the DirectAccess server. For each DNS server that is running Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 R2, you need to remove the ISATAP name from the global query block list.

Configuring DirectAccess

To configure DirectAccess, perform the following steps: 1. Configure AD DS and DNS requirements: o Create a security group in AD DS, and add all client computer accounts that will be accessing the intranet through DirectAccess. o 2. Configure both internal and external DNS servers with appropriate host names and IP addresses.

Configure the PKI environment: o Add and configure the Certificate Authority server role, create the certificate template and CRL distribution point, publish the CRL list, and distribute the computer certificates. This is not needed if you launch the setup from the Getting Started Wizard.

3.

Configure the DirectAccess server: o Install Windows Server 2012 on a server computer with one or two physical network adapters (depending on the DirectAccess design scenario). o o Join the DirectAccess server to an Active Directory domain. Install the Remote Access role, and configure the DirectAccess server so that it is one of the following: The DirectAccess server is on the perimeter network with one network adapter that is connected to the perimeter network, and at least one other network adapter that is connected to the intranet. In this deployment scenario, the DirectAccess server is placed between a front-end firewall and back-end firewall. The DirectAccess server is published by using TMG, UAG, or other third-party firewalls. In this deployment
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scenario, DirectAccess is placed behind a front-end firewall and it has one network adapter connected to internal network. The DirectAccess server is installed on an edge server (typically front end firewall) with one network adapter that is connected to the Internet, and at least one other network adapter that is connected to the intranet. An alternative design is that the DirectAccess server has only one network interface, not two. For this design, perform the following steps: o Verify that the ports and protocols that are needed for DirectAccess and ICMP Echo Request are enabled in the firewall exceptions and opened on the perimeter and Internet-facing firewalls. o The DirectAccess server in simplified implementation can use a single public IP address in combination with Kerberos Proxy services for client authentication against domain controllers. For two-factor authentication and integration with NAP, you need to configure at least two consecutive public, static IPv4 addresses that are externally resolvable through DNS. Ensure that you have an IPv4 address available, and that you have the ability to publish that address in your externally-facing DNS server. o o If you have disabled IPv6 on clients and servers, you must re-enable IPv6, because it is required for DirectAccess. Install a web server on the DirectAccess server to enable DirectAccess clients to determine if they are inside or outside the intranet. You can install this web server on a separate internal server for determining the network location. o Based on the deployment scenario, you need to designate one of the server network adapters as the Internet-facing interface (in deployment with two network adapters), or publish the DirectAccess server that is deployed behind NAT, for Internet access. o On the DirectAccess server, ensure that the Internet-facing interface is configured to be either a Public or a Private interface, depending on your network design. Configure the intranet interfaces as domain interfaces. If you have more than two interfaces, ensure that no more than two classification types are selected. 4. Configure the DirectAccess clients, and test intranet and Internet access: o o o Verify that DirectAccess group policy has been applied, and certificates have been distributed to client computers. Test whether you can connect to the DirectAccess server from an intranet. Test whether you can connect to the DirectAccess server from the Internet.

Lab B: Configuring DirectAccess


Scenario
Because A. Datum Corporation has expanded, many of the employees are now frequently out of the office, either working from home or traveling. A. Datum wants to implement a remote access solution for its employees so they can connect to the corporate network while they are away from the office. Although the VPN solution that you implemented provides a high level of security, business management is concerned about the complexity of the environment for end users. In addition, IT management is concerned that they are not able to manage the remote clients effectively. To address these issues, A. Datum has decided to implement DirectAccess on client computers that are running Windows 8. As a senior network administrator, you are required to deploy and validate the DirectAccess deployment. You will configure the DirectAccess environment, and validate that the client computers can connect to the internal network when operating remotely.

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Objectives
After completing this lab, you will be able to: Configure the server infrastructure to deploy DirectAccess. Configure the DirectAccess clients. Validate the DirectAccess implementation.

Lab Setup

Virtual machines

20411B-LON-DC1 20411B-LON-SVR1 20411B-LON-RTR 20411B-LON-CL1

User Name Password

Administrator Pa$$w0rd

For this lab, you will use the available virtual machine environment. Before you begin the lab, you must complete the following steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. On the host computer, click Start, point to Administrative Tools, and then click Hyper-V Manager. In Hyper-V Manager, click 20411B-LON-DC1, and in the Actions pane, click Start. In the Actions pane, click Connect. Wait until the virtual machine starts. Sign in using the following credentials: o o 5. 6. User name: Adatum\Administrator Password: Pa$$w0rd

Perform steps 2 through 4 for 20411B-LON-SVR1 and 20411B-LON-RTR. Do not start 20411B-LON-CL1 until directed to do so.

Exercise 1: Configuring the DirectAccess Infrastructure


Scenario You decided to implement DirectAccess as a solution for remote client computers that are not able to connect through VPN. In addition, you want to address management problems, such as GPO application for remote client computers. For this purpose, you will configure the prerequisite components of DirectAccess, and configure the DirectAccess server. The main tasks for this exercise are as follows: 1. Configure Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) and Domain Name System (DNS).

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2. 3. 4.

Configure certificates. Configure internal resources. Configure the DirectAccess server.

Task 1: Configure Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) and Domain Name System (DNS)

1.

Create a security group for DirectAccess client computers by performing the following steps: a. b. Switch to LON-DC1. Open the Active Directory Users and Computers console, and create an Organizational Unit (OU) named DA_Clients OU. c. d. e. Within that OU, create a Global Security group named DA_Clients. Modify the membership of the DA_Clients group to include LON-CL1. Close Active Directory Users and Computers.

2.

Configure firewall rules for ICMPv6 traffic by performing the following steps: a. b. Open the Group Policy Management Console , and then open Default Domain Policy. In the Group Policy Management Editor, navigate to Computer Configuration \Policies\Windows Settings\Security Settings\Windows Firewall with Advanced Security \Windows Firewall with Advanced Security. c. Create a new inbound rule with the following settings: d. Rule Type: Custom Protocol type: ICMPv6 Specific ICMP types: Echo Request Name: Inbound ICMPv6 Echo Requests

Create a new outbound rule with the following settings: Rule Type: Custom Protocol type: ICMPv6 Specific ICMP types: Echo Request Action: Allow the connection Name: Outbound ICMPv6 Echo Requests

e. 3.

Close both the Group Policy Management Editor and the Group Policy Management Console.

Create required DNS records by performing the following steps: a. Open the DNS Manager console, and then create new host records with the following settings: Name: nls IP Address: 172.16.0.21

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Name: crl IP Address: 172.16.0.1

b. 4.

Close the DNS Manager console.

Remove ISATAP from the DNS global query block list by performing the following steps: a. Open a command prompt window, type the following command, and then press Enter:
d n s c m d/ c o n f i g/ g l o b a l q u e r y b l o c k l i s tw p a d

b. c. 5.

Ensure that the Command completed successfully message displays. Close the command prompt window.

Switch to LON-RTR and configure the DNS suffix by performing the following steps: a. In the Local Area Connection Properties dialog box, in the Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) dialog box, add the Adatum.com DNS suffix. b. Close the Local Area Connection Properties dialog box.

6.

Configure the Local Area Connection 2 properties as follows: a. Change the Local Area Connection 2\ Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) configuration using the following configuration settings: IP address: 131.107.0.2 Subnet mask: 255.255.0.0

Task 2: Configure certificates

1.

Configure the CRL distribution settings by performing the following steps: a. b. Switch to LON-DC1, and open the Certification Authority console. Configure Adatum-LON-DC1-CA certification authority with the following extension settings: Add Location: http://crl.adatum.com/crld/ Variable: CAName , CRLNameSuffix , DeltaCRLAllowed Location: .crl Select the following: Include in CRLs. Clients use this to find Delta CRL locations Include in the CDP extension of issued certificates

Do not restart Certificate Services. Add Location: \\LON-RTR\crldist$\ Variable: CaName , CRLNameSuffix , DeltaCRLAllowed
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Location: .crl Select the following: Include in CRLs. Clients use this to find Delta CRL locations Include in the CDP extension of issued certificates

c. d. 2.

Restart Certificate Services. Close the Certificate Authority console.

To duplicate the web certificate template and configure appropriate permission by performing the following steps: a. In the Certificate Templates console, in the contents pane, duplicate the Web Server template by using the following options: b. c. Template display name: Adatum Web Server Certificate Request Handling: Allow private key to be exported Authenticated Users permissions: under Allow, click Enroll

Close the Certificate Templates console. In the Certification Authority console, choose to issue a New Certificate Template and select the Adatum Web Server Certificate template.

d. e. 3.

Restart the Certification Authority. Close the Certification Authority console.

Configure computer certificate auto-enrollment by performing the following steps: a. b. c. d. On LON-DC1, open the Group Policy Management Console . In the Group Policy Management Console, navigate to Forest: Adatum.com \Domains\Adatum.com. Edit the Default Domain Policy. In the Group Policy Management Editor, navigate to Computer Configuration \Policies\Windows Settings\Security Settings\Public Key Policies. e. Under Automatic Certificate Request Settings, configure Automatic Certificate Request to issue the Computer certificate. f. Close both the Group Policy Management Editor and the Group Policy Management Console.

Task 3: Configure internal resources

1.

Request a certificate for LON-SVR1 by performing the following steps: a. On LON-SVR1, open a command prompt, type the following command, and then press Enter:
g p u p d a t e/ f o r c e

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b.

At the command prompt, type the following command, and then press Enter:
m m c

2. 3.

Add the Certificates snap-in for Local computer. In the console tree of the Certificates snap-in, navigate to Certificates (Local Computer) \Personal\Certificates, and request a new certificate.

4.

Under Request Certificates, select Adatum Web Server Certificate with the following setting: o Subject name: Under Common name , type nls.adatum.com

5.

In the details pane of the Certificates snap-in, verify that a new certificate with the name nls.adatum.com was enrolled with Intended Purposes of Server Authentication.

6. 7.

Close the console window. When you are prompted to save settings, click No. To change the HTTPS bindings, perform the following steps: a. b. c. d. Open Internet Information Services (IIS) Manager. In the Internet Information Services (IIS) Manager console, navigate to and click Default Web site . Configure Site Bindings by selecting nls.adatum.com for SSL Certificate . Close the Internet Information Services (IIS) Manager console.

Task 4: Configure the DirectAccess server

1.

Obtain required certificates for LON-RTR by performing the following steps: a. b. Switch to LON-RTR. Open a command prompt, and refresh group policy by typing the following command:
g p u p d a t e/ f o r c e

c. d. e.

Open the Microsoft Management Console by typing mmc at a command prompt. Add the Certificates snap-in for Local computer. In the Certificates snap-in, in the Microsoft Management Console , request a new certificate with the following settings: Certificate template: Adatum Web Server Certificate Common name: 131.107.0.2 Friendly name: IP-HTTPS Certificate

f. 2.

Close the Microsoft Management Console.

Create CRL distribution point on LON-RTR by performing the following steps:


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a. b.

Switch to Server Manager. In Internet Information Services (IIS) Manager, create new virtual directory named CRLD, and assign c:\crldist as a home directory.

c. 3.

Enable directory browsing and the allow double escaping feature.

Share and secure the CRL distribution point by performing the following step:

Note: You perform this step to assign permissions to the CRL distribution point.

In the details pane of Windows Explorer, right-click the CRLDist folder, click Properties, and then grant Full Control Share and NTFS permissions.

4.

Publish the CRL to LON-RTR by performing the following steps:

Note: This step makes the CRL available on the edge server for Internet-based DirectAccess clients.

a. b. c.

Switch to LON-DC1. Start the Certification Authority console. In the console tree, open Adatum-LON-DC1-CA, right-click Revoked Certificates, point to All Tasks, and then click Publish.

5.

Complete the DirectAccess Setup Wizard on LON-RTR by performing the following steps: a. b. c. d. On LON-RTR, open Server Manager. In Server Manager, in Tools, select Routing and Remote Access. In Routing and Remote Access, disable the existing configuration, and close the console. In Server Manager console, start the Remote Management console, click Configuration, and start the Enable DirectAccess Wizard.

Note: If you get an error at this point, restart LON-RTR, sign in as Adatum\administrator,

and then restart from c).

e.

Complete the wizard with following settings: Network Topology: Edge is selected 131.107.0.2 is used by clients to connect to the Remote Access server.
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Module 7: Configuring and Troubleshooting Remote Access

f. g. h. i. j. k. l. m. n.

In the Remote Access Management console, under Step 1, click Edit. Add the DA_Clients group. Clear the Enable DirectAccess for mobile computers only check box. Remove the Domain Computers group. In the Remote Access Management console details pane, under Step 2, click Edit. On the Network Topology page, verify that Edge is selected, and type 131.107.0.2. On the Network Adapters page, verify that CN=131.107.0.2 is used as a certificate to authenticate IP-HTTPS connection. On the Authentication page, click Use computer certificates, click Browse , and then click Adatum Lon-Dc1 CA. On the VPN Configuration page, click Finish.

In details pane of the Remote Access Management console, under Step 3, click Edit.

p.

On the Network Location Server page, click The network location server is deployed on a remote web server (recommended), and in the URL of the NLS, type https://nls.adatum.com, and then click Validate .

q. r. s. t. u. v. w.

Ensure that URL is validated. On the DNS page, examine the values, and then click Next. In the DNS Suffix Search List, click Next. On the Management page, click Finish. In the Remote Access Management console details pane, review the setting for Step 4. In Remote Access Review , click Apply. Under Applying Remote Access Setup Wizard Settings, click Close .

6.

Update Group Policy settings on LON-RTR by performing the following step: o Open the command prompt, and type the following commands, pressing Enter after each line:
g p u p d a t e/ f o r c eI p c o n f i g

Note: Verify that LON-RTR has an IPv6 address for Tunnel adapter IPHTTPSInterface

starting with 2002.

Results: After completing this exercise, you will have configured the DirectAccess infrastructure.

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Exercise 2: Configuring the DirectAccess Clients


Scenario After you configured the DirectAccess server and the required infrastructure, you must configure DirectAccess clients. You decide to use Group Policy to apply DirectAccess settings to the clients and for certificate distribution. The main tasks for this exercise are as follows: 1. 2. 3. Configure DirectAccess Group Policy settings. Verify client computer certificate distribution. Verify internal connectivity to resources.

Task 1: Configure DirectAccess Group Policy settings

1.

Start LON-CL1, and then sign in as Adatum\Administrator with the password of Pa$$w0rd. Open a command prompt window, and then type the following commands, pressing Enter at the end of each line:
g p u p d a t e/ f o r c eg p r e s u l t/ R

2.

Verify that DirectAccess Client Settings GPO is displayed in the list of the Applied Policy objects for the Computer Settings.

Task 2: Verify client computer certificate distribution

1. 2.

On LON-CL1, open the Certificates MMC. Verify that a certificate with the name LON-CL1.adatum.com displays with Intended Purposes of Client Authentication and Server Authentication.

3.

Close the console window without saving it.

Task 3: Verify internal connectivity to resources

1.

On LON-CL1, open Windows Internet Explorer from the Desktop, and in the address bar, type http://lonsvr1.adatum.com/. The default IIS 8 web page for LON-SVR1 displays.

2. 3.

In Internet Explorer, go to https://nls.adatum.com/. The default IIS 8 web page for LON-SVR1 displays. Open a Windows Explorer window, in the address bar, type \\Lon-SVR1\Files, and then press Enter. A window with the contents of the Files shared folder will display.

4.

Close all open windows.

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Results: After completing this exercise, you will have configured the DirectAccess clients.

Exercise 3: Verifying the DirectAccess Configuration


Scenario When client configuration is completed, it is important to verify that DirectAccess works. You do this by moving the DirectAccess client to the Internet, and trying to access internal resources. The main tasks for this exercise are as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. Move the client computer to the Internet virtual network. Verify connectivity to the DirectAccess server. Verify connectivity to the internal network resources. To prepare for the next module.

Task 1: Move the client computer to the Internet virtual network

1. 2.

Switch to LON-CL1. Change the network adapter configuration to the following settings: o o o IP address: 131.107.0.10 Subnet mask: 255.255.0.0 Default gateway: 131.107.0.2

3. 4. 5.

Disable and then re-enable the Local Area Network network adapter. Close the Network Connections window. On your host, in Hyper-V Manager, right-click 20411B-LON-CL1, and then click Settings. Change the Legacy Network Adapter to be on the Private Network 2 network, and then click OK.

Task 2: Verify connectivity to the DirectAccess server

1.

On LON-CL1, open a command prompt, and type the following command:


i p c o n f i g

2. 3.

Notice that the returned IP address starts with 2002. This is IP-HTTPS address. At the command prompt, type the following command, and then press Enter:
N e t s hn a m es h o we f f e c t i v e p o l i c y

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4.

At the command prompt, type the following command, and then press Enter:
p o w e r s h e l l

5.

At the Windows PowerShell command-line interface, type the following command, and then press Enter:
G e t D A C l i e n t E x p e r i e n c e C o n f i g u r a t i o n

Note: Notice the DirectAccess client settings.

Task 3: Verify connectivity to the internal network resources

1.

Switch to Internet Explorer, and go to http://lon-svr1.adatum.com/. You should see the default IIS 8 web page for LONSVR1.

2. 3. 4.

Open Windows Explorer, in the address bar, type \\LON-SVR1\Files, and then press Enter. A folder window with the contents of the Files shared folder should display. At a command prompt, type the following command, and then press Enter:
p i n gl o n d c 1 . a d a t u m . c o m

5. 6.

Verify that you are receiving replies from lon-dc1.adatum.com. At the command prompt, type the following command, and then press Enter:
g p u p d a t e/ f o r c e

7. 8. 9.

Close all open windows. Switch to LON-RTR. Start the Remote Access Management console, and review the information on Remote Client Status.

Note: Notice that LON-CL1 is connected via IP-HTTPS. In the Connection Details pane, in the bottom-right of the screen, note the use of Kerberos for the Machine and the User.

10. Close all open windows.

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To prepare for the next module

When you finish the lab, revert the virtual machines to their initial state.

Results: After completing this exercise, you will have verified the DirectAccess configuration.

Module Review and Takeaways


Tools
Tool
Services.msc

Use for
Managing Windows services

Where to find it
Administrative Tools Launch from Run

Gpedit.msc Mmc.exe Gpupdate.exe

Editing the local Group Policy Creating and managing the Microsoft Management Console Managing Group Policy application

Launch from Run Launch from Run Run from a command-line

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Lab Answer Key: Module 7: Configuring and Troubleshooting Remote Access Lab A: Configuring Remote Access
Exercise 1: Configuring a Virtual Private Network Server
Task 1: Configure server and client certificates

1. 2. 3. 4.

Switch to LON-DC1. Sign in as Adatum\Administrator with the password Pa$$w0rd. In Server Manager, click Tools, and then click Certification Authority. In the certsrv management console, expand Adatum-LON-DC1-CA, right-click Certificate Templates, and then click Manage .

5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

In the Certificate Templates Console details pane, right-click Computer, and then click Properties. In the Computer Properties dialog box, click the Security tab, and then click Authenticated Users. In Permissions for Authenticated Users, select the Allow check box for the Enroll permission, and then click OK. Close the Certificate Templates Console. In certsrv [Certification Authority (Local)], right-click Adatum-LON-DC1-CA, point to All Tasks and then click Stop Service .

10. Right-click Adatum-LON-DC1-CA, point to All Tasks and then click Start Service . 11. Close the certsrv management console. 12. In Server Manager, click Tools, and then click Group Policy Management. 13. In the Group Policy Management list pane, expand Forest: Adatum.com, expand Domains, and then expand Adatum.com. 14. In the list pane, under Adatum.com, right-click Default Domain Policy, and then click Edit. 15. In Group Policy Management Editor, under Computer Configuration, expand Policies, expand Windows Settings, expand Security Settings, and then expand Public Key Policies. 16. In the navigation pane, right-click Automatic Certificate Request Settings, point to New , and then click Automatic Certificate Request. 17. In the Welcome to the Automatic Certificate Request Setup Wizard, click Next. 18. On the Certificate Template page, accept the default setting of Computer, and then click Next. 19. On the Completing the Automatic Certificate Request Setup Wizard page, click Finish. 20. Close the Group Policy Management Editor. 21. Close Group Policy Management. 22. Switch to the LON-RTR computer, and sign in as Adatum\Administrator with the password Pa$$w0rd. 23. Pause your mouse pointer in the lower left of the taskbar and then click Start.

24. Type mmc.exe , and then press Enter. 25. On the File menu, click Add/Remove Snap-in. 26. In the Add or Remove Snap-ins dialog box, click Certificates, click Add, click Computer account, click Next, and then click Finish. 27. In the Add or Remove Snap-ins dialog box, click OK. 28. In the console tree, expand Certificates, right-click Personal, point to All Tasks, and then click Request New Certificate . 29. In the Certificate Enrollment dialog box, click Next. 30. On the Select Certificate Enrollment Policy page, click Active Directory Enrollment Policy, and then click Next. 31. Select the Computer check box, and then click Enroll. 32. Verify the status of certificate installation as Succeeded, and then click Finish. 33. Close the Console1 window. 34. When prompted to save console settings, click No. 35. Switch to LON-CL2, and sign in as Adatum\Administrator with the password Pa$$w0rd. 36. In Start, type cmd.exe , and then press Enter. 37. At the command prompt, type gpupdate /force , and then press Enter. 38. Close the command prompt. 39. Pause your mouse pointer in the lower left of the taskbar, and then click Start. 40. In Start, type mmc, and then press Enter. 41. On the File menu, click Add/Remove Snap-in. 42. In the Add or Remove Snap-ins dialog box, click Certificates, click Add, click Computer account, click Next, and then click Finish. 43. In the Add or Remove Snap-ins dialog box, click OK. 44. In the console tree, expand Certificates, and then expand Personal. 45. Verify that a certificate exists for LON-CL2 that has been issued by Adatum-LON-DC1-CA. 46. Close the Console1 window. 47. When prompted to save console settings, click No.

Task 2: Configure the Remote Access role

1. 2. 3. 4.

Switch to LON-RTR. If necessary, on the taskbar, click Server Manager. In the Details pane, click Add roles and features. In the Add Roles and Features Wizard, click Next.

5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

On the Select installation type page, click Role-based or feature based installation, and then click Next. On the Select destination server page, click Next. On the Select server roles page, select the Network Policy and Access Services check box. Click Add Features, and then click Next twice. On the Network Policy and Access Services page, click Next.

10. On the Select role services page, verify that the Network Policy Server check box is selected, and then click Next. 11. On the Confirm installation selections page, click Install. 12. Verify that the installation was successful, and then click Close . 13. In Server Manager, click Tools, and then click Network Policy Server. 14. In Network Policy Manager, in the navigation pane, right-click NPS (Local), and then click Register server in Active Directory. 15. In the Network Policy Server message box, click OK. 16. In the subsequent Network Policy Server dialog box, click OK. 17. Leave the Network Policy Server console window open. 18. In Server Manager, click Tools, and then click Routing and Remote Access. At the Enable DirectAccess Wizard click Cancel and then click OK. 19. In the Routing and Remote Access console, right-click LON-RTR (local), and then click Disable Routing and Remote Access. 20. In the dialog box, click Yes. 21. In the Routing and Remote Access console, right-click LON-RTR (local) and then click Configure and Enable Routing and Remote Access. 22. Click Next, select Remote access (dial-up or VPN), and then click Next. 23. Select the VPN check box, and then click Next. 24. Click the Local Area Connection 2 network interface. Clear the Enable security on the selected interface by setting up static packet filters check box, and then click Next. 25. On the IP Address Assignment page, click From a specified range of addresses, and then click Next. 26. On the Address Range Assignment page, click New . In the Start IP address text box, type 172.16.0.100, in the End IP address text box, type 172.16.0.110, and then click OK. 27. Verify that 11 IP addresses were assigned for remote clients, and then click Next. 28. On the Managing Multiple Remote Access Servers page, click Next. 29. Click Finish. 30. In the Routing and Remote Access dialog box, click OK. 31. If prompted, click OK again.

Task 3: Create a network policy for virtual private network (VPN) clients

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

On LON-RTR, switch to Network Policy Server. In Network Policy Server, expand Policies, and then click Network Policies. In the details pane, right-click the policy at the top of the list, and then click Disable . In the details pane, right-click the policy at the bottom of the list, and then click Disable . In the navigation pane, right-click Network Policies, and then click New . In the New Network Policy Wizard, in the Policy name text box, type IT Pilot VPN Policy. In the Type of network access server list, click Remote Access Server(VPN-Dial up), and then click Next. On the Specify Conditions page, click Add. In the Select condition dialog box, click Windows Groups, and then click Add.

10. In the Windows Groups dialog box, click Add Groups. 11. In the Select Group dialog box, in the Enter the object name to select (examples) text box, type IT, and then click OK. 12. Click OK again, click Next, and on the Specify Access Permission page, click Access granted, and then click Next. 13. On the Configure Authentication Methods page, clear the Microsoft Encrypted Authentication (MS-CHAP) check box, and then click Next. 14. On the Configure Constraints page, click Day and time restrictions. 15. Select the Allow access only on these days and at these times check box, and then click Edit. 16. In the Day and time restrictions dialog box, click Sunday, and then click Denied. 17. Click Saturday, click Denied, and then click OK. 18. Click Next. 19. On the Configure Settings page, click Next. 20. On the Completing New Network Policy page, click Finish.

Results: After this exercise, you should have successfully deployed a VPN server, and configured access for members of the IT global security group.

Exercise 2: Configuring VPN Clients


Task 1: Configure and distribute a Connection Manager Administration Kit profile

1. 2. 3. 4.

Switch to LON-CL2. Pause your mouse pointer in the lower left of the taskbar, and then click Start. On the Start screen, type Control, and then in the Apps list, click Control Panel. Click Programs, and in Programs, click Turn Windows features on or off .

5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

In Windows Features, select the RAS Connection Manager Administration Kit (CMAK) check box, and then click OK. Click Close . In Control Panel, click Control Panel Home . In the View by list, click Large icons. Click Administrative Tools, and then double-click Connection Manager Administration Kit.

10. In the Connection Manager Administration Kit Wizard, click Next. 11. On the Select the Target Operating System page, click Windows Vista or above , and then click Next. 12. On the Create or Modify a Connection Manager profile page, click New profile , and then click Next. 13. On the Specify the Service Name and the File Name page, in the Service name text box, type Adatum Pilot VPN, in the File name text box, type Adatum, and then click Next. 14. On the Specify a Realm Name page, click Do not add a realm name to the user name , and then click Next. 15. On the Merge Information from Other Profiles page, click Next. 16. On the Add Support for VPN Connections page, select the Phone book from this profile check box. 17. In the VPN server name or IP address text box, type 10.10.0.1, and then click Next. 18. On the Create or Modify a VPN Entry page, click Edit. 19. In the Edit VPN Entry dialog box, click the Security tab. 20. In the VPN strategy list, click Only use Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP), and then click OK. 21. Click Next. 22. On the Add a Custom Phone Book page, clear the Automatically download phone book updates check box, and then click Next. 23. On the Configure Dial-up Networking Entries page, click Next. 24. On the Specify Routing Table Updates page, click Next. 25. On the Configure Proxy Settings for Internet Explorer page, click Next. 26. On the Add Custom Actions page, click Next. 27. On the Display a Custom Logon Bitmap page, click Next. 28. On the Display a Custom Phone Book Bitmap page, click Next. 29. On the Display Custom Icons page, click Next. 30. On the Include a Custom Help File page, click Next. 31. On the Display Custom Support Information page, click Next. 32. On the Display a Custom License Agreement page, click Next. 33. On the Install Additional Files with the Connection Manager profile page, click Next. 34. On the Build the Connection Manager Profile and Its Installation Program page, click Next. 35. On the Your Connection Manager Profile is Complete and Ready to Distribute page, click Finish.

36. On the taskbar, click the File Explorer icon. 37. In the Windows Explorer address box, type C:\Program Files\CMAK\Profiles\Windows Vista and above\Adatum, and then press Enter. 38. Double-click Adatum.exe . 39. In the Adatum Pilot VPN dialog box, click Yes. 40. In the second Adatum Pilot VPN dialog box, click All users, and then click OK. 41. In the Adatum Pilot VPN dialog box, click Cancel.

Task 2: Verify client access

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Sign out of LON-CL2. Sign in as Adatum\April with the password of Pa$$w0rd. On the Start screen, type Control, and then in the Apps list, click Control Panel. In Control Panel, click Network and Internet. In the Network and Internet window, click Network and Sharing Center. In the Network and Sharing Center, click Change adapter settings. In the Network Connections window, right-click the Adatum Pilot VPN connection, and then click Connect/Disconnect. In the Networks list on the right, click Adatum Pilot VPN, and then click Connect. In Adatum Pilot VPN, in the User name text box, type Adatum\April.

10. In the Password text box, type Pa$$w0rd. 11. Select the Save password check box, and then click Connect. 12. Wait for the VPN connection to be made. 13. Close all open windows.

To prepare for the next lab

1. 2. 3. 4.

On the host computer, start Hyper-V Manager. In the Virtual Machines list, right-click 20411B-LON-CL2, and then click Revert. In the Revert Virtual Machines dialog box, click Revert. Repeat steps 2 to 3 for 20411B-LON-RTR and 20411B-LON-DC1.

Results: After this exercise, you should have successfully distributed a CMAK profile, and tested VPN access.

Lab B: Configuring DirectAccess


Exercise 1: Configuring the DirectAccess Infrastructure
Task 1: Configure Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) and Domain Name System (DNS)

1.

Create a security group for Windows DirectAccess client computers by performing the following steps: a. b. c. d. Switch to LON-DC1. Sign in as Adatum\Administrator with the password Pa$$w0rd. In Server Manager, click Tools, and then click Active Directory Users and Computers. In the Active Directory Users and Computers console, right-click Adatum.com, click New , and then click Organizational Unit e. f. In the New Object Organizational Unit window, in the Name text box, type DA_Clients OU, and then click OK. In the Active Directory Users and Computers console, expand Adatum.com, right-click DA_Clients OU, click New , and then click Group. g. h. i. j. k. In the New Object - Group dialog box, under Group name , type DA_Clients. Under Group scope , click Global, under Group type , click Security, and then click OK. In the details pane, double-click DA_Clients. In the DA_Clients Properties dialog box, click the Members tab, and then click Add. In the Select Users, Contacts, Computers, Service Accounts, or Groups dialog box, click Object Types, select the Computers check box, and then click OK. l. m. n. Under Enter the object names to select (examples), type LON-CL1, and then click OK. Verify that LON-CL1 displays below Members, and then click OK. Close the Active Directory Users and Computers console.

2.

Configure firewall rules for ICMPv6 traffic by performing the following steps:

Note: It is important to configure firewall rules for ICMPv6 traffic to enable subsequent testing of DirectAccess in the lab environment.

a. b. c. d.

In Server Manager, click Tools, and then click Group Policy Management. In the Group Policy Management Console, expand Forest: Adatum.com, expand Domains, and then expand Adatum.com. Under Adatum.com, right-click Default Domain Policy, and then click Edit. In the Group Policy Management Editor, navigate to Computer Configuration, expand Policies, expand Windows Settings, expand Security Settings, expand Windows Firewall with Advanced Security, and then click Windows Firewall with Advanced Security.

e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. m. n. o. p. q. r. s. t. u. v. w. x. y.

In Windows Firewall with Advanced Security, click Inbound Rules, right-click Inbound Rules, and then click New Rule . On the Rule Type page, click Custom, and then click Next. On the Program page, click Next. On the Protocols and Ports page, under Protocol type , click ICMPv6, and then click Customize . In the Customize ICMP Settings dialog box, click Specific ICMP types, click Echo Request, and then click OK. Click Next. On the Scope page, click Next. On the Action page, click Next. On the Profile page, click Next. On the Name page, in the Name text box, type Inbound ICMPv6 Echo Requests, and then click Finish. In the console tree, click Outbound Rules, right-click Outbound Rules, and then click New Rule . On the Rule Type page, click Custom, and then click Next. On the Program page, click Next. On the Protocols and Ports page, under Protocol type , click ICMPv6, and then click Customize . In the Customize ICMP Settings dialog box, click Specific ICMP types, click Echo Request, and then click OK. Click Next. On the Scope page, click Next. On the Action page, click Allow the connection, and then click Next. On the Profile page, click Next. On the Name page, in the Name text box, type Outbound ICMPv6 Echo Requests, and then click Finish. Close the Group Policy Management Editor and the Group Policy Management Console.

3.

Create required DNS records by performing the following steps: a. b. c. d. e. In Server Manager, click Tools, and then click DNS. In the DNS Manager console, expand LON-DC1, expand Forward Lookup Zones, and then click Adatum.com. Right-click Adatum.com, and then click New Host (A or AAAA). In the Name text box, type nls. In the IP address text box, type 172.16.0.21, click Add Host, and then click OK. In the New Host dialog box, in the Name text box, type CRL. In the IP address text box, type 172.16.0.1, and then click Add Host. f. g. h. In the DNS dialog box informing you that the record was created, click OK. In the New Host dialog box, click Done . Close the DNS Manager console.

4.

Remove ISATAP from the DNS global query block list by performing the following steps:

a.

Move the mouse pointer to the lower-right corner, select search on the right menu, and then type cmd.exe . Press Enter.

b.

In the command prompt window, type the following command, and then press Enter:
d n s c m d/ c o n f i g/ g l o b a l q u e r y b l o c k l i s tw p a d

c. d. 5.

Ensure that the Command completed successfully message displays. Close the Command Prompt window.

Configure the DNS suffix on LON-RTR by performing the following steps: a. b. Switch to LON-RTR. Move the mouse to the lower right corner of the screen, click Settings, click Control Panel, and then click View network status and tasks. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. In the Network and Sharing Center window, click Change adapter settings. In the Network Connection window, right-click Local Area Connection, and then click Properties. In the Local Area Network Properties window, double-click Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4). In the Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) dialog box, click Advanced. On the DNS tab, in the DNS suffix for this connection text box, type Adatum.com, and then click OK. In the Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) dialog box, click OK. In the Local Area Connection Properties dialog box, click OK.

6.

Configure the Local Area Connection 2 properties on LON-RTR: a. b. c. In the Network Connection window, right-click Local Area Connection 2, and then click Properties. In the Local Area Network 2 Properties window, double-click Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4). In the Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) dialog box, in the IP address text box, type 131.107.0.2 and in the Subnet mask text box, type 255.255.0.0. d. e. Click OK, and then click OK again. Close Network Connections.

Task 2: Configure certificates

1.

To configure the certificate revocation list (CRL) distribution settings, perform the following steps: a. b. c. d. On LON-DC1, in Server Manager, on the Tools menu, click Certification Authority. In the details pane, right-click Adatum-LON-DC1-CA, and then click Properties. In the Adatum-LON-DC1-CA Properties dialog box, click the Extensions tab. On the Extensions tab, click Add. In the Location text box, type http://crl.adatum.com/crld/.

e. f. g. h. i.

Under Variable , click <CaName >, and then click Insert. Under Variable , click <CRLNameSuffix >, and then click Insert. Under Variable , click <DeltaCRLAllowed>, and then click Insert. In the Location text box, at the end of the Location string, type .crl, and then click OK. Select the Include in CRLs. Clients use this to find Delta CRL locations and Include in the CDP extension of issued certificates check boxes, and then click Apply. in the dialog box asking you to restart Active Directory Certificate Services, click No.

j. k. l. m. n. o. p. q. 2.

Click Add. In the Location text box, type \\LON-RTR\crldist$\. Under Variable , click <CaName >, and then click Insert. Under Variable , click <CRLNameSuffix >, and then click Insert. Under Variable , click <DeltaCRLAllowed>, and then click Insert. In the Location text box, at the end of the string, type .crl, and then click OK. Select both the Publish CRLs to this location and Publish Delta CRLs to this location check boxes, and then click OK. Click Yes to restart Active Directory Certificate Services.

Duplicate the web certificate template and configure appropriate permission by performing the following steps: a. In the Certification Authority console, expand Adatum-LON-DC1-CA, right-click Certificate Templates, and then click Manage .

Note: Users require the Enroll permission on the certificate.

b.

In the Certificate Templates console, in the content pane, right-click the Web Server template, and then click Duplicate Template .

c. d. e. f. g. h.

Click the General tab, and in the Template display name text box, type Adatum Web Server Certificate . Click the Request Handling tab, and then click Allow private key to be exported. Click the Security tab, and then click Authenticated Users. In the Permissions for Authenticated Users window, under Allow , click Enroll, and then click OK. Close the Certificate Templates console. In the Certification Authority console, right-click Certificate Templates, and navigate to New/Certificate Template to Issue .

i. j.

Click Adatum Web Server Certificate , and then click OK. In certsrv [Certification Authority (Local)], right-click Adatum-LON-DC1-CA, point to All Tasks and then click Stop Service .

k.

Right-click Adatum-LON-DC1-CA, point to All Tasks and then click Start Service .

l. 3.

Close the Certification Authority console.

Configure computer certificate auto-enrollment by performing the following steps: a. b. On LON-DC1, switch to Server Manager, click Tools, and then click Group Policy Management. In the Group Policy Management Console, expand Forest: Adatum.com, expand Domains, and then expand Adatum.com. c. d. In the Adatum.com console, right-click Default Domain Policy, and then click Edit. In the Group Policy Management Editor, expand Computer Configuration, expand Policies, expand Windows Settings, expand Security Settings, and then expand Public Key Policies. e. In the Public Key Policies details pane, right-click Automatic Certificate Request Settings, point to New , and then click Automatic Certificate Request. f. g. h. In the Automatic Certificate Request Setup Wizard, click Next. On the Certificate Template page, click Computer, click Next, and then click Finish. Close both the Group Policy Management Editor and the Group Policy Management Console.

Task 3: Configure internal resources

1.

Request a certificate for LON-SVR1 by performing the following steps: a. b. On LON-SVR1, move the mouse to the lower-right corner of the screen, click Search, type cmd, and then press Enter. At the command prompt, type the following command, and then press Enter:
g p u p d a t e/ f o r c e

c.

At the command prompt, type the following command, and then press Enter:
m m c

d. e.

Click File , and then click Add/Remove Snap-in. Click Certificates, click Add, click Computer account, click Next, click Local computer, click Finish, and then click OK.

f.

In the Certificates snap-in console, expand Certificates (Local Computer), expand Personal, and then click Certificates.

g. h. i.

Right-click Certificates, point to All Tasks, and then click Request New Certificate . Click Next twice. On the Request Certificates page, click Adatum Web Server Certificate , and then click More information is required to enroll for this certificate .

j.

In the Certificate Properties dialog box, on the Subject tab, under Subject name , under Type , click Common name .

k. l. m.

In the Value text box, type nls.adatum.com, and then click Add. Click OK, click Enroll, and then click Finish. In the Certificates snap-in details pane, verify that a new certificate with the name nls.adatum.com was enrolled with Intended Purposes of Server Authentication.

n. 2.

Close the console window. When you are prompted to save settings, click No.

To change the HTTPS bindings, perform the following steps: a. In Server Manager, click Tools, and then click Internet Information Services (IIS) Manager. At the Internet Information Services (IIS) Manager message box, click No. b. In the Internet Information Services (IIS) Manager console, navigate to LON-SVR1/Sites, and then click Default Web Site . c. d. In the Actions pane, click Bindings, and then click Add. In the Add Site Binding dialog box, click https, in the SSL Certificate dialog box, click the certificate with the name nls.adatum.com, click OK, and then click Close . e. Close the Internet Information Services (IIS) Manager console.

Task 4: Configure the DirectAccess server

1.

Obtain required certificates for LON-RTR by performing the following steps: a. b. Switch to LON-RTR. Open a command prompt, type the following command, and then press Enter:
g p u p d a t e/ f o r c e

c. d. e.

In the command prompt, type mmc.exe , and then press Enter. Click File and then click Add/Remove Snap-in. Click Certificates, click Add, click Computer account, click Next, select Local computer, click Finish, and then click OK.

f.

In the Certificates snap-in console, expand Certificates (Local Computer), expand Personal, and then click Certificates.

g. h. i.

Right-click Certificates, point to All Tasks, and then click Request New Certificate . Click Next twice. On the Request Certificates page, click Adatum Web Server Certificate , and then click More information is required to enroll for this certificate .

j. k. l.

In the Certificate Properties dialog box, on the Subject tab, under Subject name , under Type , click Common name . In the Value text box, type 131.107.0.2, and then click Add. Click OK, click Enroll, and then click Finish.

m.

In the Certificates snap-in details pane, verify that a new certificate with the name 131.107.0.2 was issued with Intended Purposes of Server Authentication.

n. o. p. 2.

Right-click the certificate, and then click Properties. In the Friendly Name text box, type IP-HTTPS Certificate , and then click OK. Close the console window. If you are prompted to save settings, click No.

Create CRL distribution point on LON-RTR by performing the following steps: a. b. c. d. Switch to Server Manager. In Server Manager, click Tools, and then click Internet Information Services (IIS) Manager. If the Internet Information Service Manager message box displays, click No. In the console tree, expand to LON-RTR, expand Sites, click Default Web Site , right-click Default Web Site , and then click Add Virtual Directory. e. In the Add Virtual Directory dialog box, in the Alias text box, type CRLD. Next to Physical path, click the ellipsis () button. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. m. In the Browse for Folder dialog box, click Local Disk (C:), and then click Make New Folder. Type CRLDist, and then press Enter. In the Browse for Folder dialog box, click OK. In the Add Virtual Directory dialog box, click OK. In the middle pane of the console, double-click Directory Browsing, and in the Actions pane, click Enable . In the console, click the CRLD folder. In the middle pane of the console, double-click the Configuration Editor icon. Click the down-arrow of the Section drop-down list, expand system.webServer, expand security, and then click requestFiltering. n. In the middle pane of the requestFiltering console, double-click allowDoubleEscaping to change the value from False to True . o. p. In the actions pane, click Apply. Close Internet Information Services (IIS) Manager. Question: Why do you make the CRL available on the edge server?

Answer: You make the CRL available on the edge server so that the Internet DirectAccess clients can access the CRL.

3.

Share and secure the CRL distribution point by performing the following steps:

Note : You perform these steps to assign permissions to the CRL distribution point.

a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k.

On the taskbar, click the Windows Explorer icon. In Windows Explorer, double-click Local Disk (C:). In the Windows Explorer details pane, right-click the CRLDist folder, and then click Properties. In the CRLDist Properties dialog box, click the Sharing tab, and then click Advanced Sharing. In the Advanced Sharing dialog box, click Share this folder. In the Share name text box, add a dollar sign ($) to the end of the name so that the share name is CRLDist$. In the Advanced Sharing dialog box, click Permissions. In the Permissions for CRLDist$ dialog box, click Add. In the Select Users, Computers, Service Accounts, or Groups dialog box, click Object Types. In the Object Types dialog box, select Computers, and then click OK. In the Select Users, Computers, Service Accounts, or Groups dialog box, in the Enter the object names to select text box, type LON-DC1, click Check Names, and then click OK.

l.

In the Permissions for CRLDist$ dialog box, in the Group or user names list, click LON-DC1 (ADATUM\LON-DC1$). In the Permissions for LON-DC1 area, under Full control, click Allow , and then click OK.

m. n. o. p. q. r. s.

In the Advanced Sharing dialog box, click OK. In the CRLDist Properties dialog box, click the Security tab. On the Security tab, click Edit. In the Permissions for CRLDist dialog box, click Add. In the Select Users, Computers, Service Accounts, or Groups dialog box, click Object Types. In the Object Types dialog box, click Computers, and then click OK. In the Select Users, Computers, Service Accounts, or Groups dialog box, in the Enter the object names to select text box, type LON-DC1, click Check Names, and then click OK.

t.

In the Permissions for CRLDist dialog box, in the Group or user names list, click LON-DC1 (ADATUM\LON-DC1$). In the Permissions for LON-DC1 area, under Full control, click Allow , and then click OK.

u. v. 4.

In the CRLDist Properties dialog box, click Close . Close the Windows Explorer window.

Publish the CRL to LON-RTR by performing the following steps:

Note: These steps make the CRL available on the edge server for Internet-based DirectAccess clients.

a. b. c.

Switch to LON-DC1. In Server Manager, click Tools, and then click Certification Authority. In the Certification Authority console, expand Adatum-LON-DC1-CA, right-click Revoked Certificates, point to All Tasks,

and then click Publish. d. e. f. g. h. In the Publish CRL dialog box, click New CRL, and then click OK. On the taskbar, click the Windows Explorer icon. In the Windows Explorer address bar, type \\LON-RTR\CRLDist$, and then press Enter. In the Windows Explorer window, notice the Adatum-LON-DC1-CA files. Close the Windows Explorer window.

5.

Complete the DirectAccess Setup Wizard on LON-RTR by performing the following steps:

Note: These steps configure LON-RTR as a DirectAccess server. and then restart from c).

a.

On LON-RTR, open Server Manager, click Tools, and then click Routing and Remote Access. If prompted, click No to launching the DirectAccess wizard.

b. c. d. e.

In Routing and Remote Access, disable the existing configuration, and close the console. In Server Manager, on the Tools menu, click Remote Access Management. In the Remote Access Management console, click Configuration. In the results pane, click Run the Getting Started Wizard.

Note: If you get an error at this point, restart LON-RTR, sign in as Adatum\administrator,

f. g.

In the Configure Remote Access Wizard, click Deploy DirectAccess only. In the Network Topology pane, verify that Edge is selected, and verify that 131.107.0.2 is the public name used by clients to connect to the Remote Access server.

h. i. j. k. l. m. n. o. p. q. r.

Click Next. On the Configure Remote Access page, click Finish. When the configuration completes, click Close . In the Remote Access Management console, under Step 1, click Edit, and then click Next. Under Select Groups, in the details pane, click Add. In the Select Group dialog box, type DA_Clients, click OK. Clear the Enable DirectAccess for mobile computers only check box. Remove the Domain Computers group, and then click Next. Click Finish. In the Remote Access Management console, under Step 2, click Edit. On the Network Topology page, verify that Edge is selected, type 131.107.0.2, and then click Next. On the Network Adapters page, verify that CN=131.107.0.2 is used as a certificate to authenticate IP-HTTPS

connections, and then click Next. s. On the Authentication page, click Use computer certificates, click Browse , click Adatum-LON-DC1-CA, click OK, and then click Finish. t. u. In the Remote Access Setup pane, under Step 3, click Edit. On the Network Location Server page, click the The network location server is deployed on a remote web server (recommended). In the URL field of the network location server (NLS), type https://nls.adatum.com, and then click Validate . v. w. x. y. z. Ensure that URL is validated. Click Next, on the DNS page, examine the values, and then click Next. In the DNS Suffix Search List, click Next. On the Management page, click Finish. Under Step 4, click Edit.

aa. On the DirectAccess Application Server Setup page, click Finish. bb. Click Finish to apply the changes. cc. In Remote Access Review , click Apply. dd. Under Applying Remote Access Setup Wizard Settings, click Close . 6. Update Group Policy settings on LON-RTR by performing the following steps: a. b. Move the mouse pointer on the lower-right corner, on the menu bar, click Search, type cmd, and then press Enter. At the command prompt, type the following commands, pressing Enter at the end of each line:
g p u p d a t e/ f o r c eI p c o n f i g

Note: Verify that LON-RTR has an IPv6 address for Tunnel adapter IPHTTPSInterface

starting with 2002.

Results: After completing this exercise, you will have configured the DirectAccess infrastructure.

Exercise 2: Configuring the DirectAccess Clients


Task 1: Configure DirectAccess Group Policy settings

1.

Start LON-CL1 and sign in as Adatum\Administrator with the password of Pa$$w0rd. This is to ensure that the LON-CL1 computer connects to the domain as a member of the DA_Clients security group.

2. 3.

At Start, type cmd to open a command prompt window. At the command prompt, type the following command, and then press Enter:
g p u p d a t e/ f o r c e

4.

At the command prompt, type the following command, and then press Enter:
g p r e s u l t/ R

5.

Verify that DirectAccess Client Settings GPO displays in the list of the Applied Policy objects for the Computer Settings.

Note: If the policy is not being applied, run the gpupdate /force command again. If the policy is still not being applied, restart the computer. After the computer restarts, sign in as Adatum\Administrator and run the Gpresult R command again.

Task 2: Verify client computer certificate distribution

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

In the command prompt, type mmc.exe , and then press Enter. In the MMC console, click File and then click Add/Remove Snap-in. Click Certificates, click Add, select Computer account, click Next, select Local computer, click Finish, and then click OK. In the Certificates snap-in console, click to Certificates (Local Computer), expand Personal, and then click Certificates. In the Certificates details pane, verify that a certificate with the name LON-CL1.adatum.com displays with Intended Purposes of Client Authentication and Server Authentication.

6.

Close the console window. When you are prompted to save settings, click No.

Task 3: Verify internal connectivity to resources

1. 2.

On LON-CL1, on the desktop, in the task bar, click Internet Explorer. In the Windows Internet Explorer address bar, type http://lon-svr1.adatum.com/, and then press Enter. The default IIS 8 web page for LON-SVR1 displays.

3.

In the Internet Explorer address bar, type https://nls.adatum.com/, and then press Enter. The default IIS 8 web page for LON-SVR1 displays.

4. 5. 6.

Leave the Internet Explorer window open. On the taskbar, click the Windows Explorer icon. In the Windows Explorer address bar, type \\Lon-SVR1\Files, and then press Enter. A window with the Files shared folder contents displays.

7.

Close all open windows.

Results: After completing this exercise, you will have configured the DirectAccess clients.

Exercise 3: Verifying the DirectAccess Configuration


Task 1: Move the client computer to the Internet virtual network

1. 2.

Switch to LON-CL1. On LON-CL1, move the mouse pointer to the lower-right end of the screen, click Settings, select Control Panel, and then click Network and Internet.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Click Network and Sharing Center. Click Change Adapter Settings. Right-click Local Area Connection, and then click Properties. In the Local Area Connection Properties dialog box, double-click Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4). In the Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) Properties dialog box, click Use the following IP address. Complete the following settings, and then click OK: o o o IP address: 131.107.0.10 Subnet mask: 255.255.0.0 Default gateway: 131.107.0.2

9.

In the Local Area Connection Properties dialog box, click OK.

10. In the Network Connections window, right-click Local Area Connection, and then click Disable . 11. In the Network Connections window, right-click Local Area Connection, and then click Enable . 12. On your host, in Hyper-V Manager, right-click 20411B-LON-CL1, and then click Settings. 13. Change the Legacy Network Adapter to be on the Private Network 2 network, and then click OK.

Task 2: Verify connectivity to the DirectAccess server

1.

On LON-CL1, move the mouse pointer to the lower-right corner, on the right menu, click Search, type cmd, and then press Enter.

2.

At the command prompt, type the following command, and then press Enter:
i p c o n f i g

3.

Notice the returned IP address starts with 2002. This is an IP-HTTPS address.

4.

At the command prompt, type the following command, and then press Enter:
N e t s hn a m es h o we f f e c t i v e p o l i c y

5.

At the command prompt, type the following command, and then press Enter:
p o w e r s h e l l

6.

At the Windows PowerShell command-line interface, type the following command, and then press Enter:
G e t D A C l i e n t E x p e r i e n c e C o n f i g u r a t i o n

Note: Notice the DirectAccess client settings.

Task 3: Verify connectivity to the internal network resources

1.

Switch to Internet Explorer, and in the address bar, type http://lon-svr1.adatum.com, and then press Enter. The default IIS 8 web page for LON-SVR1 displays.

2. 3. 4.

Leave the Internet Explorer window open. On the taskbar, click the Windows Explorer icon. In the Windows Explorer address bar, type \\LON-SVR1\Files, and then press Enter. A folder window with the contents of the Files shared folder displays.

5. 6.

Switch to the command prompt window. At the command prompt, type the following command, and then press Enter:
p i n gl o n d c 1 . a d a t u m . c o m

7. 8.

Verify that you are receiving replies from lon-dc1.adatum.com. At the command prompt, type the following command, and then press Enter:
g p u p d a t e/ f o r c e

9.

Close all open windows.

10. Switch to LON-RTR. 11. Switch to Remote Access Management.

12. In the console, click REMOTE CLIENT STATUS.

Note: Notice that LON-CL1 is connected via IP over HTTPS (IP-HTTPS). In the Connection Details pane, in the bottom-right of the screen, note the use of Kerberos for the Machine and the User.

13. Close all open windows.

To prepare for the next module

1. 2. 3. 4.

On the host computer, start Hyper-V Manager. In the Virtual Machines list, right-click 20411B-LON-CL1, and then click Revert. In the Revert Virtual Machines dialog box, click Revert. Repeat steps 2 to 3 for 20411B-LON-SVR1, 20411B-LON-RTR, and 20411B-LON-DC1.

Results: After completing this exercise, you will have verified the DirectAccess configuration.

5/21/13

Module 8: Installing, Configuring, and Troubleshooting the Network Policy Server Role

Module 8: Installing, Configuring, and Troubleshooting the Network Policy Server Role Contents:
Module Overview Lesson 1: Lesson 2: Lesson 3: Lesson 4: Lab: Installing and Configuring a Network Policy Server Configuring RADIUS Clients and Servers NPS Authentication Methods Monitoring and Troubleshooting a Network Policy Server Installing and Configuring a Network Policy Server Module Review and Takeaways

Module Overview
The Network Policy Server (NPS) role in Windows Server 2012 provides support for the Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) protocol, and can be configured as a RADIUS server or proxy. Additionally, NPS provides functionality that is essential for the implementation of Network Access Protection (NAP). To support remote clients and to implement NAP, it is important that you know how to install, configure, and troubleshoot NPS.

Objectives
After completing this module, you will be able to: Install and configure NPS. Configure RADIUS clients and servers. Explain NPS authentication methods. Monitor and troubleshoot NPS.

Lesson 1 : Installing and Configuring a Network Policy Server


NPS is implemented as a server role in Windows Server 2012. While installing the NPS role, you must decide whether to use NPS as a RADIUS server, RADIUS proxy, or a NAP policy server. After the installation, you can configure the NPS role by using various tools. You must understand how to install and configure the NPS role in order to support your RADIUS infrastructure.

Lesson Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to:

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Module 8: Installing, Configuring, and Troubleshooting the Network Policy Server Role

Describe the NPS role service. Explain how to install NPS. Describe the tools used to configure an NPS. Explain how to configure general NPS settings.

What Is a Network Policy Server?

NPS enables you to create and enforce organization-wide network access policies for client health, connection request authentication, and connection request authorization. You also can use NPS as a RADIUS proxy to forward connection requests to NPS or other RADIUS servers that you configure in remote RADIUS server groups. You can use NPS to centrally configure and manage network-access authentication, authorization, and client health policies with any combination of the following three functions: RADIUS server RADIUS proxy NAP policy server

RADIUS Server
NPS performs centralized connection authentication, authorization, and accounting for wireless, authenticating switch, and dialup and virtual private network (VPN) connections. When using NPS as a RADIUS server, you configure network access servers, such as wireless access points and VPN servers, as RADIUS clients in NPS. You also configure network policies that NPS uses to authorize connection requests, and you can configure RADIUS accounting so that NPS logs accounting information to log files on the local hard disk or in a Microsoft SQL Server database. NPS is the Microsoft implementation of a RADIUS server. NPS enables the use of a heterogeneous set of wireless, switch, remote access, or VPN equipment. You can use NPS with the Routing and Remote Access service, which is available in Windows 2000 and more recent versions of Windows Server. When an NPS server is a member of an Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) domain, NPS uses AD DS as its user-account database and provides single sign-on (SSO), which means that users utilize the same set of credentials for network-access control (authenticating and authorizing access to a network) as they do to access resources within the AD DS domain.
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Module 8: Installing, Configuring, and Troubleshooting the Network Policy Server Role

Organizations that maintain network access, such as Internet service providers (ISPs), have the challenge of managing a variety of network-access methods from a single administration point, regardless of the type of network-access equipment they use. The RADIUS standard supports this requirement. RADIUS is a client-server protocol that enables network-access equipment, used as RADIUS clients, to submit authentication and accounting requests to a RADIUS server. A RADIUS server has access to user-account information, and can verify network-access authentication credentials. If the users credentials are authentic, and RADIUS authorizes the connection attempt, the RADIUS server then authorizes the users access based on configured conditions, and logs the network-access connection in an accounting log. Using RADIUS allows you to collect and maintain the network-access user authentication, authorization, and accounting data in a central location, rather than on each access server.

RADIUS Proxy
When using NPS as a RADIUS proxy, you configure connection request policies that indicate which connection requests that the NPS server will forward to other RADIUS servers and to which RADIUS servers you want to forward connection requests. You also can configure NPS to forward accounting data for logging by one or more computers in a remote RADIUS server group. With NPS, your organization also can outsource remote-access infrastructure to a service provider, while retaining control over user authentication, authorization, and accounting. You can create different NPS configurations for the following solutions: Wireless access Organization dial-up or VPN remote access Outsourced dial-up or wireless access Internet access Authenticated access to extranet resources for business partners

NAP Policy Server


When you configure NPS as a NAP policy server, NPS evaluates statements of health (SoHs) sent by NAP-capable client computers that attempt to connect to the network. NPS also acts as a RADIUS server when it is configured with NAP, performing authentication and authorization for connection requests. You can configure NAP policies and settings in NPS, including system health validators (SHVs), health policy, and remediation server groups that allow client computers to update their configuration to become compliant with your organizations network policy. Windows 8 and Windows Server 2012 include NAP, which helps protect access to private networks by ensuring that client computers are configured in accordance with the organizations network health policies before they can connect to network resources. Additionally, NAP monitors client computer compliance with administrator-defined health policy while the computer is connected to the network. NAP autoremediation allows you to ensure that noncompliant computers are updated automatically, bringing them into compliance with health policy so that they can connect successfully to the network. System administrators define network health policies, and then create these policies by using NAP components that either NPS provides, depending on your NAP deployment, or that third-party companies provide. Health policies can include software requirements, security-update requirements, and required-configuration settings. NAP enforces health policies by inspecting and assessing the health of client computers, restricting network access when client computers are deemed unhealthy, and remediating unhealthy client computers for full network access.

Demonstration: Installing the Network Policy Server Role


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Module 8: Installing, Configuring, and Troubleshooting the Network Policy Server Role

This demonstration shows how to: Install the NPS role. Register NPS in AD DS.

Demonstration Steps Install the NPS Role


1. 2. 3. Switch to LON-DC1. Open Server Manager, and add the Network Policy and Access Services role. Close Server Manager.

Register NPS in AD DS
1. 2. 3. Open the Network Policy Server console. Register the server in AD DS. Leave the Network Policy Server window open.

Tools for Configuring a Network Policy Server

After you install the Network Policy Server role, you can open the NPS Administrative tool on the Administrative Tools menu, or you can add the snap-in to create a custom Microsoft Management Console (MMC) tool. You also can use netsh commands to manage and configure the NPS role. The following tools enable you to manage the Network Policy and Access Services server role: NPS MMC snap-in. Use the NPS MMC to configure a RADIUS server, a RADIUS proxy, or a NAP technology. Netsh commands for NPS. The netsh commands for NPS provide a command set that is fully equivalent to all configuration settings that are available through the NPS MMC snap-in. You can run netsh commands manually at the netsh prompt or in administrator scripts. One example of using netsh is that after you install and configure NPS, you can save the configuration by using the netsh nps
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Module 8: Installing, Configuring, and Troubleshooting the Network Policy Server Role

show config > path\file.txt command. You then save the NPS configuration with this command each time that you make a change. Windows PowerShell. You also can use Windows PowerShell Cmdlets to configure and manage a Network Policy Server. For example, to export the NPS configuration, you can use the Export-NpsConfiguration -Path <filename> cmdlet.

Demonstration: Configuring General NPS Settings


This demonstration shows how to: Configure a RADIUS server for VPN connections. Save the configuration.

Demonstration Steps Configure a RADIUS server for VPN connections


1. 2. 3. 4. In the Network Policy Server console, launch the Configure VPN or Dial-Up Wizard. Add LON-RTR as a RADIUS client. Use a shared secret of Pa$$word for authentication between the RADIUS client and the NPS server. Select Microsoft Encrypted Authentication version 2 (MS-CHAPv2) for authentication.

Save the configuration


1. 2. 3. Open Windows PowerShell. Use the Export-NpsConfiguration -Path lon-dc1.xml command to save the configuration. Examine this configuration with notepad.

Lesson 2: Configuring RADIUS Clients and Servers


RADIUS is an industry-standard authentication protocol that many vendors use to support the exchange of authentication information between elements of a remote-access solution. To centralize your organizations remote-authentication needs, you can configure NPS as a RADIUS server or a RADIUS proxy. While configuring RADIUS clients and servers, you must consider several factors, such as the RADIUS servers that will authenticate connection requests from RADIUS clients and the ports that RADIUS traffic will use.

Lesson Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to: Describe a RADIUS client. Describe a RADIUS Proxy. Explain how to configure a RADIUS client.
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Describe the use of a connection request policy. Describe and configure connection-request processing for a RADIUS proxy environment. Explain how to create a new connection request policy.

What Is a RADIUS Client?

A network access server (NAS) is a device that provides some level of access to a larger network. An NAS using a RADIUS infrastructure also is a RADIUS client, originating connection requests and accounting messages to a RADIUS server for authentication, authorization, and accounting. Client computers, such as wireless laptop computers and other computers that are running client-operating systems, are not RADIUS clients. RADIUS clients are network access serversincluding wireless access points, 802.1X authenticating switches, VPN servers, and dial-up serversbecause they use the RADIUS protocol to communicate with RADIUS servers such as NPS servers. To deploy NPS as a RADIUS server, a RADIUS proxy, or a NAP policy server, you must configure RADIUS clients in NPS.

RADIUS Client Examples


Examples of network access servers include the following: Network access servers that provide remote access connectivity to an organization network or the Internet, such as a computer that is running the Windows Server 2012 operating system, and the Routing and Remote Access service that provides either traditional dial-up or VPN remote access services to an organizations intranet. Wireless access points that provide physical-layer access to an organizations network by using wireless-based transmission and reception technologies. Switches that provide physical-layer access to an organizations network, using traditional local area network (LAN) technologies, such as the Ethernet. NPS-based RADIUS proxies that forward connection requests to RADIUS servers that are members of a remote RADIUS server group that you configure on the RADIUS proxy, or other RADIUS proxies.

What Is a RADIUS Proxy?

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You can use NPS as a RADIUS proxy to route RADIUS messages between RADIUS clients (network access servers) and RADIUS servers that perform user authentication, authorization, and accounting for the connection attempt. When you use NPS as a RADIUS proxy, NPS is a central switching or routing point through which RADIUS access and accounting messages flow. NPS records information in an accounting log about forwarded messages. You can use NPS as a RADIUS proxy when: You are a service provider who offers outsourced dial, VPN, or wireless network-access services to multiple customers. Your NAS sends connection requests to the NPS RADIUS proxy. Based on the user names realm portion in the connection request, the NPS RADIUS proxy forwards the connection request to a RADIUS server that the customer maintains, and can authenticate and authorize the connection attempt. You want to provide authentication and authorization for user accounts that are not members of the domain in which the NPS server is a member, or of a domain that has a two-way trust with the NPS servers member domain. This includes accounts in untrusted domains, one-way trusted domains, and other forests. Instead of configuring your access servers to send their connection requests to an NPS RADIUS server, you can configure them to send their connection requests to an NPS RADIUS proxy. The NPS RADIUS proxy uses the realm-name portion of the user name, and then forwards the request to an NPS server in the correct domain or forest. Connection attempts for user accounts in one domain or forest can be authenticated for NAS in another domain or forest. You want to perform authentication and authorization by using a database that is not a Windows account database. In this case, NPS forwards connection requests that match a specified realm name to a RADIUS server, which has access to a different database of user accounts and authorization data. An example of another user database is SQL databases. You want to process a large number of connection requests. In this case, instead of configuring your RADIUS clients to attempt to balance their connection and accounting requests across multiple RADIUS servers, you can configure them to send their connection and accounting requests to an NPS RADIUS proxy. The NPS RADIUS proxy dynamically balances the load of connection and accounting requests across multiple RADIUS servers, and it increases processing of large numbers of RADIUS clients and authentications each second. You want to provide RADIUS authentication and authorization for outsourced service providers and minimize intranet firewall configuration. An intranet firewall is between your intranet and your perimeter network (the network between your intranet and the Internet). By placing an NPS server on your perimeter network, the firewall between your perimeter network and intranet must allow
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traffic to flow between the NPS server and multiple domain controllers. When replacing the NPS server with an NPS proxy, the firewall must allow only RADIUS traffic to flow between the NPS proxy and one or multiple NPS servers within your intranet.

Demonstration: Configuring a RADIUS Client


This demonstration shows how to configure a RADIUS client.

Demonstration Steps
1. 2. 3. Open Routing and Remote Access. Disable the existing configuration. Reconfigure LON-RTR as a VPN Server with the following information: o o o o o 4. Public interface: Local Area Connection 2 The VPN server allocates addresses from the pool: 172.16.0.100 to 172.16.0.110 Option to configure the server with: Yes, setup this server to work with a RADIUS server. Primary RADIUS server: LON-DC1 Secret: Pa$$w0rd

Start the VPN service.

What Is a Connection Request Policy?

Connection request policies are sets of conditions and settings that allow network administrators to designate which RADIUS servers perform authentication and authorization of connection requests that the NPS server receives from RADIUS clients. You can configure connection-request policies to designate which RADIUS servers to use for RADIUS accounting. Note: When you deploy NAP by using the VPN or 802.1X enforcement methods with Protected Extensible Authentication Protocol (PEAP) authentication, you must configure PEAP authentication in the connection request policy even when connection requests are processed locally.

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You can create a series of connection request policies so that some RADIUS request messages sent from RADIUS clients are processed locally (NPS is a RADIUS server) and other types of messages are forwarded to another RADIUS server (NPS is a RADIUS proxy). With connection request policies, you can use NPS as a RADIUS server or as a RADIUS proxy, based on a variety of factors, including: The time of day and day of the week. The realm name in the connection request. The connection type that you are requesting. The RADIUS clients IP address.

Conditions
Connection request policy conditions are one or more RADIUS attributes that are compared to the attributes of the incoming RADIUS access-request message. If multiple conditions exist, NPS enforces the policy only if all of the conditions in the connection-request message and in the connection request policy match.

Settings
Connection request policy settings are a set of properties that are applied to an incoming RADIUS message. Settings consist of the following groups of properties: Authentication Accounting Attribute manipulation Advanced

Default Connection Request Policy


When you install NPS, a default connection request policy is created with the following conditions: Authentication is not configured. Accounting is not configured to forward accounting information to a remote RADIUS server group. Attribute manipulation is not configured with rules that change attributes in forwarded connection requests. Forwarding Request is turned on, which means that the local NPS server authenticates and authorizes connection requests. Advanced attributes are not configured.

The default connection request policy uses NPS as a RADIUS server. To configure an NPS server to act as a RADIUS proxy, you also must configure a remote RADIUS server group. You can create a new remote RADIUS server group while you are creating a new connection request policy with the New Connection Request Policy Wizard. You either can delete the default connection request policy or verify that the default connection request policy is the last policy processed.
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Note: If NPS and the Routing and Remote Access service are installed on the same computer, and you configure the Routing and Remote Access service for Windows authentication and accounting, it is possible for Routing and Remote Access service authentication and accounting requests to be forwarded to a RADIUS server. This can occur when Routing and Remote Access service authentication and accounting requests match a connection request policy that is configured to forward them to a remote RADIUS server group.

Configuring Connection-Request Processing

The default connection request policy uses NPS as a RADIUS server, and processes all authentication requests locally.

Considerations for Configuring Connection-Request Processing


When configuring connection-request processing, consider the following: To configure an NPS server to act as a RADIUS proxy and forward connection requests to other NPS or RADIUS servers, you must configure a remote RADIUS server group, and then add a new connection request policy that specifies conditions and settings that the connection requests must match. You can use the New Connection Request Policy Wizard to create a new remote RADIUS server group when you create a new connection-request. If you do not want the NPS server to act as a RADIUS server and process connection requests locally, you can delete the default connection request policy. If you want the NPS server to act as both a RADIUS server (processes connection requests locally) and as a RADIUS proxy (forwards some connection requests to a remote RADIUS server group), then you should add a new policy, and verify that the default connection request policy is the last policy processed.

Ports for RADIUS and Logging


By default, NPS listens for RADIUS traffic on ports 1812, 1813, 1645, and 1646 for Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) and IPv4 for all installed network adapters. Note: If you disable either IPv4 or IPv6 on a network adapter, NPS does not monitor RADIUS traffic for the uninstalled protocol.

The values of 1812 for authentication and 1813 for accounting are RADIUS standard ports defined in RFCs 2865 and 2866.
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However, by default, many access servers use ports 1645 for authentication requests and 1646 for accounting requests. When you are deciding on what port numbers to use, make sure that you configure NPS and the access server to use the same port numbers. If you do not use the RADIUS default port numbers, you must configure exceptions on the firewall for the local computer to enable RADIUS traffic on the new ports.

Configuring NPS UDP Port Information


You can use the following procedure to configure the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) ports that NPS uses for RADIUS authentication and accounting traffic. Note: To complete this procedure, you must be a member of the Domain Admins group, the Enterprise Admins group, or the Administrators group on the local computer.

To configure NPS UDP port information by using the Windows interface: 1. 2. 3. Open the NPS console. Right-click Network Policy Server, and then click Properties. Click the Ports tab, and then examine the settings for ports. If your RADIUS authentication and RADIUS accounting UDP ports vary from the provided default values (1812 and 1645 for authentication, and 1813 and 1646 for accounting), type your port settings in Authentication and Accounting.

Note: To use multiple port settings for authentication or accounting requests, separate the port numbers with commas.

Demonstration: Creating a Connection Request Policy


This demonstration shows how to create a VPN connection request policy.

Demonstration Steps
1. 2. On LON-DC1, switch to the Network Policy Server console. View the existing Connection Request Policies. The wizard created these automatically when you specified the NPS role of this server. 3. Create a new Connection Request Policy with the following settings: o o o 4. Type of network access server: Remote Access Server (VPN-Dial up) Condition: NAS Port Type as Virtual (VPN) Other settings: default values

Assign the new policy the highest priority.

Lesson 3: NPS Authentication Methods


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NPS authenticates and authorizes a connection request before allowing or denying access when users attempt to connect to your network through network access servers, also known as RADIUS clients, such as wireless access points, 802.1X authenticating switches, dial-up servers, and VPN servers.. Because authentication is the process of verifying the users or computers identity that is attempting to connect to the network, NPS must receive proof of identity from the user or computer in the form of credentials. Some authentication methods implement the use of password-based credentials. The network access server then passes these credentials to the NPS server, which verifies the credentials against the user accounts database. Other authentication methods implement the use of certificate-based credentials for the user, the client computer, the NPS server, or some combination. Certificate-based authentication methods provide strong security and are recommended over password-based authentication methods. When you deploy NPS, you can specify the required type of authentication method for access to your network.

Lesson Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to: Describe the password-based authentication methods for an NPS server. Describe how certificates are used to provide authentication for network clients. Describe the types of certificates that are needed for various authentication methods. Describe how to deploy certificates for PEAP and EAP.

Password-Based Authentication Methods

Each authentication method has advantages and disadvantages in terms of security, usability, and breadth of support. However, password-based authentication methods do not provide strong security, and we do not recommend them. We recommend that you use a certificate-based authentication method for all network access methods that support certificate use. This is especially true for wireless connections, for which we recommend the use of PEAP-MS-CHAP v2 or PEAP-TLS. The authentication method you require is determined by the configuration of the network access server, the client computer, and network policy on the NPS server. Consult your access server documentation to determine which authentication methods are
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supported. You can configure NPS to accept multiple authentication methods. You also can configure your network access servers, also called RADIUS clients, to attempt to negotiate a connection with client computers by requesting the use of the most secure protocol first, then the next most secure, and so on, down to the least secure. For example, the Routing and Remote Access service tries to negotiate a connection by using the following protocols in the order shown: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) MS-CHAP v2 MS-CHAP Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) Shiva Password Authentication Protocol (SPAP) Password Authentication Protocol (PAP)

When EAP is chosen as the authentication method, the negotiation of the EAP type occurs between the access client and the NPS server.

MS-CHAP Version 2
MS-CHAP v2 provides stronger security for network access connections than MS-CHAP, its predecessor. MS-CHAP v2 is a oneway encrypted password, mutual-authentication process that works as follows: 1. The authenticator (the network access server or the NPS server) sends a challenge to the access client that consists of a session identifier and an arbitrary challenge string. 2. The access client sends a response that contains: o o o The user name. An arbitrary peer-challenge string. A one-way encryption of the received challenge string, the peer-challenge string, the session identifier, and the users password. 3. The authenticator checks the clients response, and then sends back a response that contains: o o An indication of the connection attempts success or failure. An authenticated response based on the sent challenge string, the peer-challenge string, the clients encrypted response, and the users password. 4. The access client verifies the authentication response and, if correct, uses the connection. If the authentication response is not correct, the access client terminates the connection.

MS-CHAP
MS-CHAP, also known as MS-CHAP version 1, is a nonreversible, encrypted password-authentication protocol. The challenge handshake process works as follows:
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1.

The authenticator (the network access server or the NPS server) sends a challenge to the access client that consists of a session identifier and an arbitrary challenge string.

2.

The access client sends a response that contains the user name and a nonreversible encryption of the challenge string, the session identifier, and the password.

3.

The authenticator checks the response and, if valid, authenticates the users credentials.

Note: If you use MS-CHAP, MS-CHAP v2, or EAP-TLS as the authentication protocol, then you can use Microsoft Point-to-Point Encryption (MPPE) to encrypt the data that was sent on the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) or Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) connection.

MS-CHAP v2 provides stronger security for network access connections than MS-CHAP. You should consider using MS-CHAP v2 instead of MS-CHAP.

CHAP
The CHAP is a challenge-response authentication protocol that uses the industry-standard Message Digest 5 (MD5) hashing scheme to encrypt the response. Various vendors of network access servers and clients use CHAP. A server that is running Routing and Remote Access supports CHAP, so access clients that require CHAP are authenticated. Because CHAP requires the use of a reversibly-encrypted password, you should consider using another authentication protocol, such as MS-CHAP v2.

Additional Considerations
When implementing CHAP, consider the following: When users passwords expire, CHAP does not provide the ability for them to change passwords during the authentication process. Verify that your network access server supports CHAP before you enable it on an NPS servers network policy. For more information, refer to your NAS documentation. You cannot use MPPE with CHAP.

PAP
PAP uses plaintext passwords and is the least secure authentication protocol. It typically is negotiated if the access client and network access server cannot negotiate a more secure authentication method. When you enable PAP as an authentication protocol, user passwords are sent in plaintext form. Anyone capturing the packets of the authentication process can read the password easily, and then use it to gain unauthorized access to your intranet. We highly discourage the use of PAP, especially for VPN connections.

Unauthenticated Access
With unauthenticated access, user credentials (a user name and password) are not required. Although there are some situations in which unauthenticated access is useful, in most cases, we do not recommend that you deploy unauthenticated access to your organizations network.
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When you enable unauthenticated access, users can access your network without sending user credentials. Additionally, unauthenticated access clients do not negotiate the use of a common authentication protocol during the connection establishment process, and they do not send NPS a user name or password. If you permit unauthenticated access, clients can connect without being authenticated if the authentication protocols that are configured on the access client do not match the authentication protocols that are configured on the network access server. In this case, the use of a common authentication protocol is not negotiated, and the access client does not send a user name and password. This circumstance creates a serious security problem. Therefore, unauthenticated access should not be allowed on most networks.

Using Certificates for Authentication

Certificates are digital documents that certification authorities (CAs) issue, such as Active Directory Certificate Services (AD CS) or the VeriSign public CA. You can use certificates for many purposes, such as code signing and securing email communication. However, with NPS, you use certificates for network access authentication because they provide strong security for authenticating users and computers, and eliminate the need for less secure, password-based authentication methods. NPS servers use EAP-TLS and PEAP to perform certificate-based authentication for many types of network access, including VPN and wireless connections.

Authentication Methods
Two authentication methods, when you configure them with certificate-based authentication types, use certificates: EAP and PEAP. With EAP, you can configure the authentication type TLS (EAP-TLS), and with PEAP, you can configure the authentication types TLS (PEAP-TLS) and MS-CHAP v2 (PEAP-MS-CHAP v2). These authentication methods always use certificates for server authentication. Depending on the authentication type that you configure with the authentication method, you also might use certificates for user authentication and client computer authentication. Note: Using certificates for VPN connection authentication is the strongest form of authentication available in Windows Server 2008 R2. You must use certificates for IPsec authentication on VPN connections that are based on Layer Two Tunneling protocol over Internet protocol security (L2TP/IPsec). PPTP connections do not require certificates, although you can configure PPTP connections to use certificates for computer authentication when you use EAP-TLS as the authentication method. For wireless clients (computing devices with wireless network adapters, such as your portable computer or personal digital assistant), use PEAP with EAP-TLS and smart cards or certificates for authentication.

Note: You can deploy certificates for use with NPS by installing and configuring the AD CS server role.
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Mutual Authentication
When you use EAP with a strong EAP type (such as TLS with smart cards or certificates), the client and the server use certificates to verify their identities to each other, which is known as mutual authentication. Certificates must meet specific requirements to allow the server and the client to use them for mutual authentication. One such requirement is that the certificate is configured with one or more purposes in Extend Key Usage (EKU) extensions that correlate to the certificate use. For example, you must configure a certificate that you use for a clients authentication with the Client Authentication purpose. Similarly, you must configure a certificate that you use for a servers authentication with the Server Authentication purpose. When you use certificates for authentication, the authenticator examines the client certificate, seeking the correct purpose object identifier in EKU extensions. For example, the object identifier for the Client Authentication purpose is 1.3.6.1.5.5.7.3.2. When you use a certificate for client computer authentication, this object identifier must be present in the EKU extensions of the certificate or authentication will fail.

Certificate Templates
Certificate Templates is an MMC snap-in that enables customization of certificates that AD CS issues. Customization possibilities include how certificates are issued and what the certificates contain, including their purposes. In Certificate Templates, you can use a default template, such as the Computer template, to define the template that the CA uses to assign certificates to computers. You also can create a certificate template and assign purposes to it in EKU extensions. By default, the Computer template includes the Client Authentication purpose and the Server Authentication purpose in EKU extensions. The certificate template that you create can include any purpose for which you will use the certificate. For example, if you use smart cards for authentication, you can include the Smart Card Logon purpose as well as the Client Authentication purpose. When using NPS, you can configure NPS to check certificate purposes before granting network authorization. NPS can check additional EKUs and Issuance Policy purposes, also known as Certificate Policies. Note: Some non-Microsoft CA software might contain a purpose named All, which represents all possible purposes. This is indicated by a blank (or null) EKU extension. Although All is intended to mean all possible purposes, you cannot substitute the All-purpose for the Client Authentication purpose, the Server Authentication purpose, or any other purpose that is related to network access authentication.

Required Certificates for Authentication

The following table details the certificates that are required to deploy each of the listed certificate-based authentication methods
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successfully. Certificate Required for EAP-TLS and PEAP-TLS?


CA certificate in the Trusted Root Certification Authorities certificate store for the Local Computer and Current User Yes. The CA certificate is enrolled automatically for domain member computers. For nondomain member computers, you must import the certificate manually into the certificate store.

Required for PEAP-MSCHAP v2?


Yes. This certificate is enrolled automatically for domain member computers. For nondomain member computers, you must import the certificate manually into the certificate store.

Details

For PEAP-MS-CHAP v2, this certificate is required for mutual authentication between client and server.

Client computer certificate in the certificate store of the client

Yes. Client computer certificates are required unless user certificates are distributed on smart cards. Client certificates are enrolled automatically for domain member computers. For nondomain member computers, you must import the certificate manually or obtain it with the Web-enrollment tool.

No. User authentication is performed with password-based credentials, not certificates.

If you deploy user certificates on smart cards, client computers do not need client certificates.

Server certificate in the certificate store of the NPS server

Yes. You can configure AD CS to autoenroll server certificates to members of the RAS and IAS servers group in AD DS.

Yes. In addition to using AD CS for server certificates, you can purchase server certificates from other CAs that client computers already trust.

The NPS server sends the server certificate to the client computer. The client computer uses the certificate to authenticate the NPS server. For EAP-TLS and PEAP-TLS, if you do not auto-enroll client computer certificates, user certificates on smart cards are required.

User certificate on a smart card

AD CS to auto-enroll server certificates to members of the RAS and IAS servers group in AD DS.

No. User authentication is performed with password-based credentials, not certificates.

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. (IEEE) 802.1X authentication provides authenticated access to 802.11 wireless networks and wired Ethernet networks. 802.1X provides support for secure EAP types, such as TLS with smart cards or certificates. You can configure 802.1X with EAP-TLS in a variety of ways. If you configure the Validate server certificate option on the client, the client authenticates the server by using its certificate. Client computer and user authentication is accomplished by using certificates from the client certificate store or a smart card, providing mutual authentication. With wireless clients, you can use PEAP-MS-CHAP v2 as the authentication method. PEAP-MS-CHAP v2 is a password-based user authentication method that uses TLS with server certificates. During PEAP-MS-CHAP v2 authentication, the NPS server supplies a certificate to validate its identity to the client (if the Validate server certificate option is configured on the Windows 8 client). Client computer and user authentication is accomplished with passwords, which eliminates some of the difficulty of deploying certificates to wireless client computers.

Deploying Certificates for PEAP and EAP

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All certificates that you use for network access authentication with EAP-TLS and PEAP must meet the requirements for X.509 certificates and work for connections that use Secure Sockets Layer-Transport Layer Security (SSL/TLS). After this minimum requirement is met, both client and server certificates have additional requirements.

Minimum Server Certificate Requirements


You can configure clients to validate server certificates by using the Validate server certificate option within the authentication protocols properties. With PEAP-MS-CHAP v2, PEAP-TLS, or EAP-TLS as the authentication method, the client accepts the server authentication attempt when the certificate meets the following requirements: The Subject name contains a value. If you issue a certificate to your NPS server that has a blank Subject, the certificate is not available to authenticate your NPS server. To configure the certificate template with a Subject name: a. Open Certificate Templates. b. In the details pane, right-click the certificate template that you want to change, and then click Properties. c. Click the Subject Name tab, and then click Build from this Active Directory information. d. In Subject name format, select a value other than None . The computer certificate on the server chains to a trusted root CA, and does not fail any of the checks that CryptoAPI performs and that the remote access or network policies specify. The NPS or VPN server computer certificate is configured with the Server Authentication purpose in EKU extensions (the object identifier for Server Authentication is 1.3.6.1.5.5.7.3.1). The server certificate is configured with a required algorithm value of RSA. To configure the required cryptography setting: a. Open Certificate Templates. b. In the details pane, right-click the certificate template that you want to change, and then click Properties. c. Click the Cryptography tab. In Algorithm name , click RSA. Ensure that Minimum key size is set to 2048. The Subject Alternative Name (SubjectAltName) extension, if you use it, must contain the servers fully qualified domain name (FQDN). To configure the certificate template with the Domain Name System (DNS) name of the enrolling server: a. Open Certificate Templates. b. In the details pane, right-click the certificate template that you want to change, and then click Properties. c. Click the Subject Name tab, and then click Build from this Active Directory information.

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d. In Include this information in alternate subject name , select DNS name .

With PEAP and EAP-TLS, NPS servers display a list of all installed certificates in the computer certificate store, except the following: Certificates that do not contain the Server Authentication purpose in EKU extensions. Certificates that do not contain a subject name. Registry-based and smart card-logon certificates.

Minimum Client Certificate Requirements


With EAP-TLS or PEAP-TLS, the server accepts the client authentication attempt when the certificate meets the following requirements: An enterprise CA issued the client certificate or it is mapped to an Active Directory user or computer account. The user or computer certificate on the client chains to a trusted-root CA; the certificate includes the Client Authentication purpose in EKU extensions (the object identifier for Client Authentication is 1.3.6.1.5.5.7.3.2); and fails neither the checks that CryptoAPI performs, which the remote access or network policies specify, nor the Certificate object identifier checks that the NPS network policies specify. The 802.1X client does not use registry-based certificates that are either smart card-logon or password-protected certificates. For user certificates, the Subject Alternative Name (SubjectAltName) extension in the certificate contains the user principal name (UPN). To configure the UPN in a certificate template: a. Open Certificate Templates. b. In the details pane, right-click the certificate template that you want to change, and then click Properties. c. Click the Subject Name tab, and then click Build from this Active Directory information. d. In Include this information in alternate subject name , select User principal name (UPN). For computer certificates, the Subject Alternative Name (SubjectAltName) extension in the certificate must contain the clients FQDN, also known as the DNS name. To configure this name in the certificate template: a. Open Certificate Templates. b. In the details pane, right-click the certificate template that you want to change, and then click Properties. c. Click the Subject Name tab, and then click Build from this Active Directory information. d. In Include this information in alternate subject name , select DNS name .

With PEAP-TLS and EAP-TLS, clients display a list of all installed certificates in the Certificates snap-in, with the following exceptions: Wireless clients do not display registry-based and smart card-logon certificates. Wireless clients and VPN clients do not display password-protected certificates.
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Certificates that do not contain the Client Authentication purpose in EKU extensions.

Lesson 4: Monitoring and Troubleshooting a Network Policy Server


You can monitor NPS by configuring and using logging for events, and user authentication and accounting requests. Event logging enables you to record NPS events in the system and security event logs. You can use request logging for connection analysis and billing purposes. The information that the log files collect is useful for troubleshooting connection attempts and for security investigation.

Lesson Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to: Describe the methods for monitoring NPS. Describe how to configure log file properties. Describe how to configure SQL Server logging in NPS. Describe how to configure NPS events to be recorded in Event Viewer.

Methods Used to Monitor NPS

The two types of accounting, or logging, that you can use to monitor NPS are: Event logging for NPS. You can use event logging to record NPS events in the system and security event logs. You use this primarily for auditing and troubleshooting connection attempts. Logging user authentication and accounting requests. You can log user authentication and accounting requests to log files in text format or database format, or you can log to a stored procedure in a SQL Server database. Use request logging primarily for connection analysis and billing purposes, and as a security investigation tool, because it enables you to identify an attackers activity.

To make the most effective use of NPS logging: Turn on logging (initially) for authentication and accounting records. Modify these selections after you determine what is
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appropriate for your environment. Ensure that you configure event logging with sufficient capacity to maintain your logs. Back up all log files on a regular basis, because they cannot be recreated when damaged or deleted. Use the RADIUS Class attribute to track usage and simplify identification of which department or user to charge for usage. Although the Class attribute, which is generated automatically, is unique for each request, duplicate records might exist in cases where the reply to the access server is lost and the request is re-sent. You might need to delete duplicate requests from your logs to track usage accurately. To provide failover and redundancy with SQL Server logging, place two computers that are running SQL Server on different subnets. Use the SQL Server Create Publication Wizard to set up database replication between the two servers. For more information, refer to the SQL Server documentation.

Note: To interpret logged data, view the information on the Microsoft TechNet website: Interpret NPS Database Format Log Files http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=214832&clcid=0x409

Logging NPS Accounting

You can configure NPS to perform RADIUS accounting for user authentication requests, Access-Accept messages, Access-Reject messages, accounting requests and responses, and periodic status updates. You can use this procedure to configure the log files where you want to store the accounting data.

Considerations for Configuring Accounting for NPS


The following list provides more information about configuring NPS accounting: To send the log file data for collection by another process, you can configure NPS to write to a named pipe. To use named pipes, set the log file folder to \\.\pipe or \\ComputerName\pipe. The named pipe server program creates a named pipe called \\.\pipe\iaslog.log to accept the data. In the Local File Properties dialog box, in Create a new log file , select Never (unlimited file size) when you use named pipes. To create the log file directory, use system environment variables (instead of user variables), such as %systemdrive%, %systemroot%, and %windir%. For example, the following path, using the environment variable %windir%, locates the log file at the system directory in the subfolder \System32\Logs (that is, %windir%\System32\Logs\). Switching log-file formats does not cause a new log to be created. If you change log file formats, the file that is active when
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the change occurs will contain a mixture of the two formats. Records at the logs start will have the previous format, and records at the logs end will have the new format. If you are administering an NPS server remotely, you cannot browse the directory structure. If you need to log accounting information to a remote server, specify the log file name by typing a Universal Naming Convention (UNC) name, such as \\MyLogServer\LogShare. If RADIUS accounting fails due to a full hard-disk drive or other causes, NPS stops processing connection requests, which prevents users from accessing network resources. NPS enables you to log to a SQL Server database in addition to, or instead of, logging to a local file.

Note: If you do not supply a full path statement in Log File Directory, the default path is used. For example, if you type NPSLogFile in Log File Directory, the file is located at %systemroot%\System32\NPSLogFile.

Configuring Log File Properties


To configure log file properties by using the Windows interface, perform the following tasks: 1. 2. 3. 4. Open the Network Policy Server MMC snap-in. In the console tree, click Accounting. In the details pane, click Change Log File Properties. In Log File Properties, on the Log File tab, in Directory, type the location where you want to store NPS log files. The default location is the systemroot\System32\LogFiles folder. 5. 6. In Format, select from DTS Compliant, ODBC (Legacy), and IAS (Legacy). To configure NPS to start new log files at specified intervals, click the interval that you want to use: o o o o For heavy transaction volume and logging activity, click Daily. For lesser transaction volumes and logging activity, click Weekly or Monthly. To store all transactions in one log file, click Never (unlimited file size). To limit the size of each log file, click When log file reaches this size , and then type a file size, after which a new log is created. The default size is 10 megabytes (MB). 7. To configure NPS to delete log files automatically when the disk is full, click When disk is full delete older log files. If the oldest log file is the current log file, it is not deleted.

Note: To complete this procedure, you must be a member of the Domain Admins group, the Enterprise Admins group, or the Administrators group on the local computer.

Configuring SQL Server Logging

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You can configure NPS to perform RADIUS accounting to a SQL Server database. You can use this procedure to configure logging properties and the connection to the running SQL Server that stores your accounting data. The SQL Server database can be on the local computer or on a remote server. Note: NPS formats accounting data as an XML document that it sends to the report_event stored procedure in the SQL Server database that you designate in NPS. For SQL Server logging to function properly, you must have a stored procedure named report_event in the SQL Server database that can receive and parse the XML documents from NPS.

Configuring SQL Server Logging in NPS


To configure SQL Server logging in NPS using the Windows interface, perform the following tasks: 1. 2. 3. 4. Open the Network Policy Server MMC snap-in. In the console tree, click Accounting. In the details pane, click Change SQL Server Logging Properties. The SQL Server Logging Properties dialog box opens. In Log the following information, select the information that you want to log: o o o o 5. To log all accounting requests, select Accounting requests. To log authentication requests, select Authentication requests. To log periodic status, such as interim accounting requests, select Periodic accounting status. To log periodic status, such as interim authentication requests, select Periodic authentication status.

To configure the number of concurrent sessions that you want to allow between the NPS server and the SQL Server database, type a number in Maximum number of concurrent sessions.

6.

To configure the SQL Server data source, click Configure . The Data Link Properties dialog box opens. On the Connection tab, specify the following: o o To specify the servers name on which the database is stored, type or select a name in Select or enter a server name. To specify the authentication method with which to sign in to the server, click Use Windows NT integrated security, or click Use a specific user name and password, and then type your credentials in User name and Password. o o To allow a blank password, select Blank password. To store the password, select Allow saving password.

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To specify to which database to connect on the computer that is running SQL Server, click Select the database on the server, and then select a database name from the list.

7.

To test the connection between the NPS server and the computer that is running SQL Server, click Test Connection.

Note: To complete this procedure, you must be a member of the Domain Admins group, the Enterprise Admins group, or the Administrators group on the local computer.

Configuring NPS Events to Record in the Event Viewer

You can configure NPS event logging to record connection-request failure and success events in the Event Viewer system log.

Configuring NPS Event Logging


To configure NPS event logging by using the Windows interface, perform the following tasks: 1. 2. 3. Open the Network Policy Server (NPS) snap-in. Right-click NPS (Local), and then click Properties. On the General tab, select each of the following options, as required, and then click OK: o o Rejected authentication requests Successful authentication requests

Note: To complete this procedure, you must be a member of the Domain Admins group or

the Enterprise Admins group. Using the event logs in Event Viewer, you can monitor NPS errors and other events that you configure NPS to record. NPS records connection-request failure events in the System and Security event logs by default. Connection-request failure events consist of requests that NPS rejects or discards. Other NPS authentication events are recorded in the Event Viewer system
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Module 8: Installing, Configuring, and Troubleshooting the Network Policy Server Role

sign in the basis of settings that you specify in the NPS snap-in. Therefore, the Event Viewer security log might record some events containing sensitive data.

Connection-Request Failure Events


Although NPS records connection-request failure events by default, you can change the configuration according to your logging needs. NPS rejects or ignores connection requests for a variety of reasons, including the following: The RADIUS message is not formatted according to RFCs 2865 or 2866. The RADIUS client is unknown. The RADIUS client has multiple IP addresses and has sent the request on an address other than the one that you define in NPS. The message authenticator (also known as a digital signature) that the client sent is invalid because the shared secret is invalid. NPS was unable to locate the user names domain. NPS was unable to connect to the user names domain. NPS was unable to access the user account in the domain.

When NPS rejects a connection request, the information in the event text includes the user name, access server identifiers, the authentication type, the name of the matching network policy, the reason for the rejection, and other information.

Connection Request Success Events


Although NPS records connection request success events by default, you can change the configuration according to your logging needs. When NPS accepts a connection request, the information in the event text includes the user name, access server identifiers, the authentication type, and the name of the first matching network policy.

Logging Schannel Events


Secure channel (Schannel) is a security support provider (SSP) that supports a set of Internet security protocols, such as SSL and TLS. These protocols provide identity authentication and secure, private communication through encryption. Logging of client-certificate validation failures is a secure channel event and is not enabled on the NPS server, by default. You can enable additional secure channel events by changing the following registry key value from 1 (REG_DWORD type, data 0x00000001) to 3 (REG_DWORD type, data 0x00000003):

H K E Y _ L O C A L _ M A C H I N E \ S Y S T E M \ C u r r e n t C o n t r o l S e t \ C o n t r o l \ S e c u r i t y P r o v i d e r s \ S C H A N N E L \ E v e n t L o g g in g

Lab: Installing and Configuring a Network Policy Server


Scenario
A. Datum is a global engineering and manufacturing company with its head office in London, UK. An IT office and data center is located in London, to support the London office and other locations. A. Datum has recently deployed a Windows Server 2012
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server and client infrastructure. A. Datum is expanding its remote-access solution to the entire organization. This will require multiple VPN servers that are located at different points to provide connectivity for its employees. You are responsible for performing the tasks necessary to support these VPN connections.

Objectives
After completing this lab, you will be able to: Install and configure NPS to support RADIUS. Configure and test a RADIUS client.

Lab Setup
Estimated Time: 60 minutes

Virtual Machines

20411B-LON-DC1 20411B-LON-RTR 20411B-LON-CL2

User Name Password

Adatum\Administrator Pa$$w0rd

For this lab, you will use the available virtual machine environment. Before you begin the lab, you must complete the following steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. On the host computer, click Start, point to Administrative Tools, and then click Hyper-V Manager. In Hyper-V Manager, click 20411B-LON-DC1, and in the Actions pane, click Start. In the Actions pane, click Connect. Wait until the virtual machine starts. Sign in using the following credentials: User name: Adatum\Administrator Password: Pa$$w0rd 5. Perform steps 2 through 4 for 20411B-LON-RTR and 20411B-LON-CL2.

Exercise 1: Installing and Configuring NPS to Support RADIUS


Scenario You have been tasked with installing an NPS into the existing infrastructure to be used for RADIUS services. In this exercise, you will configure the RADIUS server with appropriate templates to help manage any future implementations. You also need to configure Accounting to log authentication information to a local text file on the server.
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Module 8: Installing, Configuring, and Troubleshooting the Network Policy Server Role

The main tasks for this exercise are as follows: 1. 2. 3. Install and configure the Network Policy Server. Configure NPS Templates. Configure RADIUS accounting.

Task 1: Install and configure the Network Policy Server

1. 2. 3.

Switch to LON-DC1. Sign in as Adatum\Administrator with the password Pa$$w0rd. Using Server Manager, install the Network Policy and Access Services role by using default values to complete the installation wizard.

4. 5.

Open the Network Policy Server console, and then register the server in Active Directory. Leave the Network Policy Server console open.

Task 2: Configure NPS Templates

1.

Create a new Shared Secrets template with the following properties: o o Name: Adatum Secret Shared secret: Pa$$w0rd

2.

Create a new RADIUS Clients template with the following properties: o o o Friendly name: LON-RTR Address (IP or DNS): LON-RTR Shared Secret: Use Adatum Secret template.

3.

Leave the Network Policy Server console open.

Task 3: Configure RADIUS accounting

1. 2. 3.

In the Network Policy Server console, launch the Accounting Configuration Wizard. Choose the Log to a text file on the local computer option, and then use the default values to complete the wizard. Leave the Network Policy Server console open.

Results: After this exercise, you should have enabled and configured NPS to support the required environment.

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Exercise 2: Configuring and Testing a RADIUS Client


Scenario You need to configure a server as a VPN server and a RADIUS client, including the client configuration, and then you need to modify the Network Policy settings. The main tasks for this exercise are as follows: 1. 2. 3. Configure a RADIUS client. Configure a network policy for RADIUS. Test the RADIUS configuration.

Task 1: Configure a RADIUS client

1.

Create a RADIUS Client by using the following properties: o Template: LON-RTR

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Leave the console open, and then switch to LON-RTR. Logon as Adatum\Administrator with the password Pa$$w0rd. Open Routing and Remote Access, and Disable Routing and Remote Access. Select Configure and Enable Routing and Remote Access. Reconfigure LON-RTR as a VPN Server: o o o o o Local Area Connection 2 is the public interface The VPN server allocates addresses from the pool: 172.16.0.100 > 172.16.0.110 The server is configured with the option Yes, setup this server to work with a RADIUS server. Primary RADIUS server: LON-DC1 Secret: Pa$$w0rd

The VPN service starts.

Task 2: Configure a network policy for RADIUS

1. 2. 3.

Switch to LON-DC1. Switch to the Network Policy Server console. Disable the two existing network policies. These would interfere with the processing of the policy that you are about to create.

4.

Create a new Network Policy by using the following properties:


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o o o o o o o

Policy name: Adatum VPN Policy Type of network access server: Remote Access Server(VPN-Dial up) Condition: NAS Port Type = Virtual (VPN) Permission: Access granted Authentication methods: default Constraints: default Settings: default

Task 3: Test the RADIUS configuration

1. 2.

Switch to LON-CL2 and sign in as Adatum\Administrator with the password Pa$$w0rd. Create a new VPN connection with the following properties: o o o Internet address to connect to: 10.10.0.1 Destination name: Adatum VPN Allow other people to use this connection: true

3.

After you have created the VPN, modify its settings by viewing the properties of the connection, and then selecting the Security tab. Use the following settings to reconfigure the VPN: o o Type of VPN: Point to Point Protocol (PPTP) Authentication: Allow these protocols =Microsoft CHAP Version 2 (MS-CHAP v2)

4.

Test the VPN connection. Use the following credentials: o o User name: Adatum\Administrator Password: Pa$$w0rd

Results: After this exercise, you should have deployed a VPN server, and then configured it as a RADIUS client.

To prepare for the next module

When you are finished the lab, revert all virtual machines to their initial state. To do this, perform the following steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. On the host computer, start Hyper-V Manager. In the Virtual Machines list, right-click 20411B-LON-CL2, and then click Revert. In the Revert Virtual Machines dialog box, click Revert. Repeat steps 2 and 3 for 20411B-LON-RTR and 20411B-LON-DC1.

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Module 8: Installing, Configuring, and Troubleshooting the Network Policy Server Role

Module Review and Takeaways


Review Questions
Question: How can you make the most effective use of the NPS logging features?

Question: What consideration must you follow if you choose to use a nonstandard port assignment for RADIUS traffic?

Question: Why must you register the NPS server in Active Directory?

Tools
Tool
Network Policy Server Netsh commandline tool Event Viewer

Use for
Managing and creating Network Policy Creating administrative scripts for configuring and managing the Network Policy Server role Viewing logged information from application, system, and security events

Where to find it
Network Policy Server on the Administrative Tools menu In a Command Prompt window, type netsh c nps to administer from a command prompt Event Viewer on the Administrative Tools menu

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Lab Answer Key: Module 8: Installing, Configuring, and Troubleshooting the Network Policy Server Role Lab: Installing and Configuring a Network Policy Server
Exercise 1: Installing and Configuring NPS to Support RADIUS
Task 1: Install and configure the Network Policy Server

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Switch to LON-DC1. Sign in as Adatum\Administrator with the password Pa$$w0rd. If necessary, on the taskbar, click Server Manager. In the details pane, click Add roles and features. In the Add Roles and Features Wizard, click Next. On the Select installation type page, click Role-based or feature based installation, and then click Next. On the Select destination server page, click Next. On the Select server roles page, select the Network Policy and Access Services check box. Click Add Features, and then click Next twice.

10. On the Network Policy and Access Services page, click Next. 11. On the Select role services page, verify that the Network Policy Server check box is selected, and then click Next. 12. On the Confirm installation selections page, click Install. 13. Verify that the installation was successful, and then click Close . 14. Close the Server Manager window. 15. Pause your mouse pointer in the lower-left of the taskbar, and then click Start. 16. Click Network Policy Server. 17. In Network Policy Manager, in the navigation pane, right-click NPS (Local), and then click Register server in Active Directory. 18. In the Network Policy Server message box, click OK. 19. In the subsequent Network Policy Server dialog box, click OK. 20. Leave the Network Policy Server console window open.

Task 2: Configure NPS Templates

1.

In the Network Policy Server console, in the navigation pane, expand Templates Management.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

In the navigation pane, right-click Shared Secrets, and then click New . In the New RADIUS Shared Secret Template dialog box, in the Template name box, type Adatum Secret. In the Shared secret and Confirm shared secret boxes, type Pa$$w0rd, and then click OK. In the navigation pane, right-click RADIUS Clients, and then click New . In the New RADIUS Client dialog box, in the Friendly name box, type LON-RTR. Click Verify, and in the Verify Address dialog box, in the Address box, type LON-RTR, and then click Resolve . Click OK. In the New RADIUS Client dialog box, under Shared Secret, in the Select an existing Shared Secrets template, click Adatum Secret, and then click OK.

10. Leave the console open.

Task 3: Configure RADIUS accounting

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

In Network Policy Server, in the navigation pane, click Accounting. In the details pane, click Configure Accounting. In the Accounting Configuration Wizard, click Next. On the Select Accounting Options page, click Log to a text file on the local computer, and then click Next. On the Configure Local File Logging page, click Next. On the Summary page, click Next. On the Conclusion page, click Close . Leave the console open.

Results: After this exercise, you should have enabled and configured NPS to support the required environment.

Exercise 2: Configuring and Testing a RADIUS Client


Task 1: Configure a RADIUS client

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

In the Network Policy Server console, expand RADIUS Clients and Servers. Right-click RADIUS Clients, and then click New . In the New RADIUS Client dialog box, clear the Enable this RADIUS client check box. Select the Select an existing template check box. Click OK. Leave the Network Policy Server console open.

7. 8. 9.

Switch to LON-RTR. Sign in as Adatum\Administrator with the password Pa$$w0rd. Pause your mouse pointer in the lower left of the taskbar, and then click Start.

10. In Start, click Administrative Tools, and then double-click Routing and Remote Access. 11. If required, at the Enable DirectAccess Wizard dialog box, click Cancel. Click OK. 12. In the Routing and Remote Access console, right-click LON-RTR (local), and then click Disable Routing and Remote Access. 13. In the dialog box, click Yes. 14. In the Routing and Remote Access console, right-click LON-RTR (local), and then click Configure and Enable Routing and Remote Access. 15. Click Next, select Remote access (dial-up or VPN), and then click Next. 16. Select the VPN check box, and then click Next. 17. Click the network interface called Local Area Connection 2. Clear the Enable security on the selected interface by setting up static packet filters check box, and then click Next. 18. On the IP Address Assignment page, select From a specified range of addresses, and then click Next. 19. On the Address Range Assignment page, click New . Type 172.16.0.100 next to Start IP address and 172.16.0.110 next to End IP address, and then click OK. Verify that 11 IP addresses were assigned for remote clients, and then click Next. 20. On the Managing Multiple Remote Access Servers page, click Yes, setup this server to work with a RADIUS server, and then click Next. 21. On the RADIUS Server Selection page, in the Primary RADIUS server box, type LON-DC1. 22. In the Shared secret box, type Pa$$w0rd, and then click Next. 23. Click Finish. 24. In the Routing and Remote Access dialog box, click OK. 25. If prompted again, click OK.

Task 2: Configure a network policy for RADIUS

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Switch to the LON-DC1 computer. Switch to Network Policy Server. In Network Policy Server, expand Policies, and then click Network Policies. In the details pane, right-click the policy at the top of the list, and then click Disable . In the details pane, right-click the policy at the bottom of the list, and then click Disable . In the navigation pane, right-click Network Policies, and then click New . In the New Network Policy Wizard, in the Policy name box, type Adatum VPN Policy.

8. 9.

In the Type of network access server list, click Remote Access Server(VPN-Dial up), and then click Next. On the Specify Conditions page, click Add.

10. In the Select condition dialog box, click NAS Port Type , and then click Add. 11. In the NAS Port Type dialog box, select the Virtual (VPN) check box, and then click OK. 12. Click Next, and on the Specify Access Permission page, click Access granted, and then click Next. 13. On the Configure Authentication Methods page, click Next. 14. On the Configure Constraints page, click Next. 15. On the Configure Settings page, click Next. 16. On the Completing New Network Policy page, click Finish.

Task 3: Test the RADIUS configuration

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Switch to LON-CL2. Sign in as Adatum\Administrator with the password of Pa$$w0rd. On the Start screen, type Control, and then in the Apps list, click Control Panel. In Control Panel, click Network and Internet. Click Network and Sharing Center. Click Set up a new connection or network. On the Choose a connection option page, click Connect to a workplace , and then click Next. On the How do you want to connect page, click Use my Internet connection (VPN). Click Ill set up an Internet connection later.

10. On the Type the Internet address to connect to page, in the Internet address box, type 10.10.0.1. 11. In the Destination name box, type Adatum VPN. 12. Select the Allow other people to use this connection check box, and then click Create . 13. In the Network And Sharing Center window, click Change adapter settings. 14. Right-click the Adatum VPN connection, click Properties, and then click the Security tab. 15. In the Type of VPN list, click Point to Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP). 16. Under Authentication, click Allow these protocols, and then click OK. 17. In the Network Connections window, right-click the Adatum VPN connection, and then click Connect/Disconnect. 18. In the Networks list on the right, click Adatum VPN, and then click Connect. 19. In Network Authentication, in the User name box, type Adatum\Administrator. 20. In the Password box, type Pa$$w0rd, and then click OK. 21. Wait for the VPN connection to be made. Your connection is successful.

Results: After this exercise, you should have deployed a VPN server, and then configured it as a RADIUS client.

To prepare for the next module

When you are finished the lab, revert all virtual machines to their initial state. To do this, perform the following steps:

1. 2. 3. 4.

On the host computer, start Hyper-V Manager. In the Virtual Machines list, right-click 20411B-LON-CL2, and then click Revert. In the Revert Virtual Machines dialog box, click Revert. Repeat steps 2 and 3 for 20411B-LON-RTR and 20411B-LON-DC1.

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Module 9: Implementing Network Access Protection

Module 9: Implementing Network Access Protection Contents:


Module Overview Lesson 1: Lesson 2: Lesson 3: Lesson 4: Lab: Overview of Network Access Protection Overview of NAP Enforcement Processes Configuring NAP Monitoring and Troubleshooting NAP Implementing NAP Module Review and Takeaways

Module Overview
Your network is only as secure as the least-secure computer attached to it. Many programs and tools exist to help you to secure your network-attached computers, such as antivirus or malware detection software. However, if the software on some of your computers is not up to date, or not enabled or configured correctly, then these computers continue to pose a security risk. Computers that remain within the office environment and always connect to the same network are relatively easy to keep configured and updated. Computers that connect to different networks, especially unmanaged networks, are less easy to control. For example, it is difficult to control laptop computers that users use to connect to customer networks or public Wi-Fi hotspots. Furthermore, unmanaged computers that are seeking to connect remotely to your network, such as users connecting from their home computers, also pose a challenge. Network Access Protection (NAP) enables you to create customized health-requirement policies to validate computer health before allowing access or communication. Additionally, NAP updates compliant computers automatically to ensure their ongoing compliance, and can limit the access of noncompliant computers to a restricted network until they become compliant.

Objectives
After completing this module, you will be able to: Describe how NAP can help protect your network. Describe the various NAP enforcement processes. Configure NAP. Monitor and troubleshoot NAP.

Lesson 1 : Overview of Network Access Protection


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NAP is a policy-enforcement platform that is built into the Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, Windows XP with Service Pack 3 (SP3), Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2008 R2, and Windows Server 2012 operating systems. You can use NAP to protect network assets more strongly by enforcing compliance with system-health requirements. NAP provides the necessary software components to help ensure that computers connected or connecting to your network remain manageable so they do not become a security risk to your enterprises network and other attached computers. Understanding the functionality and limitations of NAP will help you protect your network from the security risks posed by noncompliant computers.

Lesson Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to: Explain how you can use NAP to enforce computer health requirements. Describe the scenarios in which you would use NAP. Describe the NAP enforcement methods. Describe the architecture of a NAPenabled network infrastructure.

What Is Network Access Protection?

NAP provides components and an application programming interface (API) that can help enforce compliance with your organizations health-requirement policies for network access or communication. NAP enables you to create solutions for validating computers that connect to your networks, and provide needed updates or access to requisite health-update resources. Additionally, NAP enables you to limit the access or communication of noncompliant computers. You can integrate NAPs enforcement features with software from other vendors or with custom programs. It is important to remember that NAP does not protect a network from malicious users. Rather, it helps you maintain the health of your organizations networked computers automatically, which in turn helps maintain your networks overall integrity. For example, if a computer has all of the software and configuration settings that the health policy requires, the computer is compliant and will have unlimited network access. However, NAP does not prevent an authorized user with a compliant computer from uploading a malicious program to the network or engaging in other inappropriate behavior.
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How to Use NAP


You can use NAP in three distinct ways: To validate the health state. When a computer attempts to connect to the network, NAP validates the computers health state against the health-requirement policies that the administrator defines. You also can define what to do if a computer is not compliant. In a monitoring-only environment, all computers have their health state evaluated, and NAP logs the compliance state of each computer for analysis. In a limited access environment, computers that comply with the health-requirement policies have unlimited network access. Computers that do not comply with health-requirement policies could find their access limited to a restricted network. To enforce health-policy compliance. You can help ensure compliance with health-requirement policies by choosing to update noncompliant computers automatically with missing software updates or configuration changes through management software, such as Microsoft System Center Configuration Manager. In a monitoring-only environment, NAP will ensure that computers update their network access before they receive required updates or configuration changes. In a limited access environment, noncompliant computers have limited access until the updates and configuration changes are complete. In both environments, computers that are compatible with NAP can become compliant automatically and you can define exceptions for computers that are not NAP compatible. To limit network access. You can protect your networks by limiting the access of noncompliant computers. You can base limited network access on a specific amount of time, or on what resources that the noncompliant computer can access. In the latter case, you define a restricted network that contains health update resources, and the limited access will last until the noncompliant computer comes into compliance. You also can configure exceptions so that computers that are not compatible with NAP do not have limited network access.

NAP Scenarios

NAP provides a solution for the common scenarios, such as roaming laptops, desktop computers, visiting laptops, and unmanaged computers. Depending on your needs, you can configure a solution to address any or all of these scenarios for your network.

Roaming Laptops
Portability and flexibility are two primary advantages of a laptop, but these features also present a system health threat. Users frequently connect their laptops to other networks. While users are away from your organization, their laptops might not receive the most recent software updates or configuration changes. Additionally, exposure to unprotected networks, such as the Internet, could introduce security-related threats to the laptops. NAP allows you to check any laptops health state when it reconnects to the organizations network, whether through a virtual private network (VPN), a Windows 8 DirectAccess connection, or the
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workplace network connection.

Desktop Computers
Although users typically do not take their desktop computers out of your companys buildings, they still can present a threat to your network. To minimize this threat, you must maintain these computers with the most recent updates and required software. Otherwise, these computers are at risk of infection from websites, email, files from shared folders, and other publicly accessible resources. You can use NAP to automate health state checks to verify each desktop computers compliance with healthrequirement policies. You can check log files to determine which computers do not comply. Additionally, by using management software, you can generate automatic reports and automatically update noncompliant computers. When you change healthrequirement policies, you can configure NAP to provision computers automatically with the most recent updates.

Visiting Laptops
Organizations frequently need to allow consultants, business partners, and guests to connect to their private networks. The laptops that these visitors bring into your organization might not meet system health requirements and can present health risks. NAP enables you to determine which visiting laptops are noncompliant and limit their access to restricted networks. Typically, you would not require or provide any updates or configuration changes for visiting laptops. You can configure Internet access for visiting laptops, but not for other organizational computers that have limited access.

Unmanaged Home Computers


Unmanaged home computers that are not a member of the companys Active Directory domain can connect to a managed company network through VPN. Unmanaged home computers provide an additional challenge because you cannot physically access these computers. Lack of physical access makes enforcing compliance with health requirements, such as the use of antivirus software, more difficult. However, NAP enables you to verify the health state of a home computer every time it makes a VPN connection to the company network, and to limit its access to a restricted network until it meets system health requirements.

NAP Enforcement Methods

Components of the NAP infrastructure, known as enforcement clients and enforcement servers, require health-state validation, and enforce limited network access for noncompliant computers. Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, Windows XP with SP3, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2008 R2, and Windows Server 2012 include NAP support for the following network-access or communication methods: IPsec-protected traffic. Internet Protocol security (IPsec) enforcement confines communication to compliant computers after they connect successfully and obtain a valid IP address configuration. IPsec enforcement is the strongest form of limited
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network access or communication in NAP. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.1Xauthenticated network connections. IEEE 802.1X enforcement requires that a computer is compliant to obtain unlimited network access through an IEEE 802.1Xauthenticated network connection. Examples of this type of network connection include an authenticating Ethernet switch or an IEEE 802.11 wireless access point (AP). Remote access VPN connections. VPN enforcement requires that a computer is compliant to obtain unlimited network access through a remote access VPN connection. For noncompliant computers, network access is limited through a set of IP packet filters that the VPN server applies to the VPN connection. DirectAccess connections. DirectAccess connections require that a computer is compliant to obtain unlimited network access through a DirectAccess server. For noncompliant computers, network access is limited to the set of computers that are defined as infrastructure servers by using the infrastructure tunnel. Compliant computers can create the separate intranet tunnel that provides unlimited access to intranet resources. DirectAccess connections use IPsec enforcement. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) address configurations. DHCP enforcement requires that a computer is compliant to obtain an unlimited access Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) address configuration from a DHCP server. For noncompliant computers, network access is restricted with an IPv4 address configuration that limits access to the restricted network.

These network access or communication methods, or NAP enforcement methods, are useful separately or together for limiting noncompliant computer access or communication. A server that is running Network Policy Server (NPS) in Windows Server 2012 acts as a health policy server for all of these NAP enforcement methods.

NAP Platform Architecture

The following table describes the components of a NAP-enabled network infrastructure.

Components
NAP clients

Description
These computers support the NAP platform for communication and for validation prior to network access of a systems health.

NAP enforcement points

These are computers or network-access devices that use NAP or that you can use with NAP to require evaluation of a NAP clients health state, and then provide restricted network access or communication. NAP enforcement points use a NPS that is acting as a NAP health policy server to evaluate the health state of NAP clients, whether to allow network access or communication, and the set of remediation actions that a noncompliant NAP client must perform.

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NAP enforcement points include the following: o Health Registration Authority (HRA). A computer that runs Windows Server 2012 and Internet Information Services (IIS), and that obtains health certificates from a certification authority (CA) for compliant computers.

VPN server. A computer that runs Windows Server 2012 and Routing and Remote Access, and that enables remote access VPN intranet connections through remote access.

DHCP server. A computer that runs Windows Server 2012 and the DHCP Server service, and that provides automatic IPv4 address configuration to intranet DHCP clients.

Network access devices . These are Ethernet switches or wireless access points that support IEEE 802.1X authentication.

NAP health policy servers

These are computers that run Windows Server 2012 and the NPS service, and that store health-requirement policies and provide health-state validation for NAP. NPS is the replacement for the Internet Authentication Service (IAS), and the Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) server and proxy that Windows Server 2003 provides. NPS also acts as an authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA) server for network access. When acting as an AAA server or NAP health policy server, NPS typically runs on a separate server for centralized configuration of network access and healthrequirement policies. The NPS service also runs on NAP enforcement points, based on Windows Server 2012, that do not have a built-in RADIUS client, such as an HRA or a DHCP server. However, in these configurations, the NPS service is acting as a RADIUS proxy to exchange RADIUS messages with a NAP health policy server.

Health requirement servers

These computers provide the current system health state for NAP health policy servers. An example of these would be a health requirement server for an antivirus program that tracks the latest version of the antivirus signature file.

AD DS

This Windows directory service stores account credentials and properties, and stores Group Policy settings. Although not required for health-state validation, Active Directory is required for IPsec-protected communications, 802.1X- authenticated connections, and remote access VPN connections.

802.1X devices Restricted network

Authenticating Ethernet switch or an IEEE 802.11 wireless AP. This is a separate logical or physical network that contains: o Remediation servers . These computers contain health update resources that NAP clients can access to remediate their noncompliant state. Examples include antivirus signature distribution servers and software update servers. o NAP clients with limited access . These computers are placed on the restricted network when they do not comply with health-requirement policies.

Lesson 2: Overview of NAP Enforcement Processes


When a client attempts to access or communicate on the network, it must present its system health state or proof-of-health compliance. If a client cannot prove that it is compliant with system-health requirements, such as that it has the latest operating system and antivirus updates installed, then you can limit its access to, or communication on, the network to a restricted network that contains server resources. You can restrict this access until you remedy the health-compliance issues. After the updates install, the client requests access to the network or attempts the communication again. If compliant, the client receives unlimited access to the network or the communication is allowed.

Lesson Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to: Describe the general NAP enforcement processes.
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Discuss IPsec enforcement. Describe 802.1x enforcement. Explain VPN enforcement. Discuss DHCP enforcement.

NAP Enforcement Processes

Whatever form of NAP enforcement you select, many of the client-server communications are common. The following points summarize these communications: Between a NAP client and a HRA The NAP client sends its current system health state to the HRA and requests a health certificate. If the client is compliant, the HRA sends a health certificate to the NAP client. If the client is noncompliant, the HRA sends remediation instructions to the client. Between a NAP client and a remediation server Although the NAP client has unlimited intranet access, it accesses the remediation server to ensure that it remains compliant. If the NAP client has limited access, it communicates with the remediation server to become compliant, based on instructions from the NAP health policy server. Between an HRA and a NAP health policy server The HRA sends RADIUS messages to the NAP health policy server that contains the NAP clients system health state. The NAP health policy server sends RADIUS messages to indicate that the NAP client has: o Unlimited access because it is compliant. Based on this response, the HRA obtains a health certificate, and then sends it to the NAP client. o Limited access until it performs a set of remediation functions. Based on this response, the HRA does not issue a health certificate to the NAP client. Between an 802.1X network access device and a NAP health-policy server The 802.1X network access device sends RADIUS messages to transfer Protected Extensible Authentication Protocol (PEAP) messages that are sent by an 802.1X NAP client. The NAP health policy server sends RADIUS messages to: o Indicate that the 802.1X client has unlimited access because it is compliant.
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o Indicate a limited access profile to place the 802.1X client on the restricted network until it performs a set of remediation functions. o Send PEAP messages to the 802.1X client. Between a VPN server and a NAP health policy server The VPN server sends RADIUS messages to transfer PEAP messages that are sent by a VPN-based NAP client. The NAP health policy server sends RADIUS messages to: o Indicate that the VPN client has unlimited access because it is compliant. o Indicate that the VPN client has limited access through a set of IP packet filters that are applied to the VPN connection. o Send PEAP messages to the VPN client. Between a DHCP server and a NAP health policy server The DHCP server sends the NAP health policy server RADIUS messages that contain the DHCP clients system health state. The NAP health policy server sends RADIUS messages to the DHCP server to indicate that the DHCP client has: o Unlimited access because it is compliant. o Limited access until it performs a set of remediation functions. Between a NAP health policy server and a health requirement server: When you are performing network access validation for a NAP client, the NAP health policy server might have to contact a health requirement server to obtain information about the current requirements for system health.

Communication Based on the Type of Enforcement


Depending upon the type of enforcement selected, the following communication occurs: Between a NAP client and an 802.1X network access device The NAP client performs authentication of the 802.1X connection, and then provides its current system health state to the NAP health policy server. The NAP health policy server provides either remediation instructions (because the 802.1X client is noncompliant) or indicates that the 802.1X client has unlimited network access. NAP routes these messages through the 802.1X network access device. Between a NAP client and a VPN server The NAP client that acts as a VPN client indicates its current system health state to the NAP health policy server. The NAP health policy server responds with messages to provide either remediation instructions (because the VPN client is noncompliant), or to indicate that the VPN client has unlimited intranet access. NAP routes these messages through the VPN server. Between a NAP client and a DHCP server The NAP client, also the DHCP client, communicates with the DHCP server to obtain a valid IPv4 address configuration and to indicate its current system health state.

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The DHCP server allocates an IPv4 address configuration for the restricted network, and then provides remediation instructions (if the DHCP client is noncompliant), or it allocates an IPv4 address configuration for unlimited access (if the DHCP client is compliant).

IPsec Enforcement

With IPsec enforcement, a computer must be compliant to initiate communications with other compliant computers. Because IPsec-based NAP enforcement uses IPsec, you can define requirements for protected communications with compliant computers based on one of the following communications characteristics: IP address Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) port number User Datagram Protocol (UDP) port number

IPsec enforcement restricts communication to compliant computers after they have connected successfully and obtained a valid IP address configuration. IPsec enforcement is the strongest form of limited network access or communication in NAP. The components of IPsec enforcement consist of an HRA that is running Windows Server 2012 and an IPsec enforcement client in one of the following operating systems: Windows XP Service Pack 3 Windows Vista Windows 7 Windows 8 Windows Server 2008 Windows Server 2008 R2 Windows Server 2012

The HRA obtains X.509 certificates for NAP clients when the clients prove that they are compliant. These health certificates then authenticate NAP clients when they initiate IPsec-protected communications with other NAP clients on an intranet.
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IPsec enforcement limits communication for IPsec-protected NAP clients by dropping incoming communication attempts sent from computers that cannot negotiate IPsec protection by using health certificates. Unlike 802.1X and VPN enforcement, in which enforcement occurs at the network entry point, each individual computer performs IPsec enforcement. Because you can take advantage of IPsec policy settings, the enforcement of health certificates can be done for any of the following: All computers in a domain Specific computers on a subnet A specific computer A specific set of TCP or UDP ports A set of TCP or UDP ports on a specific computer

Considerations for IPsec enforcement


When selecting an IPsec NAP enforcement method, consider the following points: IPsec enforcement is more complex to implement than other enforcement methods, because it requires an HRA and a CA. No additional hardware is required to implement IPsec enforcement. There is no need to upgrade switches or Wireless Application Protocols (WAPs), which you would have to do if you select 802.1X enforcement. You can implement IPsec enforcement in any environment. IPsec enforcement is very secure and difficult to circumvent. You can configure IPsec to encrypt communication for additional security. IPsec enforcement is applied to IPv4 and IPv6 communication.

802.1x Enforcement

With 802.1X enforcement, a computer must be compliant to obtain unlimited network access through an 802.1X-authenticated network connection, such as to an authenticating Ethernet switch or an IEEE 802.11 wireless AP. For noncompliant computers, network access is limited through a restricted access profile that the Ethernet switch or wireless AP places on the connection. The restricted access profile can specify either IP packet filters, or a virtual local area network (VLAN) identifier (ID) that corresponds to the restricted network. 802.1X enforcement imposes health policy requirements every time a
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computer attempts an 802.1X-authenticated network connection. 802.1X enforcement also monitors the health status of the connected NAP client actively, and then applies the restricted access profile to the connection if the client becomes noncompliant. The components of 802.1X enforcement consist of NPS in Windows Server 2012 and an EAP Host enforcement client in Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, Windows XP Service Pack 3, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2008 R2, and Windows Server 2012. 802.1X enforcement provides strong limited network access for all computers that access the network through an 802.1Xauthenticated connection. To implement 802.1X enforcement, you must ensure that the network switches or wireless APs support 802.1X authentication. The switches or wireless APs then act as an enforcement point for NAP clients. The health status of the client is sent as part of the authentication process. When a computer is noncompliant, the switch places the computer on a separate VLAN or uses packet filters to restrict access to only remediation servers.

Considerations for 802.1X enforcement


When considering the 802.1X NAP enforcement method, consider the following points: The switch or wireless AP that connects with the client enforces noncompliant computer isolation. This makes it very difficult to circumvent, and therefore very secure. Use 802.1X enforcement for internal computers. This type of enforcement is appropriate for local area network (LAN) computers with both wired and wireless connections. You cannot use 802.1X enforcement if your switches and wireless APs do not support the use of 802.1X for authentication.

VPN Enforcement

VPN enforcement imposes health-policy requirements every time that a computer attempts to obtain a remote access VPN connection to the network. VPN enforcement also actively monitors the health status of the NAP client, and applies the restricted networks IP packet filters to the VPN connection if the client becomes noncompliant. The components of a VPN enforcement consist of NPS in Windows Server 2012 and a VPN enforcement client that is part of the remote access client in:

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Windows 8 Windows 7 Windows Vista Windows XP SP3 Windows Server 2008 Windows Server 2008 R2 Windows Server 2012

VPN enforcement provides strong limited network access for all computers that access the network through a remote access VPN connection. VPN enforcement uses a set of remote-access IP packet filters to limit VPN client traffic, so that it can reach only the resources on the restricted network. The VPN server applies the IP packet filters to the IP traffic that it receives from the VPN client, and silently discards all packets that do not correspond to a configured packet filter.

Considerations for VPN enforcement


When considering the VPN NAP enforcement method, consider the following points: VPN enforcement is best suited in situations in which you are using VPN already. It is unlikely that you will implement VPN connections on an internal network to use VPN enforcement. Use VPN enforcement to ensure that staff members connecting from home computers are not introducing malware to your network. Users often do not maintain their home computers correctly, and they can represent a high risk. Many users do not have antivirus software, or do not apply Windows updates regularly. Use VPN enforcement to ensure that roaming laptops are not introducing malware to your network. Roaming laptops are more susceptible to malware than computers directly on the corporate network, because they may be unable to download virus updates and Windows updates from outside the corporate network. They also are more likely to be in environments where malware is present.

DHCP Enforcement

DHCP enforces health-policy requirements every time that a DHCP client attempts to lease or renew an IP address configuration. DHCP enforcement also actively monitors the NAP clients health status and, if the client becomes noncompliant, renews the
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IPv4 address configuration for access only to the restricted network. The components of DHCP enforcement consist of a DHCP Enforcement service that is part of the DHCP Server service in Windows Server 2012 and a DHCP enforcement client that is part of the DHCP Client service in: Windows 8 Windows 7 Windows Vista Windows XP SP3 Windows Server 2008 Windows Server 2008 R2 Windows Server 2012

Because DHCP enforcement relies on a limited IPv4 address configuration that a user who has administrator-level access can override, it is the weakest form of limited network access in NAP. DHCP address configuration limits network access for the DHCP client through its IPv4 routing table. DHCP enforcement sets the DHCP Router option value to 0.0.0.0, so the noncompliant computer does not have a configured default gateway. DHCP enforcement also sets the subnet mask for the allocated IPv4 address to 255.255.255.255 so that there is no route to the attached subnet. To allow the noncompliant computer to access the restricted networks remediation servers, the DHCP server assigns the Classless Static Routes DHCP option. This option contains host routes to the restricted networks computers, such as the Domain Name System (DNS) and remediation servers. The result of DHCP limited network access is a configuration and routing table that allows connectivity only to specific destination addresses that correspond to the restricted network. Therefore, when an application attempts to send to a unicast IPv4 address other than those supplied by the Classless Static Routes option, the TCP/IP protocol returns a routing error.

Considerations for DHCP enforcement


When considering the DHCP NAP enforcement method, consider the following points: DHCP enforcement is easy to implement, and can apply to any computer with a dynamic IP address. DHCP enforcement is easy to circumvent. A client can circumvent DHCP enforcement by using a static IP address. Additionally, a noncompliant computer could add static host routes to reach servers that are not remediation servers. DHCP enforcement is not possible for IPv6 clients. If computers on your network use IPv6 addresses to communicate, DHCP enforcement is ineffective.

Lesson 3: Configuring NAP


If you want your NAP deployment to work optimally, it is important that you understand what each of the NAP components does, and how they interact to protect your network. If you want to protect your network by using NAP, you need to understand
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the configuration requirements for the NAP client, as well as how to configure NPS as a NAP health policy server, configure health policies and network policies, and configure the client and server settings. It also is important to test the NAP before using it.

Lesson Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to: Describe System Health Validators (SHVs). Explain the use of a health policy. Discuss the use of remediation server groups. Describe the NAP client-configuration requirements. Explain how to enable and configure NAP.

What Are System Health Validators?

System Health Agents (SHAs) and System Health Validators (SHVs) are NAP infrastructure components that provide health-state status and validation. Windows 8 includes a Windows Security Health Validator SHA that monitors the Windows Security Center settings. Windows Server 2012 includes a corresponding Windows Security Health Validator SHV. The design of NAP makes it very flexible and extensible, and it can interoperate with any vendors software that provides SHAs and SHVs that use the NAP API. An SHV receives a statement of health (SoH), and then compares the system health-status information in the SoH with the required system health state. For example, if the SoH is from an antivirus SHA, and it contains the last version number for the virus-signature file, then the corresponding antivirus SHV can check with the antivirus health requirement server for the latest version number to validate the NAP clients SoH. The SHV returns a SoH response (SoHR) to the NAP Administration Server. The SoHR can contain remediation information about how the corresponding SHA on the NAP client can meet current system-health requirements. For example, the SoHR that the antivirus SHV sends could instruct the NAP clients antivirus SHA to request the latest version, by name or IP address, of the antivirus signature file from a specific antivirus signature server.

What Is a Health Policy?

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Health policies consist of one or more SHVs and other settings that you can use to define client-computer configuration requirements for the NAP-capable computers that attempt to connect to your network. When NAP-capable clients attempt to connect to the network, the client computer sends a SoH to the NPS. The SoH is a report of the client configuration state, and NPS compares the SoH to the requirements that the health policy defines. If the client configuration state does not match the requirements that the health policy defines, then depending on the NAP configuration, NAP: Rejects the connection request. Places the NAP client on a restricted network, where it can receive updates from remediation servers that bring the client into compliance with health policy. After the NAP client achieves compliance and resubmits its new health state, NPS enables it to connect. Allows the NAP client to connect to the network despite its noncompliance with health policy.

You can define NPS client-health policies by adding one or more SHVs to the health policy. After you configure a health policy with one or more SHVs, you can add it to the Health Policies condition of a network policy that you want to use to enforce NAP, when client computers attempt connection to your network.

What Are Remediation Server Groups?

A remediation server group is a list of restricted network servers that provide resources that bring noncompliant NAP-capable clients into compliance with your defined client health policy.
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A remediation server hosts the updates that a NAP agent can use to bring noncompliant client computers into compliance with health policy, as NPS defines. For example, a remediation server can host antivirus signatures. If a health policy requires that client computers have the latest antivirus definitions, then the following work together to update noncompliant computers: An antivirus SHA An antivirus SHV An antivirus policy server The remediation server

NAP Client Configuration

Remember these basic guidelines when you configure NAP clients: Some NAP deployments that use Windows Security Health Validator require that you enable Security Center. Security Center is not included with Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2008 R2, or Windows Server 2012. You must enable the Network Access Protection Client service when you deploy NAP to NAP-capable client computers. You must configure the appropriate NAP enforcement clients on the NAP-capable computers.

Enable Security Center in Group Policy


You can use the Enable Security Center in the Group Policy procedure to enable Security Center on NAP-capable clients by using Group Policy. Some NAP deployments that use Windows Security Health Validator require Security Center. Note: To complete this procedure, you must be a member of the Domain Admins group, the Enterprise Admins group, or the Administrators group on the local computer.

To enable Security Center in Group Policy: 1. 2. Open the Group Policy Management console. In the console tree, double-click Local Computer Policy, double-click Computer Configuration, double-click Administrative Templates, double-click Windows Components, and then double-click Security Center.
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3.

Double-click Turn on Security Center (Domain PCs only), click Enabled, and then click OK.

Enable the Network Access Protection Service on Clients


You can use the Enable the Network Access Protection Service on Clients procedure to enable and configure NAP service on NAP-capable client computers. When you deploy NAP, enabling this service is required. Note: To complete this procedure, you must be a member of the Domain Admins group, the Enterprise Admins group, or the Administrators group on the local computer.

To enable the Network Access Protection service on client computers: 1. 2. 3. Open Control Panel, click System and Security, click Administrative Tools, and then double-click Services. In the services list, scroll down to, and double-click, Network Access Protection Agent. In the Network Access Protection Agent Properties dialog box, change Startup Type to Automatic, and then click OK.

Enable and Disable NAP Enforcement Clients


You can use the Enable and Disable NAP Enforcement Clients procedure to enable or disable one or more NAP enforcement clients on NAP-capable computers. These clients can include: DHCP Enforcement Client Remote Access Enforcement Client EAP Enforcement Client IPsec Enforcement Client (also used for DirectAccess connections) Terminal Services Gateway (TS Gateway) Enforcement Client

To enable and disable NAP Enforcement Clients: 1. 2. Open the NAP Client Configuration console (NAPCLCFG.MSC). Click Enforcement Clients. In the details pane, right-click the enforcement client that you want to enable or disable, and then click Enable or Disable .

Note: To perform this procedure, you must be a member of the Administrators group on the local computer, or you must have been delegated the appropriate authority. If the computer is joined to a domain, members of the Domain Admins group might be able to perform this procedure. As a security best practice, consider performing this procedure by using the Run as command.

Demonstration: Configuring NAP


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This demonstration shows how to: Install the NPS server role. Configure NPS as a NAP health policy server. Configure health policies. Configure network policies for compliant computers. Configure network policies for noncompliant computers. Configure the DHCP server role for NAP. Configure client NAP settings. Test NAP.

Demonstration Steps Install the NPS server role


1. 2. Switch to LON-DC1, and sign in as a domain administrator. Open Server Manager, and then install the Network Policy and Access Services role.

Configure NPS as a NAP health policy server


1. 2. Open the Network Policy Server console. Configure the Windows Security Health Validator to require that all Windows 8 computers are running a firewall.

Configure health policies


1. 2. Create a health policy called Compliant in which the condition is that Client passes all SHV checks. Create another health policy called Noncompliant in which the condition is that Client fails one or more SHV checks.

Configure network policies for compliant computers


1. 2. Disable the two existing network policies. These would interfere with the processing of the policies you are about to create. Create a new network policy called Compliant-Full-Access that has a condition of the Compliant health policy. Computers are granted unrestricted access.

Configure network policies for noncompliant computers


Create a new network policy called Noncompliant-Restricted that has a condition of the Noncompliant health policy. Computers are granted restricted access.

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Configure the DHCP server role for NAP


1. 2. 3. Open the DHCP console. Modify the properties of the IPv4 scope to support Network Access Protection. Create a new DHCP policy that allocates appropriate DHCP scope options to noncompliant computers. These options assign a DNS suffix of restricted.Adatum.com.

Configure client NAP settings


1. 2. 3. 4. Enable the DHCP Quarantine Enforcement Client on LON-CL1. Start the Network Access Protection Agent service. Use the local Group Policy Management console to enable the Security Center. Reconfigure LON-CL1 to obtain an IP address from a DHCP server.

Test NAP
1. 2. 3. Verify the obtained configuration by using ipconfig. Disable and stop the Windows Firewall service. In the System Tray area, click the Network Access Protection pop-up warning. Review the information in the Network Access Protection dialog box. Click Close . 4. 5. Verify the obtained configuration by using ipconfig. Notice that the computer has a subnet mask of 255.255.255.255 and a DNS Suffix of restricted.Adatum.com. Leave all windows open.

Lesson 4: Monitoring and Troubleshooting NAP


Troubleshooting and monitoring NAP is an important administrative task because of different technology levels, including varied expertise and prerequisites, for each NAP enforcement method. Trace logs are available for NAP, but are disabled by default. These logs serve two purposes: troubleshooting and evaluating a networks health and security.

Lesson Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to: Describe how NAP tracing can help monitor and troubleshoot NAP. Explain how to configure NAP Tracing. Troubleshoot NAP with Netsh. Use the NAP event log to troubleshoot NAP.

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What Is NAP Tracing?

Aside from the preceding general guidelines, you can use the NAP Client Configuration console to configure NAP tracing. Tracing records NAP events in a log file, and is useful for troubleshooting and maintenance. Additionally, you can use tracing logs to evaluate your networks health and security. You can configure three levels of tracing: Basic, Advanced, and Debug. Enable NAP tracing when: Troubleshooting NAP problems. Evaluating the overall health and security of your organizations computers.

In addition to trace logging, you can view NPS accounting logs. These logs could contain useful NAP information. By default, NPS accounting logs are located in %systemroot%\system32\logfiles. The following logs might contain NAP-related information: IASNAP.LOG. This contains detailed data about NAP processes, NPS authentication, and NPS authorization. IASSAM.LOG. This contains detailed data about user authentication and authorization.

Demonstration: Configuring NAP Tracing


Two tools are available for configuring NAP tracing. The NAP Client Configuration console is part of the Windows user interface, and netsh is a command-line tool.

Using the Windows User Interface


You can use the Windows user interface to enable or disable NAP tracing and to specify the level of recorded detail by performing the following steps: 1. 2. 3. Open the NAP Client Configuration console by running napclcfg.msc. In the console tree, right-click NAP Client Configuration (Local Computer), and then click Properties. In the NAP Client Configuration (Local Computer) Properties dialog box, select Enabled or Disabled.

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Note: To perform this procedure, you must be a member of the Administrators group on the local computer, or you must have been delegated the appropriate authority. As a security best practice, consider performing this operation by using the Run As command.

4.

If Enabled is chosen, under Specify the level of detail at which the tracing logs are written, select Basic, Advanced, or Debug.

Using a Command-Line Tool


To use a command-line tool to enable or disable NAP tracing and specify the level of recorded detail, perform the following steps: 1. 2. Open an elevated command prompt. To enable or disable NAP tracing, do one of the following: o To enable NAP tracing and configure for basic or advanced logging, type: netsh nap client set tracing state=enable level =[advanced or basic] o o To enable NAP tracing for debug information, type: netsh nap client set tracing state=enable level =verbose To disable NAP tracing, type: netsh nap client set tracing state=disable

Note: To perform this procedure, you must be a member of the Administrators group on

the local computer, or you must have been delegated the appropriate authority. As a security best practice, consider performing this operation by using the Run As command.

Viewing Log Files


To view the log files, navigate to the %systemroot%\tracing\nap directory, and then open the particular trace log that you want to view.

Demonstration
This demonstration shows how to: Configure tracing from the GUI. Configure tracing from the command line.

Demonstration Steps Configure tracing from the GUI


1. 2. On LON-CL1, open the NAPCLCFG [NAP Client Configuration (Local Computer)] console. From the NAP Client Configuration (Local Computer) properties, enable Advanced tracing.

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Configure tracing from the command line


At the command prompt, type netsh nap client set tracing state = enable , and then press Enter.

Troubleshooting NAP

You can use the following tools to troubleshoot NAP.

Netsh Commands
Use the netsh NAP command to help troubleshoot NAP issues. The following command displays the status of a NAP client, including the following: Restriction state Status of enforcement clients Status of installed SHAs Trusted server groups that have been configured
n e t s hN A Pc l i e n ts h o ws t a t e

The following command displays the local configuration settings on a NAP client, including: Cryptographic settings Enforcement client settings Settings for trusted server groups Client tracing settings that have been configured
n e t s hN A Pc l i e n ts h o wc o n f i g

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The following command displays the Group Policy configuration settings on a NAP client, including: Cryptographic settings Enforcement client settings Settings for trusted server groups Client tracing settings that have been configured
n e t s hN A Pc l i e n ts h o wg r o u p

Troubleshooting NAP with Event Logs

NAP services record NAP-related events into the Windows event logs. To view these events, open Event Viewer, select Custom Views, select Server Roles, and then select Network Policy and Access Services. The following events provide information about NAP services that are running on an NPS server: Event ID 6272. Network Policy Server granted access to a user. Occurs when a NAP client authenticates successfully, and, depending on its health state, obtains full or restricted access to the network. Event ID 6273. Network Policy Server denied access to a user. Occurs when an authentication or authorization problem arises, which is associated with a reason code. Event ID 6274. Network Policy Server discarded the request for a user. Occurs when a configuration problem arises, or if the RADIUS client settings are incorrect or NPS cannot create accounting logs. Event ID 6276. Network Policy Server quarantined a user. Occurs when the client access request matches a network policy that is configured with a NAP enforcement setting of Allow limited access. Event ID 6277. Network Policy Server granted access to a user, but put it on probation because the host did not meet the defined health policy.
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Occurs when the client access request matches a network policy that is configured with a NAP enforcement setting of Allow full network access for a limited time when the date specified in the policy has passed. Event ID 6278. Network Policy Server granted full access to a user because the host met the defined health policy. Occurs when the client access request matches a network policy that is configured with a NAP enforcement setting of Allow full network access.

Lab: Implementing NAP


Scenario
A. Datum is a global engineering and manufacturing company with its head office in London, UK. An IT office and data center in London support head office and other locations. A. Datum has recently deployed a Windows Server 2012 server and client infrastructure. To help increase security and compliance requirements, A. Datum is required to extend their VPN solution to include NAP. You need to establish a way to verify and, if required, automatically bring client computers into compliance whenever they connect remotely by using the VPN connection. You will accomplish this goal by using NPS to create system health-validation settings, network and health policies, and configuring NAP to verify and remediate client health.

Objectives
After completing this lab, you will be able to: Configure NAP components. Configure VPN access. Configure the client settings to support NAP.

Lab Setup
Estimated Time: 60 minutes

Virtual Machines

20411B-LON-DC1 20411B-LON-RTR 20411B-LON-CL2

User Name Password

Adatum\Administrator Pa$$w0rd

For this lab, you will use the available virtual machine environment. Before you begin the lab, you must complete the following steps: 1. 2. On the host computer, click Start, point to Administrative Tools, and then click Hyper-V Manager. In Hyper-V Manager, click 20411B-LON-DC1, and in the Actions pane, click Start.
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3. 4.

In the Actions pane, click Connect. Wait until the virtual machine starts. Sign in using the following credentials: o o User name: Adatum\Administrator Password: Pa$$w0rd

5.

Perform steps 2 through 4 for 20411B-LON-CL2 and 20411B-LON-RTR.

Exercise 1: Configuring NAP Components


Scenario As the first step in implementing compliance and security, you should configure NAP components, such as certificate requirements, health and network policies, and connection-request policies. The main tasks for this exercise are as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. Configure server and client certificate requirements. Configure health policies. Configure network policies. Configure connection request polices for VPN.

Task 1: Configure server and client certificate requirements

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Switch to the LON-DC1 virtual server. Open the Certification Authority tool. In the Certificate Templates Console, open the properties of the Computer certificate template. On the Security tab, grant the Authenticated Users group the Allow Enroll permission. Restart the Certification Authority. Close the Certification Authority tool.

Task 2: Configure health policies

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Switch to the LON-RTR computer. Create a management console by running mmc.exe . Add the Certificates snap-in with the focus on the local computer account. Navigate to the Personal certificate store and Request New Certificate . On the Select Certificate Enrollment Policy page, click Active Directory Enrollment Policy, and then click Next.
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6. 7. 8.

Enroll the Computer certificate that is listed. Close the console, and do not save the console settings. Using Server Manager, install the NPS Server with the following role services: o Network Policy Server

9.

Open the Network Policy Server console.

10. Under Network Access Protection, open the Default Configuration for the Windows Security Health Validator. 11. On the Windows 8/Windows 7/Windows Vista tab, clear all check boxes except A firewall is enabled for all network connections. 12. Create a health policy with the following settings: o o o Name: Compliant Client SHV checks: Client passes all SHV checks SHVs used in this health policy: Windows Security Health Validator

13. Create a health policy with the following settings: o o o Name: Noncompliant Client SHV checks: Client fails one or more SHV checks SHVs used in this health policy: Windows Security Health Validator

Task 3: Configure network policies

1. 2.

Disable all existing network policies. Configure a new network policy with the following settings: o o o o Name: Compliant-Full-Access Conditions: Health Policies, Compliant Access permissions: Access granted Settings: NAP Enforcement, Allow full network access

3.

Configure a new network policy with the following settings: o o o o Name: Noncompliant-Restricted Conditions: Health Policies, Noncompliant Access permissions: Access granted Settings: NAP Enforcement, Allow limited access is selected and Enable auto-remediation of client computers is not selected. o IP Filters: IPv4 input filter Destination network: 172.16.0.10/255.255.255.255
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IPv4 output filter: Source network: 172.16.0.10/255.255.255.255

Task 4: Configure connection request polices for VPN

1. 2.

Disable existing connection request policies. Create a new Connection Request Policy with the following settings: o o o o o Policy name: VPN connections Type of network access server: Remote Access Server (VPN-Dial up) Conditions, Tunnel type: L2TP, SSTP, and PPTP Authenticate requests on this server: Enabled On the Specify Authentication Methods page, perform the following: a. b. c. d. Select Override network policy authentication settings. Add Microsoft: Protected EAP (PEAP). Add Microsoft: Secured password (EAP-MSCHAP v2). Edit Microsoft: Protected EAP (PEAP) to ensure that Enforce Network Access Protection is enabled.

Results: After this exercise, you should have installed and configured the required NAP components, created the health and network policies, and created the connection request policies.

Exercise 2: Configuring VPN Access


Scenario After configuring NAP, you will configure a VPN server, and then enable the PING protocol through the firewall for testing purposes. The main tasks for this exercise are as follows: 1. 2. Configure a VPN server. Allow PING for testing purposes.

Task 1: Configure a VPN server

1. 2. 3.

On LON-RTR, open Routing and Remote Access. Disable Routing and Remote Access. Select Configure and Enable Routing and Remote Access.

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4.

Use the following settings to complete configuration: a. b. c. Select Remote access (dial-up or VPN). Select the VPN check box. Select the interface called Public, and clear the Enable security on the selected interface by setting up static packet filters check box. d. e. Under IP Address Assignment, From a specified range of addresses: 172.16.0.100 to 172.16.0.110 Complete the process by accepting defaults when you receive a prompt, and by clicking OK to confirm any messages.

5.

In the Network Policy Server, click the Connection Request Policies node, and verify that the Microsoft Routing and Remote Access Service Policy is disabled. This was created automatically when Routing and Remote Access was enabled.

6.

Close Network Policy Server management console, and then the Routing and Remote Access console.

Task 2: Allow PING for testing purposes

1. 2.

On LON-RTR, open Windows Firewall with Advanced Security. Create an inbound rule with the following properties: o o o o o o o o Type: Custom All programs Protocol type: Choose ICMPv4 and then click Customize Specific ICMP types: Echo Request Default scope Action: Allow the connection Default profile Name: ICMPv4 echo request

3.

Close the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security console.

Results: After this exercise, you should have created a VPN server and configured inbound communications.

Exercise 3: Configuring the Client Settings to Support NAP


Scenario In this exercise, you will enable a client VPN to connect to the Adatum network. You then will enable and configure the required client-side NAP components. The main tasks for this exercise are as follows:

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1. 2.

Enable a client NAP enforcement method. Establish a VPN connection.

Task 1: Enable a client NAP enforcement method

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Switch to the LON-CL2 computer. Run the NAP Client Configuration tool (napclcfg.msc). Under Enforcement Clients, enable the EAP Quarantine Enforcement Client. Close the NAP Client Configuration tool. Run services.msc, and then configure the Network Access Protection Agent service for automatic startup. Start the service. Close the services console. Open the Local Policy Editor (gpedit.msc), and then enable the Local Computer Policy /Computer Configuration/Administrative Templates/Windows Components /Security Center/Turn on Security Center (Domain PCs only) setting.

9.

Close the Local Group Policy Editor.

Task 2: Establish a VPN connection

1.

On LON-CL2, create a new VPN connection with the following properties: o o o Internet address to connect to: 10.10.0.1 Destination name: Adatum VPN Allow other people to use this connection: Enable

2.

After you have created the VPN, modify its settings by viewing the properties of the connection, and then selecting the Security tab. Use the following settings to reconfigure the VPN: o o Authentication type: Microsoft: Protected EAP (PEAP) (encryption enabled) Properties of this authentication type: Validate server certificate: Enable Connect to these servers: Disable Authentication method: Secured password (EAP-MSCHAP v2) Enable Fast Reconnect: Disable Enforce Network Access Protection: Enable

3.

Test the VPN connection: o In the Network Connections window, connect Adatum VPN connection.
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View the details of the Windows Security Alert. Verify that the correct certificate information is displayed, and then click Connect.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

At the command prompt, run ipconfig /all to verify that the System Quarantine State is Not Restricted. Ping 172.16.0.10. Disconnect the Adatum VPN. Switch to LON-RTR. Open Network Policy Server. In the Default Configuration of the Windows Security Health Validator, enable the Restrict access for clients that do not have all available security updates installed option on the Windows 8/Windows 7/Windows Vista page.

10. Switch back to LON-CL2, and then reconnect the VPN. 11. Run the ipconfig /all command to verify that the System Quarantine State is Restricted. 12. Disconnect the VPN.

Results: After this exercise, you should have created a new VPN connection on LON-CL2, and have enabled and tested NAP on LON-CL2.

To prepare for the next module

When you are finished the lab, revert all virtual machines to their initial state. To do this, perform the following steps:

1. 2. 3. 4.

On the host computer, start Hyper-V Manager. In the Virtual Machines list, right-click 20411B-LON-CL2, and then click Revert. In the Revert Virtual Machines dialog box, click Revert. Repeat steps 2 and 3 for 20411B-LON-RTR and 20411B-LON-DC1.

Module Review and Takeaways


Review Questions
Question: What are the three main client configurations that you need to configure for most NAP deployments?

Question: You want to evaluate the overall health and security of the NAP enforced network. What do you need to do to start recording NAP events? Question: On a client computer, what steps must you perform to ensure that its health is assessed?

Tools
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Tool
Services

Use For
Enable and configure the NAP service on client computers.

Where to find it
Click Start , click Control Panel , click System and Maintenance, click Administrative Tools, and then double-click Services.

Netsh nap

Using netsh, you can create scripts to configure a set of NAP automatically, and display the configuration and status of the NAP client service.

Open a command window with administrative rights, and then type netsh c nap . You can type help to get a full list of available commands.

Group Policy

Some NAP deployments that use Windows Security Health Validator require that Security Center is enabled.

Enable the Turn on Security Center (Domain PCs only) setting in the Computer Configuration/Administrative Templates /Windows Components/Security Center sections of Group Policy.

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Lab Answer Key: Module 9: Implementing Network Access Protection Lab: Implementing NAP
Exercise 1: Configuring NAP Components
Task 1: Configure server and client certificate requirements

1. 2.

On LON-DC1, in Server Manager, click Tools, and then click Certification Authority. In the certsrv management console, expand Adatum-LON-DC1-CA, right-click Certificate Templates, and then select Manage on the context menu.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

In the Certificate Templates Console details pane, right-click Computer, and then click Properties. Click the Security tab in the Computer Properties dialog box, and then select Authenticated Users. In the Permissions for Authenticated Users, select the Allow check box for the Enroll permission, and then click OK. Close the Certificate Templates Console. In certsrv [Certification Authority (Local)], right-click Adatum-LON-DC1-CA, point to All Tasks and then click Stop Service .

8. 9.

Right-click Adatum-LON-DC1-CA, point to All Tasks and then click Start Service . Close the certsrv management console.

Task 2: Configure health policies

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Switch to the LON-RTR computer. Sign in as Adatum\Administrator with the password Pa$$w0rd. Pause your mouse pointer in the lower-left of the taskbar, and then click Start. On the Start screen, type mmc.exe , and then press Enter. On the File menu, click Add/Remove Snap-in. In the Add or Remove Snap-ins dialog box, click Certificates, click Add, select Computer account, click Next, and then click Finish.

7. 8. 9.

In the Add or Remove Snap-ins dialog box, click OK. In the console tree, expand Certificates, right-click Personal, point to All Tasks, and then click Request New Certificate . The Certificate Enrollment dialog box opens. Click Next.

10. On the Select Certificate Enrollment Policy page, click Active Directory Enrollment Policy, and then click Next. 11. Select the Computer check box, and then click Enroll.

12. Verify the status of certificate installation as Succeeded, and then click Finish. 13. Close the Console1 window. 14. Click No when prompted to save console settings. 15. On LON-RTR, switch to Server Manager. 16. In Server Manager, in the details pane, click Add roles and features. 17. Click Next. 18. On the Select installation type page, click Next. 19. On the Select destination server page, click Next. 20. On the Select server roles page, select the Network Policy and Access Services check box. 21. Click Add Features, and then click Next twice. 22. On the Network Policy and Access Services page, click Next. 23. On the Select Role Services page, click Next. 24. Click Install. 25. Verify that the installation was successful, and then click Close . 26. Close the Server Manager window. 27. Pause your mouse pointer in the lower-left of the taskbar, and then click Start. 28. Click Network Policy Server. 29. Expand Network Access Protection, expand System Health Validators, expand Windows Security Health Validator, and then click Settings. 30. In the right pane under Name , double-click Default Configuration. 31. On the Windows 8/Windows 7/Windows Vista tab, clear all check boxes except the A firewall is enabled for all network connections check box, and then click OK. 32. In the navigation pane, expand Policies. 33. Right-click Health Policies and then click New . 34. In the Create New Health Policy dialog box, under Policy name , type Compliant. 35. Under Client SHV checks, verify that Client passes all SHV checks is selected. 36. Under SHVs used in this health policy, select the Windows Security Health Validator check box. 37. Click OK. 38. Right-click Health Policies, and then click New . 39. In the Create New Health Policy dialog box, under Policy Name , type Noncompliant. 40. Under Client SHV checks, select Client fails one or more SHV checks. 41. Under SHVs used in this health policy, select the Windows Security Health Validator check box. 42. Click OK.

Task 3: Configure network policies

1.

In the navigation pane, under Policies, click Network Policies.

Important: Disable the two default policies found under Policy Name by right-clicking the policies, and then clicking Disable .

2. 3.

Right-click Network Policies, and then click New . On the Specify Network Policy Name and Connection Type page, under Policy name , type Compliant-Full-Access, and then click Next.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

On the Specify Conditions page, click Add. In the Select condition dialog box, double-click Health Policies. In the Health Policies dialog box, under Health policies, select Compliant, and then click OK. On the Specify Conditions page, click Next. On the Specify Access Permission page, click Next. On the Configure Authentication Methods page, clear all check boxes, select the Perform machine health check only check box, and then click Next.

10. Click Next again. 11. On the Configure Settings page, click NAP Enforcement. Verify that Allow full network access is selected, and then click Next. 12. On the Completing New Network Policy page, click Finish. 13. Right-click Network Policies, and then click New . 14. On the Specify Network Policy Name And Connection Type page, under Policy name , type Noncompliant-Restricted, and then click Next. 15. On the Specify Conditions page, click Add. 16. In the Select condition dialog box, double-click Health Policies. 17. In the Health Policies dialog box, under Health policies, select Noncompliant, and then click OK. 18. On the Specify Conditions page, click Next. 19. On the Specify Access Permission page, verify that Access granted is selected, and then click Next. 20. On the Configure Authentication Methods page, clear all check boxes, select the Perform machine health check only check box, and then click Next. 21. Click Next again. 22. On the Configure Settings page, click NAP Enforcement. Click Allow limited access. 23. Clear the Enable auto-remediation of client computers check box. 24. In the Configure Settings window, click IP Filters.

25. Under IPv4, click Input Filters, and then click New . 26. In the Add IP Filter dialog box, select Destination network. 27. In the IP address box, type 172.16.0.10. 28. In the Subnet mask box, type 255.255.255.255, and then click OK. 29. Click Permit only the packets listed below , and then click OK. 30. Under IPv4, click Output Filters, and then click New . 31. In the Add IP Filter dialog box, select Source network. 32. In the IP address box, type 172.16.0.10. 33. In the Subnet mask box, type 255.255.255.255, and then click OK. 34. Click Permit only the packets listed below , and then click OK. 35. On the Configure Settings page, click Next. 36. On the Completing New Network Policy page, click Finish.

Task 4: Configure connection request polices for VPN

1. 2.

Click Connection Request Policies. Disable both the default Connection Request policies that are found under Policy Name by right-clicking each of the policies, and then clicking Disable .

3. 4.

Right-click Connection Request Policies, and then click New . On the Specify Connection Request Policy Name And Connection Type page, in the Policy name box, type VPN connections.

5. 6. 7.

Under Type of network access server, select Remote Access Server (VPN-Dial up), and then click Next. On the Specify Conditions page, click Add. In the Select Condition dialog box, double-click Tunnel Type , and then select PPTP, SSTP, and L2TP. Click OK, and then click Next.

8.

On the Specify Connection Request Forwarding page, verify that Authenticate requests on this server is selected, and then click Next.

9.

On the Specify Authentication Methods page, select the Override network policy authentication settings check box.

10. Under EAP Types, click Add. 11. In the Add EAP dialog box, under Authentication methods, click Microsoft: Protected EAP (PEAP), and then click OK. 12. Under EAP Types, click Add. In the Add EAP dialog box, under Authentication methods, click Microsoft: Secured password (EAP-MSCHAP v2), and then click OK. 13. Under EAP Types, click Microsoft: Protected EAP (PEAP), and then click Edit. 14. Verify that Enforce Network Access Protection is selected, and then click OK.

15. Click Next twice, and then click Finish.

Results: After this exercise, you should have installed and configured the required NAP components, created the health and network policies, and created the connection request policies.

Exercise 2: Configuring VPN Access


Task 1: Configure a VPN Server

1. 2.

On LON-RTR, pause your mouse pointer in the lower-left of the taskbar, and then click Start. Click Routing and Remote Access. If prompted, at the Enable DirectAccess Wizard dialog box, click Cancel and then click OK.

3.

In the Routing and Remote Access console, right-click LON-RTR (local), and then click Disable Routing and Remote Access.

4. 5.

In the dialog box, click Yes. In the Routing and Remote Access console, right-click LON-RTR (local), and then click Configure and Enable Routing and Remote Access.

6. 7. 8.

Click Next, select Remote access (dial-up or VPN), and then click Next. Select the VPN check box, and then click Next. Click the network interface called Local Area Connection 2. Clear the Enable security on the selected interface by setting up static packet filters check box, and then click Next.

9.

On the IP Address Assignment page, select From a specified range of addresses, and then click Next.

10. On the Address Range Assignment page, click New . Type 172.16.0.100 next to Start IP address and 172.16.0.110 next to End IP address, and then click OK. Verify that 11 IP addresses were assigned for remote clients, and then click Next. 11. On the Managing Multiple Remote Access Servers page, ensure that No, use Routing and Remote Access to authenticate connection requests is selected, and then click Next. 12. Click Finish. 13. Click OK twice, and then wait for the Routing and Remote Access Service to start. 14. Switch to Network Policy Server. 15. In the Network Policy Server, click Connection Request Policies, and in the results pane, verify that the Microsoft Routing and Remote Access Service Policy, is Disabled.

Note: Click Action, and then click Refresh. If the Microsoft Routing and Remote Access Service Policy is Enabled, right-click it, and then click Disable .

16. Close the Network Policy Server management console. 17. Close the Routing and Remote Access console.

Task 2: Allow PING for testing purposes

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

On LON-RTR, pause your mouse pointer in the lower-left of the taskbar, and then click Start. Click Administrative Tools, and then double-click Windows Firewall with Advanced Security. Click Inbound Rules, right-click Inbound Rules, and then click New Rule . Select Custom, and then click Next. Select All programs, and then click Next. Next to Protocol type , select ICMPv4, and then click Customize . Select Specific ICMP types, select the Echo Request check box, click OK, and then click Next. Click Next to accept the default scope. In the Action window, verify that Allow the connection is selected, and then click Next.

10. Click Next to accept the default profile. 11. In the Name window, under Name , type ICMPv4 echo request, and then click Finish. 12. Close the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security console.

Results: After this exercise, you should have created a VPN server and configured inbound communications.