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1. What is air pollution? 2. Causes of Air Pollution 3. Effects of Air Pollution 4.

What is the Status of Air Quality in the Country? 90 ug/Ncm annual air quality guideline value for Total Suspended Particulates (TSP) The air quality of our country is still dirty but improving in terms of TSP. For 2008, TSP level is 99ug/Ncm 29% reduction from 2004 to 2008 5. What is the Specific Air Quality of Metro Manila? 90 ug/Ncm annual air quality guideline value for Total Suspended Particulates (TSP) The air quality of Metro Manila is still dirty but improving in terms of TSP. For 2008, TSP level is 138 ug/Ncm 15% reduction from 2004 to 2008 6. How is Metro Manila Air Quality Compared with Other International Cities? Based on the Environmental Performance Index for 2008, the Philippines ranks 5th (out of 11 countries) in the ASEAN Region,including Japan, China and South Korea 7. What is the Correlation between Air Quality and Health in Metro Manila (from 2003 to 2007)? Data from the DOHs Field Health Survey and the EMBs air quality monitoring both show a downward trend from 2003 through 2007 in terms of bronchitis health data. Based on DOH data on morbidity cases for Air Pollution Related Diseases 20032007:Bronchitis: 29% (decrease) Air Quality: 19 % (decrease)

This downward trend is supported by the findings of a study of the DOH under the MMAQISDP in cooperation with the Asian Development Bank and the World Health Organization conducted from 2002 through 2003. It was also found that there is a significant improvement in blood lead levels among children in Metro Manila since 2000 when the unleaded gasoline policy has been implemented. In 2003, only 34.6% of study children exceeding the USCDC guideline value of 10g/dl as compared to 90.3% in 2000. 8. What are the Reasons on the Downward Trend of Air Quality in Metro Manila? Completion of the MRT construction along EDSA Implementation of the MMDAUnified Vehicle Reduction Program along main thoroughfares (Color coding) i.e. EDSA Intensified antismoke belching operations by MMDA thru MMAQISDP (20002002), the SMOKE FREE EDSA (Oct 2003) later changed to LINIS HANGIN PROGRAM (Nov. 2004 up to June 2009) by DENR. Effective July 2009, INTENSIFIED ASB OEPRATIONS OF THE METRO MANILA LGUsin coordination with the MMASBA, LTO and LTFRB Intensified stack emission testing program of industrial sources/facilities within the Metro Manila Airshed(MMAQISDP)/accreditation of 3rd Party Stack Emission Firms (2003present) Use of Alternative FuelsConversion of gasolinefed taxis to LPG Introduction of new CNG buses pursuant to Executive Order No. 290 [Natural Gas Vehicle Program for Public Transport (NGVPPT)] dated 14 February 2004. To date, a total of 30 new CNG buses plying the route of Batangas/Sta. CruzEDSACubao & vice versa (on commercial scale) Intensified IEC and public awareness campaign Voluntary phaseout of 2stroke motorcycles by the motorcycle manufacturers in mid 2006 9. Acts and Laws 10. How air pollution is controlled Pollution control equipment can reduce emissions by cleaning exhaust and dirty air before it leaves the business. A wide variety of equipment can be used to clean dirty air. DNR engineers carefully study and review

how these controls may work and the methods and requirements are put into a permit - a major duty performed by the DNR. How common control equipment works is explained below:

Bag Houses or Fabric Filters Scrubbers or Wet Collectors Adsorbers Cyclones Vapor Condensers Electrostatic Precipitators Flares Afterburners Catalytic Oxidizers In Iowa, fabric filters, commonly called baghouses, are widely used industrial strength "vacuum cleaners." They remove particulate matter found in smoke, vapors, dust or mists. The filters remove particles from exhaust gases, leaving the particles on the filter while the cleaner air passes through. Collected particulates form a "dust cake" on the filter that is routinely cleaned off by a blast of air in the opposite direction or by mechanical shaking. The dust cake falls into a hopper for disposal or reuse in the industrial process. Filter bags hang in a sturdy house. Sometimes the house is insulated when cleaning hot gases to prevent corrosive moisture or acid mists from condensing and harming the equipment. Sometimes dozens, even hundreds of cylindrical filters, each eight to 40 feet long may hang in a series of houses at one location. Filters are made of woven cotton, wool or synthetic materials. Some synthetic materials can withstand high temperatures or are resistant to chemical reaction. Each baghouse must meet the needs of the particular industry process. Gas temperature, moisture content and chemical reactivity decide what filter material is used.

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Scrubbers or wet collectors remove particles or gases from the exhaust stream by using water sprays. Gases can be absorbed if they are water-soluble or by adding various chemicals to the spray. Particles of dust or soot can also be captured in microscopic liquid mists. Before the exhaust leaves the scrubber, the liquid mists must be collected before the exhaust enters the public air. Generally, high-powered scrubbers remove more particles but are more costly to operate due to added energy costs. Scrubbers that remove gases like sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides or hydrochloric acid depend more heavily on the mechanical and chemical engineering design, not as much on power. Scrubbers are generally better at removing particles than cyclones, but not as good as electrostatic precipitators or baghouses unless operated at high power. 3. Activated carbon, silica gel and alumina oxide are common adsorbing agents. The chemical nature of the adsorbent, the total surface area (how porous it is), and pore diameter are given careful consideration before adsorbers are used. If the gas contains particulate matter, the adsorbent bed can become clogged. Some gas is precleaned by a baghouse filter, electrostatic precipitator or cyclone to remove particulate matter before entering the adsorber. How are Adsorbers Cleaned? Like squeezing a sponge for reuse, adsorbers can be refreshed too. There are several chemical principles that apply to how adsorbers work. For example, as gas temperature increases, adsorption decreases. As gas pressure increases, so does adsorption. The slower the gas moves through adsorption materials, the more gas removed. These same principles are used to regenerate or refresh saturated adsorbers. 4. To most Iowans, the word "cyclone" refers to Iowa State University-the home of the Cyclones. But in air pollution control, a cyclone is a device used to remove larger size particles, about 20 microns in diameter, from the air stream. Often, more than 80 percent of particles are removed. More efficient equipment like baghouses or electrostatic precipitators can then remove the smaller particles.

Cyclones are often found at feed mills, crushers, dryers, grain elevators, and even high school industrial arts classrooms. Photos. In industrial uses, cyclones are often used as precleaners for more expensive and sophisticated control equipment such as electrostatic precipitators or baghouses. 5. Condensers turn a gaseous vapor to a liquid. Any gas can be liquefied if the temperature is lowered enough or if it is pressurized. Condensers cool vapors enough to turn them into liquid. Dry cleaning machines may use vapor condensers to cool evaporated cleaning solvents such as perchloroethylene for reuse. Without the condenser, the chemical vapor would be lost into the air and more chemicals purchased. Large storage tanks may use condensers to capture evaporated gases and return them to storage. This prevents Iowans from breathing the vapors and allows businesses to use the liquid for its intended purpose, reducing emissions and sometimes saving cost. Condensers often act as pre-cleaners to remove gas vapors before the air is sent to more expensive control equipment such as incinerators or adsorbers. This reduces the volume of gas needing treatment to reduce costs. 6. Electrostatic Precipitators or ESPs have been used in industry for over 60 years. They can collect particles sized 0.1 to 10 microns very efficiently. They are generally more efficient at collecting fine particles than scrubbers or cyclones. Electrostatic precipitators take advantage of the electrical principle that opposites attract. A high voltage electrode negatively charges airborne particles in the exhaust stream. As the exhaust gas passes through this electrified field, the particles are charged. Typically 20,000 to 70,000 volts are used. A large, grounded flat metal surface acts as a collection electrode. Microscopic particles are attracted to this surface where they build-up to form a dust cake. Periodically, a rapper strikes the plate to knock the dust cake into a collection hopper.

7. Combustion can also be used to control emissions of hydrocarbons and other organic vapors such as chlorine, fluorine and particulate matter (soot). If a process emits volatile organic compounds such as ink fumes from a large commercial printing operation, the fumes can be destroyed or burned. Flares dispose of intermittent or emergency releases of combustible gases from industrial sources. They are often found in refineries or chemical plants. In a flare, combustible gases are burned in a flame. They are designed to do so with minimal smoke (smoke is made up of dense amounts of soot particulates.) 8. Afterburners use a flame enclosed within a chamber. Combustion byproducts include water vapor and carbon dioxide gas. They are commonly used to destroy volatile organic compounds. Heat tolerant refractory bricks line the chamber. Pollutant-laden gases are passed through the chamber and burned at temperatures between 1300 to 1500 degrees Fahrenheit. Because of rising fuel costs, heat recovery systems can use waste heat for useful purposes.

9. A catalyst is a chemical that causes or speeds up chemical reactions without the catalyst itself changing. A catalyst can speed up the burning of organic gases or require lower temperatures to save fuel usage and reduce costs. Platinum or palladium are two elements often used as catalysts. Automobile catalytic converters operate on the same principles to reduce tailpipe emissions. One concern with catalytic oxidizers is contamination or deactivation of the catalyst material. Particulate matter like soot and dust can coat the catalyst surface. Certain chemicals can combine or react with the catalyst to deactivate it. Sulfur in gasoline for example, reduces the

longevity of auto catalytic converters. The U.S. EPA is pushing for reduced amounts of sulfur in gasoline and diesel fuel. This will reduce the 'poisoning' of catalytic converters for better emission controls and reduced sulfur oxides in the air.
http://www.iowadnr.gov/Environment/AirQuality/HowAirPollutionIsControlled.aspx