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A PROJECT REPORT in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree of
BACHELOR OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (BBA)
BBA(CAM)5 Sem Enrol No.:00221501909
CHANDERPRABHU JAIN COLLEGE OF HIGHER STUDIES
& SCHOOL OF LAW
GURU GOBIND SINGH INDERPRASTHA UNIVERSITY
Recruitment And Selection
Table Of Content
CONTENTS o Acknowledgement o Declaration o Objective of study o Executive summary o HR planning and measurement 1- Introduction 2- Manpower planning 3- Flowchart o Employee recruitment 1- Introduction 2- Source of recruitment 3- Flow chart o Selection 1- Introduction 2- Procedure of selection 3- Flowchart o Organization structure o Recruitment procedure of Moserbaer o Selection procedure of Moserbaer o Flowchart o Sample of questionnaire o Data analysis o Conclusion o Limitation
o Recommendation o Bibliography ACKNOWLEDGEMENT .
Garima DECLARATION . ‘Mr. continuous encouragement and close supervision at every stage of this work despite their over bust time schedule. Narela.It represents a constructive co-operation and enthusiastic guidance of the persons who remained sources of inspiration and contribution to the present study deserve to be acknowledgement in the right earnest. instructive suggestions. I owe my humble gratitude to faculty guide.Shobha’ of HR Department (Moser Baer India Ltd. I would like to thank the entire employees and managers for giving their valuable inputs in making these project a success.Bunty Dahiya of our college. I expressed a deep sense of gratitude in reverence of my guide ms. Chander Prabhu Jain College of Higher Studies.Subodh Sinha’ of Personnel Department and ‘Mrs.) for their scholarly guidance.
Bunty Dahiya . The facts and figures presented in this report are primary data collected by individual efforts personally through interviews with regard to the interaction held.I hereby jointly declare that the project” People Management System. Name of student: Garima Name of Guide: Ms. a status report” is completely an original work.
Kashmere Gate. Delhi is a record of the candidate own work carried out by him under my/our supervision. The matter embodied in this thesis is original and has not been submitted for the award of any other degree. Garima student of BBA(CAM) final year. to GGSIP University. has undergone the project titled a report on “Manpower Recruitment and Selection of Moser Baer” in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of degree B.A.CERTIFICATE This is to certify that Ms.Bunty Dahiya .B. Signature Ms.
Objective of the Project .
apart from theoretical studies we need to get a deeper insight into the practical aspects of those theories by working as a part of organization during our summer training is a period in which a student can apply his theoretical knowledge in practical field. materialistic and even more interesting. The study of management acquires most crucial position in the business administration. Basically practical knowledge and theoretical knowledge have a very broad difference. The training has been a life long experience. So this training has high importance as to know how both the aspects are applied together. but as we are the management students. which has its own importance. It has helped me to know about the organizational management and discipline. But it can’t be denied that the study of management would be more educational. it is necessary to give priority to the management in an organization. The training session helps to get details about the working process in the organization. if it is to be paired with the work in organization as an employee. . In order to be successful.All students learn theoretical subjects in their classroom.
Corporate Office of MOSERBAER Executive Summary .
MBI is an ISO 9002 certified company. (Noida) is one of the world’s largest manufactures of storage-media. It has 6 manufacturing plants in India. data media & audio storage products.9 crore in 2001 to 1. The MBI Product range includes Magnetic Recordable Media. With the record sales of Rs33601 million in 2000-2001 MBI achieved a significant share of 5% of the global consumer data storage market. Is the world’s third largest manufacturer of magnetic. has 5 global brands & has put in place a strong distribution network in Europe & America to keep in close touch with clients. which includes recordable compact disks.069. The company’s net sales grew from 333. Moser Baer India Ltd.5 . Floppy Disks or Diskettes and Optical Recordable Media. In India its sales is close to 50% of the total market share for storage media products. Stringent adherence to quality standards with a zero-error mission and constant value additions have entrusted the major resellers & retailers in Europe & America.Moser Baer India Ltd. About 90% sales of IVIBI products are to markets abroad particularly in Europe. recordable media & optical recordable media. also known as Micro. and the blue chip buyers sell its products to customers in 82 countries across 6 continents.
crore last years. In the same period net profit grew from 138.5 crore to 245.3 crore. MBI is now counting on the fresh capacity to propel itself forward as the DVD market explodes. The characteristics that set Moser Baer apart from others are as follows: o MBI has proved its ability to execute projects fast and at low cost. o MBI is no competition of significance in the domestic market. o It has rumpled up capacity for DVD-R, demand for which is set to explode. o There is low production cost. A large range of products, quality and a strong distribution network. The changing global trade scenario has already dragged Moser Baer into 5 antidumping cases initiated by the European Commission. The latest was a proposal in midway this year to impose a 7.3% countervailing duty on imports of CD-R’s originating in India. Fortunately for the company, it has emerged victorious in all anti- dumping cases so far. The company enjoys a solid backing from its strategic equity investors, International Finance Corporation, Wartburg Pincus, & JF Electra.
Moser Baer was incorporated in March 1983. MBI was started at Noida Export Processing Zone (NEPZ). The first product launched was “Punching Machine”, then it switched over to the production of “Floppy” and later on CD’s and now over DVD. It has entered 20th year of operations in India. MBI has made its mark as one of the largest optical and magnetic media production companies in the world. With an 80 member in-house research and engineering team striving for continuous enhancement of machine design, process design, product-innovation, MBI has ploughed back 2.0 to 2.5 of annual revenues into research and development. MBI today is the third largest optical media manufacturer with 11% market share. It has capered 45% market share in a market that is expected to grow 5 times over next 3 years. Mr. Deepak Puri founded the company. Moser Baer India Ltd. is an ISO 9002 certified company, and blue chip buyer’s customers in 82 countries sell its products across 6 continents. It has 6 manufacturing plants in India, has 5 global brands and has put in place a strong distribution network in Europe and America to keep in close touch with clients.
Market is already providing to be a cakewalk. Three months after the launch of its own brand, Moser Baer has already exceeded its first target of a 10% share of the market. Challenges being faced by Moser Baer o The company has to be careful with where its apex is going. It can’t make too much product specific investment. The life cycle of most storage media formats peters out after 10 years or so. o The other challenge is to consolidate in the domestic market. Which accounts for merely 20% of sales & where MBI has just lunched its own eponymous brand.
Optical media has the obvious choice of the consumers due to the easy availability of drives. The market for these products is global in nature demand. With the growth in availability of digital content. beta COM. rewritable & pre-recorded formats. and magnetic tapes like compact cassette. etc. MBI like its peers in Japan & Taiwan. MBI is currently positioned as one of the largest manufacturers of optical products in the world. o OPTICAL MEDIA. The min categories re s under: o MGNESTIC MEDI. VHS.INDUSTRY STUDY Moser Baer operates in the removal data storage industry. caters. to the major global markets & has the additional advantages of satisfying a large & fast growing domestic demand.computer tapes.memory stick.CD & DVD formats including recordable. the optional category has undergone an explosion in demand over the last few years. multimedia cards etc. data cartridges. o SOLID STATE MEDIA. high capacity & low cost per megabyte. The major brands in the industry are .
reciprocal training programs etc. but not sourcing collaborative R & D programs. IMATION BASF etc. . TDK. MBI presently supplies its products to 8 of the top global brands on a medium to long term basis & has strategic relationships with some of these companies encompassing a range of activities including. most manufacturers including MBI supply to a number of these branded players & usually have strong long-term relationships with them. SONY.household names like SAMSUNG. MAXELL. VERBATIM.
Theoretical Overview .
Coleman has defined human resources of manpower planning s “the process of determining manpower requirement and the means for meeting those requirements in order to carry out the integrated plan of the organization. either in term of mathematical projections of trends in the economy and . This involves ensuring that the firm has enough of the right kind of people t the right time and also dusting the requirement to the available supply.MANPOWER PLANNING Manpower planning may be defined a strategy for the acquisition. Forecasting future manpower requirements. improvement and preservation of an enterprise’s human resources. improvement and preservation on of the human resources of n enterprise. which is aimed to coordinating the requirement for and the availability of different types of employees. Steiner defines manpower planning s “Strategy for the acquisition. utilization. It is the activity of the management. It relates to establishing job specifications or the quantitative requirements of jobs determining the number of personnel required and developing sources of manpower.” The major activities of manpower planning include: 1.
motivation and compensation to ensure that future manpower requirements re properly met. 4. without the corporate plan. promotion. Planning the human for recruitment. there can not be manpower plan. Anticipating manpower problems by projecting present resources into future and comparing them with the forecast of requirements to determine their adequacy. Coping with change-HRP enables an enterprise to cope with changes in competitive forces markets. Such changes generate changes in job content. skill demands arid number and type . selection. products and government regulations. Importance of manpower planning 1. Making and inventory of present manpower resources and assessing the extent to which these resources re employed optimally. utilization transfer. development. training. technology. 3.development in the industry or of judgment estimates based upon specific future plans of the company. both quantitatively and quantitatively. 2. The manpower planning is a part of the corporate plan.
3. Shortage of people may be induced in come areas while surplus in other may occur. The department’s ability to fill key jobs with foreign nationals and the re-assignment of employees from within or across national borders is a major challenge facing inter-global operation. Creating highly talented personnel: Jobs are becoming highly intellectual and incumbents are getting vastly professional. as will the need to integrate HRP more closely into the organization’s strategic plan. children of the socially and politically oppressed and backward class citizens. the need for HRP will grow. .International expansion strategies depend upon HRP. The HR manager must use his/her ingenuity to attract and retain qualified and skilled personnel. Protection of weaker selections: In matters of employment and promotions. International Strategies. withstanding the constitutional provision with guarantees equal opportunities for ll. These groups enjoy a given percentage of jobs. Sufficient representation needs to SC/ST candidates. 2. 4. A well conceived personnel planning program would project the interests of such groups. physically handicapped.of personnel.
8.Manpower planning provides essential information for designing and personnel functions. Upper management has a better view of the HR dimensions of business decisions. Human assets as opposed to physical asset can increase in value. promotions. Other benefitsFollowing are potential benefits of HRP I. An employee who gradually develops his pier skills and abilities becomes a more valuable resource. Resistance to change and move.Another compelling reason for HRP is the investment an organization makes in human resources. personnel government (transfer. Such as recruitment. 7.There is a growing resistance among employees to change and move. Foundation For Personnel Functions.5. 6. . layoffs) and training and development. there is also a growing emphasis on self-evaluation and on evaluation of loyalty and dedications to the organization. All those changes are making it more difficult for the organization to assume that it can move its employees around anywhere and anytime it thus increasing the importance and necessity of planning ahead. Increasing investment in Human Resources.
Better opportunities exist to include women and minority groups in future growth plans. Major and successful demands on local labor can be made. More times is providing to locate source talent. VI. III. Personnel cost may be less because the management can anticipate imbalance before they become unmanageable and expensive. Better planning of assignment to develop mangers can be done. V. .II. IV.
Manufacturing organizations are more complex in this respect in than those that render services.Factors Affecting HRP 1. Type and strategy of organization: The type of organization is an important consideration because it dreaminess the production process involved. The strategy of the organization: defines the organization’s HR needs. For example. a strategy of internal growth means that additional employees must be hired. Acquisitions or merges on the other hand probably means that the organization will need to plan for layoffs since merges tends to create duplicate or overlapping positions that can he handled more efficiently with fewer employees. . number and type of staff needed and supervisory and managerial personnel required.
Small organizations in the embryonic stage may not have personnel planning. Organizational growth cycles and planning: The stages of an organization’s growth can have considerable influence on HRP.Internal growth Growth through merges and acquisitions Broad Narrow Informal Formal Reactive Proactive Inflexible Flexible 2. .
3. Environmental Uncertainties: HR mangers rarely have the privilege of operation in stable and predictable environment. Internal development of people also begins to receive attention in order to keep up with the growth. Personnel planners deal with environmental uncertainties by carefully formulation recruitment. HR forecasting becomes essential. selection and training and development policies and programs. social and economic changes effect all organizations.Need of planning is felt when the organization enters the growth stage. . Political.
Layoffs. Shortage Recruitment and selection . VRS. Reduced Hours. etc. Restricted Hiring. Environment Organizational Objectives and policies HR need forecast HR supply forecast HR Programming HR Implementation Control and Evaluation of Program ced Surplus. The planning process is influenced by overall organizational objectives and the environment of business.The Planning Process HRP essentially involves forecasting personnel need assessing personnel supply and matching demand-supply factors through personnel related programs. Figure illustrates the planning process.
How do the training and development objectives interface with the HRP objectives? 3. In developing these objectives. the HR department must specify its objectives with regard to HR utilization in the organization. this implies that the objectives of the HR plan must be derived from organizational objectives. organizational objectives are defined by the top management and the role of HRP is to sub serve.Organizational Objectives and Policies HR plans need to be based on organizational objectives. Specific requirements in terms of number and characteristics of employees should be derived from the organizational objectives. communicated and understood by all concerned. Once the organizational objectives are specified. Are vacancies to be filled by promotion from within or hiring from outside? 2. In practice. What union constraints are encountered in HRP and what policies are needed to handled these constraints? . specific policies need to be formulated to address the following questions: 1. As was stated in the previous chapter. the overall objectives by ensuring availability and utilization of human resources.
4. How to enrich employee’s job? Should the routine and bearing jobs continue or are eliminated? 5. How to down size the organization to make it more competitive? 6. To what extent production and operations be automated and what can be done about those displaced/ 7. How to ensure continuous availability of adaptive and flexible work-force?
HR Demand Forecast Demand forecasting is the process of estimating the future required the quantity and quality of people required. The basis of the forecast must be the annual budget and long term corporate plan. Translate into activity levels for each function and department. Demand forecasting must consider several factors both external as well as internal; among the external factors is competition (foreign and domestic), Economic climate, laws and regulatory bodies, changes in technology and social factors, internal factors include budgets constraints, production levels, new products and services organizational structure, and employee separations. Demand forecasting is common among organizations though they may not do personnel-supply forecasting.
Forecasting Techniques Managerial judgment. This technique is very simple. In this managers sit together, discuss and arrive at a figure, which would be the future demand for labour; the technique may involve a ‘bottom-up’ or a ‘top-down’ approach. In the first, Line managers submit their departmental proposals to the top managers who arrives at the company forecasts. In the ‘topdown’ approach, top managers prepare company and departmental forecasts. These forecasts are reviewed with departmental heads and agreed upon. Neither of these approaches is accurate a combination of the two could yield positive results. In the ‘bottom-up’ and ‘top-down’ approaches, departmental heads are provided with broad guidelines. Armed with such guidelines and in consultation with the HRP selection in the HRM department, departmental managers can prepare forecasts for their respective departments.
say between the number of workers and sales in an organization and forecasting future ratios. Demand Forecast Inspectors Year -3 actual Production 1500 1800 2000 2209 2500 2750 Inspector Inspector 150 180 180 200 210 230 1 1 1 1 1 1 Production 10 10 11 11 12 12 -2 Last year Next year Forecast +2 +3 Calculated by reference to forecast activity levels. Given table shows how actual and forecast ratios between the number of routine proposals to be processed by an insurance company’s underwriting department and the number of underwriters employed could be used to forecast future requirements. The technique involves studying past ratios. . Calculated by applying forecast ratio to forecast activity levels.Ratio-trend analysis: This is the quickest forecasting technique. making some allowance for changes in the organization or its methods.
g. production etc) and dependent variables (e. These are complex and are used only by big organization.. Several types of models e. prepared in terms of volume of saleable products for the company as a whole.Mathematical Models: This expresses the relationship between independent variables (like investment. The budget of productive hours is then compiled using standard hours for direct labour. optimization and probabilistic models can be used.Work-study Techniques: These can be used when it is possible to apply work measurement to calculate the length of amount of labour restarting point operation and the amount of labour required. or volumes of output for individual departments.g. The planned volume of units to be produced to give the total number of planned hours for the period then multiplies the standard hours per unit of output.-number of workers required). sales. This is then divided by the number of actual working hours for an individual operator to show the number of absenteeism and . The starting point in a manufacturing company as a whole or volume of output for in a production budget. 2.regression.1. Thus a number of variables influencing manpower future needs are put into a formula.
The distinguishing feature of the Delphi technique is the absence of interaction among experts. It solicits estimates of personnel needs from a group of managers. The HRP experts are surveyed again after they receive this feedback. . Productive hour per man/year 2000 units 5 100. Summaries and surveys are repeated until the expert’s opinions begin to agree. Same logic extended to any other category of employees. Following is a highly simplified example of this procedure. establishing the ratio between the two categories. 3. a. Number of direct workers required(4/5) 50 Work-study technique for direct workers can be combined with ratio-trend analysis to for indirect workers.idle time. the Delphi technique is a method of forecasting personnel needs. Standard hours per unit c. Delphi technique: Named after the ancient Greek oracle at the city Delphi.000 2000 (Allowing normal overtime. absenteeism and idle time) e. Planned flours for the year d. The agreement reached is the forecast of personnel needs. Planned output for next year b.
assume greater importance. . selection and placement. therefore. * HR Plans Implementation: Implementation requires converting an HR plan into action. That will be required. Supply forecasting measures the number of people likely to be available from within and outside an organization after making allowance from absenteeism. training. The next logical step for the management is to determine whether it will be able to produce the required number of personnel and the sources for such procurement.HR Supply Forecast Personnel demand analysis provides. retaining and redeployment: the retention plan arid the redundancy plan. A series of action programs are initiated as a part of such programs are recruitment. the managers with the means of estimating the member and kind of employees. the third step in the planning process. internal movements and promotions. the two must be reconciled or balanced in order that vacancies can be filled by the right employees at the HR programming. wastage and change in hours and other conditions of work. and development. *HR Programming: Once an organization’s personnel and supply are forecast.
4. be aware of the corporate objectives. But they should be also report employment cost against budget. which will enable achievement to be monitored plan. 2. It should also clarify responsibilities for implementation and control. 3. The HR plan should include budgets. .* Control and Evaluation: This represents the fifth and the final phase in the GRIP process. Backing of the top management for HRP absolutely essential. HRP must recognize as an integral part of corporate planning. These may simply report on the numbers employed against establishments (identifying both those who are in post and those who are in pipeline) and on the numbers recruited against the recruitment targets. And trends in wastage arid employment ratios. Personnel record must be competing. targets and standards. arid establishes reporting. Requisites for Successful HRP 1. HRP responsibility should be centralized in order to coordinate consultation between different management levels. up to date and readily available. The planner of human resources must therefore.
techniques of planning and the plans themselves need to be constantly revised and improved in the light of experience. Data collection. analysis. The time horizon of the plan must be long enough to permit any remedial action. .5. 7. 6. Plans should be prepared by skills level rather than by aggregates. The techniques of planning should be those best suited to the date available and the degree of accuracy required. 8.
from among whom the right people can be selected. In other words it is a “linking activity” being together those with jobs and those seeking jobs. Recruiting is the discovering of operations of the organization potential applicants for actual or anticipated organizational vacancies. recruitment is a process of searching for and obtaining applicants for jobs.EMPLOYEE RECRUITMENT Recruitment forms the first stage in the process. . According to Date Yoder.” Recruitment is a process to discover the manpower to meet the requirements of the staffing schedule and to employ effective measures for attracting that manpower in adequate numbers to facilitate effective selection of an efficient working force. Which continues with selection and feasts with the placement of the candidate. Through theoretically. recruitment proves is said to end with the receipt of applications. In simple terms. in practice the extents to the screening of applicants so as to eliminate those who are not qualified for the job. Recruiting makes it possible to acquire the number and types of people necessary to ensure the continued operation.
2. Help in reduce the probability that job applicants. recruiting techniques and sources for all types of job applicants. 7. under qualified or over qualified job applicants. Increase organizational and individual effectiveness in the short term and long term. 8. Evaluate the effectiveness of various. Meet the organization’s legal and social obligations regarding the composition of its work force. Determine the present and future requirements of the organization it conjunction with its personnel-planning and job analysis activities. 4. Help in increase the success rate of selection process by reducing the number of visibly. Increase the pool of job candidates at minimum cost. once recruited and selected will leave organization only after a short period of time. Begin identifying and preparing potential job applicants who will be appropriate candidates.Purpose of Recruitment The general purpose of recruitment to provide a pool of potentially qualified job candidates. 3. . 6. Specially the purpose is to 1. 5.
recruitment is naturally subject to influence of several factors. 2. The number of unsolicited applicants is usually greater. These include external as well as internal forces: External factors 1. For instance. 3. and the increased size of the labour pool provides better opportunities for attracting qualified applicants. the demand for programmers and financial analysts is likely to be higher than their supply. Unemployment rate: When the unemployment rate in a given area is high.Factors Governing Recruitment Given its key role and external visibility. Labour market: Labour market conditions in a local area are of primary importance in recruiting for most non-managerial. so . Supply and Demand of particular importance is the supply and demand of specific skills in the famous market. However. If the demand for a particular skill is high relative to the supply an extraordinary recruiting effort may be needed. the company’s recruitment process may be simpler. supervisory and middle management position. as opposed to the demandsupply relationship for non-technical employees.
far as recruitment for executive and professional positions is concerned. conditions of all market are important. minorities and other backward classes (018Cs) is a political decision. as own employees know the . Most organizations have a policy on recruiting internally (from own employees) or externally (from outside the organization). 4. the policy is to prefer internal sourcing. Blue chip companies attract large number of applicants. Internal Factors 1. Political and legal considerations: reservation of jobs for SC’s. ST’s. Company’s image: The Company’s image also matters in attracting large number of job seekers. it is the perception of the jobseekers about the company that matters in attracting qualified perspective employees. Recruiting Policy: One of the internal factors is the recruiting policy of the organization. 5. There is a strong case for giving preference to people hailing from less advantaged selections of the society. it is not money that is important. Often. Generally. The Supreme Court also has agreed upon 50 percent reservation of seats and jobs. Reservation has been accepted as inevitable by all selections of the society.
MNC’s operating in our country prefers local citizens. recruiting plans may be made. 2. 3. once the best alternative have been identified. It takes time to examine the alternatives regarding the appropriate sources of recruits and the most productive methods for obtaining then. . there is the policy relating to the recruitment of local citizens. 4. Temporary arid Part-time Employees: An organization hiring temporary and part-time employees. Local citizens: In multinational corporations (MNC’s). as they can understand local language customs and business practices well. all organization hiring temporary and part-time employees is in a loss advantageous position attracting sufficient applications.company well and can recommend candidates who fit the organization’s culture. Effective HRO greatly facilitates the recruiting efforts. Human Resource Planning (HRP): A major internal factor that can determine the success of the recruiting programmed is whether or not company engages in HRP in most cases a company connote attract prospective employees in sufficient numbers and with required skills overnight.
is recruiting for multiple job openings simultaneous. 6. Recruiting cost are calculated per new hire and the figure is considerable now a clays. Careful HRP and forethought by recruiters call minimize recruitment costs. One cost-saving measure.5. for instance. operate within budgets. Cost: Cost of recruiting is yet another internal factor that has to be considered. therefore. An organization with one hundred thousand employees will find recruiting less problematic than an organization with just one hundred employees. Size: Size is another internal factor having its influence on the recruitment process. . Recruiters must.
(3) searching. . (2) strategy development. Viz (1) planning. Recruitment programs can miss the ideal in many-ways.By failing to attract an adequate applicant pool.Recruitment Process As was started earlier. where and how to look for individuals with the appropriate qualifications and interests. individuals responsible for the recruitment process must know how many and what types of employees are needed. (4) screening. to approach the ideal. what inducements to use (or avoid) for various types of applicant groups. and (5) evaluation and control ideal recruitment programmed is the one that attracts a relatively larger number of qualified applicants who will survive the screening process and accept positions with the organization. the process comprises five interrelated stages. by under/over selling the organization or by inadequately screening applicants before they enter the selection process. how to distinguish applicants who are unqualified from those who have a reasonable chance of success and how to evaluate their work. recruitment refers to the process of identifying. Thus. when offered. and attracting job seekers so as to build a pool of qualified job applicants.
Recruitment Planning The first stage in the recruitment process is planning. . Planning involves the translation of these jobs translation of likely job vacancies and information about (1) type into a set of objectives or targets that specify the (a) number and (b) type applicants to be contacted.
Sources of Recruitment 1) Direct methods. It is a method of encouraging efficient workers.The mostly used source of recruitment is direct method of recruitment. in trade and professional journals technical journals and brochures.Companies can give promotion to existing employees. .The organizations send recruiters to conventions and seminars setting Lip exhibits at fairs and using mobile offices to go to the desired centers. advertising in newspapers professional and technical journals is made. on the radio. 2) Indirect methods cover advertising in newspaper. This method of recruitment saves a lot of time. He is familiar with the working culture and working style. Since the employee has already worked with the company. When qualified and experienced persons are not available through other sources. money and efforts because the company does not have to train the existing employee. It’s types are as follows: a) Promotion. those who have previously applied for jobs can be contacted by mail. c) Previous applicants. b) Manned exhibits.Although riot truly an internal source. a quick and inexpensive way to fill all unexpected opening.
These methods include: a) Indoctrination seminars for college professors: These are arranged to discuss the problems of companies to which professors are invited.Whereas all types of advertisements can be made in newspapers and magazines and only particular types of posts should be advertised in the professional and technical journals for example. state agencies. . placement agencies. 4) Other methods. candidates can access their abilities and suitability of the position and only those who possess the requisite qualifications will apply. only engineering jobs should be inserted in journals of engineering. These include commercial and private employment agencies. This. Visits and banquets are arranged so that professors may be favorably impressed and later speak well of the company and help in getting required personnel. 3) Third Party methods.Various agencies are used for recruitment under these methods. government employment agencies. b) Friends and relatives of present employees constitute a good source from which employees may be drawn. A well thought-out and planned advertisement for an appointment reduces the possibility of unqualified people applying the advertisement is clear and to the point.
f) Casuals labour source is one. This source is the most uncertain of all sources. g) Deputation: Persons possessing certain abilities useful to another organization are sometime deputed to it for a specified . which presents itself daily at the factory gate or employment office.however. persons of one’s own community or case may only be employed. Most industrial rely to some extent on this source. e) Temporary helps agencies employ their own labour forces. d) Professional societies may provide leads and clues in providing promising candidates for engineering technical arid management positions. both full-time and part-time and make them available to their client organizations for temporary needs. Some of these maintain mail order placement services. Unions may be asked for recommendations largely as a matter of courtesy and an evidence of goodwill and cooperation. is likely to encourage nepotism i. c) Trade union is often called on by the employs to supply whatever additional employees may be needed. This may create problems for the organization.e.
former employees and former applicants. It is less costly. Internal Recruitment Internal recruitment seeks applicants for positions from those who are currently employed. a) Present employees: Promotions and transfers from among the present employees can be good source of recruitment. . Internal Recruitment 2. Ready expertise is available but. c) Former Employee: Some retired employees may be willing to come back to work on a part time basis or may recommended some one who would be interested in working for the company. b) Employees Referrals: As emplaned above in friends and relatives of present employees. as you can guess such employees do riot easily become part of organization. employee referrals.duration. External Recruitment 1. They can also be categorized as 1. Advantages of internal recruitment 1. Internal sources include present employees.
2. Employment Exchanges: As explained above in state or public employment agencies. Walk-ins are preferable as they are free from the hassles associated with other methods of recruitment. These . It perpetuates the old concept of doing things. Write-ins are those who send written enquiries. Disadvantages of internal recruitment 1. 2. Write-ins and Talk-ins: The most common and least expensive approaches candidates are direct applications. Walk-ins. Organization complains of unit raiding in which divisions compete for the some people. External Recruitment 1. 2. Morale problem for the not promoted. Organizations have better knowledge about the internal candidates. 4. 3. Enhancement of employee moral and motivation. Advertisements: As explained above in indirect methods. Professional or trade associations: As explained above. 3. 3. 5. Campus Recruitment: As explained above in school and colleges.2.
Compliance with reservation policy becomes easily. 7. 2. new talents and new experiences to organizations. No application is required to be submitted to the recruiter. several executives of HMT left to join Titan Watch Company so also from BEL to BPL. Scope for resentment. jobs aspirants are required to meet the recruiter an appropriate date for detailed talks. For instance. 6.jobseekers are asked to complete applications forms for further processing. Competitors: Rivals firms can be a source of recruitment. jealousies and heartburn are avoided. Advantages of External Recruitment 1. Radio and television: As explained above in indirect methods. 8. Popularly called “Poaching” or raiding this method involves identifying the right people in rival companies. offering them better tell and using them away. Benefits of new skills. Consultants: As explained above in private employment agencies. 3. Talk-ins are becoming popular now a days. .
Adjustment of new employees to the organizational culture takes longer time. . 3. External recruitment is costly. Better morale and motivation associated with internal recruiting is designed to the organization.Disadvantages of External Recruitment 1. 2.
therefore. Cost: Cost incurred in recruiting and hiring personnel speaks volumes about the role of selection. here is one instant to prove how expensive recruitment has become.SELECTION Meaning and definition Selection is the process of picking individual (out of the pool of job applicants) with requisite qualifications and competence to fill jobs in the organization. Pepsi has . effective selection. assumes greater relevance. poor or inappropriate choice can be demoralize to the individual concerned. Work Performance: work performance depends on individuals. Arguing from the employee viewpoint. Who finds himself in the wrong job and demotivating to the rest of the work force.” The role of selecting organization’s effective in crucial for at least. A formal definition of selection is “It is the process of differentiating between applicants in order to identify (and hire) those with a greater likelihood of success in a job. 2. The best way of improved performance is to hire people who have the competence and the willingness to work. Two reasons: 1.
The cost of searching for and training a top level executive may run into $2. Six people from the company took over the entire Oberoi Business Center in Mumbai for six days. the short listed persons were flown in and in are viewed.000. Quite an expensive affair by any standard! In the US. three thousand applicants in response to an advertisement issued earlier were scanned applicants were asked to respond by fax within hundred hours.gone on a crash recruitment drive. finally.150. Outcomes of the Selection Decision False Negative Error Success True Positive (High Hit) Failure True Negative (Low Hit) False Positive Error Failure Predicted Success Predicted . it is much more expensive.
accidents due to negligence. and the like. Most of the false negative errors go unnoticed except when the applicants belong to a reserve category and file a discrimination charge. Cost of replacing an employee with a fresh one cost of hiring. training and replacement constitute the third type of costs. The first type is incurred while the person is employed. A careful selection will help an organization avoid cost associated with both false positive as well as false negative error. the most important the job. This may be done at any of the successive . The second type of cost is associated with the training. transfer or terminating the services of the employee. an applicant who would have succeeded is rejected because of predicted failure. Generally. the greater the cost of the selection error. In the case of false negative error. absenteeism.Outcomes of the Selection Decision An organization with a false positive error incurs three types of costs. damaged company reputation. Selection Process Selection process involves rejection of unsuitable of less successive applicants. Costs associated with this type error are generally difficult to estimate. This can be the result of production of profit losses.
Not all selection processes. however. Physical examination Preliminary interview Application form Second interview Yoder calls these hurdles ‘go. those who do not qualify are dropped out. Those who qualify a hurdle go to the next one. include these hurdles. no-go’ gauges. This technique is known as the successive hurdles technique figure below gives these hurdles. These noises act as screens designed to eliminate an unqualified applicant at any point in the process. The complexity of the process usually increases with the level and Testing Rejections References Recommendation .hurdles. Which an applicant must cross.
he is selected for further process and if not. Moreover. educational qualification. This is done where no application forms are designed. skill. This is done by a junior executive in the personnel department. . work experience and references different type of application forms may be used by the same organization for different types of employees. if the candidate is found to be suitable. etc. 2. these hurdles need not necessarily be placed in the same order. Their arrangement may differ from organization to organization. marital status. lie is eliminated. This is a crude screening and can be done across the counter in the organization’s employment offices. salary expected. Application scrutiny: Sometimes applications are asked on a plain sheet. Initial screening or preliminary interview: This is a sorting process in which prospective applicants are given the necessary information about the nature of the job and also necessary information is elicited from the candidates about their education. experience. When a candidate is found suitable an application form is given to him to fill in and submit. Due care should be taken so that suitable candidates are not turned down in a hurry. The applicant is asked to give details about age. 1.responsibility of the position to be filled.
experience. one for managers. It can also be a systematic procedure for comparing the behavior to two or more persons. 3. it is often possible to reject candidates of the basis of scrutiny of the application as they are found to be lacking in educational standards. The application can be used in two ways: (a) to find out on the basis of information contained therein as to the chances of success to the candidate in the job for which he is applying. caste. religion and place of birth has been regarded as evidence of discriminatory attitude and should be avoided. the other for supervisors and a third for other employees. general and easily answerable.g.e. of some other relevant eligibility and traits. Some forms are simple. while others may require elaborate. An application form should be designed to serve as a highly effective preliminary screening device. and (b) to provide a starting point for the interview. performance or attitude. Selection Tests: A test is a sample of an aspect of an individual’s behavior. race. when applications are received in direct response to an advertisement and without any preliminary interview. complex and detailed information. Reference to nationality. particularly. Purpose of test: The basis assumption .
These measure the skills or knowledge. . 1. Achievement of Intelligence Tests: These are also called “proficiency tests”. potential ability only will govern selection decisions. Types of Tests The various tests used in selection can be put into four categories.underlying the use of tests in personnel selection is that individuals are different in their job-related abilities and skills and that these skills can be adequately and accurately measured. Tests seek to eliminate the possibility of prejudice on the part of the interviewer of supervisor. These are administered to determine knowledge of typing shorting and in operating calculators. These are of two types: a. These measure what the applicant can do. which is acquired as a result of training programmed and on the job experience. The other major advantage is that the tests may uncover qualifications and talents that would no be detected by interviews or by listing of education and job experiences. Test for measuring job knowledge: These are known as ‘Trade tests’.
Oral tests consisting of a series of question which are believed to be satisfactory answered only by those who know supplemented by written. instruments used and variously described as tests of ‘intelligence’. These are of three types: . reasoning and mechanical or musical aptitude. Mental ability. Through these tests you can detect peculiarity of defects in a person’s sensory or intellectual capacity.adding machine or simple mechanical equipment these are primarily. These focus attention on particular types of talent such as learning. mental alertness of simply as ‘personnel tests’. For example. Aptitude of Potential Ability test: These tests measure the ability of a candidate to learn a new job or skills. picture of performance types. This done by giving him a piece of work to judge how efficiently he does it. a typing test would provide the material to be typed and note the time taken and mistakes committed. Work sample tests: These measures the proficiency with which equipment can be handles by the candidate. b. 2.
b.employee’s fluency in language.a. These are primarily used in the selection of workers who have to perform semiskilled and repetitive. The tests help in assessing a person’s . speed of perception. his emotional reactions.Q. Like assembly work. mechanics. Mental Tests: These measure the overall intellectual ability or the intelligence quotient (I. These are useful when apprentice. Mechanical Aptitude Test: These measure the capacity of a person to learn a particular type mechanical work. c. These determine an. maturity and his characteristic mood. testing. and mechanical technicians are to be selected. Psychomotor or skill tests: These measure a person’s ability to do a specific job. inspection and so on. These are administers to determine mental dexterity or motor ability and similar attributes involving muscular movement. induction. control and coordination. packing.) of a person and enable us to know whether he has the mental capacity to deal with new problems. Personality Test: These discover clues to an individual value system. maintenance workers. 3. memory.
Objective Tests: These measure neurotic tendencies. optimism decisiveness sociability. conformity. integrity and stability. Situation Test: These measure an applicant’s reaction when he is placed in a particular situation his ability to undergo stress and his demonstration of ingenuity under pressure. These tests usually relate to a leaderless group situation in which some problems are posed to a group and its members are asked to without the help of a leader. fear. his ability to adjust himself to the stresses of everyday life and his capacity for inter-personal relations and for projecting and impressive image of him. The way in which his responds to these stimuli depends on his own values. . c. These tests are given to predict potential performance and success for supervisory or managerial jobs. initiative. a candidate is asked to project his own interpretation onto certain standard stimuli. The personality tests are basically of three types: a. b. impulsiveness. They are expressed in terms of the emotional control. sympathy.motivation. patience. motives and personality. dominance submission and self confidence. judgment. dominance. distrust. objectivity. Projective Tests: In these tests.
one should not conclude that a hundred percent prediction of an individual’s on-the-job success can be made through these tests. Limitations of Selection Tests From the basis description of test describes above. . and are assessed in the form of answers to a wellprepared questionnaire. The interest tests are used for vocational guidance. Interests Tests: These tests are designed to discover a person’s areas of interest and to identify the kind of work that will satisfy him. These tests at best reveal that candidates who have scored above the predetermined cut-off points are likely to be more successful than those who have scored below the cut-off point.4. Tests are useful when the number of applicants are large moreover tests will serve no useful purpose if they are not properly constructed or selected or administered.
A friend or a relative of the employer may take a candidate to the house of the employer or manager where this type of interview may conduct. viz 1. training work history. previous experience. Informal Interview: This may takes place anywhere. Obtaining information 2. The employer or a manager in the personnel department may ask a few question like name place of birth.Interview An interview is a conservative with a purpose between one person on one side and another person at the other. Types of interview: 1. Formal Interview: This is held in a more formal atmosphere in the employment office by the employment officer with the . An interview should serve three purposes. Motivation It should provide an appraisal of personality by obtaining relevant information about the prospective employee’s background. 2. education and interests. Giving information and 3. it is not planned and is used widely when the labour market is tight and you need workers very badly. etc.
Planned Interview: This is a formal interview carefully planned. Patterned Interview: This is a planned interview but planned to a higher degree of accuracy. and information to be given the modality of interview and so on. 4.help of well-structured question the fine and place of the interview are stipulated by the employment office. He may use the plan with some amount of flexibility. 5. Depth Interview: This is designed to intensively examine the candidate’s background and thinking and to go into considerable detail on a particular subject of special interest . The interview goes down the list of question asking them one after another. precision and exactitude. Nondirective Interview: This is designed to let the interviewee speak his mind freely the interviewer is a careful and patient listener. The interview has a plan action of action worked out in relation to time to be devoted to each candidate. prodding whenever the candidate is silent the idea to give the candidate completes freedom to sell himself without encumbrances of the interviewers questions. type of information to be sought. A list of question and areas is carefully prepared. 3. 6.
Group Interview: This is designed to see how the candidates react to and against each other. 7. Panel Interview: This is done by members of the interview board of a selection committee.of the candidate. Stress Interview: This is designed to test the candidates and his conduct and behavior by putting him under conditions of stress and strain. This is done usually for supervisor and managerial positions. how each will make his presentation and how they will react to each other’s views and presentation. The candidates may alternatively be given a topic for discussion and be observed as to who will lead the discussion. It pools the collective judgment and wisdom of the panel. All the candidates may be brought together in the office and they may be interviews the candidates. 9. the chances are high that if job he would take serious interest in it. The theory behind it is that if the candidate is found good in his area of special interest. . This is very useful to test the behavior of individuals under disagreeable and situation. The candidate may be asked to meet the panel individually for a fairly lengthy interview. 8.
innumeracy. appearance. organization ability and administrative. Intelligence: Basic and effective 4.Interview Rating Important aspects of personality can be categorize under the following sever main headings: 1. Physical make-tip: health. . 3. age. physique. Attainment education: Occupation training and experience. heading speech. Special aptitude written and oral fluency of expression. 2.
selection Recruitment Selection . reduced hours vs.Flow Chart of Recruitment & Selection Start Organization objectives & policies HR need forecast HR supply forecast HR Programming HR Implementation Control & Evaluation of programming If surplus Is manpower surplus or shortage If shortage Restricted hiring. by off etc Recruitment.
writing and talk-ins *Consultants consultants Internal Audit External Audit (Outsiders Agencies Ex NCP) .Is internal recruitment ? From external of internal No Yes *Present employees *Employees referrals *Former employee *Previous application External recruitment *Professional to trade association *Advertisements *Employment exchanges *Campus recruitment *Walk-ins.
Initial screening Application Scrutiny Selection Tests Is for worker of technicians or clerk For Workers No Is for staff or mgt post? Yes *Mechanical Aptitude test *Psychomotor or skill test For Staff No Yes Is for mgt post? *Test for measuring job knowledge *Work sample test *Mental test *Personality test Yes .
*Aptitude or potential ability test *Personality test *Interest test Interviews For workers. no interview For staff & mgt post *Informal *Formal *Planned *Pressured *Non-directive *Depth interview *Stress interview *Group *Panel *Physical examination *Reference check *Final decision Yes Stop Placement Is the person suitable of job? .
Int) HOD (Mkt.Dom) Plant Head HOD (Tech.) HOD (Comm) HOD(M aterial) HOD (HR) HOD (P & P) HOD (QA) HOD (Maint) HOD (R & D) HOD (Utility) HOD (Store) .Organization structure Selection Tests Executive Director President HOD (mkt.
RECRUITMENT PROCESS AT MOSERBAER .
The Process of Recruitment at MBIL Through the gap analysis technique & work study technique managers of MBIL estimate: The require manpower Skill level for their respective department on the basis of their relative experience Expected future work load Employees efficiency HOD’s fill up requisition through detailed out detailed work report.” . HR manager analysis the requirement of position based on effective planning Requisition recommended by functional head are forwarding enclosed for approval by “Plant HR Head and plant head of Moserbaer.
.HR Department invite application for recruitment approval from plant head through various resources Resume bank Director referrals News paper delivery Nawkri.com (Net Advertisement) MBIL Recruit the employee from different sources: Private employment agencies State or public employment agencies Professional or trade associations Advertisement Employment exchanges Campus recruitment Consultants Manpower planning requisition form attached in Annexure.
In case of Engineer fresher test is conducted Interview Dates/Panel for interview/final short listing done by HR Final interview by functional head HR Plant head and HR head For experienced candidates antecedents are checked by HR dept.com Approval from HO for AM & above Invite application Initial screening/ short listing by concerned HOD’s Preliminary interview based on seniority & experience of candidate.Recruitment The general process flow for recruitment MBIL is represented as below: Employee resignations Staff requisition HOD’s fill up requisition/ justification in case of new position/ manpower planning figure with HR Analysis by HR of the position based on requirements and planning Recommended by functional head via HR head plant head Resume Bank/Direct of Referrals/News Paper ad/ nawkri.com/ newspaper. Issue of offer letter/ Appointment letter and joining formalities up to senior engineer level .
com Issue of LOI to candidate For experienced candidates antecedents are checked by HR Issue of appointment letter Stop .MOSERBAER (I) LTD Process Flow Chart Start Employee resignation Staff requisition HOD’s request for manpower plan Reg from HR Analyses by HR Recommended by AGM (HR) to GM (P) Resume bank MBIL Newspaper ad Approval from GM (HR) & President Invite applications Initial screening by HOD & HR Interview date/panel for interview by HR Is candidate fresher? interview Conduct written test Final interview by GMP Jobstreet.
SELECTION PROCESS AT MOSERBAER SELECTION PROCESS OF MOSERBAER .
he is selected for further process and if not he is eliminated. Experienced candidate are directly forwarded final round. These are two types. . These measure the skills relative the job experience these measure what the applicant can do. skill. HR department conduct written test for fresher candidate. Types of tests Achievement of intelligence tests: These are also called “proficiency test”. if the candidate is found to be suitable. Step 2.Selection process of MBIL includes two rounds Initial screening round/ preliminary interview Written test (in case of fresher) Final round Step 1 initial screening of preliminary interview round This is a sorting process in which prospective applicants are given the necessary information about the nature of job and also necessary in formation is elicited from the candidates about the education experience. salary expected etc. In MBIL the initial screening is done by concern manager HR representative.
head HR. place etc.a) Test for measure job knowledge: These are known as trade knowledge of typing shorting and in operating calculators. One of the joining date. Joining letter contains all the information about the joining date. Joining letter is to the candidate who has qualified the final round. This is suitable for secretarial and clerical job. time. adding machine. complete joining formalities. b) Work sample test: these measures the proficiency with which equipment can be handle by the candidate. plant Head. Step 3 Final Round For experienced candidate and the candidate who have qualified the written test faced the interview which is conducted by functional head. candidate submits his candidate service related documents. HR manager. . dictating and transcribing machines or simple mechanical equipment these are primarily oral tests consisting of a series of question which are believed to be satisfactory answered only by those who know supplemented by written picture or performance types. computers.
Flow Chart of Selection Process at MBIL Start Initial screening by HOD & HR Interview Date/Panel for interview by HR Interview Is candidate fresher? Final Interview by GPM Conduct written test Issue of LOI to candidate Issue of Appointment Letter For experienced candidates antecedents are checked by HR STOP . If HR manager is satisfied with the available information than the finally issue the appointment letter for placement.
QUESTIONNAIRE Questionnaire .
I ( ). Educational qualification………………………………………… 5. 8. Name-……………………………………………………………. Recruitment of employees from? Employment exchange ( ).Tech ( ).T. Age: less than 25( ). Others ( ).. direct advertisement ( ) 10. Kindly mention the total number of years of work you are working…………………………………………………………. 5-10 ( ). Finance ( ). If other please specify……………………………………………. 2. Female( ) 4. Do you think technique of interview should be changed/ 12. Consultant ( ). Job specification: Marketing ( ). Number of year worked in the organization: Less than 5 yrs ( ). Gender: Male( ). Kindly state the total number of jobs you were involved with before…………………………………………………………….. 45 and more ( ). 9. I. B. 3. 25-35( ). more than 10 yrs ( ) 7. Is there ay job security available by the management? . 6..1. Are you satisfied with the selection technique of Moserbaer? Yes ( ) Yes ( ) No ( ) No ( ) 11.
Diploma ( ). Advertisement of Local/national daily ( ). Do you think physical examination is necessary for selection No ( ) 17. any other professional degree ( ) 15. Unsatisfactory ( ) 16. Below average ( ). Good ( ). advertisement of NET ( ). Does Moserbaer impart any training before final placement? Yes ( ) candidates from open market? Yes ( ) a candidates? Yes ( ) check the relevant boxes) TV ( ). Is there an appointment letter is given by Moserbaer? 14. Above average ( ). Do you think advertisement of Moserbaer attracts the .Yes ( ) Yes ( ) No ( ) No ( ) 13. Selects candidates mainly from……………………… background.T. B. ( ). The nature of population of Moserbaer. The process of interview at Moserbaer is Outstanding ( ).E. The employment advertisement is generally made through( No ( ) 18. I. All of them ( ) No ( ) 19.I. ( ).
Antecedent verification ( ). Interview ( ). Does the induction given to you carrying out your job THANK YOU FOR YOUR RESPONSE .? Yes ( ) effectively? Yes ( ) No ( ) No ( ) 22. The selection tech of Moserbaer comprise of Written test ( ).20. Group discussion ( ). all of above ( ) 21. Are you satisfied with the recruitment process of your Co.
DATA ANALYSIS The employment advertisement is generally made through .
advertisement 20% 10% TV advertisement on Net 10% advertisement on local/national daily other 60% The selection tech of moserbaer comprise of 10% 10% 5% 10% selection tech written test interview group discussion autocedent verification all of above 65% Do you think technique of interview should be changed? .
5% Yes No 95% . Yes No 70% Is there any job security available by the management? .30% .
30% 60% outstanding good above average below average unsatisfactory 10% Does Moserbaer impart any training before final placement? . 20% Yes No 80% .The process of interview at Moserbaer is .
Recruitment of employees from? 2% 82% . 11% employment exchange direct advertisement consultant internal advertisement 5% Are you satisfied with the selection technique of moserbaer? 30% . Yes No 70% Is there an appointment letter is given by moserbaer? .
13% 10% ITI 75% Diploma B. business management Are you satisfied with the recruitment process of your co. 100% Yes No The nature of population.? . 2% . selects candidates mainly from background..E.
. 10% Yes No 90% Does the inductin given to you help in carrying out your jo effectively? . 10% Yes No 90% .
10% Yes No 90% Do you think physical examination is necessary for selecting a candidate? 10% . Yes No 90% .Do you think advertisement of moserbaer attract the candidates from open market? .
Conclusion 1. The employees of Moserbaer are highly satisfied with the strategy of MBI. 9. The HRP of Moserbaer is highly effective. The organization structure of MBI is well defned and clear. data media and audio storage products. 4. From the last two years different techniques of selection was included in the selection process of the company. . 3. The techniques of the Moserbaer are comprehensive and exclusive for finding right person at right place. It is the comprehensive study which reflects the techniques o the industries. 7. 2. 5. MBI today is the third largest optical media manufacturer with 11% market share. Which includes recordable compact disks. Moserbaer India LTD (Noida) is one of the worlds largest manufacturers of storage media. 8. 6. The MBI product rang includes magnetic recordable media also known as Micro Floppy disks as diskettes and optical Recordable media.
LIMITATIONS Limitations .
1. 4. Convincing employees to fill the questionnaire was also a major hindrance. A comprehensive study of Moserbaer selection and recruitment elements take a lot of time. . 2. 3. The employees were ready to speak out the problems but were afraid to put it in writing. Because of this we could not get tell the information we needed. So a period of award six weeks or so has actual as a constraint. It was also difficult to convince the HR people meet out project could help them in the long run.
There should be internal advertisement about the vacancies in the company. .RECOMMENDATION Recommendation 1.
The major group of the employees in moserbaer are B. . 5. 3. They should include the fresher candidate. The company should advertise about its media storage products. The company should consider the candidate from other professional background that is “ MBA and MCA”.tech or ITI. The company should provide the “job security” to their employees.2. 4.
moserbaer.com) . Information from Moserbaer brochure 3. Ashwathappa 2. Human resource and personnel management by K.BIBLIOGRAPHY Bibliography 1. Moserbaer website (www.
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